Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17504

Search results for: design studies

17504 Numerical Studies on the Performance of the Finned-Tube Heat Exchanger

Authors: S. P. Praveen Kumar, Bong-Su Sin, Kwon-Hee Lee

Abstract:

Finned-tube heat exchangers are predominantly used in space conditioning systems, as well as other applications requiring heat exchange between two fluids. The design of finned-tube heat exchangers requires the selection of over a dozen design parameters by the designer such as tube pitch, tube diameter, tube thickness, etc. Finned-tube heat exchangers are common devices; however, their performance characteristics are complicated. In this paper, numerical studies have been carried out to analyze the performances of finned tube heat exchanger (without fins considered for experimental purpose) by predicting the characteristics of temperature difference and pressure drop. In this study, a design considering 5 design variables, maximizing the temperature difference and minimizing the pressure drop was suggested by applying DOE. In this process, L18 orthogonal array was adopted. Parametric analytical studies have been carried out using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to determine the relative importance of each variable with respect to the temperature difference and the pressure drop. Following the results, the final design was suggested by predicting the optimum design therefore confirming the optimized condition.

Keywords: heat exchanger, fluid analysis, heat transfer, design of experiment, analysis of variance

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17503 Experimental Studies on Prestressed Precast Concrete Bridge Piers

Authors: C. Shim, C. Koem, S. Park, S. Lee

Abstract:

This paper deals with experimental studies on pre stressed precast concrete columns with continuous reinforcing bars and pre stressing tendons. Design requirements on minimum transverse reinforcement ratio are not included in current design codes. Pre stressing introduces additional compression to the column. Precast columns with different transverse reinforcement ratios were tested to derive adequate design requirement. Displacement ductility of the pre stressed precast columns was evaluated and compared with previous studies. Design of axial steels including reinforcing bars and pre stressing tendons influenced on the seismic performance. Without significant increase of transverse reinforcement ratio, the specimens showed required displacement ductility without reduction of their flexural strength. Design recommendations for precast bridge piers were derived.

Keywords: displacement ductility, flexural strength, prestressed precast column, transverse reinforcement

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17502 Emulation Model in Architectural Education

Authors: Ö. Şenyiğit, A. Çolak

Abstract:

It is of great importance for an architectural student to know the parameters through which he/she can conduct his/her design and makes his/her design effective in architectural education. Therefore; an empirical application study was carried out through the designing activity using the emulation model to support the design and design approaches of architectural students. During the investigation period, studies were done on the basic design elements and principles of the fall semester, and the emulation model, one of the designing methods that constitute the subject of the study, was fictionalized as three phased “recognition-interpretation-application”. As a result of the study, it was observed that when students were given a key method during the design process, their awareness increased and their aspects improved as well.

Keywords: basic design, design education, design methods, emulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
17501 Studies on Lucrative Design of a Waste Heat Recovery System for Air Conditioners

Authors: Ashwin Bala, K. Panthalaraja Kumaran, S. Prithviraj, R. Pradeep, J. Udhayakumar, S. Ajith

Abstract:

In this paper, studies have been carried out for an in-house design of a waste heat recovery system for effectively utilizing the domestic air conditioner heat energy for producing hot water. Theoretical studies have been carried to optimizing the flow rate for getting maximum output with a minimum size of the heater. Critical diameter, wall thickness, and total length of the water pipeline have been estimated from the conventional heat transfer model. Several combinations of pipeline shapes viz., spiral, coil, zigzag wound through the radiator has been attempted and accordingly shape has been optimized using heat transfer analyses. The initial condition is declared based on the water flow rate and temperature. Through the parametric analytical studies we have conjectured that water flow rate, temperature difference between incoming water and radiator skin temperature, pipe material, radiator material, geometry of the water pipe viz., length, diameter, and wall thickness are having bearing on the lucrative design of a waste heat recovery system for air conditioners. Results generated through the numerical studies have been validated using an in-house waste heat recovery system for air conditioners.

Keywords: air conditioner design, energy conversion system, radiator design for energy recovery systems, waste heat recovery system

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17500 An Information Matrix Goodness-of-Fit Test of the Conditional Logistic Model for Matched Case-Control Studies

Authors: Li-Ching Chen

Abstract:

The case-control design has been widely applied in clinical and epidemiological studies to investigate the association between risk factors and a given disease. The retrospective design can be easily implemented and is more economical over prospective studies. To adjust effects for confounding factors, methods such as stratification at the design stage and may be adopted. When some major confounding factors are difficult to be quantified, a matching design provides an opportunity for researchers to control the confounding effects. The matching effects can be parameterized by the intercepts of logistic models and the conditional logistic regression analysis is then adopted. This study demonstrates an information-matrix-based goodness-of-fit statistic to test the validity of the logistic regression model for matched case-control data. The asymptotic null distribution of this proposed test statistic is inferred. It needs neither to employ a simulation to evaluate its critical values nor to partition covariate space. The asymptotic power of this test statistic is also derived. The performance of the proposed method is assessed through simulation studies. An example of the real data set is applied to illustrate the implementation of the proposed method as well.

Keywords: conditional logistic model, goodness-of-fit, information matrix, matched case-control studies

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17499 Comprehensive Studies on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of Subsonic Scarf Inlets

Authors: M. Jegannath, V. Akshaya, B. Arunkumar, G. Lakshmi Soundharya, V. Thenmozhi, S. Varun, V. R. S. Kumar

Abstract:

For scarf inlet design, the primary variable of interest is the circumferential extent over which the extended lower lip is formed. In this paper, an attempt has been made to optimize the aerodynamic shape of a subsonic scarf inlet with aerodynamically shaped center-body with a particular value of the circumferential extent. The parametric analytical studies have been carried out using a Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. From our preliminary studies, we concluded that for a particular value of circumferential extent, there will be an exact shape of the center-body with certain geometric orientation for the existence of an aerodynamically efficient scarf inlet for modern aircraft engines. This numerical study is a pointer towards for the design optimization of scarf inlets for modern aircraft engines.

Keywords: aerodynamics of scarf inlets, inlet design, modern aircraft inlets, subsonic scarf inlet

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17498 Ecocentric Principles for the Change of the Anthropocentric Design Within the Other Species Related Fields

Authors: Armando Cuspinera

Abstract:

Humans are nature itself, being with non-human species part of the same ecosystem, but the praxis reflects that not all relations are the same. In fields of design such as Biomimicry, Biodesign, and Biophilic design exist different approaches towards nature, nevertheless, anthropocentric principles such as domination, objectivization, or exploitation are defined in the same as ecocentric principles of inherent importance in life itself. Anthropocentrism has showed humanity with pollution of the earth, water, air, and the destruction of whole ecosystems from monocultures and rampant production of useless objects that life cannot outstand this unaware rhythm of life focused only for the human benefits. Even if by nature the biosphere is resilient, studies showed in the Paris Agreement explain that humanity will perish in an unconscious way of praxis. This is why is important to develop a differentiation between anthropocentric and ecocentricprinciples in the praxis of design, in order to enhance respect, valorization, and positive affectivity towards other life forms is necessary to analyze what principles are reproduced from each practice of design. It is only from the study of immaterial dimensions of design such as symbolism, epistemology, and ontology that the relation towards nature can be redesigned, and in order to do so, it must be studies from the dimensions of ontological design what principles –anthropocentric or ecocentric- through what the objects enhance or focus the perception humans have to its surrounding. The things we design also design us is the principle of ontological design, and in order to develop a way of ecological design in which is possible to consider other species as users, designers or collaborators is important to extend the studies and relation to other living forms from a transdisciplinary perspective of techniques, knowledge, practice, and disciplines in general. Materials, technologies, and any kind of knowledge have the principle of a tool: is not good nor bad, but is in the way of using it the possibilities that exist within them. The collaboration of disciplines and fields of study gives the opportunity to connect principles from other cultures such as Deep Ecology and Environmental Humanities in the development of methodologies of design that study nature, integrates their strategies to our own species, and considers life of other species as important as human life, and is only form the studies of ontological design that material and immaterial dimensions can be analyzed and imbued with structures that already exist in other fields.

Keywords: design, antropocentrism, ecocentrism, ontological design

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17497 Investigating the Effect of VR, Time Study and Ergonomics on the Design of Industrial Workstations

Authors: Aydin Azizi, Poorya Ghafoorpoor Yazdi

Abstract:

This paper presents the review of the studies on the ergonomics, virtual reality, and work measurement (time study) at the industrial workstations because each of these three individual techniques can be used to improve the design of workstations and task position. The objective of this paper is to give an overall literature review that if there is any relation between these three different techniques. Therefore, it is so important to review the scientific studies to find a better and effective way for improving design of workstations. On the other hand, manufacturers found that instead of using one of the approaches, utilizing the combination of these individual techniques are more effective to reduce the cost and production time.

Keywords: ergonomics, time study, virtual reality, workplace

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17496 Integrating Eye-Tracking Analysis to Enhance Web Usability Evaluation

Authors: Johanna Renny Octavia, Meliana Nurdin, Ignatius Kevin Kurniawan, Ricca Aksara

Abstract:

It is widely believed that usability evaluation is necessary to evaluate a website design for further improvement. Traditional methods of usability evaluation have given sufficient insights to reveal usability problems of websites. Eye-tracking analysis has been considered as a useful method that adds a powerful dimension to web usability evaluation. It allows web designers and usability researchers to understand exactly what users do and do not see on a web page, thus disclose more information on web usability and provide a more complete insights on a website design. This paper elaborates on moving beyond traditional methods of web usability evaluation by integrating eye-tracking analysis to enhance the evaluation of website design, and presents three case studies to support this approach. In these case studies, eye movement metrics such as gaze plots and fixation-derived metrics, and user performance data such as task completion times and number of errors were recorded as objective measurements that can inform the necessity for website design improvements.

Keywords: design, eye-tracking, usability evaluation, website

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
17495 A Qualitative Approach to Engineering Design Issues, Problems, and Solutions

Authors: M. U. Arshid, M. A. Kamal

Abstract:

The engineering design process is the activities formulation, to help an engineer raising a plan with a specified goal and performance. The engineering design process is a multi-stage course of action including the conceptualization, research, feasibility studies, establishment of design parameters, preliminary and finally the detailed design. It is a progression from the abstract to the concrete; starting with probably abstract ideas about need, and thereafter elaborating detailed specifications of the object that would satisfy the needs, identified. Engineering design issues, problems, and solutions are discussed in this paper using qualitative approach from an information structure perspective. The objective is to identify the problems, to analyze them and propose solutions by integrating; innovation, practical experience, time and resource management, communications skills, isolating the problem in coordination with all stakeholders. Consequently, this would be beneficial for the engineering community to improve the Engineering design practices.

Keywords: engineering design, engineering design issues, innovation, public sector projects

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17494 Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Motor Design and Optimization by Using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Tugce Talay, Kadir Erkan

Abstract:

In this study, the necessary steps for the design of axial flow permanent magnet motors are shown. The design and analysis of the engine were carried out based on ANSYS Maxwell program. The design parameters of the ANSYS Maxwell program and the artificial neural network system were established in MATLAB and the most efficient design parameters were found with the trained neural network. The results of the Maxwell program and the results of the artificial neural networks are compared and optimal working design parameters are found. The most efficient design parameters were submitted to the ANSYS Maxwell 3D design and the cogging torque was examined and design studies were carried out to reduce the cogging torque.

Keywords: AFPM, ANSYS Maxwell, cogging torque, design optimisation, efficiency, NNTOOL

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17493 Innovation in Sustainable Development: Sustainable Place-Making Strategies in Hong Kong

Authors: Tris Kee

Abstract:

As the urban design discipline develops renewed interests in participatory design and collaborative place-making, it becomes critical to review the potential and limitations in current processes to ensure a sustainable method for future development.This paper explores how collaborative design can be a key to future sustainable urban development through two case studies from Asia.The process involves a multi-disciplinary collaboration and an innovative learning process by sharing ideas as well as careful consideration on social, economic and political circumstances among government and district stakeholders.This intrinsic proposition of innovative participatory planning implies interdisciplinary collaboration between professionals and local residents to integrate knowledge into new urban place-making thinking.Design innovation in contemporary society can manifest itself in the discourse sustainable urban development by bottom-up planning and community driven design. This paper examines the emerging design pedagogy which promotes interdisciplinary coalition of professionals and local stakeholders in community development as an innovative design rubric to create a sustainable urban approach.Through two case studies in Hong Kong, this paper reviews and critically evaluates the process of how the notion of sustainable development in contemporary urban planning theory is underpinned by the collaborative design practice.

Keywords: collaborative design, design innovation, sustainable development, urban development

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17492 An Analysis of Uncoupled Designs in Chicken Egg

Authors: Pratap Sriram Sundar, Chandan Chowdhury, Sagar Kamarthi

Abstract:

Nature has perfected her designs over 3.5 billion years of evolution. Research fields such as biomimicry, biomimetics, bionics, bio-inspired computing, and nature-inspired designs have explored nature-made artifacts and systems to understand nature’s mechanisms and intelligence. Learning from nature, the researchers have generated sustainable designs and innovation in a variety of fields such as energy, architecture, agriculture, transportation, communication, and medicine. Axiomatic design offers a method to judge if a design is good. This paper analyzes design aspects of one of the nature’s amazing object: chicken egg. The functional requirements (FRs) of components of the object are tabulated and mapped on to nature-chosen design parameters (DPs). The ‘independence axiom’ of the axiomatic design methodology is applied to analyze couplings and to evaluate if eggs’ design is good (i.e., uncoupled design) or bad (i.e., coupled design). The analysis revealed that eggs design is a good design, i.e., uncoupled design. This approach can be applied to any nature’s artifacts to judge whether their design is a good or a bad. This methodology is valuable for biomimicry studies. This approach can also be a very useful teaching design consideration of biology and bio-inspired innovation.

Keywords: uncoupled design, axiomatic design, nature design, design evaluation

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17491 From Service to Ritual: Preliminary Development on Conceptual Framework for Designing Ritual

Authors: Yi-Jing Lee

Abstract:

Prior to the development of ritual design tool and framework, this paper establishes a systematic review on the studies related to ritual and ritual design across anthropology, consumer culture, marketing, and design. It is found that following symbolic anthropologists, the ethnographic approach was adapted by consumer culture researchers to study modern rituals and marketers to enhance consumption. In the domain of design, although there are already designers aware of the importance of ritualistic dimension of human interaction, there are little frameworks for conceptualizing and developing rituals. The conceptualized framework and developing tools is proposed and suggestions of applying it is made in the end of the paper.

Keywords: ritual, ritual design, service design, symbolic interaction

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17490 Systematic Formulation Development and Evaluation of Self-Nanoemulsifying Systems of Rosuvastatin Employing QbD Approach and Chemometric Techniques

Authors: Sarwar Beg, Gajanand Sharma, O. P. Katare, Bhupinder Singh

Abstract:

The current studies entail development of self-nano emulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) of rosuvastatin, employing rational QbD-based approach for enhancing its oral bioavailability. SNEDDS were prepared using the blend of lipidic and emulsifying excipients, i.e., Peceol, Tween 80, and Transcutol HP. The prepared formulations evaluated for in vitro drug release, ex vivo permeation, in situ perfusion studies and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies in rats, which demonstrated 3-4 fold improvement in biopharmaceutical performance of the developed formulations. Cytotoxicity studies using MTT assay and histopathological studies in intestinal cells revealed the lack of cytotoxicity and thereby safety and efficacy of the developed formulations.

Keywords: SNEDDS, bioavailability, solubility, Quality by Design (QbD)

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17489 Critical Design - Concepts, Methods and Practices for Innovative Societal Relationships

Authors: Martina Maria Keitsch

Abstract:

Critical Design (CD) confronts traditional design practice. Instead of reproducing and reinforcing contemporary perceptions of products and services, CD seeks to challenge them with the goal to stimulate debates and visions on societal innovation. CD methods comprise, among other narratives and design of critical objects. The oral presentation is based on a study that discusses concepts, methods, and applications of CD links CD to traditional design, and identifies CD benefits and challenges for design research and practice. The objective of the study is to introduce CD as an alternative for design researchers and practitioners supplementing commercially oriented design approaches. The study utilizes a literature review on CD concepts and methods based on current publications and online documents and illustrates CD practice with help of selected case studies. Findings of the study indicate that CD contribute, among others, to create new societal roles for designers, foster innovative relationships between designers and users, and encourage creativity through imaginative aesthetics.

Keywords: critical design, postmodern design theories, narratives, rhizome

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17488 Bayesian Meta-Analysis to Account for Heterogeneity in Studies Relating Life Events to Disease

Authors: Elizabeth Stojanovski

Abstract:

Associations between life events and various forms of cancers have been identified. The purpose of a recent random-effects meta-analysis was to identify studies that examined the association between adverse events associated with changes to financial status including decreased income and breast cancer risk. The same association was studied in four separate studies which displayed traits that were not consistent between studies such as the study design, location and time frame. It was of interest to pool information from various studies to help identify characteristics that differentiated study results. Two random-effects Bayesian meta-analysis models are proposed to combine the reported estimates of the described studies. The proposed models allow major sources of variation to be taken into account, including study level characteristics, between study variance, and within study variance and illustrate the ease with which uncertainty can be incorporated using a hierarchical Bayesian modelling approach.

Keywords: random-effects, meta-analysis, Bayesian, variation

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17487 Studies on Optimization of Batch Biosorption of Cr (VI) and Cu (II) from Wastewater Using Bacillus subtilis

Authors: Narasimhulu Korrapati

Abstract:

The objective of this present study is to optimize the process parameters for batch biosorption of Cr(VI) and Cu(II) ions by Bacillus subtilis using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Batch biosorption studies were conducted under optimum pH, temperature, biomass concentration and contact time for the removal of Cr(VI) and Cu(II) ions using Bacillus subtilis. From the studies it is noticed that the maximum biosorption of Cr(VI) and Cu(II) was by Bacillus subtilis at optimum conditions of contact time of 30 minutes, pH of 4.0, biomass concentration of 2.0 mg/mL, the temperature of 32°C in batch biosorption studies. Predicted percent biosorption of the selected heavy metal ions by the design expert software is in agreement with experimental results of percent biosorption. The percent biosorption of Cr(VI) and Cu(II) in batch studies is 80% and 78.4%, respectively.

Keywords: heavy metal ions, response surface methodology, biosorption, wastewater

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
17486 A Method for Multimedia User Interface Design for Mobile Learning

Authors: Shimaa Nagro, Russell Campion

Abstract:

Mobile devices are becoming ever more widely available, with growing functionality, and are increasingly used as an enabling technology to give students access to educational material anytime and anywhere. However, the design of educational material user interfaces for mobile devices is beset by many unresolved research issues such as those arising from emphasising the information concepts then mapping this information to appropriate media (modelling information then mapping media effectively). This report describes a multimedia user interface design method for mobile learning. The method covers specification of user requirements and information architecture, media selection to represent the information content, design for directing attention to important information, and interaction design to enhance user engagement based on Human-Computer Interaction design strategies (HCI). The method will be evaluated by three different case studies to prove the method is suitable for application to different areas / applications, these are; an application to teach about major computer networking concepts, an application to deliver a history-based topic; (after these case studies have been completed, the method will be revised to remove deficiencies and then used to develop a third case study), an application to teach mathematical principles. At this point, the method will again be revised into its final format. A usability evaluation will be carried out to measure the usefulness and effectiveness of the method. The investigation will combine qualitative and quantitative methods, including interviews and questionnaires for data collection and three case studies for validating the MDMLM method. The researcher has successfully produced the method at this point which is now under validation and testing procedures. From this point forward in the report, the researcher will refer to the method using the MDMLM abbreviation which means Multimedia Design Mobile Learning Method.

Keywords: human-computer interaction, interface design, mobile learning, education

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
17485 Research on Architectural Steel Structure Design Based on BIM

Authors: Tianyu Gao

Abstract:

Digital architectures use computer-aided design, programming, simulation, and imaging to create virtual forms and physical structures. Today's customers want to know more about their buildings. They want an automatic thermostat to learn their behavior and contact them, such as the doors and windows they want to open with a mobile app. Therefore, the architectural display form is more closely related to the customer's experience. Based on the purpose of building informationization, this paper studies the steel structure design based on BIM. Taking the Zigan office building in Hangzhou as an example, it is divided into four parts, namely, the digital design modulus of the steel structure, the node analysis of the steel structure, the digital production and construction of the steel structure. Through the application of BIM software, the architectural design can be synergized, and the building components can be informationized. Not only can the architectural design be feedback in the early stage, but also the stability of the construction can be guaranteed. In this way, the monitoring of the entire life cycle of the building and the meeting of customer needs can be realized.

Keywords: digital architectures, BIM, steel structure, architectural design

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17484 Design, Synthesis and Pharmacological Investigation of Novel 2-Phenazinamine Derivatives as a Mutant BCR-ABL (T315I) Inhibitor

Authors: Gajanan M. Sonwane

Abstract:

Nowadays, the entire pharmaceutical industry is facing the challenge of increasing efficiency and innovation. The major hurdles are the growing cost of research and development and a concurrent stagnating number of new chemical entities (NCEs). Hence, the challenge is to select the most druggable targets and to search the equivalent drug-like compounds, which also possess specific pharmacokinetic and toxicological properties that allow them to be developed as drugs. The present research work includes the studies of developing new anticancer heterocycles by using molecular modeling techniques. The heterocycles synthesized through such methodology are much effective as various physicochemical parameters have been already studied and the structure has been optimized for its best fit in the receptor. Hence, on the basis of the literature survey and considering the need to develop newer anticancer agents, new phenazinamine derivatives were designed by subjecting the nucleus to molecular modeling, viz., GQSAR analysis and docking studies. Simultaneously, these designed derivatives were subjected to in silico prediction of biological activity through PASS studies and then in silico toxicity risk assessment studies. In PASS studies, it was found that all the derivatives exhibited a good spectrum of biological activities confirming its anticancer potential. The toxicity risk assessment studies revealed that all the derivatives obey Lipinski’s rule. Amongst these series, compounds 4c, 5b and 6c were found to possess logP and drug-likeness values comparable with the standard Imatinib (used for anticancer activity studies) and also with the standard drug methotrexate (used for antimitotic activity studies). One of the most notable mutations is the threonine to isoleucine mutation at codon 315 (T315I), which is known to be resistant to all currently available TKI. Enzyme assay planned for confirmation of target selective activity.

Keywords: drug design, tyrosine kinases, anticancer, Phenazinamine

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17483 Urban Block Design's Impact on the Indoor Daylight Quality, Heating and Cooling Loads of Buildings in the Semi-Arid Regions: Duhok City in Kurdistan Region-Iraq as a Case Study

Authors: Kawar Salih

Abstract:

It has been proven that designing sustainable buildings starts from early stages of urban design. The design of urban blocks specifically, is considered as one of the pragmatic strategies of sustainable urbanism. There have been previous studies that focused on the impact of urban block design and regulation on the outdoor thermal comfort in the semi-arid regions. However, no studies have been found that concentrated on that impact on the internal behavior of buildings of those regions specifically the daylight quality and energy performance. Further, most studies on semi-arid regions are focusing only on the cooling load reduction, neglecting the heating load. The study has focused on two parameters of urban block distribution which are the block orientation and the surface-to-volume ratio with the consideration of both heating and cooling loads of buildings. In Duhok (a semi-arid city in Kurdistan region of Iraq), energy consumption and daylight quality of different types of residential blocks have been examined using dynamic simulation. The findings suggest that there is a considerable higher energy load for heating than cooling, contradicting many previous studies about these regions. The results also highlight that the orientation of urban blocks can vary the energy consumption to 8%. Regarding the surface-to-volume ratio (S/V), it was observed that after the twice enlargement of the S/V, the energy consumption increased 15%. Though, the study demonstrates as well that there are opportunities for reducing energy consumption with the increase of the S/V which contradicts many previous research on S/V impacts on energy consumption. These results can help to design urban blocks with the bigger S/V than existing blocks in the city which it can provide better indoor daylight and relatively similar energy consumption.

Keywords: blocke orienation, building energy consumption, urban block design, semi-arid regions, surfacet-to-volume ratio

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17482 Aerodynamic Analysis and Design of Banners for Remote-Controlled Aircraft

Authors: Peyman Honarmandi, Mazen Alhirsh

Abstract:

Banner towing is a major form of advertisement. It consists of a banner showing a logo or a selection of words or letters being towed by an aircraft. Traditionally bush planes have been used to tow banners given their high thrust capabilities; however, with the development of remote-controlled (RC) aircraft, they could be a good replacement as RC planes mitigate the risk of human life and can be easier to operate. This paper studies the best banner design to be towed by an RC aircraft. This is done by conducting wind tunnel testing on an array of banners with different materials and designs. A pull gauge is used to record the drag force during testing, which is then used to calculate the coefficient of drag, Cd. The testing results show that the best banner design would be a hybrid design with a solid and mesh material. The design with the lowest Cd of 0.082 was a half ripstop nylon half polyester mesh design. On the other hand, the design with the highest Cd of 0.305 involved incorporating a tail chute to decrease fluttering.

Keywords: aerodynamics of banner, banner design, banner towing, drag coefficients of banner, RC aircraft banner

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17481 Psychological Perspectives on Modern Restaurant Interior Design Based on Traditional Elements (Case Study: Interior Design of the Mesineh Restaurant, Tehran, Iran)

Authors: Raheleh Saifiabolhassan

Abstract:

After the post-industrial era, when a wide variety of foods and drinks are readily available everywhere, the motive has shifted from meeting basic nutritional needs to enjoy the eating experience. Today, behavioral environmental studies are an essential branch of science when it comes to understanding, analyzing, and evaluating how humans react to the environment. Similarly, these studies explore customer-influencing factors and the effectiveness of restaurant designs. To facilitate a pleasant dining experience, the authors focused on acoustics, flexibility, and lighting. In this study, 2700 square feet of surface area was used to plan a restaurant (called Mesineh) based on behavioral science, considering many factors related to the interaction between the building and the users, such as flexibility and privacy, acoustics, and light. Environment psychology considerations in architectural design have been lacking for several decades. To fill this gap, the author evaluated environmental psychology standards and applied them to Mesineh's design. A sense of nostalgia will be felt by customers of the Mesineh restaurant thanks to its interior design, which combines historical elements with contemporary elements. Additionally, vernacular Persian architectural elements were incorporated into a modern context to fulfill the behavioral science component of interior design.

Keywords: Mesineh restaurant, interior design, behavioral sciences, environment psychology, traditional persian architecture

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17480 Modeling Studies on the Elevated Temperatures Formability of Tube Ends Using RSM

Authors: M. J. Davidson, N. Selvaraj, L. Venugopal

Abstract:

The elevated temperature forming studies on the expansion of thin walled tubes have been studied in the present work. The influence of process parameters namely the die angle, the die ratio and the operating temperatures on the expansion of tube ends at elevated temperatures is carried out. The range of operating parameters have been identified by perfoming extensive simulation studies. The hot forming parameters have been evaluated for AA2014 alloy for performing the simulation studies. Experimental matrix has been developed from the feasible range got from the simulation results. The design of experiments is used for the optimization of process parameters. Response Surface Method’s (RSM) and Box-Behenken design (BBD) is used for developing the mathematical model for expansion. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to analyze the influence of process parameters on the expansion of tube ends. The effect of various process combinations of expansion are analyzed through graphical representations. The developed model is found to be appropriate as the coefficient of determination value is very high and is equal to 0.9726. The predicted values are found to coincide well with the experimental results, within acceptable error limits.

Keywords: expansion, optimization, Response Surface Method (RSM), ANOVA, bbd, residuals, regression, tube

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17479 Teacher's Gender and Primary School Pupils Achievement in Social Studies and Its Educational Implications on Pupils

Authors: Elizabeth Oyenike Abegunrin

Abstract:

This study is borne out of the dire need to improve the academic achievement of pupils in social studies. The paper attempted to reconcile the lacuna in teacher’s gender and primary school pupils’ achievement. With specific reference to Social Studies classroom, the aim of this study was to detail how pupils’ achievement is a function of the teacher’s gender as well as to establish the link (if any) between teacher’s gender and pupils’ educational achievement. The significance of this was to create gender-template standard for teachers, school owners, administrators and policy makers to follow in the course of engendering pupils’ achievement in Social Studies. By adopting a quasi-experimental research design, a sample of two hundred pupils was selected across five primary schools in Education District I, Lagos State and assigned to experimental and control groups. A 40-item Gender and Social Studies Achievement Test (GSSAT) was used to obtain data from the pupils. Having analyzed the data collected using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC), a reliability of 0.78 was obtained. Result revealed that teacher’s gender (male/female) had no significant effect on pupils’ achievement in Social Studies and that there was significant interaction effect of teacher’s commitment devoid of gender on the general education output of pupils in Social Studies. Taken together, the results revealed that there is a high degree correlation between teacher’s commitment and pupils academic achievement in social studies, and not gender-based. The study recommended that social studies teachers should re-assess their classroom instructional strategies and use more innovative instructional methods and techniques that will give the pupils equal opportunities to excel in social studies, rather than their gender differences.

Keywords: gender, academic achievement, social studies, primary school

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17478 Task Validity in Neuroimaging Studies: Perspectives from Applied Linguistics

Authors: L. Freeborn

Abstract:

Recent years have seen an increasing number of neuroimaging studies related to language learning as imaging techniques such as fMRI and EEG have become more widely accessible to researchers. By using a variety of structural and functional neuroimaging techniques, these studies have already made considerable progress in terms of our understanding of neural networks and processing related to first and second language acquisition. However, the methodological designs employed in neuroimaging studies to test language learning have been questioned by applied linguists working within the field of second language acquisition (SLA). One of the major criticisms is that tasks designed to measure language learning gains rarely have a communicative function, and seldom assess learners’ ability to use the language in authentic situations. This brings the validity of many neuroimaging tasks into question. The fundamental reason why people learn a language is to communicate, and it is well-known that both first and second language proficiency are developed through meaningful social interaction. With this in mind, the SLA field is in agreement that second language acquisition and proficiency should be measured through learners’ ability to communicate in authentic real-life situations. Whilst authenticity is not always possible to achieve in a classroom environment, the importance of task authenticity should be reflected in the design of language assessments, teaching materials, and curricula. Tasks that bear little relation to how language is used in real-life situations can be considered to lack construct validity. This paper first describes the typical tasks used in neuroimaging studies to measure language gains and proficiency, then analyses to what extent these tasks can validly assess these constructs.

Keywords: neuroimaging studies, research design, second language acquisition, task validity

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17477 Flexibility Cost and Its Application for Construction Projects

Authors: Rashmi Shahu

Abstract:

Flexibility is becoming a more widely accepted aspect of project management. Although contingency theory in project management states that the unknowns are controllable, complexity theory believes that the best way to handle the unknowns would be to have a flexible approach rather than rigidity. Designing a flexible system is a method of managing uncertainty. The present research work aims to evaluate flexibility in the initial design phase of projects taking examples of construction projects. Flexibility in the initial design phase is modeled in order to know the advantage in future. The comparison between the extra cost of flexibility in the initial design phase and the discount that can be achieved in future due to this premium will help the developers in making strategic decisions. This research uses a methodology for valuing flexibility by developing a mathematical formula for predicting future saving of cost. Two case studies were considered in this research to validate the mathematical formula. This research explains three case studies of an educational institution 28 years old for explaining the concept and giving benefits of flexible design for modification/renovation work of building.

Keywords: flexibility, future saving, flexibility cost, construction projects

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17476 ΕSW01: A Methodology for Approaching the Design of Interior Spaces

Authors: Eirini Krasaki

Abstract:

This paper addresses the problem of designing spaces in a consistently changing environment. Space is considered as a totality of forces that coexist in the same place. Forces form the identity of space and characterize the entities that coexist within the same totality. Interior space is considered as a totality of forces which develop within an envelope. This research focuses on the formation of the tripole space-forces-totality and studies the relation of this tripole to the interior space. The point of departure for this investigation has been set the historic center of Athens, a city center where the majority of building mass is unused. The objective of the study is to connect the development of interior spaces to the alterations of the conceptions that form the built environment. The research focuses on Evripidou street, an axis around which expand both commercial and residential centers. Along Evripidou street, three case studies elaborate: a) In case study 01, Evripidou street is examined as a megastructure in which totalities of interior spaces develop. b) In case study 02, a particular group of entities (polykatoikia) that expand in Evripidou street is investigated. c) In case study 03, a particular group of entities (apartment) that derives from a specific envelope is investigated. Throughout the studies and comparisons of different scales, a design methodology that addresses the design of interior space in relation to the dynamics of the built environment is evolved.

Keywords: methodology, research by design, interior, envelope, dynamics

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17475 Studying the Influence of Systematic Pre-Occupancy Data Collection through Post-Occupancy Evaluation: A Shift in the Architectural Design Process

Authors: Noor Abdelhamid, Donovan Nelson, Cara Prosser

Abstract:

The architectural design process could be mapped out as a dialogue between designer and user that is constructed across multiple phases with the overarching goal of aligning design outcomes with user needs. Traditionally, this dialogue is bounded within a preliminary phase of determining factors that will direct the design intent, and a completion phase, of handing off the project to the client. Pre- and post-occupancy evaluations (P/POE’s) could provide an alternative process by extending this dialogue on both ends of the design process. The purpose of this research is to study the influence of systematic pre-occupancy data collection in achieving design goals by conducting post-occupancy evaluations of two case studies. In the context of this study, systematic pre-occupancy data collection is defined as the preliminary documentation of the existing conditions that helps portray stakeholders’ needs. When implemented, pre-occupancy occurs during the early phases of the architectural design process, utilizing the information to shape the design intent. Investigative POE’s are performed on two case studies with distinct early design approaches to understand how the current space is impacting user needs, establish design outcomes, and inform future strategies. The first case study underwent systematic pre-occupancy data collection and synthesis, while the other represents the traditional, uncoordinated practice of informally collecting data during an early design phase. POE’s target the dynamics between the building and its occupants by studying how spaces are serving the needs of the users. Data collection for this study consists of user surveys, audiovisual materials, and observations during regular site visits. Mixed methods of qualitative and quantitative analyses are synthesized to identify patterns in the data. The paper concludes by positioning value on both sides of the architectural design process: the integration of systematic pre-occupancy methods in the early phases and the reinforcement of a continued dialogue between building and design team after building completion.

Keywords: architecture, design process, pre-occupancy data, post-occupancy evaluation

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