Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 143

Search results for: alginate beads

143 Effect of Alginate and Surfactant on Physical Properties of Oil Entrapped Alginate Bead Formulation of Curcumin

Authors: Arpa Petchsomrit, Namfa Sermkaew, Ruedeekorn Wiwattanapatapee


Oil entrapped floating alginate beads of curcumin were developed and characterized. Cremophor EL, Cremophor RH and Tween 80 were utilized to improve the solubility of the drug. The oil-loaded floating gel beads prepared by emulsion gelation method contained sodium alginate, mineral oil and surfactant. The drug content and % encapsulation declined as the ratio of surfactant was increased. The release of curcumin from 1% alginate beads was significantly more than for the 2% alginate beads. The drug released from the beads containing 25% of tween 80 was about 70% while a higher drug release was observed with the beads containing Cremophor EL or Cremohor RH (approximately 90%). The developed floating beads of curcumin powder with surfactant provided a superior drug release than those without surfactant. Floating beads based on oil entrapment containing the drug solubilized in surfactants is a new delivery system to enhance the dissolution of poorly soluble drugs.

Keywords: alginate, curcumin, floating drug delivery, oil entrapped bead

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
142 Preparation of Composite Alginate/Perlite Beads for Pb (II) Removal in Aqueous Solution

Authors: Hasan Türe, Kader Terzioglu, Evren Tunca


Contamination of aqueous environment by heavy metal ions is a serious and complex problem, owing to their hazards to human being and ecological systems. The treatment methods utilized for removing metal ions from aqueous solution include membrane separation, ion exchange and chemical precipitation. However, these methods are limited by high operational cost. Recently, biobased beads are considered as promising biosorbent to remove heavy metal ions from water. The aim of present study was to characterize the alginate/perlite composite beads and to investigate the adsorption performance of obtained beads for removing Pb (II) from aqueous solution. Alginate beads were synthesized by ionic gelation methods and different amount of perlite (aljinate:perlite=1, 2, 3, 4, 5 wt./wt.) was incorporated into alginate beads. Samples were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of perlite level, the initial concentration of Pb (II), initial pH value of Pb(II) solution and effect of contact time on the adsorption capacity of beads were investigated by using batch method. XRD analysis indicated that perlite includes silicon or silicon and aluminum bearing crystalline phase. The diffraction pattern of perlite containing beads is similar to that of that perlite powder with reduced intensity. SEM analysis revealed that perlite was embedded into alginate polymer and SEM-EDX (Energy-Dispersive X-ray) showed that composite beads (aljinate:perlite=1) composed of C (41.93 wt.%,), O (43.64 wt.%), Na (10.20 wt.%), Al (0.74 wt.%), Si (2.72 wt.%) ve K (0.77 wt.%). According to TGA analysis, incorporation of perlite into beads significantly improved the thermal stability of the samples. Batch experiment indicated that optimum pH value for Pb (II) adsorption was found at pH=7 with 1 hour contact time. It was also found that the adsorption capacity of beads decreased with increases in perlite concentration. The results implied that alginate/perlite composite beads could be used as promising adsorbents for the removal of Pb (II) from wastewater. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by TUBITAK (Project No: 214Z146).

Keywords: alginate, adsorption, beads, perlite

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
141 Pectin Degrading Enzyme: Entrapment of Pectinase Using Different Synthetic and Non-Synthetic Polymers for Continuous Degradation of Pectin Polymer

Authors: Haneef Ur Rehman, Afsheen Aman, Abdul Hameed Baloch, Shah Ali Ul Qader


Pectinase is a heterogeneous group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of pectin substances and widely has been used in food and textile industries. In current study, pectinase from B. licheniformis KIBGE-IB21 was immobilized within different polymers (calcium alginate beads, polyacrylamide gel and agar-agar matrix) to enhance its catalytic properties. Polyacrylamide gel was found to be most promising one and gave maximum (89%) immobilization yield. While less immobilization yield was observed in case of calcium alginate beads that only retained 46 % activity. The reaction time for maximum pectinolytic activity was increased from 5.0 to 10 minutes after immobilization. The temperature of pectinase for maximum enzyme activity was increased from 45 °C to 50 °C and 55 °C when it was immobilized within agar-agar and calcium alginate beads, respectively. The optimum pH of pectinase didn’t alter when it was immobilized within polyacrylamide gel and calcium alginate beads, but in case of agar-agar it was changed from pH 10 to pH 9.0. Thermal stability of pectinase was improved after immobilization and immobilized pectinase showed higher toleration against different temperatures as compared to free enzyme. It can be concluded that the entrapment is a simple, single step and promising procedure to immobilized pectinase within different synthetic and non-synthetic polymers and enhanced its catalytic properties.

Keywords: pectinase, characterization immobilization, polyacrylamide, agar-agar, calcium alginate beads

Procedia PDF Downloads 508
140 Magnetic Biomaterials for Removing Organic Pollutants from Wastewater

Authors: L. Obeid, A. Bee, D. Talbot, S. Abramson, M. Welschbillig


The adsorption process is one of the most efficient methods to remove pollutants from wastewater provided that suitable adsorbents are used. In order to produce environmentally safe adsorbents, natural polymers have received increasing attention in recent years. Thus, alginate and chitosane are extensively used as inexpensive, non-toxic and efficient biosorbents. Alginate is an anionic polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweeds. Chitosan is an amino-polysaccharide; this cationic polymer is obtained by deacetylation of chitin the major constituent of crustaceans. Furthermore, it has been shown that the encapsulation of magnetic materials in alginate and chitosan beads facilitates their recovery from wastewater after the adsorption step, by the use of an external magnetic field gradient, obtained with a magnet or an electromagnet. In the present work, we have studied the adsorption affinity of magnetic alginate beads and magnetic chitosan beads (called magsorbents) for methyl orange (MO) (an anionic dye), methylene blue (MB) (a cationic dye) and p-nitrophenol (PNP) (a hydrophobic pollutant). The effect of different parameters (pH solution, contact time, pollutant initial concentration…) on the adsorption of pollutant on the magnetic beads was investigated. The adsorption of anionic and cationic pollutants is mainly due to electrostatic interactions. Consequently methyl orange is highly adsorbed by chitosan beads in acidic medium and methylene blue by alginate beads in basic medium. In the case of a hydrophobic pollutant, which is weakly adsorbed, we have shown that the adsorption is enhanced by adding a surfactant. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), a cationic surfactant, was used to increase the adsorption of PNP by magnetic alginate beads. Adsorption of CPC by alginate beads occurs through two mechanisms: (i) electrostatic attractions between cationic head groups of CPC and negative carboxylate functions of alginate; (ii) interaction between the hydrocarbon chains of CPC. The hydrophobic pollutant is adsolubilized within the surface aggregated structures of surfactant. Figure c shows that PNP can reach up to 95% of adsorption in presence of CPC. At highest CPC concentrations, desorption occurs due to the formation of micelles in the solution. Our magsorbents appear to efficiently remove ionic and hydrophobic pollutants and we hope that this fundamental research will be helpful for the future development of magnetically assisted processes in water treatment plants.

Keywords: adsorption, alginate, chitosan, magsorbent, magnetic, organic pollutant

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
139 Hydrogels Beads of Alginate/Seaweed Powder for Plants Nutrition

Authors: Brenda O. Mazzola, Adriel Larsen, Romina P. Ollier, Leandro N. Ludueña, Vera A. Alvarez, Jimena S. Gonzalez


Seaweed is a natural renewable resource with great potential that is not being used by the domestic industry. Here, it was used a kind of invasive algae U. Pinnatifida that causes serious ecological damage on the Argentinian coasts. Alginate is one of the most widely used materials for encapsulation, and has the advantage that is a natural polysaccharide derived from a marine plant. It can form thermally stable hydrogel in the presence of calcium cation. In addition, the hydrogel can be easily produced into particulate form by using simple and gentle method. The aim of this work was to obtain and to characterize novel compounds (alginate/seaweed powder) for the soil nutrition. Alginate water solutions were prepared by concentrations of 20, 30, 40 and 50 g/L, in those solutions 10g/L of seaweed powder was added. Then the dispersions were transferred from a beaker to the atomizer by a peristaltic pump (with 0.05 to 0.1 L/h flow). A tank was filled with 1 L of calcium chloride solution (4 g/L), and the solution was agitated with a magnetic stirrer. The beads were analyzed by means TGA, FTIR and swelling determinations. In addition, the improvements in the soil were qualitative measured. It was obtained beads with different diameters depend on the initial concentration and the flow used. A better dispersions of seaweed and optimal diameter for the plant nutrition applications were obtained for 40g/L concentration and 0.1 L/h flow. The beads show thermal stability and high swelling degree. It can be successfully obtained alginate beads with seaweed powder with a novelty application as plant nutrient.

Keywords: biodegradable, characterization, hydrogel, plant nutrition, seaweed

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
138 Adsorptive Removal of Cd(II) Ions from Aqueous Systems by Wood Ash-Alginate Composite Beads

Authors: Tichaona Nharingo, Hope Tauya, Mambo Moyo


Wood ash has been demonstrated to have favourable adsorption capacity for heavy metal ions but suffers the application problem of difficult to separate/isolate from the batch adsorption systems. Fabrication of wood ash beads using multifunctional group and non-toxic carbohydrate, alginate, may improve the applicability of wood ash in environmental pollutant remediation. In this work, alginate-wood ash beads (AWAB) were fabricated and applied to the removal of cadmium ions from aqueous systems. The beads were characterized by FTIR, TGA/DSC, SEM-EDX and their pHZPC before and after the adsorption of Cd(II) ions. Important adsorption parameters i.e. pH, AWAB dosage, contact time and ionic strength were optimized and the effect of initial concentration of Cd(II) ions to the adsorption process was established. Adsorption kinetics, adsorption isotherms, adsorption mechanism and application of AWAB to real water samples spiked with Cd(II) ions were ascertained. The composite adsorbent was characterized by a heterogeneous macro pore surface comprising of metal oxides, multiple hydroxyl groups and carbonyl groups that were involved in electrostatic interaction and Lewis acid-base interactions with the Cd(II) ions. The pseudo second order and the Freundlich isotherm models best fitted the adsorption kinetics and isotherm data respectively suggesting chemical sorption process and surface heterogeneity. The presence of Pb(II) ions inhibited the adsorption of Cd(II) ions (reduced by 40 %) attributed to the competition for the adsorption sites. The Cd(II) loaded beads could be regenerated using 0.1 M HCl and could be applied to four sorption-desorption cycles without significant loss in its initial adsorption capacity. The high maximum adsorption capacity, stability, selectivity and reusability of AWAB make the adsorbent ideal for application in the removal of Cd(II) ions from real water samples. Column type adsorption experiments need to be explored to establish the potential of the adsorbent in removing Cd(II) ions using continuous flow systems.

Keywords: adsorption, Cd(II) ions, regeneration, wastewater, wood ash-alginate beads

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
137 Adsorption of Reactive Dye Using Entrapped nZVI

Authors: P. Gomathi Priya, M. E. Thenmozhi


Iron nanoparticles were used to cleanup effluents. This paper involves synthesis of iron nanoparticles chemically by sodium borohydride reduction of ammonium ferrous sulfate solution (FAS). Iron oxide nanoparticles have lesser efficiency of adsorption than Zero Valent Iron nanoparticles (nZVI). Glucosamine acts as a stabilizing agent and chelating agent to prevent Iron nanoparticles from oxidation. nZVI particles were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Thus, the synthesized nZVI was subjected to entrapment in biopolymer, viz. barium (Ba)-alginate beads. The beads were characterized using SEM. Batch dye degradation studies were conducted using Reactive black Water soluble Nontoxic Natural substances (WNN) dye which is one of the most hazardous dyes used in textile industries. Effect of contact time, effect of pH, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage, isotherm and kinetic studies were carried out.

Keywords: ammonium ferrous sulfate solution, barium, alginate beads, reactive black WNN dye, zero valent iron nanoparticles

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
136 The Effect of Cassava Starch on Compressive Strength and Tear Strength of Alginate Impression Material

Authors: Mirna Febriani


Statement of problem. Alginate impression material is an imported material and a dentist always used this material to make impression of teeth and oral cavity tissues. Purpose. The aim of this study was to compare about compressive strength and tear strength of alginate impression material and alginate impression material combined with cassava. Material and methods.Property measured included compressive strength and tear strength. Results.The compressive strength and tear strength of the impression materials tested of a comparable ANSI/ADA standard no.18.The compressive strength and tear strength alginate impression material combined with cassava have lower than the compressive strength and tear strength alginate impression material. The alginate impression material combined with cassava has more water and silica content more decrease than alginate impression material. Conclusions.We concluded that compressive strength and tear strength of alginate impression material combined with cassava has lower than alginate impression material without cassava starch.

Keywords: compressive strength, tear strength, Cassava starch, alginate

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
135 [Keynote Talk]: Uptake of Co(II) Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Low-Cost Biopolymers and Their Hybrid

Authors: Kateryna Zhdanova, Evelyn Szeinbaum, Michelle Lo, Yeonjae Jo, Abel E. Navarro


Alginate hydrogel beads (AB), spent peppermint leaf (PM), and a hybrid adsorbent of these two materials (ABPM) were studied as potential biosorbents of Cobalt (II) ions from aqueous solutions. Cobalt ion is a commonly underestimated pollutant that is responsible for several health problems. Discontinuous batch experiments were conducted at room temperature to evaluate the effect of solution acidity, mass of adsorbent on the adsorption of Co(II) ions. The interfering effect of salinity, the presence of surfactants, an organic dye, and Pb(II) ions were also studied to resemble the application of these adsorbents in real wastewater. Equilibrium results indicate that Co(II) uptake is maximized at pH values higher than 5, with adsorbent doses of 200 mg, 200 mg, and 120 mg for AB, PM, and ABPM, respectively. Co(II) adsorption followed the trend AB > ABPM > PM with Adsorption percentages of 77%, 71% and 64%, respectively. Salts had a strong negative effect on the adsorption due to the increase of the ionic strength and the competition for adsorption sites. The presence of Pb(II) ions, surfactant, and dye BY57 had a slightly negative effect on the adsorption, apparently due to their interaction with different adsorption sites that do not interfere with the removal of Co(II). A polar-electrostatic adsorption mechanism is proposed based on the experimental results. Scanning electron microscopy indicates that adsorbent has appropriate morphological and textural properties, and also that ABPM encapsulated most of the PM inside of the hydrogel beads. These experimental results revealed that AB, PM, and ABPM are promising adsorbents for the elimination of Co(II) ions from aqueous solutions under different experimental conditions. These biopolymers are proposed as eco-friendly alternatives for the removal of heavy metal ions at lower costs than the conventional techniques.

Keywords: adsorption, Co(II) ions, alginate hydrogel beads, spent peppermint leaf, pH

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134 The Study of Chitosan beads Adsorption Properties for the Removal of Heavy Metals

Authors: Peter O. Osifo, Hein W. J. P. Neomagus


In this study, a predicted pH model was used to determine adsorption equilibrium properties of copper, lead, zinc and cadmium. Chitosan was prepared from the exoskeleton of Cape rock-lobsters, collected from the surroundings of Cape Town, South Africa. The beads were cross-linked with gluteraldehyde to restore its chemical stability in acid media. The chitosan beads were characterized; the beads water contents and pKa varied in the range of 90-96% and 4.3-6.0 respectively and the degree of crosslinking for the beads was 18%. A pH-model, which described the reversibility of the metal adsorbed onto the beads, was used to predict the equilibrium properties of copper, lead, zinc and cadmium adsorption onto the cross-linked beads. The model accounts for the effect of pH and the important model parameters; the equilibrium adsorption constant (Kads) and to a lesser extent the adsorbent adsorption capacity (qmax). The adsorption equilibrium constant for copper, lead, zinc and cadmium were found to be 2.58×10-3, 2.22×0-3, 9.55×0-3, and 4.79×0-3, respectively. The adsorbent maximum capacity was determined to be 4.2 mmol/g.

Keywords: chitosan beads, adsorption, heavy metals, waste water

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133 Polymerization: An Alternative Technology for Heavy Metal Removal

Authors: M. S. Mahmoud


In this paper, the adsorption performance of a novel environmental friendly material, calcium alginate gel beads as a non-conventional technique for the successful removal of copper ions from aqueous solution are reported on. Batch equilibrium studies were carried out to evaluate the adsorption capacity and process parameters such as pH, adsorbent dosages, initial metal ion concentrations, stirring rates and contact times. It was observed that the optimum pH for maximum copper ions adsorption was at pH 5.0. For all contact times, an increase in copper ions concentration resulted in decrease in the percent of copper ions removal. Langmuir and Freundlich's isothermal models were used to describe the experimental adsorption. Adsorbent was characterization using Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

Keywords: adsorption, alginate polymer, isothermal models, equilibrium

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
132 Improving Alginate Bioink by Recombinant Spider-Silk Biopolymer

Authors: Dean Robinson, Miriam Gublebank, Ella Sklan, Tali Tavor Re'em


Alginate, a natural linear polysaccharide polymer extracted from brown seaweed, is extensively applied due to its biocompatibility, all- aqueous ease of handling, and relatively low costs. Alginate easily forms a hydrogel when crosslinked with a divalent ion, such as calcium. However, Alginate hydrogel holds low mechanical properties and is cell-inert. To overcome these drawbacks and to improve alginate as a bio-ink for bioprinting, we produced a new alginate matrix combined with spider silk, one of the most resilient, elastic, strong materials known to men. Recombinant spider silk biopolymer has a sponge-like structure and is known to be biocompatible and non-immunogenic. Our results indicated that combining synthetic spider-silk into bio-printed cell-seeded alginate hydrogels resulted in improved properties compared to alginate: improved mechanical properties of the matrix, achieving a tunable gel viscosity and high printability, alongside prolonged and higher cell viability in culture, probably due to the improved cell-matrix interactions. The new bio-ink was then used for bilayer bioprinting of epithelial and stromal endometrial cells. Such a co-culture model will be used for the formation of the complex endometrial tissue for studying the embryo implantation process.

Keywords: cell culture, tissue engineering, spider silk, alginate, bioprinting

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131 Preparation and Characterizations of Hydroxyapatite-Sodium Alginate Nanocomposites for Biomedical Applications

Authors: Friday Godwin Okibe, Christian Chinweuba Onoyima, Edith Bolanle Agbaji, Victor Olatunji Ajibola


Polymer-inorganic nanocomposites are presently impacting diverse areas, specifically in biomedical sciences. In this research, hydroxyapatite-sodium alginate has been prepared, and characterized, with emphasis on the influence of sodium alginate on its characteristics. In situ wet chemical precipitation method was used in the preparation. The prepared nanocomposite was characterized with Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), with image analysis, and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The FTIR study shows peaks characteristics of hydroxyapatite and confirmed formation of the nanocomposite via chemical interaction between sodium alginate and hydroxyapatite. Image analysis shows the nanocomposites to be of irregular morphologies which did not show significant change with increasing sodium alginate addition, while particle size decreased with increase in sodium alginate addition (359.46 nm to 109.98 nm). From the XRD data, both the crystallite size and degree of crystallinity also decreased with increasing sodium alginate composition (32.36 nm to 9.47 nm and 72.87% to 1.82% respectively), while the specific surface area and microstrain increased with increasing sodium alginate composition (0.0041 to 0.0139 and 58.99 m²/g to 201.58 m²/g respectively). The results show that the formulation with 50%wt of sodium alginate (HASA-50%wt), possess exceptional characteristics for biomedical applications such as drug delivery.

Keywords: nanocomposite, sodium alginate, hydroxyapatite, biomedical, FTIR, XRD, SEM

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130 The Influence of Alginate Microspheres Modified with DAT on the Proliferation and Adipogenic Differentiation of ASCs

Authors: Shin-Yi Mao, Jiashing Yu


Decellularized adipose tissue (DAT) has received lots of attention as biological scaffolds recently. DAT that extracted from the extracellular matrix (ECM) of adipose tissues holds great promise as a xenogeneic biomaterial for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In our study, 2-D DATsol film was fabricated to enhance cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation of ASCs in vitro. DAT was also used to modify alginate for improvement of cell adhesion. Alginate microspheres modified with DAT were prepared by Nisco. These microspheres could provide a highly supportive 3-D environment for ASCs. In our works, ASCs were immobilized in alginate microspheres modified with DAT to promoted cell adhesion and adipogenic differentiation. Accordingly, we hypothesize that tissue regeneration in vivo could be promoted with the aid of modified microspheres in future.

Keywords: adipose stem cells, decellularize adipose tissue, Alginate, microcarries

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129 Synthesis of Magnetic Chitosan Beads and Its Cross-Linked Derivatives for Sorption of Zinc Ions from Water Samples of Yamuna and Hindon Rivers in India

Authors: Priti Rani, Rajni Johar, P. S. Jassal


The magnetic chitosan beads (MCB) were synthesized using co-precipitation method and made to react with epichlorohydrin (ECH) to get the cross-linked derivative (ECH-MCB). The beads were characterized by FTIR, SEM, EDX, and TGA. It is found that zinc metal ion sorption efficiency of ECH-MCB is significantly higher than MCB. Various factors affecting the uptake behavior of metal ions, such as pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time, and temperature effects, were investigated. The adsorption parameters fitted well with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The equilibrium parameter RL values support that the adsorption (0 < RL < 1) is favorable and spontaneous process. The thermodynamic parameters confirm that it is an endothermic reaction, which results in an increase in the randomness of adsorption process. The beads were regenerated using ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) for further use. These beads prove as promising materials for the removal of pollutants from industrial wastewater. Water samples from Yamuna and Hindon rivers were analysed for the detection of Zn (II) ions.

Keywords: chitosan magnetic beads, EDTA, epichlorohydrin, removal efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
128 Novel IPN Hydrogel Beads as pH Sensitive Drug Delivery System for an Anti-Ulcer Drug

Authors: Vishal Kumar Gupta


Purpose: This study has been undertaken to develop novel pH sensitive interpenetrating network hydrogel beads. Methods: The pH sensitive PAAM-g-Guar gum copolymer was synthesized by free radical polymerization followed by alkaline hydrolysis. Beads of guar gum-grafted-polyacrylamide and sodium Carboxy methyl cellulose (Na CMC) loaded with Pantoprazole sodium were prepared and evaluated for pH sensitivity, swelling properties, drug entrapment efficiency and in vitro drug release characteristics. Seven formulations were prepared for the drug with varying polymer and cross linker concentrations. Results: The grafting and alkaline hydrolysis reactions were confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy. Differential scanning calorimetry was carried out to know the compatibility of encapsulated drug with the polymers. Scanning electron microscopic study revealed that the IPN beads were spherical. The entrapment efficiency was found to be in the range of 85-92%. Particle size analysis was carried out by optical microscopy. As the pH of the medium was changed from 1.2 to 7.4, a considerable increase in swelling was observed for all beads. Increase in the copolymer concentration showed sustained the drug release up to 12 hrs. Drug release from the beads followed super case II transport mechanism. Conclusion: It was concluded that guar gum-acrylamide beads, cross-linked with aluminum chloride offer an opportunity for controlled drug release of pantoprazole sodium.

Keywords: IPN, hydrogels, DSC, SEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
127 Orthophthalic Polyester Composite Reinforced with Sodium Alginate-Treated Anahaw (Saribus rotundifolius) Fibers

Authors: Terence Tumolva, Johannes Kristoff Vito, Joanna Crystelle Ragasa, Renz Marion Dela Cruz


Natural fiber reinforced polymer (NFRP) composites have been the focus of various research projects due to their advantages over synthetic fiber-reinforced composites. For this study, ana haw is used as the fiber source due to its abundance throughout the Philippines. A problem addressed in this study is the need for an environment-friendly method of fiber treatment. The use of sodium alginate to treat fibers was thus investigated. The fibers were immersed in a sodium alginate solution and then in a calcium chloride solution afterwards. The treated fibers were used to reinforce orthophthalic unsaturated polyester (ortho-UP) resin. The mechanical properties were tested using a universal testing machine (UTM), and the fracture surfaces were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results showed that the sodium alginate treatment had increased the tensile and flexural strength of the composite. The increase in fiber load had also been found to increase the stiffness of the composite. However, sodium alginate treatment did not provide any significant improvement in the wet mechanical properties of the NFRP. The composite is comparable to some commercially available polymeric materials.

Keywords: NFRP, composite, alginate, anahaw, polymer

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
126 Cd2+ Ions Removal from Aqueous Solutions Using Alginite

Authors: Vladimír Frišták, Martin Pipíška, Juraj Lesný


Alginate has been evaluated as an efficient pollution control material. In this paper, alginate from maar Pinciná (SR) for removal of Cd2+ ions from aqueous solution was studied. The potential sorbent was characterized by X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (RFA) analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectral Analysis (FT-IR) and Specific Surface Area (SSA) was also determined. The sorption process was optimized from the point of initial cadmium concentration effect and effect of pH value. The Freundlich and Langmuir models were used to interpret the sorption behaviour of Cd2+ ions, and the results showed that experimental data were well fitted by the Langmuir equation. Alginate maximal sorption capacity (QMAX) for Cd2+ ions calculated from Langmuir isotherm was 34 mg/g. Sorption process was significantly affected by initial pH value in the range from 4.0-7.0. Alginate is a comparable sorbent with other materials for toxic metals removal.

Keywords: alginates, Cd2+, sorption, QMAX

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
125 Surfactant-Modified Chitosan Beads: An Efficient and Cost Effective Material for Adsorptive Removal of Lead from Aqueous Solutions

Authors: Preeti Pal, Anjali Pal


Chitosan is an effective sorbent for removal of contaminants from wastewater. However, the ability of pure chitosan is specific because of its cationic charge. It causes repulsion in the removal process of various cationic charged molecules. The present study has been carried out for the successful removal of Pb²⁺ ions from aqueous solution by modified chitosan beads. Surface modification of chitosan (CS) beads was performed by using the anionic surfactant (AS), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Micelle aggregation property of SDS has been utilized for the formation of bilayer over the CS beads to produce surfactant modified chitosan (SMCS) beads. Prepared adsorbents were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in order to find out their composition and surface morphology. SMCS beads, when compared to the pure CS beads, showed three times higher adsorption. This higher adsorption is believed to be due to the adsolubilization of Pb²⁺ ions on SDS bilayer. This bilayer provides more adsorption sites for quick and effective removal of Pb²⁺ ions from the aqueous phase. Moreover, the kinetic and adsorption isotherm models were employed to the obtained data for the description of the lead adsorption processes. It was found that the removal kinetics follows pseudo-second order model. Adsorption isotherm data fits well to the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained is 100 mg/g at the dosage of 0.675 g/L for 50 mg/L of Pb²⁺. The adsorption capacity is subject to increase with increasing the Pb²⁺ ions concentration in the solution. The results indicated that the prepared hydrogel beads are efficient adsorbent for removal of Pb²⁺ ions from the aqueous medium.

Keywords: adsolubilisation, anionic surfactant, bilayer, chitosan, Pb²⁺

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
124 Comparison between Simulation and Experimentally Observed Interactions between Two Different Sized Magnetic Beads in a Fluidic System

Authors: Olayinka Oduwole, Steve Sheard


The magnetic separation of biological cells using super-magnetic beads has been used widely for various bioassays. These bioassays can further be integrated with other laboratory components to form a biosensor which can be used for cell sorting, mixing, purification, transport, manipulation etc. These bio-sensing applications have also been facilitated by the wide availability of magnetic beads which range in size and magnetic properties produced by different manufacturers. In order to improve the efficiency and separation capabilities of these biosensors, it is important to determine the magnetic force induced velocities and interaction of beads within the magnetic field; this will help biosensor users choose the desired magnetic bead for their specific application. This study presents for the first time the interaction between a pair of different sized super-paramagnetic beads suspended in a static fluid moving within a uniform magnetic field using a modified finite-time-finite-difference scheme. A captured video was used to record the trajectory pattern and a good agreement was obtained between the simulated trajectories and the video data. The model is, therefore, a good approximation for predicting the velocities as well as the interaction between various magnetic particles which differ in size and magnetic properties for bio-sensing applications requiring a low concentration of magnetic beads.

Keywords: biosensor, magnetic field, magnetic separation, super-paramagnetic bead

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
123 Retro-Reflectivity and Diffuse Reflectivity Degradation of Thermoplastic Pavement Marking: A Case Study on Asphaltic Road in Thailand

Authors: Kittichai Thanasupsin, Satis Sukniam


Pavement marking is an essential task of road construction and maintenance. One of several benefits of pavement markings has been used to provide information about road alignment and road conditions ahead. In some cases, retro-reflectivity of road marking at night may not meet the standard. This degradation may be caused by internal factors such as the size of glass beads and the number of glass beads or external factors such as traffic volume, lane width, vehicle weight, and so on. This research aims to investigate the reflective efficiency of thermoplastic road marking with the glass beads. Ratios of glass beads, ranging from 359 to 553 grams per square meter on an asphaltic concrete, have been tested. The reflective efficiency data was collected at the beginning and at a specific time interval for a total of 8 months. It was found that the difference in glass beads quantity affects the rate of retro-reflectivity but does not affect the diffuse reflectivity. It was also found that other factors affect retro-reflectivity, such as duration, the position of road marking, traffic density, the quantity of glass beads, and dirt coating on top. The dirt coating on top is the most crucial factor that deteriorating retro-reflectivity.

Keywords: thermoplastic pavement marking, retro-reflectivity, diffuse reflectivity, asphalt concrete

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
122 Preparation, Characterization, and in-Vitro Drug Release Study of Methotrexate-Loaded Hydroxyapatite-Sodium Alginate Nanocomposites

Authors: Friday G. Okibe, Edit B. Agbaji, Victor O. Ajibola, Christain C. Onoyima


Controlled drug delivery systems reduce dose-dependent toxicity associated with potent drugs, including anticancer drugs. In this research, hydroxyapatite (HA) and hydroxyapatite-sodium alginate nanocomposites (HASA) were successfully prepared and characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The FTIR result showed absorption peaks characteristics of pure hydroxyapatite (HA), and also confirmed the chemical interaction between hydroxyapatite and sodium alginate in the formation of the composite. Image analysis from SEM revealed nano-sized hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite-sodium alginate nanocomposites with irregular morphologies. Particle size increased with the formation of the nanocomposites relative to pure hydroxyapatite, with no significant change in particles morphologies. Drug loading and in-vitro drug release study were carried out using synthetic body fluid as the release medium, at pH 7.4 and 37 °C and under perfect sink conditions. The result shows that drug loading is highest for pure hydroxyapatite and decreased with increasing quantity of sodium alginate. However, the release study revealed that HASA-5%wt and HASA-20%wt presented better release profile than pure hydroxyapatite, while HASA-33%wt and HASA-50%wt have poor release profiles. This shows that Methotrexate-loaded hydroxyapatite-sodium alginate if prepared under optimal conditions is a potential carrier for effective delivery of Methotrexate.

Keywords: drug-delivery, hydroxyapatite, methotrexate, nanocomposites, sodium alginate

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
121 Adsorptive Media Selection for Bilirubin Removal: An Adsorption Equilibrium Study

Authors: Vincenzo Piemonte


The liver is a complex, large-scale biochemical reactor which plays a unique role in the human physiology. When liver ceases to perform its physiological activity, a functional replacement is required. Actually, liver transplantation is the only clinically effective method of treating severe liver disease. Anyway, the aforementioned therapeutic approach is hampered by the disparity between organ availability and the number of patients on the waiting list. In order to overcome this critical issue, research activities focused on liver support device systems (LSDs) designed to bridging patients to transplantation or to keep them alive until the recovery of native liver function. In recirculating albumin dialysis devices, such as MARS (Molecular Adsorbed Recirculating System), adsorption is one of the fundamental steps in albumin-dialysate regeneration. Among the albumin-bound toxins that must be removed from blood during liver-failure therapy, bilirubin and tryptophan can be considered as representative of two different toxin classes. The first one, not water soluble at physiological blood pH and strongly bounded to albumin, the second one, loosely albumin bound and partially water soluble at pH 7.4. Fixed bed units are normally used for this task, and the design of such units requires information both on toxin adsorption equilibrium and kinetics. The most common adsorptive media used in LSDs are activated carbon, non-ionic polymeric resins and anionic resins. In this paper, bilirubin adsorption isotherms on different adsorptive media, such as polymeric resin, albumin-coated resin, anionic resin, activated carbon and alginate beads with entrapped albumin are presented. By comparing all the results, it can be stated that the adsorption capacity for bilirubin of the five different media increases in the following order: Alginate beads < Polymeric resin < Albumin-coated resin < Activated carbon < Anionic resin. The main focus of this paper is to provide useful guidelines for the optimization of liver support devices which implement adsorption columns to remove albumin-bound toxins from albumin dialysate solutions.

Keywords: adsorptive media, adsorption equilibrium, artificial liver devices, bilirubin, mathematical modelling

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120 Removal of Pb(II) Ions from Wastewater Using Magnetic Chitosan–Ethylene Glycol Diglycidyl Ether Beads as Adsorbent

Authors: Pyar Singh Jassal, Priti Rani, Rajni Johar


The adsorption of Pb(II) ions from wastewater using ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether cross-linked magnetic chitosan beads (EGDE-MCB) was carried out by considering a number of parameters. The removal efficiency of the metal ion by magnetic chitosan beads (MCB) and its cross-linked derivatives depended on viz contact time, dose of the adsorbent, pH, temperature, etc. The concentration of Cd( II) at different time intervals was estimated by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPSAV) using 797 voltametric analyzer computrace. The adsorption data could be well interpreted by Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption model. The equilibrium parameter, RL values, support that the adsorption (0Keywords: magnetic chitosan beads, ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether, equilibrium parameters, desorption

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119 Visual Detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) through Formation of Beads Aggregation in Capillary Tube by Rolling Circle Amplification

Authors: Bo Ram Choi, Ji Su Kim, Juyeon Cho, Hyukjin Lee


Food contaminated by bacteria (E.coli), causes food poisoning, which occurs to many patients worldwide annually. We have introduced an application of rolling circle amplification (RCA) as a versatile biosensor and developed a diagnostic platform composed of capillary tube and microbeads for rapid and easy detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli). When specific mRNA of E.coli is extracted from cell lysis, rolling circle amplification (RCA) of DNA template can be achieved and can be visualized by beads aggregation in capillary tube. In contrast, if there is no bacterial pathogen in sample, no beads aggregation can be seen. This assay is possible to detect visually target gene without specific equipment. It is likely to the development of a genetic kit for point of care testing (POCT) that can detect target gene using microbeads.

Keywords: rolling circle amplification (RCA), Escherichia coli (E. coli), point of care testing (POCT), beads aggregation, capillary tube

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118 Removal of Acetaminophen with Chitosan-Nano Activated Carbon Beads from Aqueous Sources

Authors: Parisa Amouzgar, Chan Eng Seng, Babak Salamatinia


Pharmaceutical products are being increasingly detected in the environment. However, conventional treatment systems do not provide an adequate treatment for pharmaceutical drug elimination and still there is not a regulated standard for their limitation in water. Since decades before, pharmaceuticals have been in the water but only recently, their levels in the environment have been recognized and quantified as potentially hazardous to ecosystems. In this study chitosan with a bio-based NAC (Ct-NAC) were made as beads with extrusion dripping method and investigated for acetaminophen removal from water. The effects of beading parameters such as flow rate in dripping, the distance from dipping tip to the solution surface, concentration of chitosan and percentage of NAC were analyzed to find the optimum condition. Based on the results, the overall adsorption rate and removal efficiency increased during the time till the equilibrium rate which was 80% removal of acetaminophen. The maximum adsorption belonged to the beads with 1.75% chitosan, 60% NAC, flow-rate of 1.5 ml/min while the distance of dripping was 22.5 cm.

Keywords: pharmaceuticals, water treatment, chitosan nano activated carbon beads, Acetaminophen

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117 Nanoparticle-Based Histidine-Rich Protein-2 Assay for the Detection of the Malaria Parasite Plasmodium Falciparum

Authors: Yagahira E. Castro-Sesquen, Chloe Kim, Robert H. Gilman, David J. Sullivan, Peter C. Searson


Diagnosis of severe malaria is particularly important in highly endemic regions since most patients are positive for parasitemia and treatment differs from non-severe malaria. Diagnosis can be challenging due to the prevalence of diseases with similar symptoms. Accurate diagnosis is increasingly important to avoid overprescribing antimalarial drugs, minimize drug resistance, and minimize costs. A nanoparticle-based assay for detection and quantification of Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) in urine and serum is reported. The assay uses magnetic beads conjugated with anti-HRP2 antibody for protein capture and concentration, and antibody-conjugated quantum dots for optical detection. Western Blot analysis demonstrated that magnetic beads allows the concentration of HRP2 protein in urine by 20-fold. The concentration effect was achieved because large volume of urine can be incubated with beads, and magnetic separation can be easily performed in minutes to isolate beads containing HRP2 protein. Magnetic beads and Quantum Dots 525 conjugated to anti-HRP2 antibodies allows the detection of low concentration of HRP2 protein (0.5 ng mL-1), and quantification in the range of 33 to 2,000 ng mL-1 corresponding to the range associated with non-severe to severe malaria. This assay can be easily adapted to a non-invasive point-of-care test for classification of severe malaria.

Keywords: HRP2 protein, malaria, magnetic beads, Quantum dots

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116 Preparation of Bead-On-String Alginate/Soy Protein Isolated Nanofibers via Water-Based Electrospinning and Its Application for Drug Loading

Authors: Patcharakamon Nooeaid, Piyachat Chuysrinuan


Electrospun natural polymers-based nanofibers are one of the most interesting materials used in tissue engineering and drug delivery applications. Bead-on-string nanofibers have gained considerable interest for sustained drug release. Vancomycin was used as the model drug and sodium alginate (SA)/soy protein isolated (SPI) as the polymer blend to fabricate the bead-on-string nanofibers by aqueous-based electrospinning. The bead-on-string SA/SPI nanofibers were successfully fabricated by the addition of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) as a co-blending polymer. SA-PEO with mass ratio of 70/30 showed the best spinnability with continuous nanofibers without the occurrence of beads. Bead structure formed with the addition of SPI and bead number increased with increasing SPI content. The electrospinning of 80/20 SA-PEO/SPI was obtained as a great promising bead-on-string nanofibers for drug loading, while the solution of 50/50 was not able to obtain continuous fibers. In vitro release tests showed that a more sustainable release profile up to 14 days with less initial burst release on day 1 could be obtained from the bead-on-string fibers than from smooth fibers with uniform diameter. In addition, vancomycin-loaded beaded fibers inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) bacteria. Therefore, the SA-PEO/SPI nanofibers showed the potential to be used as biomaterials for tissue engineering and drug delivery.

Keywords: bead-on-string fibers, electrospinning, drug delivery, tissue engineering

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115 Use of Yeast-Chitosan Bio-Microcapsules with Ultrafiltration Membrane to Remove Ammonia Nitrogen and Organic Matter in Raw Water

Authors: Chao Ding, Jun Shi, Huiping Deng


This study reports the preparation of a new type yeast-chitosan bio-microcapsule coating sodium alginate and chitosan, with good biocompatibility and mechanical strength. Focusing on the optimum preparation conditions of bio-microcapsule, a dynamic test of yeast-chitosan bio-microcapsule combined with ultrafiltration membrane was established to evaluate both the removal efficiency of major pollutants from raw water and the applicability of this system. The results of orthogonal experiments showed that the optimum preparation procedure are as follows: mix sodium alginate solution (3%) with bacteria liquid in specific proportion, drop in calcium chloride solution (4%) and solidify for 30 min; put the plastic beads into chitosan liquid (1.8%) to overlay film for 10 min and then into glutaraldehyde solution (1%) to get cross-linked for 5 min. In dynamic test, the microcapsules were effective as soon as were added in the system, without any start-up time. The removal efficiency of turbidity, ammonia nitrogen and organic matter was 60%, 80%, and 40%. Besides, the bio-microcapsules were prospective adsorbent for heavy metal; they adsorb Pb and Cr⁶⁺ in water while maintaining high biological activity to degrade ammonia nitrogen and small molecular organics through assimilation. With the presence of bio-microcapsules, the internal yeast strains’ adaptability on the external environment and resistance ability on toxic pollutants will be increased.

Keywords: ammonia nitrogen, bio-microcapsules, ultrafiltration membrane, yeast-chitosan

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114 Novel Nanomagnetic Beads Based- Latex Agglutination Assay for Rapid Diagnosis of Human Schistosomiasis Haematobium

Authors: Ibrahim Aly, Rabab Zalat, Bahaa EL Deen W. El Aswad, Ismail M. Moharm, Basam M. Masoud, Tarek Diab


The objective of the present study was to evaluate the novel nanomagnetic beads based–latex agglutination assay (NMB-LAT) as a simple test for diagnosis of S. haematobium as well as standardize the novel nanomagnetic beads based –ELISA (NMB-ELISA). According to urine examination this study included 85 S. haematobium infected patients, 30 other parasites infected patients and 25 negative control samples. The sensitivity of novel NMB-LAT was 82.4% versus 96.5% and 88.2% for NMB-ELISA and currently used sandwich ELISA respectively. The specificity of NMB-LAT was 83.6% versus 96.3% and 87.3% for NMB-ELISA and currently used sandwich ELISA respectively. In conclusion, the novel NMB-ELISA is a valuable applicable diagnostic technique for diagnosis of human schistosomiasis haematobium. The novel NMB-ELISA assay is a suitable applicable diagnostic method in field survey especially when followed by ELISA as a confirmatory test in query false negative results. Trials are required to increase the sensitivity and specificity of NMB-ELISA assay.

Keywords: diagnosis, iatex agglutination, nanomagnetic beads, sandwich ELISA

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