Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 237

Search results for: expenses in travels

237 Determinants of Free Independent Traveler Tourist Expenditures in Israel: Quantile Regression Model

Authors: Shlomit Hon-Snir, Sharon Teitler-Regev, Anabel Lifszyc Friedlander

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Tourism, one of the world's largest and fastest growing industries, exerts a major economic influence. The number of international tourists is growing every year, and the relative portion of independent (FIT) tourists is growing as well. The characteristics of independent tourists differ from those of tourists who travel in organized trips. The purpose of the research is to identify the factors that affect the individual tourist's expenses in Israel: total expenses, expenses per day, expenses per tourist, expenses per day per tourist, accommodation expenses, dining expenses and transportation expenses. Most of the research analyzed the total expenses using OLS regression. The determinants influencing expenses were divided into four groups: budget constraints, socio-demographic data, psychological characteristics and travel-related characteristics. Since the effect of each variable may change over different levels of total expenses the quantile regression (QR) theory will be applied. The current research will use data collected by the Israeli Ministry of Tourism in 2015 from individual independent tourists at the end of their visit to Israel. Preliminary results show that: At lower levels of expense, only income has a (positive) effect on total expenses, while at higher levels of expense, both income and length of stay have (positive) effects. -The effect of income on total expenses is higher for higher levels of expenses than for lower level of expenses. -The number of sites visited during the trip has a (negative) effect on tourist accommodation expenses only for tourists with a high level of total expenses. Due to the increasing share of independent tourism in Israel and around the world and due to the importance of tourism to Israel, it is very important to understand the factors that influence the expenses and behavior of independent tourists. Understanding the factors that affect independent tourists' expenses in Israel can help Israeli policymakers in their promotional efforts to attract tourism to Israel.

Keywords: independent tourist, quantile regression theory, tourism expenses, tourism

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
236 The Impacts of Cost Stickiness on the Profitability of Indonesian Firms

Authors: Dezie L. Warganegara, Dewi Tamara

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The objectives of this study are to investigate the existence of the sticky cost behaviour of firms listed in the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) and to find an evidence on the effects of sticky operating expenses (SG&A expenses) on profitability of firms. For the first objective, this study found that the sticky cost behaviour does exist. For the second objective, this study finds that the stickier the operating expenses the less future profitability of the firms. This study concludes that sticky cost affects negatively to the performance and, therefore, firms should include flexibility in designing the cost structure of their firms.

Keywords: sticky costs, Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX), profitability, operating expenses, SG&A

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
235 The Service Appraisal of Soldiers of the Army of the Czech Republic in the Context of Personal Expenses

Authors: Tereza Dolečková

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Following article provides the comparison of international norms and standards formulating personal expenses, and then it illustrates the national concept of personal expenses of the Ministry of Defence. Then a new salary system of soldiers and the importance of the service appraisal in the context of personal expenses of the Ministry of Defence are explained. The first part of the article includes formulation of the approach to the definition of personal expenses within the international norms and standards and also within the Ministry of Defence of the Czech Republic. The structure of employees of the Ministry of Defence of the Czech Republic in years 2012 – 2014 and the amount of military expenses and the share of salary expenses of the Ministry of total expenses of the Ministry are clarified there, also the comparison of the amount of military expenses in chosen member states of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization is done. The salary system of professional soldiers in connection with the amendment of the Act No. 221/1999 Coll. on Professional Soldiers is clarified in the second part of this article. The amendment significantly regulates the salary items of soldiers but changes are also in the service appraisal of soldiers which reflects one of seven salary items of soldiers – the performance bonus. The aim of this article is to clarify different approach to define personal expenses with emphasis on the Ministry of Defence of the Czech Republic which overlaps to the service appraisal of soldiers of the Army of the Czech Republic and their salary system in connection with personal expenses of the Ministry of Defence of the Czech Republic. The efficient and objective system of the service appraisal and the use of its results are connected to the principles of the career advancement; only the best soldiers can advance in the system of the service careers to higher positions. That is why it is necessary to improve the service appraisal so it would provide the maximum information about the performance of a soldier and it would also motivate the soldier in his development. The attention should be paid to the service appraisal of the soldiers of the Army of the Czech Republic to achieve as much objectivity as possible.

Keywords: career, human resource management and development, personal expenses, salary system of soldiers, service appraisal of soldiers, the Army of the Czech Republic

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
234 Chinese Tourists's Behaviors towards Travel and Shopping in Bangkok

Authors: Sasitorn Chetanont

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The objectives of this study are to study Chinese tourist’s Behaviors towards travel and shopping in Bangkok. The research methodology was a quantitative research. The sample of this research was 400 Chinese tourists in Bangkok chosen by the accidental sampling and the purposive sampling. Inferential Statistics Analysis by using the Chi-square statistics. As for the results of this study the researcher found that differences between personal, social and cultural information, i.e., gender, age, place of residence, educational level, occupation, income, family, and main objectives of tourism with behaviors of Chinese tourists in Bangkok towards travel and shopping in Bangkok.

Keywords: tourists’ behavior, Chinese tourists, travelling, expenses in travels

Procedia PDF Downloads 455
233 Recent Developments and Expectations in the Legal Expenses Insurance in Turkey

Authors: İbrahim Arslan, Mücahit Ünal

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An important issue to ensure justice is to simplify the right to seek justice. But there is a cost of seeking justice in civil law. It costs at least, attorneys' fees and judicial expenses during the beginning and in case of losing a trial. Indeed, most of the people refrain from seeking justice because of these expenses. Therefore, it is not inappropriate to say that the removal of obstacles staying on the way of seeking justice will increase the belief in justice. Legal expenses insurance is a private law contract of insurance in which the insurer is obliged to pay premiums of the insured, to provide the necessary services for the protection of legal interests of the insured person within the agreed scope. This type of insurance is being practiced in the Western world for a long time. The special rights, duties and obligations of the parties to a legal expenses insurance contract shall be governed by the Turkish Commercial Code (TCC) and the contractual agreements which are regularly closed in the form of general terms and conditions. If the number of the legal expenses insurance contracts concluded increase this will definitely improve the percentage of seeking justice before the courts. The general terms and conditions applicable in Turkey generally include litigation costs, referee fees, guarantee fund , enforcement costs , appeal costs borne decision corrections costs. In addition, besides the insured, other family members or the people specified in the policy are protected in the scope of personal/family legal expenses insurance. The commercial law disputes fall outside the scope of coverage in this insurance branch. The insured person chooses his own lawyer and the insurer is not allowed to give advice during the selection of a lawyer. In April 2015, the Prime Minister announced of a new era in the field of legal expenses insurance in Turkey and this announcement excited the insurance industry and legal community.

Keywords: insurance, in the Turkish law on legal protection insurance, legal protection insurance, legal protection

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
232 Investigation of the Main Trends of Tourist Expenses in Georgia

Authors: Nino Abesadze, Marine Mindorashvili, Nino Paresashvili

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The main purpose of the article is to make complex statistical analysis of tourist expenses of foreign visitors. We used mixed technique of selection that implies rules of random and proportional selection. Computer software SPSS was used to compute statistical data for corresponding analysis. Corresponding methodology of tourism statistics was implemented according to international standards. Important information was collected and grouped from the major Georgian airports. Techniques of statistical observation were prepared. A representative population of foreign visitors and a rule of selection of respondents were determined. We have a trend of growth of tourist numbers and share of tourists from post-soviet countries constantly increases. Level of satisfaction with tourist facilities and quality of service has grown, but still we have a problem of disparity between quality of service and prices. The design of tourist expenses of foreign visitors is diverse; competitiveness of tourist products of Georgian tourist companies is higher.

Keywords: tourist, expenses, methods, statistics, analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
231 Rail Corridors between Minimal Use of Train and Unsystematic Tightening of Population: A Methodological Essay

Authors: A. Benaiche

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In the current situation, the automobile has become the main means of locomotion. It allows traveling long distances, encouraging urban sprawl. To counteract this trend, the train is often proposed as an alternative to the car. Simultaneously, the favoring of urban development around public transport nodes such as railway stations is one of the main issues of the coordination between urban planning and transportation and the keystone of the sustainable urban development implementation. In this context, this paper focuses on the study of the spatial structuring dynamics around the railway. Specifically, it is a question of studying the demographic dynamics in rail corridors of Nantes, Angers and Le Mans (Western France) basing on the radiation of railway stations. Consequently, the methodology is concentrated on the knowledge of demographic weight and gains of these corridors, the index of urban intensity and the mobility behaviors (workers’ travels, scholars' travels, modal practices of travels). The perimeter considered to define the rail corridors includes the communes of urban area which have a railway station and communes with an access time to the railway station is less than fifteen minutes by car (time specified by the Regional Transport Scheme of Travelers). The main tools used are the statistical data from the census of population, the basis of detailed tables and databases on mobility flows. The study reveals that the population is not tightened along rail corridors and train use is minimal despite the presence of a nearby railway station. These results lead to propose guidelines to make the train, a real vector of mobility across the rail corridors.

Keywords: coordination between urban planning and transportation, rail corridors, railway stations, travels

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
230 Effect of Helium and Sulfur Hexafluoride Gas Inhalation on Voice Resonances

Authors: Pallavi Marathe

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Voice is considered to be a unique biometric property of human beings. Unlike other biometric evidence, for example, fingerprints and retina scans, etc., voice can be easily changed or mimicked. The present paper talks about how the inhalation of helium and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) gas affects the voice formant frequencies that are the resonant frequencies of the vocal tract. Helium gas is low-density gas; hence, the voice travels with a higher speed than that of air. On the other side in SF6 gas voice travels with lower speed than that of air due to its higher density. These results in decreasing the resonant frequencies of voice in helium and increasing in SF6. Results are presented with the help of Praat software, which is used for voice analysis.

Keywords: voice formants, helium, sulfur hexafluoride, gas inhalation

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
229 The Analysis of Expenses for Research and Development Activities in Turkey

Authors: Gökhan Karhan, Yavuz Elitok

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Nowadays, inequality between developing and underdeveloped countries has a rapid increment. Developed countries impress the underdeveloped countries to become dependent through them. For that reason, Turkey has to increase its capability of making technological innovations. It has tried to be identified by examining the expenses of R&D in public, mercantile establishments and universities in Turkey that which expense is not enough and which expense should be doubled. As a result, developing new resolution strategies will be easier.

Keywords: competitive strength, research and development, technological innovation, Turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
228 Georgia Case: Tourism Expenses of International Visitors on the Basis of Growing Attractiveness

Authors: Nino Abesadze, Marine Mindorashvili, Nino Paresashvili

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At present actual tourism indicators cannot be calculated in Georgia, making it impossible to perform their quantitative analysis. Therefore, the study conducted by us is highly important from a theoretical as well as practical standpoint. The main purpose of the article is to make complex statistical analysis of tourist expenses of foreign visitors and to calculate statistical attractiveness indices of the tourism potential of Georgia. During the research, the method involving random and proportional selection has been applied. Computer software SPSS was used to compute statistical data for corresponding analysis. Corresponding methodology of tourism statistics was implemented according to international standards. Important information was collected and grouped from major Georgian airports, and a representative population of foreign visitors and a rule of selection of respondents were determined. The results show a trend of growth in tourist numbers and the share of tourists from post-soviet countries are constantly increasing. The level of satisfaction with tourist facilities and quality of service has improved, but still we have a problem of disparity between the service quality and the prices. The design of tourist expenses of foreign visitors is diverse; competitiveness of tourist products of Georgian tourist companies is higher. Attractiveness of popular cities of Georgia has increased by 43%.

Keywords: tourist, expenses, indexes, statistics, analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
227 Patients' Out-Of-Pocket Expenses-Effectiveness Analysis of Presurgical Teledermatology

Authors: Felipa De Mello-Sampayo

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Background: The aim of this study is to undertake, from a patient perspective, an economic analysis of presurgical teledermatology, comparing it with a conventional referral system. Store-and-forward teledermatology allows surgical planning, saving both time and number of visits involving travel, thereby reducing patients’ out-of-pocket expenses, i.e., costs that patients incur when traveling to and from health providers for treatment, visits’ fees, and the opportunity cost of time spent in visits. Method: Patients’ out-of-pocket expenses-effectiveness of presurgical teledermatology were analyzed in the setting of a public hospital during two years. The mean delay in surgery was used to measure effectiveness. The teledermatology network covering the area served by the Hospital Garcia da Horta (HGO), Portugal, linked the primary care centers of 24 health districts with the hospital’s dermatology department. The patients’ opportunity cost of visits, travel costs, and visits’ fee of each presurgical modality (teledermatology and conventional referral), the cost ratio between the most and least expensive alternative, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio were calculated from initial primary care visit until surgical intervention. Two groups of patients: those with squamous cell carcinoma and those with basal cell carcinoma were distinguished in order to compare the effectiveness according to the dermatoses. Results: From a patient perspective, the conventional system was 2.15 times more expensive than presurgical teledermatology. Teledermatology had an incremental out-of-pocket expenses-effectiveness ratio of €1.22 per patient and per day of delay avoided. This saving was greater in patients with squamous cell carcinoma than in patients with basal cell carcinoma. Conclusion: From a patient economic perspective, teledermatology used for presurgical planning and preparation is the dominant strategy in terms of out-of-pocket expenses-effectiveness than the conventional referral system, especially for patients with severe dermatoses.

Keywords: economic analysis, out-of-pocket expenses, opportunity cost, teledermatology, waiting time

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
226 Retrospective Study for Elective Medical Patients Evacuation of Different Diagnoses Requiring Different Approach in Oxygen Usage

Authors: Branimir Skoric

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Over the past two decades, number of international travels rose significantly in the United Kingdom and Worldwide in the shape of business travels and holiday travels as well. The fact that elderly people travel a lot, more than ever before increased the needs for medical evacuations (repatriations) back home if they fell ill abroad or had any kind of accident. This paper concerns medical evacuations of patients on the way back home to the United Kingdom (United Kingdom Residents) and their specific medical needs during short-haul or long-haul commercial scheduled flight and ground transportation to the final destination regardless whether it was hospital or usual place of residence. Particular medical need during medical evacuations is oxygen supply and it can be supplied via portable oxygen concentrator, pulse flow oxygenator or continuous free flow oxygenator depending on the main diagnosis and patient’s comorbidities. In this retrospective study, patients were divided into two groups. One group was consisted of patients suffering from cardio-respiratory diagnoses as primary illness. Another Group consisted of patients suffering from noncardiac illnesses who have other problems including any kind of physical injury. Needs for oxygen and type of supply were carefully considered in regards of duration of the flight, standard airline cabin pressure and results described in this retrospective study.

Keywords: commercial flight, elderly travellers, medical evacuations, oxygen

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225 Walkability and Urban Centers: The Valuation of Public Open Spaces from a Sustainable Alternative

Authors: Ursula D'Almeida, Danielly Aliprandi

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A car-based development is observed in our cities, what leads to social and environmental impacts, such as air pollution, excessive noises and the substitution of public open spaces for roads and parking lots. Concerning the efforts to promote a sustainable development, a key issue is the reduction of fossil fuels consumption. An alternative to the pollutant gases emission, especially from urban transportation, is the incentive for active transport. The promoting of non-motorized travels and locomotion ways that only depend on human propulsion meets the sustainable mobility notion. Walking is one of the healthiest, cleanest, most natural and economical means to move around. Also, it integrates part of public transportation travels. Since walking demands physical effort, it is sensitive to environmental conditions. In urban space, not always we come across pedestrian friendly road structures. Based on the theory of walkability, the present paper aims to discuss the walking conditions in city centers by analyzing the distribution of urban services and uses, and this also regarding sidewalks quality. The case study presented is the urban center in the medium-sized Brazilian city Campos dos Goytacazes, in Rio de Janeiro State. The study also brings contributions to the recovering of underused public open spaces, especially by encouraging their use and appropriation through valuing non-motorized travels conditions.

Keywords: active transport, historical center, sustainable mobility, walking

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
224 Religious Tourism the Core Strategy of Shaping Life Style: Evidences from Iran

Authors: Mostafa Jafari

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Religious tourism is the core strategy of shaping Iranian's life-style. Why and How? This paper answers to this question. Theoretical base: From strategic marketing point of view, Life style is pattern of believes values, interests and acts. Strategy can be defined as a set of continuous important decisions. Here, strategy is making decisions about the target place and vehicle of touristic travel due to reform and redefine the self-identity and shaping life style. Methodology: Target society of this research is the selected residents of three provinces at northwest of Iran. The data collection instrument is interview and questionnaire and the collected data analysis by SEM (structural Equation Modeling) and LISREL software. Results: The primary results show that variety of touristic travels play an important role on shaping new life style of Iranian people. The target places of touristic travel (Europe, USA. Japan and etc.) are at the second priority. The number of foreign friends is at the third position. The fourth criteria are the number of travels. Among all kind of touristic travels the religious tourism from competitive point of view plays the main role. Findings: The geometry of Iranian life style are shaping and reshaping through some domestic and international tourism strategies particular religious strategy. During the dynamic trend of identity redefine, so many Iranians put the quantity and quality of their touristic travel on the first priority.

Keywords: religious tourism, core strategy, shaping life style

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223 Disclosure of Financial Risk on Sharia Banks in Indonesia

Authors: Renny Wulandari

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This study aims to determine how the influence of Non Performing Financing, Financing Deposit Ratio, Operating Expenses and Operating Revenue and Net Income Margin on the disclosure of financial risk in Sharia banks. To achieve these objectives conducted associative research method with data source in the form of secondary data that is annual report data with period 2013-2016. The population in this study is the sharia banking industry in Indonesia and who issued the annual financial statements. A method of sampling use probability sampling. Analysis in this research is with SEM-PLS. The result is Net Income Margin has a significant effect on financial risk disclosure while Non Performing Financing (NPF) Financing to Deposit Ratio (FDR), Operating Expenses and Operating Revenue (OEOR) have no effect on the disclosure of financial risk in sharia bank.

Keywords: Sharia banks, disclosure of risk financial, non performing financing, financing deposit ratio, operating expenses and operating revenue, net income margin

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
222 Intelligent Algorithm-Based Tool-Path Planning and Optimization for Additive Manufacturing

Authors: Efrain Rodriguez, Sergio Pertuz, Cristhian Riano

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Tool-path generation is an essential step in the FFF (Fused Filament Fabrication)-based Additive Manufacturing (AM) process planning. In the manufacture of a mechanical part by using additive processes, high resource consumption and prolonged production times are inherent drawbacks of these processes mainly due to non-optimized tool-path generation. In this work, we propose a heuristic-search intelligent algorithm-based approach for optimized tool-path generation for FFF-based AM. The main benefit of this approach is a significant reduction of travels without material deposition when the AM machine performs moves without any extrusion. The optimization method used reduces the number of travels without extrusion in comparison with commercial software as Slic3r or Cura Engine, which means a reduction of production time.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, tool-path optimization, fused filament fabrication, process planning

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221 Sustainable Model of Outreach Eye Camps: A Case Study from Reputed Eye Hospital of Central India

Authors: Subramanyam Devarakonda Hanumantharao, Udayendu Prakash Sharma, Mahesh Garg

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Introduction: Gomabai Netralaya a reputed eye hospital is located in Neemuch a small city of Madhya Pradesh, India. The hospital is established in 1992 by Late. G.D Agrawal a renowned educationist, freedom fighter and philanthropist. The eye hospital was established to serve all sections of the society in affordable manner. To provide comprehensive eye care services to the rural poor the hospital started organizing outreach camps since 1994. Purpose: To study the cost effectiveness of outreach eye camps for addressing the sustainability issues of the outreach program. Methods: One year statistics of outreach eye camps were collected from Hospital Management Information System software to analyze the productivity of camps. Income and expenses report was collected from outreach department records to analyze per camp expenses and per patient expenses against the income generated. All current year records were analyzed to have accuracy of information and results. Information was collected in two ways: 1)Actual camp performance records and expenses from book of accounts. 2)Cross verification was done through one to one discussion with outreach staff. Results: Total 17534 outpatients were examined through 52 outreach eye camps. Total 6042 (34% of total outpatients) patients were advised with cataracts and 4651 (77% of advice) operations were performed. The average OPD per camp was 337 and per camp 116 patients was advised for cataract surgery and 89 surgeries were performed per camp. Total 18200 US$ incurred on organizing 52 outreach camps in the radius of 100 k.ms. Considering the total outpatients screened through camps the screening cost per patient was 1.00 US$ and considering the surgical output the per surgery expenses was 4.00 US$. The cost recovery of the total expenses was through Government grant of US$ 16.00 per surgery (that includes surgical grant). All logistics cost of camps and patients transportation cost was taken care by local donors. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that with people’s participation, successful high volume outreach eye camps can be organized. The cost effectiveness of the outreach camps is totally depended on volume of outpatient’s turn-up at camp site and per camp surgical output. The only solution to sustainability of outreach eye camps is sharing of cost with local donors and increasing productivity.

Keywords: camps, outreach, productivity, sustainable

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
220 Examining the Challenges Faced by Passengers Using Arik Air for International and Domestic Travel

Authors: Mahmud Hafsat Hussaini, Eldah Ephraim Eldah, Bata Zoakah Amina

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This research work was aimed at examining the challenges faced by passengers using Arik air for domestic and international travels. Passengers do complain of delay flights, theft and rude behavior by Arik staff while on transit or in the process of travelling using the aircraft. Being the national carrier in Nigeria these behaviors have tarnished the image of the airline and makes travel experience to be challenging. Hundred survey questionnaires were administered to travellers who have used the airline for domestic and international flights. Findings show that the staff of the airline do lack customer care skills and are sometimes rude to customers. The airline does have different agents that book for international flights who delays confirming bookings even after payment. The website of the airline is mostly down and makes bookings difficult. Other findings related to the study are a delay of domestic flights within Nigeria. Passengers are sometimes kept for 8 hours in the airport due to delay of flights. The study, therefore, recommends that flight schedule should be adhered to and staff should be trained to meet of with passengers demand. The security of guest luggage at the airport should be put in place to avoid theft. An effective booking platform should be accessible to passengers for easy booking.

Keywords: examining, challenges, domestic, international, travels

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
219 The Budget Profile of the Municipality of AtaleIa-MG in the Context of the Micro-Region of Teofilo Otoni in Brazil

Authors: Jeferson Gomes Dos Santos, Mirelle Cristina De Abreu Quintela

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Considering that after the 1988 Constitution, in Brazil, municipalities have acquired new roles in the face of a financial reality that jeopardizes more substantial actions, the Public Budget is essential for the establishment of guidelines for action, within each budgetary reality. Within this, the present work sought to understand the budget profile of the mining municipality of Ataleia, with a view to identifying its budget composition, in relation to the main sources of revenue and expenditure. To achieve the purposes of the study, information was collected on the municipality's finances, from the years 2000 to 2016, visualizing the progress of its revenues in terms of funding and origin, and expenses in terms of nature and purpose. It was evidenced that the municipality, having its budget revenue in the period, still shows great dependence on intergovernmental transfers, as the own collection was relatively low. The budget expenditure of the period was mainly influenced by social expenditures, but it must be said that the municipality complied with the limits of spending, minimum and maximum, established by law.

Keywords: expenses, municipal budget, planning, revenue

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
218 Utility Assessment Model for Wireless Technology in Construction

Authors: Yassir AbdelRazig, Amine Ghanem

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Construction projects are information intensive in nature and involve many activities that are related to each other. Wireless technologies can be used to improve the accuracy and timeliness of data collected from construction sites and shares it with appropriate parties. Nonetheless, the construction industry tends to be conservative and shows hesitation to adopt new technologies. A main concern for owners, contractors or any person in charge on a job site is the cost of the technology in question. Wireless technologies are not cheap. There are a lot of expenses to be taken into consideration, and a study should be completed to make sure that the importance and savings resulting from the usage of this technology is worth the expenses. This research attempts to assess the effectiveness of using the appropriate wireless technologies based on criteria such as performance, reliability, and risk. The assessment is based on a utility function model that breaks down the selection issue into alternatives attribute. Then the attributes are assigned weights and single attributes are measured. Finally, single attribute are combined to develop one single aggregate utility index for each alternative.

Keywords: analytic hierarchy process, decision theory, utility function, wireless technologies

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217 Analysis on Financial Status and Operational Performance of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University in 3 Fiscal Years (2011-2013)

Authors: Anocha Kimkong, Natnichar Kleebbuabarn

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This research work has the objective to analyze the financial status and operational performance of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University (SSRU) in 3 fiscal years (2011-2013). The tool used is a form to record financial statements and balances of the university. The analysis is based on the calculation that regards the figures in the fiscal year of 2011 as the 100% bases to be compared with the same figures in the fiscal years of 2012 and 2013, which are multiplied by 100 and divided by the base figures. The outcomes are the percentages of each year, which can reflect the rising, stable, and falling trends. The results from the analysis reveal that SSRU’s financial status is getting better because the gross assets, debts and accumulated cash are increasing in the fiscal years of 2012 and 2013. Concerning the operational performance, the university’s incomes and expenses are rising from the fiscal year of 2011. This makes the university’s incomes grow higher than expenses.

Keywords: financial status, operational performance, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, balances

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216 Determinants of Firm Financial Performance: An Empirical Investigation in Context of Public Limited Companies

Authors: Syed Hassan Amjad

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In today’s competitive environment, in order for a company to exist, it must continually improve its Performance by reducing cost, improving quality and productivity, and easy access to market.The purpose of this thesis is to check the firm financial growth and performance and which type of factors affect the firm financial performance. This paper examines the key determinants of firm financial performance. We will differentiate between financial and non financial drivers of the firm financial performance. For the measurement of the firm financial performance there are many ways but all the measure had been taken in aggregation, such as debt, tax rate, operating expenses, earning per share and economic conditions. This study has also been done in developed countries but these researches show that foreign companies face many difficulties inimproving the firm financial performance. In findings we found that marketing expenditures and international diversification had a positive impact on firm valuation. In research also found that a firm's ownership composition, particularly the level of equity ownership by Domestic Financial Institutions and Dispersed Public Shareholders, and the leverage of the firm, tax rate and economic conditions were important factors affecting its financial performance.

Keywords: debt, tax rate, firm financial performance, operating expenses, dividend per share, economic conditions

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
215 Spatial Comparative Analysis on Travels of Mackay in Taiwan

Authors: Shao-Chi Chien, Ying-Ju Chen, Chiao-Yu Tseng, Wan-Ting Lee, Yi-Wen Cheng

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Dr. George Leslie Mackay arrived at Takoukang (now Port of Kaohsiung) in Taiwan on December 30, 1871. When Dr. Mackay dedicated at Taiwan for 30 years, he has been an important factor in such areas as preaching, medical and engaged in education. Many researchers have thoroughly studied Dr. Mackay's travels to understand his impact on the state of education, medicine and religion in Taiwan. In the 30-year period of hard work, Dr. Mackay's made outstanding influence on the church in Taiwan. Therefore, the present study will be the mission of the establishment of hospitals, schools, churches which preaching, education, and medicine whether there are related the number of comparisons to explore. According to The Diaries of George Leslie Mackay, our research uses the Geographic Information System (GIS) to map the location of Dr. Mackay's travel in Taiwan and compares it with today's local churches, hospitals, and schools whether there are related the number of comparisons to explore. Therefore, our research focuses on the whole of Taiwan, divided into missionary, medical and education as the main content of the three major parts. Additionally, use of point layer, the surface layer of the property table to establish, in-depth mission of Dr. Mackay's development in Taiwan and Today's comparison. The results will be based on the classification of three different colors pictures that the distance of Mackay's contribution of preaching, medicine, and education. Our research will be compared with the current churches, hospitals, schools and the past churches, hospitals, schools. The results of the present study will provide a reference for future research.

Keywords: George Leslie Mackay, geographic information system, spatial distribution, color categories analysis

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214 Hybrid Genetic Approach for Solving Economic Dispatch Problems with Valve-Point Effect

Authors: Mohamed I. Mahrous, Mohamed G. Ashmawy

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Hybrid genetic algorithm (HGA) is proposed in this paper to determine the economic scheduling of electric power generation over a fixed time period under various system and operational constraints. The proposed technique can outperform conventional genetic algorithms (CGAs) in the sense that HGA make it possible to improve both the quality of the solution and reduce the computing expenses. In contrast, any carefully designed GA is only able to balance the exploration and the exploitation of the search effort, which means that an increase in the accuracy of a solution can only occure at the sacrifice of convergent speed, and vice visa. It is unlikely that both of them can be improved simultaneously. The proposed hybrid scheme is developed in such a way that a simple GA is acting as a base level search, which makes a quick decision to direct the search towards the optimal region, and a local search method (pattern search technique) is next employed to do the fine tuning. The aim of the strategy is to achieve the cost reduction within a reasonable computing time. The effectiveness of the proposed hybrid technique is verified on two real public electricity supply systems with 13 and 40 generator units respectively. The simulation results obtained with the HGA for the two real systems are very encouraging with regard to the computational expenses and the cost reduction of power generation.

Keywords: genetic algorithms, economic dispatch, pattern search

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
213 Changing Skills with the Transformation of Procurement Function

Authors: Ömer Faruk Ada, Türker Baş, M. Yaman Öztek

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In this study, we aim to investigate the skills to be owned by procurement professionals in order to fulfill their developing and changing role completely. Market conditions, competitive pressure, and high financial costs make it more important than ever for organizations to be able to use resources more efficiently. Research shows that procurement expenses consist more than 50 % of the operating expenses. With increasing profit impact of procurement, reviewing the position of the procurement function within the organization has become inevitable. This study is significant as it indicates the necessary skills that procurement professionals must have to keep in step with the transformation of procurement units from transaction oriented to value chain oriented. In this study, the transformation of procurement is investigated from the perspective of procurement professionals and we aim to answer following research questions: • How do procurement professionals perceive their role within the organization? • How has their role changed and what challenges have they had to face? • What portfolio of skills do they believe will enable them to fulfill their role effectively? Literature review consists of the first part of the study by investigating the changing role of procurement from different perspectives. In the second part, we present the results of the in-depth interviews with 15 procurement professionals and we used descriptive analysis as a methodology. In the light of these results, we classified procurement skills under operational, tactical and strategic levels and Procurement Skills Framework has been developed. This study shows the differences in the perception of purchasing by professionals and the organizations. The differences in the perception are considered as an important barrier beyond the procurement transformation. Although having the necessary skills has a significant effect for procurement professionals to fulfill their role completely and keep in step with the transformation of the procurement function, It is not the only factor and the degree of high-level management and organizational support has also a direct impact during this transformation.

Keywords: procuement skills, procurement transformation, strategic procurement, value chain

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
212 Internet as a Marketing Tool for Tourism Promotion

Authors: Emeka Okonkwo

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The Information Technology (IT) has prevailed over all functions of strategic and operational management. The Internet (a product of information technology) has increasingly become a popular medium for marketing. This paper examines the potentials of Internet for tourism marketing. To achieve this, the paper x-rays the characteristics of tourism marketing and examines the application of the Internet in tourism marketing. It is argued that the use of Internet for tourism marketing will not only reach a broad audience and reduce the cost of transaction (by conventional methods used by travel agents in times past), but, will also alleviate the problems of identification, authentication and confirmation of travels/package tours by tourists as well as promotion of tourism industry.

Keywords: internet, marketing, tourism, tourism management

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211 Analysis of the Savings Behaviour of Rice Farmers in Tiaong, Quezon, Philippines

Authors: Angelika Kris D. Dalangin, Cesar B. Quicoy

Abstract:

Rice farming is a major source of livelihood and employment in the Philippines, but it requires a substantial amount of capital. Capital may come from income (farm, non-farm, and off-farm), savings and credit. However, rice farmers suffer from lack of capital due to high costs of inputs and low productivity. Capital insufficiency, coupled with low productivity, hindered them to meet their basic household and production needs. Hence, they resorted to borrowing money, mostly from informal lenders who charge very high interest rates. As another source of capital, savings can help rice farmers meet their basic needs for both the household and the farm. However, information is inadequate whether the farmers save or not, as well as, why they do not depend on savings to augment their lack of capital. Thus, it is worth analyzing how rice farmers saved. The study revealed, using the actual savings which is the difference between the household income and expenditure, that about three-fourths (72%) of the total number of farmers interviewed are savers. However, when they were asked whether they are savers or not, more than half of them considered themselves as non-savers. This gap shows that there are many farmers who think that they do not have savings at all; hence they continue to borrow money and do not depend on savings to augment their lack of capital. The study also identified the forms of savings, saving motives, and savings utilization among rice farmers. Results revealed that, for the past 12 months, most of the farmers saved cash at home for liquidity purposes while others deposited cash in banks and/or saved their money in the form of livestock. Among the most important reasons of farmers for saving are for daily household expenses, for building a house, for emergency purposes, for retirement, and for their next production. Furthermore, the study assessed the factors affecting the rice farmers’ savings behaviour using logistic regression. Results showed that the factors found to be significant were presence of non-farm income, per capita net farm income, and per capita household expense. The presence of non-farm income and per capita net farm income positively affects the farmers’ savings behaviour. On the other hand, per capita household expenses have negative effect. The effect, however, of per capita net farm income and household expenses is very negligible because of the very small chance that the farmer is a saver. Generally, income and expenditure were proved to be significant factors that affect the savings behaviour of the rice farmers. However, most farmers could not save regularly due to low farm income and high household and farm expenditures. Thus, it is highly recommended that government should develop programs or implement policies that will create more jobs for the farmers and their family members. In addition, programs and policies should be implemented to increase farm productivity and income.

Keywords: agricultural economics, agricultural finance, binary logistic regression, logit, Philippines, Quezon, rice farmers, savings, savings behaviour

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210 Social Responsibility and Environmental Issues Addressed by Businesses in Romania

Authors: Daniela Gradinaru, Iuliana Georgescu, Loredana Hutanu (Toma), Mihai-Bogdan Afrasinei

Abstract:

This article aims to analyze the situation of Romanian companies from an environmental point of view. Environmental issues are addressed very often nowadays, and they reach and affect every domain, including the economical one. Implementing an environmental management system will not only help the companies to comply with laws and regulations, but, above all, will offer them an important competitive advantage.

Keywords: environmental management system, environmental reporting, environmental expenses, sustainable development

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209 Using GIS and AHP Model to Explore the Parking Problem in Khomeinishahr

Authors: Davood Vatankhah, Reza Mokhtari Malekabadi, Mohsen Saghaei

Abstract:

Function of urban transportation systems depends on the existence of the required infrastructures, appropriate placement of different components, and the cooperation of these components with each other. Establishing various neighboring parking spaces in city neighborhood in order to prevent long-term and inappropriate parking of cars in the allies is one of the most effective operations in reducing the crowding and density of the neighborhoods. Every place with a certain application attracts a number of daily travels which happen throughout the city. A large percentage of the people visiting these places go to these travels by their own cars; therefore, they need a space to park their cars. The amount of this need depends on the usage function and travel demand of the place. The study aims at investigating the spatial distribution of the public parking spaces, determining the effective factors in locating, and their combination in GIS environment in Khomeinishahr of Isfahan city. Ultimately, the study intends to create an appropriate pattern for locating parking spaces, determining the request for parking spaces of the traffic areas, choosing the proper places for providing the required public parking spaces, and also proposing new spots in order to promote quality and quantity aspects of the city in terms of enjoying public parking spaces. Regarding the method, the study is based on applied purpose and regarding nature, it is analytic-descriptive. The population of the study includes people of the center of Khomeinishahr which is located on Northwest of Isfahan having about 5000 hectares of geographic area and the population of 241318 people are in the center of Komeinishahr. In order to determine the sample size, Cochran formula was used and according to the population of 26483 people of the studied area, 231 questionnaires were used. Data analysis was carried out by usage of SPSS software and after estimating the required space for parking spaces, initially, the effective criteria in locating the public parking spaces are weighted by the usage of Analytic Hierarchical Process in the Arc GIS software. Then, appropriate places for establishing parking spaces were determined by fuzzy method of Order Weighted Average (OWA). The results indicated that locating of parking spaces in Khomeinishahr have not been carried out appropriately and per capita of the parking spaces is not desirable in relation to the population and request; therefore, in addition to the present parking lots, 1434 parking lots are needed in the area of the study for each day; therefore, there is not a logical proportion between parking request and the number of parking lots in Khomeinishahr.

Keywords: GIS, locating, parking, khomeinishahr

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208 Effect of Energy Management Practices on Sustaining Competitive Advantage among Manufacturing Firms: A Case of Selected Manufacturers in Nairobi, Kenya

Authors: Henry Kiptum Yatich, Ronald Chepkilot, Aquilars Mutuku Kalio

Abstract:

Studies on energy management have focused on environmental conservation, reduction in production and operation expenses. However, transferring gains of energy management practices to competitive advantage is importance to manufacturers in Kenya. Success in managing competitive advantage arises out of a firm’s ability in identifying and implementing actions that can give the company an edge over its rivals. Manufacturing firms in Kenya are the highest consumers of both electricity and petroleum products. In this regard, the study posits that transfer of the gains of energy management practices to competitive advantage is imperative. The study was carried in Nairobi and its environs, which hosts the largest number of manufacturers. The study objectives were; to determine the level of implementing energy management regulations on sustaining competitive advantage, to determine the level of implementing company energy management policy on competitive advantage, to examine the level of implementing energy efficient technology on sustaining competitive advantage, and to assess the percentage energy expenditure on sustaining competitive advantage among manufacturing firms. The study adopted a survey research design, with a study population of 145,987. A sample of 384 respondents was selected randomly from 21 proportionately selected firms. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data. Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviations) and inferential statistics (correlation, regression, and T-test). Data is presented using tables and diagrams. The study found that Energy Management Regulations, Company Energy Management Policies, and Energy Expenses are significant predictors of Competitive Advantage (CA). However, Energy Efficient Technology as a component of Energy Management Practices did not have a significant relationship with Competitive Advantage. The study revealed that the level of awareness in the sector stood at 49.3%. Energy Expenses in the sector stood at an average of 10.53% of the firm’s total revenue. The study showed that gains from energy efficiency practices can be transferred to competitive strategies so as to improve firm competitiveness. The study recommends that manufacturing firms should consider energy management practices as part of its strategic agenda in assessing and reviewing their energy management practices as possible strategies for sustaining competitiveness. The government agencies such as Energy Regulatory Commission, the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum, and Kenya Association of Manufacturers should enforce the energy management regulations 2012, and with enhanced stakeholder involvement and sensitization so as promote sustenance of firm competitiveness. Government support in providing incentives and rebates for acquisition of energy efficient technologies should be pursued. From the study limitation, future experimental and longitudinal studies need to be carried out. It should be noted that energy management practices yield enormous benefits to all stakeholders and that the practice should not be considered a competitive tool but rather as a universal practice.

Keywords: energy, efficiency, management, guidelines, policy, technology, competitive advantage

Procedia PDF Downloads 316