Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: Dipendu Bhunia

4 Investigation on the Behavior of Conventional Reinforced Coupling Beams

Authors: Akash K. Walunj, Dipendu Bhunia, Samarth Gupta, Prabhat Gupta

Abstract:

Coupled shear walls consist of two shear walls connected intermittently by beams along the height. The behavior of coupled shear walls is mainly governed by the coupling beams. The coupling beams are designed for ductile inelastic behavior in order to dissipate energy. The base of the shear walls may be designed for elastic or ductile inelastic behavior. The amount of energy dissipation depends on the yield moment capacity and plastic rotation capacity of the coupling beams. In this paper, an analytical model of coupling beam was developed to calculate the rotations and moment capacities of coupling beam with conventional reinforcement.

Keywords: design studies, computational model(s), case study/studies, modelling, coupling beam

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3 Simultaneous Removal of Phosphate and Ammonium from Eutrophic Water Using Dolochar Based Media Filter

Authors: Prangya Ranjan Rout, Rajesh Roshan Dash, Puspendu Bhunia

Abstract:

With the aim of enhancing the nutrient (ammonium and phosphate) removal from eutrophic wastewater with reduced cost, a novel media based multistage bio filter with drop aeration facility was developed in this work. The bio filter was packed with a discarded sponge iron industry by product, ‘dolochar’ primarily to remove phosphate via physicochemical approach. In the multi stage bio-filter drop, aeration was achieved by the process of percolation of the gravity-fed wastewater through the filter media and dropping down of wastewater from stage to stage. Ammonium present in wastewater got adsorbed by the filter media and biomass grown on the filter media and subsequently, got converted to nitrate through biological nitrification in the aerobic condition, as realized by drop aeration. The performance of the bio-filter in treating real eutrophic wastewater was monitored for a period of about 2 months. The influent phosphate concentration was in the range of 16-19 mg/L, and ammonium concentration was in the range of 65-78 mg/L. The average nutrient removal efficiency observed during the study period were 95.2% for phosphate and 88.7% for ammonium, with mean final effluent concentration of 0.91, and 8.74 mg/L, respectively. Furthermore, the subsequent release of nutrient from the saturated filter media, after completion of treatment process has been undertaken in this study and thin layer funnel analytical test results reveal the slow nutrient release nature of spent dolochar, thereby, recommending its potential agricultural application. Thus, the bio-filter displays immense prospective for treating real eutrophic wastewater, significantly decreasing the level of nutrients and keeping the effluent nutrient concentrations at par with the permissible limit and more importantly, facilitating the conversion of the waste materials into usable ones.

Keywords: ammonium removal, phosphate removal, multi-stage bio-filter, dolochar

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2 Development of an Integrated System for the Treatment of Rural Domestic Wastewater: Emphasis on Nutrient Removal

Authors: Prangya Ranjan Rout, Puspendu Bhunia, Rajesh Roshan Dash

Abstract:

In a developing country like India, providing reliable and affordable wastewater treatment facilities in rural areas is a huge challenge. With the aim of enhancing the nutrient removal from rural domestic wastewater while reducing the cost of treatment process, a novel, integrated treatment system consisting of a multistage bio-filter with drop aeration and a post positioned attached growth carbonaceous denitrifying-bioreactor was designed and developed in this work. The bio-filter was packed with ‘dolochar’, a sponge iron industry waste, as an adsorbent mainly for phosphate removal through physiochemical approach. The Denitrifying bio-reactor was packed with many waste organic solid substances (WOSS) as carbon sources and substrates for biomass attachment, mainly to remove nitrate in biological denitrification process. The performance of the modular system, treating real domestic wastewater was monitored for a period of about 60 days and the average removal efficiencies during the period were as follows: phosphate, 97.37%; nitrate, 85.91%, ammonia, 87.85%, with mean final effluent concentration of 0.73, 9.86, and 9.46 mg/L, respectively. The multistage bio-filter played an important role in ammonium oxidation and phosphate adsorption. The multilevel drop aeration with increasing oxygenation, and the special media used, consisting of certain oxides were likely beneficial for nitrification and phosphorus removal, respectively, whereas the nitrate was effectively reduced by biological denitrification in the carbonaceous bioreactor. This treatment system would allow multipurpose reuse of the final effluent. Moreover, the saturated dolochar can be used as nutrient suppliers in agricultural practices and the partially degraded carbonaceous substances can be subjected to composting, and subsequently used as an organic fertilizer. Thus, the system displays immense potential for treating domestic wastewater significantly decreasing the concentrations of nutrients and more importantly, facilitating the conversion of the waste materials into usable ones.

Keywords: nutrient removal, denitrifying bioreactor, multi-stage bio-filter, dolochar, waste organic solid substances

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1 Tailoring Quantum Oscillations of Excitonic Schrodinger’s Cats as Qubits

Authors: Amit Bhunia, Mohit Kumar Singh, Maryam Al Huwayz, Mohamed Henini, Shouvik Datta

Abstract:

We report [https://arxiv.org/abs/2107.13518] experimental detection and control of Schrodinger’s Cat like macroscopically large, quantum coherent state of a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate of spatially indirect electron-hole pairs or excitons using a resonant tunneling diode of III-V Semiconductors. This provides access to millions of excitons as qubits to allow efficient, fault-tolerant quantum computation. In this work, we measure phase-coherent periodic oscillations in photo-generated capacitance as a function of an applied voltage bias and light intensity over a macroscopically large area. Periodic presence and absence of splitting of excitonic peaks in the optical spectra measured by photocapacitance point towards tunneling induced variations in capacitive coupling between the quantum well and quantum dots. Observation of negative ‘quantum capacitance’ due to a screening of charge carriers by the quantum well indicates Coulomb correlations of interacting excitons in the plane of the sample. We also establish that coherent resonant tunneling in this well-dot heterostructure restricts the available momentum space of the charge carriers within this quantum well. Consequently, the electric polarization vector of the associated indirect excitons collective orients along the direction of applied bias and these excitons undergo Bose-Einstein condensation below ~100 K. Generation of interference beats in photocapacitance oscillation even with incoherent white light further confirm the presence of stable, long-range spatial correlation among these indirect excitons. We finally demonstrate collective Rabi oscillations of these macroscopically large, ‘multipartite’, two-level, coupled and uncoupled quantum states of excitonic condensate as qubits. Therefore, our study not only brings the physics and technology of Bose-Einstein condensation within the reaches of semiconductor chips but also opens up experimental investigations of the fundamentals of quantum physics using similar techniques. Operational temperatures of such two-component excitonic BEC can be raised further with a more densely packed, ordered array of QDs and/or using materials having larger excitonic binding energies. However, fabrications of single crystals of 0D-2D heterostructures using 2D materials (e.g. transition metal di-chalcogenides, oxides, perovskites etc.) having higher excitonic binding energies are still an open challenge for semiconductor optoelectronics. As of now, these 0D-2D heterostructures can already be scaled up for mass production of miniaturized, portable quantum optoelectronic devices using the existing III-V and/or Nitride based semiconductor fabrication technologies.

Keywords: exciton, Bose-Einstein condensation, quantum computation, heterostructures, semiconductor Physics, quantum fluids, Schrodinger's Cat

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