Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 84

Search results for: laminates

84 Effect of Non-Crimp Fabric Structure on Mechanical Properties of Laminates

Authors: Hireni R. Mankodi, D. J. Chudasama

Abstract:

The textile preforms play a key role in providing the mechanical properties and gives the idea about selection parameter of preforms to improve the quality and performance of laminates. The main objectives of this work are to study the effect of non-crimp fabric preform structure in final properties of laminates. It has been observed that the multi-axial preform give better mechanical properties of laminates as compared to woven and biaxial fabrics. This study investigated the effect of different non-crimp glass preform structure on tensile strength, bending and compression properties of glass laminates. The different woven, bi-axial and multi-axial fabrics with similar GSM used to manufacture the laminates using polyester resin. The structural and mechanical properties of preform and laminates were studied using standard methods. It has been observed that the glass fabric geometry, including type of weaves, warps and filling density and number of layer plays significant role in deciding mechanical properties of laminates.

Keywords: preform, non-crimp structure, laminates, bi-axial, multiaxial

Procedia PDF Downloads 416
83 Investigation of Textile Laminates Structure and Electrical Resistance

Authors: A. Gulbiniene, V. Jankauskaite

Abstract:

Textile laminates with breathable membranes are used extensively in protective footwear. Such polymeric membranes act as a barrier to liquid water and soil entry from the environment, but are sufficiently permeable to water vapour to allow significant amounts of sweat to evaporate and affect the comfort of the wearer. In this paper the influence of absorbed humidity amount on the electrical properties of textiles lining laminates with and without polymeric membrane is presented. It was shown that textile laminate structure and its layers have a great influence on the water vapour absorption. Laminates with polyurethane foam layers show lower ability to absorb water vapour. Semi-permeable membrane increases absorbed humidity amount. The increase of water vapour absorption ability decreases textile laminates' electrical resistance. However, the intensity of the decrease in electrical resistance depends on the textile laminate layers' nature. Laminates with polyamide layers show significantly lower electrical resistance values.

Keywords: electrical resistance, humid atmosphere, textiles laminate, water vapour absorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
82 Strain Based Failure Criterion for Composite Notched Laminates

Authors: Ibrahim A. Elsayed, Mohamed H. Elalfy, Mostafa M. Abdalla

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A strain-based failure criterion for composite notched laminates is introduced where the most critical stress concentration factor for the anisotropic notched laminates could be related to the failure of the corresponding quasi-isotropic laminate and the anisotropy ratio of the laminate. The proposed criterion will simplify the design of composites to meet notched failure requirements by eliminating the need for the detailed specifications of the stacking sequence at the preliminary design stage. The designer will be able to design based on the stiffness of the laminate, then at a later stage, select an appropriate stacking sequence to meet the stiffness requirements. The failure strains for the notched laminates are computed using the material’s Omni-strain envelope. The concept of Omni-strain envelope concerns the region of average strain where the laminate is safe regardless of ply orientation. In this work, we use Hashin’s failure criteria and the strains around the hole are computed using Savin’s analytic solution. A progressive damage analysis study has been conducted where the failure loads for the notched laminates are computed using finite element analysis. The failure strains are computed and used to estimate the concentration factor. It is found that the correlation found using Savin’s analytic solution predicts the same ratio of concentration factors between anisotropic and quasi-isotropic laminates as the more expensive progressive failure analysis.

Keywords: anisotropy ratio, failure criteria, notched laminates, Omni-strain envelope, savin’s solution

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
81 Design Modification of Lap Joint of Fiber Metal Laminates (CARALL)

Authors: Shaher Bano, Samia Fida, Asif Israr

Abstract:

The synergistic effect of properties of metals and fibers reinforced laminates has diverted attention of the world towards use of robust composite materials known as fiber-metal laminates in many high performance applications. In this study, modification of an adhesively bonded joint as a single lap joint of carbon fibers based CARALL FML has done to increase interlaminar shear strength of the joint. The effect of different configurations of joint designs such as spews, stepped and modification in adhesive by addition of nano-fillers was studied. Both experimental and simulation results showed that modified joint design have superior properties as maximum force experienced stepped joint was 1.5 times more than the simple lap joint. Addition of carbon nano-tubes as nano-fillers in the adhesive joint increased the maximum force due to crack deflection mechanism.

Keywords: adhesive joint, Carbon Reinforced Aluminium Laminate (CARALL), fiber metal laminates, spews

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
80 A Modified Refined Higher Order Zigzag Theory for Stress Analysis of Hybrid Composite Laminates

Authors: Dhiraj Biswas, Chaitali Ray

Abstract:

A modified refined higher order zigzag theory has been developed in this paper in order to compute the accurate interlaminar stresses within hybrid laminates. Warping has significant effect on the mechanical behaviour of the laminates. To the best of author(s)’ knowledge the stress analysis of hybrid laminates is not reported in the published literature. The present paper aims to develop a new C0 continuous element based on the refined higher order zigzag theories considering warping effect in the formulation of hybrid laminates. The eight noded isoparametric plate bending element is used for the flexural analysis of laminated composite plates to study the performance of the proposed model. The transverse shear stresses are computed by using the differential equations of stress equilibrium in a simplified manner. A computer code has been developed using MATLAB software package. Several numerical examples are solved to assess the performance of the present finite element model based on the proposed higher order zigzag theory by comparing the present results with three-dimensional elasticity solutions. The present formulation is validated by comparing the results obtained from the relevant literature. An extensive parametric study has been carried out on the hybrid laminates with varying percentage of materials and angle of orientation of fibre content.

Keywords: hybrid laminate, Interlaminar stress, refined higher order zigzag theory, warping effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
79 Computational Modeling of Load Limits of Carbon Fibre Composite Laminates Subjected to Low-Velocity Impact Utilizing Convolution-Based Fast Fourier Data Filtering Algorithms

Authors: Farhat Imtiaz, Umar Farooq

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In this work, we developed a computational model to predict ply level failure in impacted composite laminates. Data obtained from physical testing from flat and round nose impacts of 8-, 16-, 24-ply laminates were considered. Routine inspections of the tested laminates were carried out to approximate ply by ply inflicted damage incurred. Plots consisting of load–time, load–deflection, and energy–time history were drawn to approximate the inflicted damages. Impact test generated unwanted data logged due to restrictions on testing and logging systems were also filtered. Conventional filters (built-in, statistical, and numerical) reliably predicted load thresholds for relatively thin laminates such as eight and sixteen ply panels. However, for relatively thick laminates such as twenty-four ply laminates impacted by flat nose impact generated clipped data which can just be de-noised using oscillatory algorithms. The literature search reveals that modern oscillatory data filtering and extrapolation algorithms have scarcely been utilized. This investigation reports applications of filtering and extrapolation of the clipped data utilising fast Fourier Convolution algorithm to predict load thresholds. Some of the results were related to the impact-induced damage areas identified with Ultrasonic C-scans and found to be in acceptable agreement. Based on consistent findings, utilizing of modern data filtering and extrapolation algorithms to data logged by the existing machines has efficiently enhanced data interpretations without resorting to extra resources. The algorithms could be useful for impact-induced damage approximations of similar cases.

Keywords: fibre reinforced laminates, fast Fourier algorithms, mechanical testing, data filtering and extrapolation

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
78 Relating Interface Properties with Crack Propagation in Composite Laminates

Authors: Tao Qu, Chandra Prakash, Vikas Tomar

Abstract:

The interfaces between organic and inorganic phases in natural materials have been shown to be a key factor contributing to their high performance. This work analyzes crack propagation in a 2-ply laminate subjected to uniaxial tensile mode-I crack propagation loading that has laminate properties derived based on biological material constituents (marine exoskeleton- chitin and calcite). Interfaces in such laminates are explicitly modeled based on earlier molecular simulations performed by authors. Extended finite element method and cohesive zone modeling based simulations coupled with theoretical analysis are used to analyze crack propagation. Analyses explicitly quantify the effect that interface mechanical property variation has on the delamination as well as the transverse crack propagation in examined 2-ply laminates.

Keywords: chitin, composites, interfaces, fracture

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
77 Delamination Fracture Toughness Benefits of Inter-Woven Plies in Composite Laminates Produced through Automated Fibre Placement

Authors: Jayden Levy, Garth M. K. Pearce

Abstract:

An automated fibre placement method has been developed to build through-thickness reinforcement into carbon fibre reinforced plastic laminates during their production, with the goal of increasing delamination fracture toughness while circumventing the additional costs and defects imposed by post-layup stitching and z-pinning. Termed ‘inter-weaving’, the method uses custom placement sequences of thermoset prepreg tows to distribute regular fibre link regions in traditionally clean ply interfaces. Inter-weaving’s impact on mode I delamination fracture toughness was evaluated experimentally through double cantilever beam tests (ASTM standard D5528-13) on [±15°]9 laminates made from Park Electrochemical Corp. E-752-LT 1/4” carbon fibre prepreg tape. Unwoven and inter-woven automated fibre placement samples were compared to those of traditional laminates produced from standard uni-directional plies of the same material system. Unwoven automated fibre placement laminates were found to suffer a mostly constant 3.5% decrease in mode I delamination fracture toughness compared to flat uni-directional plies. Inter-weaving caused significant local fracture toughness increases (up to 50%), though these were offset by a matching overall reduction. These positive and negative behaviours of inter-woven laminates were respectively found to be caused by fibre breakage and matrix deformation at inter-weave sites, and the 3D layering of inter-woven ply interfaces providing numerous paths of least resistance for crack propagation.

Keywords: AFP, automated fibre placement, delamination, fracture toughness, inter-weaving

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
76 Glass and Polypropylene Combinations for Thermoplastic Preforms

Authors: Hireni Mankodi

Abstract:

The textile preforms for thermoplastic composite play a key role in providing the mechanical properties and gives the idea about preparing combination of yarn from Glass, Basalt, Carbon as reinforcement and PP, PET, Nylon as thermoplastic matrix at yarn stage for preforms to improve the quality and performance of laminates. The main objectives of this work are to develop the hybrid yarn using different yarn manufacturing process and prepare different performs using hybrid yarns. It has been observed that the glass/pp combination give homogeneous distribution in yarn. The proportion varied to optimize the glass/pp composition. The different preform has been prepared with combination of hybrid yarn, PP, glass combination. Further studies will investigate the effect of glass content in fabric, effect of weave, warps and filling density, number of layer plays significant role in deciding mechanical properties of thermoplastic laminates.

Keywords: thermoplastic, preform, laminates, hybrid yarn, glass

Procedia PDF Downloads 499
75 An Experimental Investigation on Mechanical Behaviour of Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composite Laminates Used for Pipe Applications

Authors: Tasnim Kallel, Rim Taktak

Abstract:

In this experimental work, fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite laminates were manufactured using hand lay-up technique. The unsaturated polyester (UP) and vinylester (VE) were considered as resins reinforced with different woven fabrics (bidirectional and quadriaxial rovings). The mechanical behaviour of the resulting composites was studied and then compared. A focus was essentially done on the evaluation of the effect of E-Glass fiber and ply orientation on the mechanical properties such as tensile strength, flexural strength, and hardness of the studied composite laminates. Also, crack paths and fracture surfaces were examined, and failure mechanisms were analyzed. From the main results, it was found that the quadriaxial composite laminates (QA/VE and QA/UP) with stacking sequences of [0°, +45°, 90°, -45°] present a very ductile tensile behaviour. The other laminate samples (R500/VE, RM/VE, R500/UP and RM/UP) show a very brittle behaviour whatever the used resin. The intrinsic toughness KIC of QA/VE laminate, obtained in fracture tests, are found more important than that of RM/VE composite. Thus, the QA/VE samples, as multidirectional laminate, presents the highest interlaminar fracture resistance.

Keywords: crack growth, fiber orientation, fracture behavior, e-glass fiber fabric, laminate composite, mechanical behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
74 Mechanical Behaviours of Ti/GFRP/Ti Laminates with Different Surface Treatments of Titanium Sheets

Authors: Amit Kumar Haldar, Mark Simms, Ian McDevitt, Anthony Comer

Abstract:

Interface properties of fiber metal laminates (FML) affects the integrity and deformation failure modes. In this paper, the mechanical behaviours of Ti/GFRP/Ti laminates were experimentally investigated through low-velocity impact tests. Two different surface treatments of Titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) alloy sheets were prepared to obtain the composite interface properties based on annealing and sandblast surface treatment processes. The deformation failure modes, impact load sustaining ability and energy absorption capacity of FMLs were analysed. The impact load and modulus were shown to be dependent on the surface treatments of Titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) alloy sheets. It was demonstrated that the impact load performance was enhanced when titanium surfaces were annealed and sandblasted. It has also been shown that the values of the strength and energy absorption were slightly higher when the tests conducted at relatively higher loading rate, as a result of the rate-sensitive effects on the damage resistance of the FML.

Keywords: fiber metal laminates, metal composite interface, indentation, low velocity impact

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
73 Investigation of Failure Mechanisms of Composite Laminates with Delamination and Repaired with Bolts

Authors: Shuxin Li, Peihao Song, Haixiao Hu, Dongfeng Cao

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The interactive deformation and failure mechanisms, including local bucking/delamination propagation and global bucking, are investigated in this paper with numerical simulation and validation with experimental results. Three dimensional numerical models using ABAQUS brick elements combined with cohesive elements and contact elements are developed to simulate the deformation and failure characteristics of composite laminates with and without delamination under compressive loading. The zero-thickness cohesive elements are inserted on the possible path of delamination propagation, and the inter-laminate behavior is characterized by the mixed-mode traction-separation law. The numerical simulations identified the complex feature of interaction among local buckling and/or delamination propagation and final global bucking for composite laminates with delamination under compressive loading. Firstly there is an interaction between the local buckling and delamination propagation, i.e., local buckling induces delamination propagation, and then delamination growth further enhances the local buckling. Secondly, the interaction between the out-plan deformation caused by local buckling and the global bucking deformation results in final failure of the composite laminates. The simulation results are validated by the good agreement with the experimental results published in the literature. The numerical simulation validated with experimental results revealed that the degradation of the load capacity, in particular of the compressive strength of composite structures with delamination, is mainly attributed to the combined local buckling/delamination propagation effects. Consequently, a simple field-bolt repair approach that can hinder the local buckling and prevent delamination growth is explored. The analysis and simulation results demonstrated field-bolt repair could effectively restore compressive strength of composite laminates with delamination.

Keywords: cohesive elements, composite laminates, delamination, local and global bucking, field-bolt repair

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
72 Experimental and Theoretical Study on Hygrothermal Aging Effect on Mechanical Behavior of Fiber Reinforced Plastic Laminates

Authors: S. Larbi, R. Bensaada, S. Djebali, A. Bilek

Abstract:

The manufacture of composite parts is a major issue in many industrial domains. Polymer composite materials are ideal for structural applications where high strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratios are required. However, exposition to extreme environment conditions (temperature, humidity) affects mechanical properties of organic composite materials and lead to an undesirable degradation. Aging mechanisms in organic matrix are very diverse and vary according to the polymer and the aging conditions such as temperature, humidity etc. This paper studies the hygrothermal aging effect on the mechanical properties of fiber reinforced plastics laminates at 40 °C in different environment exposure. Two composite materials are used to conduct the study (carbon fiber/epoxy and glass fiber/vinyl ester with two stratifications for both the materials [904/04] and [454/04]). The experimental procedure includes a mechanical characterization of the materials in a virgin state and exposition of specimens to two environments (seawater and demineralized water). Absorption kinetics for the two materials and both the stratifications are determined. Three-point bending test is performed on the aged materials in order to determine the hygrothermal effect on the mechanical properties of the materials.

Keywords: FRP laminates, hygrothermal aging, mechanical properties, theory of laminates

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
71 Impact of Joule Heating on the Electrical Conduction Behavior of Carbon Composite Laminates under Simulated Lightning Strike

Authors: Hong Yu, Dirk Heider, Suresh Advani

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Increasing demands for high strength and lightweight materials in aircraft industry prompted the wide use of carbon composites in recent decades. Carbon composite laminates used on aircraft structures are subject to lightning strikes. Unlike its metal/alloy counterparts, carbon fiber reinforced composites demonstrate smaller electrical conductivity, yielding more severe damages due to Joule heating. The anisotropic nature of composite laminates makes the electrical and thermal conduction within carbon composite laminates even more complicated. Good understanding of the electrical conduction behavior of carbon composites is the key to effective lightning protection design. The goal of this study is to numerically and experimentally investigate the impact of ultra-high temperature induced by simulated lightning strike on the electrical conduction of carbon composites. A lightning simulator is designed to apply standard lightning current waveform to composite laminates. Multiple carbon composite laminates made from IM7 and AS4 carbon fiber are tested and the transient resistance data is recorded. A microstructure based resistor network model is developed to describe the electrical and thermal conduction behavior, with consideration of temperature dependent material properties. Material degradations such as thermal and electrical breakdown are also modeled to include the effect of high current and high temperature induced by lightning strikes. Good match between the simulation results and experimental data indicates that the developed model captures the major conduction mechanisms. A parametric study is then conducted using the validated model to investigate the effect of system parameters such as fiber volume fraction, inter-ply interface quality, and lightning current waveforms.

Keywords: carbon composite, joule heating, lightning strike, resistor network

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
70 Shear Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams Using Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers

Authors: Hana' Al-Ghanim, Mu'tasim Abdel-Jaber, Maha Alqam

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This experimental investigation deals with shear strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC) deep beams using the externally bonded carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites. The current study, therefore, evaluates the effectiveness of four various configurations for shear strengthening of deep beams with two different types of CFRP materials including sheets and laminates. For this purpose, a total of 10 specimens of deep beams were cast and tested. The shear performance of the strengthened beams is assessed with respect to the cracks’ formation, modes of failure, ultimate strength and the overall stiffness. The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness of using the CFRP technique on enhancing the shear capacity of deep beams; however, the efficiency varies depending on the material used and the strengthening scheme adopted. Among the four investigated schemes, the highest increase in the ultimate strength is recorded by using the continuous wrap of two layers of CFRP sheets, exceeding a value of 86%, whereas an enhancement of about 36% is achieved by the inclined CFRP laminates.

Keywords: deep beams, laminates, shear strengthening, sheets

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
69 Stability Characteristics of Angle Ply Bi-Stable Laminates by Considering the Effect of Resin Layers

Authors: Masih Moore, Saeed Ziaei-Rad

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In this study, the stability characteristics of a bi-stable composite plate with different asymmetric composition are considered. The interest in bi-stable structures comes from their ability that these structures can have two different stable equilibrium configurations to define a discrete set of stable shapes. The structures can easily change the first stable shape to the second one by a simple snap action. The main purpose of the current research is to consider the effect of including resin layers on the stability characteristics of bi-stable laminates. To this end and In order to determine the magnitude of the loads that are responsible for snap through and snap back phenomena between two stable shapes of the laminate, a non-linear finite element method (FEM) is utilized. An experimental investigation was also carried out to study the critical loads that caused snapping between two different stable shapes. Several specimens were manufactured from T300/5208 graphite-epoxy with [0/90]T, [-30/60]T, [-20/70]T asymmetric stacking sequence. In order to create an accurate finite element model, different thickness of resin layers created during the manufacturing process of the laminate was measured and taken into account. The geometry of each lamina and the resin layers was characterized by optical microscopy from different locations of the laminates thickness. The exact thickness of each lamina and the resin layer in all specimens with [0/90]T,[-30/60]T, [-20/70]T stacking sequence were determined by using image processing technique.

Keywords: bi-stable laminates, finite element method, graphite-epoxy plate, snap behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
68 Modifications in Design of Lap Joint of Fiber Metal Laminates

Authors: Shaher Bano, Samia Fida, Asif Israr

Abstract:

The continuous development and exploitation of materials and designs have diverted the attention of the world towards the use of robust composite materials known as fiber-metal laminates in many high-performance applications. The hybrid structure of fiber metal laminates makes them a material of choice for various applications such as aircraft skin panels, fuselage floorings, door panels and other load bearing applications. The synergistic effect of properties of metals and fibers reinforced laminates are responsible for their high damage tolerance as the metal element provides better fatigue and impact properties, while high stiffness and better corrosion properties are inherited from the fiber reinforced matrix systems. They are mostly used as a layered structure in different joint configurations such as lap and but joints. The FML layers are usually bonded with each other using either mechanical fasteners or adhesive bonds. This research work is also focused on modification of an adhesive bonded joint as a single lap joint of carbon fibers based CARALL FML has been modified to increase interlaminar shear strength and avoid delamination. For this purpose different joint modification techniques such as the introduction of spews and shoulder to modify the bond shape and use of nanofillers such as carbon nano-tubes as a reinforcement in the adhesive materials, have been utilized to improve shear strength of lap joint of the adhesively bonded FML layers. Both the simulation and experimental results showed that lap joint with spews and shoulders configuration have better properties due to stress distribution over a large area at the corner of the joint. The introduction of carbon nanotubes has also shown a positive effect on shear stress and joint strength as they act as reinforcement in the adhesive bond material.

Keywords: adhesive joint, Carbon Reinforced Aluminium Laminate (CARALL), fiber metal laminates, spews

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
67 The Effect of Carbon Nanotubes in Copolyamide Nonwovens on the Properties of CFRP Laminates

Authors: Kamil Dydek, Anna Boczkowska, Paulina Latko-Duralek, Rafal Kozera, Michal Salacinski

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In recent years there has been increasing interest in many industries, such as the aviation, automotive, and military industries, in Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers (CFRP). This is because of the excellent properties of CFRP, which are characterized by very high strength and stiffness in relation to their mass, low density (almost twice as low as aluminum and more than five times as low as steel), and corrosion resistance. However, they do not have sufficient electrical conductivity, which is required in some applications. Therefore, work is underway to improve their electrical conductivity, for example, by incorporating carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into the CFRP structure. CNTs possess excellent properties, such as high electrical conductivity, high aspect ratio, high Young’s modulus, and high tensile strength. An idea developed by our team is a modification of CFRP by the use of thermoplastic nonwovens containing CNTs. Nanocomposite fibers were made from three different masterbatches differing in the content of multi-wall carbon nanotubes, and then nonwovens that differed in areal weight were produced using a thermo-press. The out of autoclave method was used to fabricate the laminates from commercial carbon-epoxy prepreg dedicated to aviation applications - one without the nonwovens (reference) and five containing nonwovens placed between each prepreg layer. The volume of electrical conductivity of the manufactured laminates was measured in three directions. In order to investigate the adhesion between carbon fibers and nonwovens, the microstructure of the produced laminates was observed. The mechanical properties of the CFRP composites were measured in a short-beam shear test. In addition, the influence of thermoplastic nonwovens on the thermos-mechanical properties of laminates was analyzed by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis. The studies were carried out within grant no. DOB-1-3/1/PS/2014 financed by the National Centre for Research and Development in Poland.

Keywords: CFRP, thermoplastic nonwovens, carbon nanotubes, electrical conductivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
66 Effect of Hybridization of Composite Material on Buckling Analysis with Elastic Foundation Using the High Order Theory

Authors: Benselama Khadidja, El Meiche Noureddine

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This paper presents the effect of hybridization material on the variation of non-dimensional critical buckling load with different cross-ply laminates plate resting on elastic foundations of Winkler and Pasternak types subjected to combine uniaxial and biaxial loading by using two variable refined plate theories. Governing equations are derived from the Principle of Virtual Displacement; the formulation is based on a new function of shear deformation theory taking into account transverse shear deformation effects vary parabolically across the thickness satisfying shear stress-free surface conditions. These equations are solved analytically using the Navier solution of a simply supported. The influence of the various parameters geometric and material, the thickness ratio, and the number of layers symmetric and antisymmetric hybrid laminates material has been investigated to find the critical buckling loads. The numerical results obtained through the present study with several examples are presented to verify and compared with other models with the ones available in the literature.

Keywords: buckling, hybrid cross-ply laminates, Winkler and Pasternak, elastic foundation, two variables plate theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 413
65 Effect of Mechanical Loading on the Delamination of Stratified Composite in Mode I

Authors: H. Achache, Y. Madani, A. Benzerdjeb

Abstract:

The present study is based on the three-dimensional digital analysis by the finite elements method of the mechanical loading effect on the delamination of unidirectional and multidirectional stratified composites. The aim of this work is the determination of the release energy rate G in mode I and the Von Mises equivalent constraint distribution along the damaged area under the influence of several parameters such as the applied load and the delamination size. The results obtained in this study show that the unidirectional composite laminates have better mechanical resistance one the loading line than the multidirectional composite laminates.

Keywords: delamination, release energy rate, stratified composite, finite element method, ply

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
64 Numerical Study of Nonlinear Guided Waves in Composite Laminates with Delaminations

Authors: Reza Soleimanpour, Ching Tai Ng

Abstract:

Fibre-composites are widely used in various structures due to their attractive properties such as higher stiffness to mass ratio and better corrosion resistance compared to metallic materials. However, one serious weakness of this composite material is delamination, which is a subsurface separation of laminae. A low level of this barely visible damage can cause a significant reduction in residual compressive strength. In the last decade, the application of guided waves for damage detection has been a topic of significant interest for many researches. Among all guided wave techniques, nonlinear guided wave has shown outstanding sensitivity and capability for detecting different types of damages, e.g. cracks and delaminations. So far, most of researches on applications of nonlinear guided wave have been dedicated to isotropic material, such as aluminium and steel, while only a few works have been done on applications of nonlinear characteristics of guided waves in anisotropic materials. This study investigates the nonlinear interactions of the fundamental antisymmetric lamb wave (A0) with delamination in composite laminates using three-dimensional (3D) explicit finite element (FE) simulations. The nonlinearity considered in this study arises from interactions of two interfaces of sub-laminates at the delamination region, which generates contact acoustic nonlinearity (CAN). The aim of this research is to investigate the phenomena of CAN in composite laminated beams by a series of numerical case studies. In this study interaction of fundamental antisymmetric lamb wave with delamination of different sizes are studied in detail. The results show that the A0 lamb wave interacts with the delaminations generating CAN in the form of higher harmonics, which is a good indicator for determining the existence of delaminations in composite laminates.

Keywords: contact acoustic nonlinearity, delamination, fibre reinforced composite beam, finite element, nonlinear guided waves

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
63 Transmission Loss Analysis for Panels Laminated with Felt and Film

Authors: Yoshio Kurosawa

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To reduce the interior noise of cars in high-frequency region, sound proof materials are laminated with the body panels and the interior trims. Therefore, sound proof properties of the laminates play an important role for the efficient acoustical design. A program code which predicts both sound absorption properties and sound insulation properties of the laminates are developed. This program code is used for transfer matrix method by Biot theory. This report described the outline of this program code, and the calculation results almost agreed with the experimental results.

Keywords: porous media, transmission loss, Biot theory, transfer matrix method

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
62 Materials for Electrically Driven Aircrafts: Highly Conductive Carbon-Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

Authors: Simon Bard, Martin Demleitner, Florian Schonl, Volker Altstadt

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For an electrically driven aircraft, whose engine is based on semiconductors, alternative materials are needed. The avoid hotspots in the materials thermally conductive polymers are necessary. Nevertheless, the mechanical properties of these materials should remain. Herein, the work of three years in a project with airbus and Siemens is presented. Different strategies have been pursued to achieve conductive fiber-reinforced composites: Metal-coated carbon fibers, pitch-based fibers and particle-loaded matrices have been investigated. In addition, a combination of copper-coated fibers and a conductive matrix has been successfully tested for its conductivity and mechanical properties. First, prepregs have been produced with a laboratory scale prepreg line, which can handle materials with maximum width of 300 mm. These materials have then been processed to fiber-reinforced laminates. For the PAN-fiber reinforced laminates, it could be shown that there is a strong dependency between fiber volume content and thermal conductivity. Laminates with 50 vol% of carbon fiber offer a conductivity of 0.6 W/mK, those with 66 vol% of fiber a thermal conductivity of 1 W/mK. With pitch-based fiber, the conductivity enhances to 1.5 W/mK for 61 vol% of fiber, compared to 0.81 W/mK with the same amount of fibers produced from PAN (+83% in conducitivity). The thermal conductivity of PAN-based composites with 50 vol% of fiber is at 0.6 W/mK, their nickel-coated counterparts with the same fiber volume content offer a conductivity of 1 W/mK, an increase of 66%.

Keywords: carbon, electric aircraft, polymer, thermal conductivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
61 Investigation of Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Jute/Carbon Reinforced Composites

Authors: H. Sezgin, O. B. Berkalp, R. Mishra, J. Militky

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In the last few decades, due to their advanced properties, there has been an increasing interest in hybrid composite materials. In this study, the effect of different stacking sequences of jute and carbon fabric plies on dynamic mechanical properties of composite laminates were investigated. Vacuum bagging system was used to fabricate the composite samples. Each composite laminate was reinforced with two plies of jute fabric and two plies of carbon fabric by varying the position of layers. Dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) was used to examine the dynamic mechanical properties of composite laminates with increasing temperature. Results showed that the composite sample, which has carbon fabric at the outer layers, has the highest storage and loss modulus. Besides, it was observed that glass transition temperature (Tg) of samples are close to each other and at about 75 °C.

Keywords: differential scanning calorimetry dynamic mechanical analysis, textile reinforced composites, thermogravimetric analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
60 The Effect of Nylon and Kevlar Stitching on the Mode I Fracture of Carbon/Epoxy Composites

Authors: Nisrin R. Abdelal, Steven L. Donaldson

Abstract:

Composite materials are widely used in aviation industry due to their superior properties; however, they are susceptible to delamination. Through-thickness stitching is one of the techniques to alleviate delamination. Kevlar is one of the most common stitching materials; in contrast, it is expensive and presents stitching fabrication challenges. Therefore, this study compares the performance of Kevlar with an inexpensive and easy-to-use nylon fiber in stitching to alleviate delamination. Three laminates of unidirectional carbon fiber-epoxy composites were manufactured using vacuum assisted resin transfer molding process. One panel was stitched with Kevlar, one with nylon, and one unstitched. Mode I interlaminar fracture tests were carried out on specimens from the three composite laminates, and the results were compared. Fractographic analysis using optical and scanning electron microscope were conducted to reveal the differences between stitching with Kevlar and nylon on the internal microstructure of the composite with respect to the interlaminar fracture toughness values.

Keywords: carbon, delamination, Kevlar, mode I, nylon, stitching

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
59 Development and Characterization of Sandwich Bio-Composites Based on Short Alfa Fiber and Jute Fabric

Authors: Amine Rezzoug, Selsabil Rokia Laraba, Mourad Ancer, Said Abdi

Abstract:

Composite materials are taking center stage in different fields thanks to their mechanical characteristics and their ease of preparation. Environmental constraints have led to the development of composite with natural reinforcements. The sandwich structure has the advantage to have good flexural proprieties for low density, which is why it was chosen in this work. The development of these materials is related to an energy saving strategy and environmental protection. The present work refers to the study of the development and characterization of sandwiches composites based on hybrids laminates with natural reinforcements (Alfa and Jute), a metal fabric was introduced into composite in order to have a compromise between weight and properties. We use different configurations of reinforcements (jute, metallic fabric) to develop laminates in order to use them as thin facings for sandwiches materials. While the core was an epoxy matrix reinforced with Alfa short fibers, a chemical treatment sodium hydroxide was cared to improve the adhesion of the Alfa fibers. The mechanical characterization of our materials was made by the tensile and bending test, to highlight the influence of jute and Alfa. After testing, the fracture surfaces are observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Optical microscopy allowed us to calculate the degree of porosity and to observe the morphology of the individual layers. Laminates based on jute fabric have shown better results in tensile test as well as to bending, compared to those of the metallic fabric (100%, 65%). Sandwich Panels were also characterized in terms of bending test. Results we had provide, shows that this composite has sufficient properties for possible replacing conventional composite materials by considering the environmental factors.

Keywords: bending test, bio-composites, sandwiches, tensile test

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58 Damage Mesomodel Based Low-Velocity Impact Damage Analysis of Laminated Composite Structures

Authors: Semayat Fanta, P.M. Mohite, C.S. Upadhyay

Abstract:

Damage meso-model for laminates is one of the most widely applicable approaches for the analysis of damage induced in laminated fiber-reinforced polymeric composites. Damage meso-model for laminates has been developed over the last three decades by many researchers in experimental, theoretical, and analytical methods that have been carried out in micromechanics as well as meso-mechanics analysis approaches. It has been fundamentally developed based on the micromechanical description that aims to predict the damage initiation and evolution until the failure of structure in various loading conditions. The current damage meso-model for laminates aimed to act as a bridge between micromechanics and macro-mechanics of the laminated composite structure. This model considers two meso-constituents for the analysis of damage in ply and interface that imparted from low-velocity impact. The damages considered in this study include fiber breakage, matrix cracking, and diffused damage of the lamina, and delamination of the interface. The damage initiation and evolution in laminae can be modeled in terms of damaged strain energy density using damage parameters and the thermodynamic irreversible forces. Interface damage can be modeled with a new concept of spherical micro-void in the resin-rich zone of interface material. The damage evolution is controlled by the damage parameter (d) and the radius of micro-void (r) from the point of damage nucleation to its saturation. The constitutive martial model for meso-constituents is defined in a user material subroutine VUMAT and implemented in ABAQUS/Explicit finite element modeling tool. The model predicts the damages in the meso-constituents level very accurately and is considered the most effective technique of modeling low-velocity impact simulation for laminated composite structures.

Keywords: mesomodel, laminate, low-energy impact, micromechanics

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57 Properties Modification of Fiber Metal Laminates by Nanofillers

Authors: R. Eslami-Farsani, S. M. S. Mousavi Bafrouyi

Abstract:

During past decades, increasing demand of modified Fiber Metal Laminates (FMLs) has stimulated a strong trend towards the development of these structures. FMLs contain several thin layers of metal bonded with composite materials. Characteristics of FMLs such as low specific mass, high bearing strength, impact resistance, corrosion resistance and high fatigue life are attractive. Nowadays, increasing development can be observed to promote the properties of polymer-based composites by nanofillers. By dispersing strong, nanofillers in polymer matrix, modified composites can be developed and tailored to individual applications. On the other hand, the synergic effects of nanoparticles such as graphene and carbon nanotube can significantly improve the mechanical, electrical and thermal properties of nanocomposites. In present paper, the modifying of FMLs by nanofillers and the dispersing of nanoparticles in the polymers matrix are discussed. The evaluations have revealed that this approach is acceptable. Finally, a prospect is presented. This paper will lead to further work on these modified FML species.

Keywords: fiber metal laminate, nanofiller, polymer matrix, property modification

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56 Numerical Study of Dynamic Buckling of Fiber Metal Laminates's Profile

Authors: Monika Kamocka, Radoslaw Mania

Abstract:

The design of Fiber Metal Laminates - combining thin aluminum sheets and prepreg layers, allows creating a hybrid structure with high strength to weight ratio. This feature makes FMLs very attractive for aerospace industry, where thin-walled structures are commonly used. Nevertheless, those structures are prone to buckling phenomenon. Buckling could occur also under static load as well as dynamic pulse loads. In this paper, the problem of dynamic buckling of open cross-section FML profiles under axial dynamic compression in the form of pulse load of finite duration is investigated. In the numerical model, material properties of FML constituents were assumed as nonlinear elastic-plastic aluminum and linear-elastic glass-fiber-reinforced composite. The influence of pulse shape was investigated. Sinusoidal and rectangular pulse loads of finite duration were compared in two ways, i.e. with respect to magnitude and force pulse. The dynamic critical buckling load was determined based on Budiansky-Hutchinson, Ari Gur, and Simonetta dynamic buckling criteria.

Keywords: dynamic buckling, dynamic stability, Fiber Metal Laminate, Finite Element Method

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55 Effect of Volume Fraction of Fibre on the Mechanical Properties of Nanoclay Reinforced E-Glass-Epoxy Composites

Authors: K. Krushnamurty, D. Rasmitha, I. Srikanth, K. Ramji, Ch. Subrahmanyam

Abstract:

E-glass-epoxy laminated composites having different fiber volume fractions (40, 50, 60 and 70) were fabricated with and without the addition of nanoclay. Flexural strength and tensile strength of the composite laminates were determined. It was observed that, with increasing the fiber volume fraction (Vf) of fiber from 40 to 60, the ability of nanoclay to enhance the tensile and flexural strength of E-glass-epoxy composites decreases significantly. At 70Vf, the tensile and flexural strength of the nanoclay reinforced E-glass-epoxy were found to be lowest when compared to the E-glass-epoxy composite made without the addition of nanoclay. Based on the obtained data and microstructure of the tested samples, plausible mechanism for the observed trends has been proposed. The enhanced mechanical properties for nanoclay reinforced E-glass-epoxy composites for 40-60 Vf, due to higher interface toughness coupled with strong interfilament bonding may have ensured the homogeneous load distribution across all the glass fibers. Results in the decrease in mechanical properties at 70Vf, may be due to the inability of the matrix to bind the nanoclay and glass-fibers.

Keywords: e-glass-epoxy composite laminates, fiber volume fraction, e-glass fiber, mechanical properties, delamination

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