Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8001

Search results for: moisture management

8001 Investigation of Moisture Management Properties of Cotton and Blended Knitted Fabrics

Authors: N. S. Achour, M. Hamdaoui, S. Ben Nasrallah, A. Perwuelz


The main idea of this work is to investigate the effect of knitted fabrics characteristics on moisture management properties. Wetting and transport properties of single jersey, Rib 1&1 and English Rib fabrics made out of cotton and blended Cotton/Polyester yarns were studied. The dynamic water sorption of fabrics was investigated under same isothermal and terrestrial conditions at 20±2°C-65±2% by using the Moisture Management Tester (MMT) which can be used to quantitatively measure liquid moisture transfer in one step in a fabric in multi directions: Absorption rate, moisture absorbing time of the fabric's inner and outer surfaces, one-way transportation capability, the spreading/drying rate, the speed of liquid moisture spreading on fabric's inner and outer surfaces are measured, recorded and discussed. The results show that fabric’s composition and knit’s structure have a significant influence on those phenomena.

Keywords: knitted fabrics characteristics, moisture management properties, multi directions, the moisture management tester

Procedia PDF Downloads 420
8000 Disaggregation of Coarser Resolution Radiometer Derived Soil Moisture to Finer Scales

Authors: Gurjeet Singh, Rabindra K. Panda


Soil moisture is a key hydrologic state variable and is intrinsically linked to the Earth's water, climate and carbon cycles. On ecological point of view, the soil moisture is a fundamental natural resource providing the transpirable water for plants. Soil moisture varies both temporally and spatially due to spatiotemporal variation in rainfall, vegetation cover, soil properties and topography. Satellite derived soil moisture provides spatio-temporal extensive data. However, the spatial resolution of a typical satellite (L-band radiometry) is of the order of tens of kilometers, which is not good enough for developing efficient agricultural water management schemes at the field scale. In the present study, the soil moisture from radiometer data has been disaggregated using blending approach to achieve higher resolution soil moisture data. The radiometer estimates of soil moisture at a 40 km resolution have been disaggregated to 10 km, 5 km and 1 km resolutions. The disaggregated soil moisture was compared with the observed data, consisting of continuous sensor based soil moisture profile measurements, at three monitoring sites and extensive spatial near-surface soil moisture measurements, concurrent with satellite monitoring in the 500 km2 study watershed in the Eastern India. The estimated soil moisture status at different spatial scales can help in developing efficient agricultural water management schemes to increase the crop production and water use efficiency.

Keywords: disaggregation, eastern India, radiometers, soil moisture, water use efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
7999 Moisture Variations in Unbound Layers in an Instrumented Pavement Section

Authors: R. Islam, Rafiqul A. Tarefder


This study presents the moisture variations of unbound layers from April 2012 to January 2014 in the Interstate 40 (I-40) pavement section in New Mexico. Three moisture probes were installed at different layers inside the pavement which measure the continuous moisture variations of the pavement. Data show that the moisture contents of unbound layers are typically constant throughout the day and month unless there is rainfall. Moisture contents of all unbound layers change with rainfall. Change in ground water table may affect the moisture content of unbound layers which has not investigated in this study. In addition, the Level 3 predictions of moisture contents using the Pavement Mechanistic-Empirical (ME) Design software are compared and found quite reasonable. However, results presented in the current study may not be applicable for pavement in other regions.

Keywords: asphalt pavement, moisture probes, resilient modulus, climate model

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
7998 Measurement of Viscosity and Moisture of Oil in Supradistribution Transformers Using Ultrasonic Waves

Authors: Ehsan Kadkhodaie, Shahin Parvar, Soroush Senemar, Mostafa Shriat, Abdolrasoul Malekpour


The role of oil in supra distribution transformers is so critical and, several standards in determining the quality of oil have been offered. So far, moisture, viscosity and insulation protection of the oil have been measured based on mechanical and chemical methods and systems such as kart fisher, falling ball and TDM 4000 that most of these techniques are destructive and have many problems such as pollution. In this study, due to the properties of oil and also physical behavior of ultrasound wave new method was designed to in the determination of oil indicators including viscosity and moisture. The results show the oil viscosity can be found from the relationship μ = 42.086/√EE and moisture from (PLUS+) = −15.65 (PPM) + 26040 relationship.

Keywords: oil, viscosity, moisture, ultrasonic waves

Procedia PDF Downloads 431
7997 Tensile Strength of Asphalt Concrete Due to Moisture Conditioning

Authors: R. Islam, Rafiqul A. Tarefder


This study investigates the effect of moisture conditioning on the Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS) of asphalt concrete. As a first step, cylindrical samples of 100 mm diameter and 50 mm thick were prepared using a Superpave gyratory compactor. Next, the samples were conditioned using Moisture Induced Susceptibility Test (MIST) device at different numbers of moisture conditioning cycles. In the MIST device, samples are subjected water pressure through the sample pores cyclically. The MIST conditioned samples were tested for ITS. Results show that the ITS does not change significantly with MIST conditioning at the specific pressure and cycles adopted in this study.

Keywords: asphalt concrete, tensile strength, moisture, laboratory test

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
7996 Effect of Superabsorbent for the Improvement of Car Seat's Thermal Comfort

Authors: Funda Buyuk Mazari, Adnan Mazari, Antonin Havelka, Jakub Wiener, Jawad Naeem


The use of super absorbent polymers (SAP) for moisture absorption and comfort is still unexplored. In this research the efficiency of different SAP fibrous webs are determined under different moisture percentage to examine the sorption and desorption efficiency. The SAP fibrous web with low thickness and high moisture absorption are tested with multilayer sandwich structure of car seat cover to determine the moisture absorption through cover material. Sweating guarded hot plate (SGHP) from company Atlas is used to determine the moisture permeability of different car seat cover with superabsorbent layer closed with impermeable polyurethane foam. It is observed that the SAP fibrous layers are very effective in absorbing and desorbing water vapor under extreme high and low moisture percentages respectively. In extreme humid condition (95 %RH) the 20g of SAP layer absorbs nearly 3g of water vapor per hour and reaches the maximum absorption capacity in 6 hours.

Keywords: car seat, comfort, SAF, superabsorbent

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
7995 Finite Element Modeling of Heat and Moisture Transfer in Porous Material

Authors: V. D. Thi, M. Li, M. Khelifa, M. El Ganaoui, Y. Rogaume


This paper presents a two-dimensional model to study the heat and moisture transfer through porous building materials. Dynamic and static coupled models of heat and moisture transfer in porous material under low temperature are presented and the coupled models together with variable initial and boundary conditions have been considered in an analytical way and using the finite element method. The resulting coupled model is converted to two nonlinear partial differential equations, which is then numerically solved by an implicit iterative scheme. The numerical results of temperature and moisture potential changes are compared with the experimental measurements available in the literature. Predicted results demonstrate validation of the theoretical model and effectiveness of the developed numerical algorithms. It is expected to provide useful information for the porous building material design based on heat and moisture transfer model.

Keywords: finite element method, heat transfer, moisture transfer, porous materials, wood

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
7994 A Low Cost Non-Destructive Grain Moisture Embedded System for Food Safety and Quality

Authors: Ritula Thakur, Babankumar S. Bansod, Puneet Mehta, S. Chatterji


Moisture plays an important role in storage, harvesting and processing of food grains and related agricultural products. It is an important characteristic of most agricultural products for maintenance of quality. Accurate knowledge of the moisture content can be of significant value in maintaining quality and preventing contamination of cereal grains. The present work reports the design and development of microcontroller based low cost non-destructive moisture meter, which uses complex impedance measurement method for moisture measurement of wheat using parallel plate capacitor arrangement. Moisture can conveniently be sensed by measuring the complex impedance using a small parallel-plate capacitor sensor filled with the kernels in-between the two plates of sensor, exciting the sensor at 30 KHz and 100 KHz frequencies. The effects of density and temperature variations were compensated by providing suitable compensations in the developed algorithm. The results were compared with standard dry oven technique and the developed method was found to be highly accurate with less than 1% error. The developed moisture meter is low cost, highly accurate, non-destructible method for determining the moisture of grains utilizing the fast computing capabilities of microcontroller.

Keywords: complex impedance, moisture content, electrical properties, safety of food

Procedia PDF Downloads 393
7993 Modelling of Moisture Loss and Oil Uptake during Deep-Fat Frying of Plantain

Authors: James A. Adeyanju, John O. Olajide, Akinbode A. Adedeji


A predictive mathematical model based on the fundamental principles of mass transfer was developed to simulate the moisture content and oil content during Deep-Fat Frying (DFF) process of dodo. The resulting governing equation, that is, partial differential equation that describes rate of moisture loss and oil uptake was solved numerically using explicit Finite Difference Technique (FDT). Computer codes were written in MATLAB environment for the implementation of FDT at different frying conditions and moisture loss as well as oil uptake simulation during DFF of dodo. Plantain samples were sliced into 5 mm thickness and fried at different frying oil temperatures (150, 160 and 170 ⁰C) for periods varying from 2 to 4 min. The comparison between the predicted results and experimental data for the validation of the model showed reasonable agreement. The correlation coefficients between the predicted and experimental values of moisture and oil transfer models ranging from 0.912 to 0.947 and 0.895 to 0.957, respectively. The predicted results could be further used for the design, control and optimization of deep-fat frying process.

Keywords: frying, moisture loss, modelling, oil uptake

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
7992 Investigation of Antibacterial Property of Bamboo In-Terms of Percentage on Comparing with ZnO Treated Cotton Fabric

Authors: Arjun Dakuri, J. Hayavadana


The study includes selection of 100 % bamboo fabric and cotton fabric for the study. The 100% bamboo fabrics were of 127 g/m², and 112 g/m² and 100% cotton grey fabric were of 104 g/m². The cotton fabric was desized, scoured, bleached and then treated with ZnO (as antimicrobial agent) with 1%, 2% and 3% using pad-dry cure method, whereas the bamboo fabrics were only desized. The antimicrobial activity of bamboo and ZnO treated cotton fabrics were evaluated and compared against E. coli and S. aureus as per the standard AATCC - 147. Moisture management properties of selected fabrics were also analyzed. Further, the selected fabric samples were tested for comfort properties like bending length, tearing strength, drape-ability, and specific handle force and air permeability. It was observed that bamboo fabrics show significant antibacterial activity and the same was shown by 3% ZnO treated cotton fabric. Both cotton and bamboo fabrics show improved moisture management properties than the cotton fabric. The comfort properties of bamboo fabrics are found to be superior to cotton fabrics making it more suitable for applications in place of cotton.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, bamboo, cotton, comfort properties, moisture management, zinc oxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
7991 Effect of Whey Protein Based Edible Coating on the Moisture Loss and Sensory Attributes of Fresh Mutton

Authors: Saba Belgheisi


Food packaging, is an important discipline in the area of food technology, concerns preservation and protection of foods. The objective of this research was to determine of the effect of whey protein based edible coating on the moisture loss and sensory attributes of fresh mutton after 0, 1, 3 and 5 days at 5° C. The moisture content, moisture loss and sensory attributes (juiciness, color and odor) of the coated and uncoated samples were analyzed. The results showed that, moisture content, moisture loss, juiciness and color of the coated and uncoated samples have significant differences (p < 0.05) at the intervals of 0 to 1 and 1 to 3 days of storage. But no significant difference was observed at interval time 3 to 5 days of storage (p > 0.05). Also, there was no significant differences in the odor values of the coated and uncoated samples (p > 0.05). Therefore, the coated samples had consistently more moisture, juiciness and colored values than uncoated samples after 3 days at 5° C. So, whey protein edible coating could enhance product presentation and eliminate the need for placing absorbent pads at the bottom of the trays.

Keywords: coating, whey protein, mutton, moisture, sensory

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
7990 The Effects of Different Amounts of Additional Moisture on the Physical Properties of Cow Pea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Extrudates

Authors: L. Strauta, S. Muižniece-Brasava


Even though legumes possess high nutritional value and have a rather high protein content for plant origin products, they are underutilized mostly due to their lengthy cooking time. To increase the presence of legume-based products in human diet, new extruded products were made of cow peas (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). But as it is known, adding different moisture content to flour before extrusion can change the physical properties of the extruded product. Experiments were carried out to estimate the optimal moisture content for cow pea extrusion. After extrusion, the pH level had dropped from 6.7 to 6.5 and the lowest hardness rate was observed in the samples with additional 9 g 100g-1 of moisture - 28±4N, but the volume mass of the samples with additional 9 g100g-1 of water was 263±3 g L-1; all samples were approximately 7±1mm long.

Keywords: cow pea, extrusion–cooking, moisture, size

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
7989 Effects of Moisture on Fatigue Behavior of Asphalt Concrete Mixtures Using Four-Point Bending Test

Authors: Mohit Chauhan, Atul Narayan


Moisture damage is the continuous deterioration of asphalt concrete mixtures by the loss of adhesive bond between the asphalt binder and aggregates, or loss of cohesive bonds within the asphalt binder in the presence of moisture. Moisture has been known to either cause or exacerbates distresses in asphalt concrete pavements. Since moisture would often retain for a relatively long duration at the bottom of asphalt concrete layer, the movement of traffic loading in this saturated condition would cause excess stresses or strains within the mixture. This would accelerate the degradation of the adhesion and cohesion within the mixture and likely to contribute the development of fatigue cracking in asphalt concrete pavements. In view of this, it is important to investigate the effect of moisture on the fatigue behavior of asphalt concrete mixtures. In this study, changes in fatigue characteristics after moisture conditioning were evaluated by conducting four-point beam fatigue tests on dry and moisture conditioned specimens. For this purpose, mixtures with two different types of binders were prepared and saturated with moisture using 700 mm Hg vacuum. Beam specimens, in this way, were taken to a saturation level of 65-75 percent. After preconditioning specimens in this degree of saturation and 60°C for a period of 24 hours, they were subjected to four point beam fatigue tests in strain-controlled mode with a strain amplitude of 400 microstrain. The results were then compared with the fatigue test results obtained with beam specimens that were not subjected to moisture conditioning. Test results show that the conditioning reduces both fatigue life and initial flexural stiffness of specimen significantly. The moisture conditioning was also found to increase the rate of reduction of flexural stiffness. Moreover, it was observed that the fatigue life ratio (FLR), the ratio of the fatigue life of the moisture conditioned sample to that of the dry sample, is significantly lower than the flexural stiffness ratio (FSR). The study indicates that four-point bending test is an appropriate tool with FLR and FSR as the potential parameters for moisture-sensitivity evaluation.

Keywords: asphalt concrete, fatigue cracking, moisture damage, preconditioning

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
7988 A Study of Some Water Relations and Soil Salinity Using Geotextile Mat under Sprinkler System

Authors: Al-Molhem, Y.


This work aimed to study the influence of a geotextile material under sprinkler irrigation on the availability of soil moisture content and salinity of 40 cm top soil profile. Field experiment was carried out to measure soil moisture content, soil salinity and water application efficiency under sprinkler irrigation system. The results indicated that, the mats placed at 20 cm depth leads to increasing of the availability of soil moisture content in the root zone. The results further showed increases in water application efficiency because of using the geotextile material. In addition, soil salinity in the root zone decreased because of increasing soil moisture content.

Keywords: geotextile, moisture content, sprinkler irrigation

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
7987 Effects of Initial Moisture Content on the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Norway Spruce Briquettes

Authors: Miloš Matúš, Peter Križan, Ľubomír Šooš, Juraj Beniak


The moisture content of densified biomass is a limiting parameter influencing the quality of this solid biofuel. It influences its calorific value, density, mechanical strength and dimensional stability as well as affecting its production process. This paper deals with experimental research into the effect of moisture content of the densified material on the final quality of biofuel in the form of logs (briquettes or pellets). Experiments based on the single-axis densification of the spruce sawdust were carried out with a hydraulic piston press (piston and die), where the densified logs were produced at room temperature. The effect of moisture content on the qualitative properties of the logs, including density, change of moisture, expansion and physical changes, and compressive and impact resistance were studied. The results show the moisture ranges required for producing good-quality logs. The experiments were evaluated and the moisture content of the tested material was optimized to achieve the optimum value for the best quality of the solid biofuel. The dense logs also have high-energy content per unit volume. The research results could be used to develop and optimize industrial technologies and machinery for biomass densification to achieve high quality solid biofuel.

Keywords: biomass, briquettes, densification, fuel quality, moisture content, density

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
7986 The Effect of Different Composition of Dairy Cattle Feces Briquette on Moisture and Briquette Density

Authors: Dita Aviana Dewi, Heri Muji, Dian Nur Amalia, Nanung Agus Fitriyanto


Utilization of cow feces as a source of alternative energy can be done with turn it as briquettes. Cow feces generate heat around 4000 Cal/g and the methane gas (CH4) are quite high. Methane gas is one of the essential elements in briquettes which serve as the ignition, so that is resulting briquettes combustible. This study aims to know the difference of the composition of the constituents of briquette moisture content and density. Dairy cattle feces used as the main ingredient with additional material from the waste of the agricultural industry in the form of husk. This study was conducted with three treatments, namely T0= feces 1: husk 1, T1= feces 2: husk 1, and T2= feces 3: husk 1. Each treatment was replicated three times. The experimental design used was Complete Random Design Pattern in line with testing of Dunnet. The observed variables are moisture content and density of the briquettes. Results of this study showed an average moisture content of T0 is 31,17%, T1 is 28,14%, and T2 is 49.95%. The average density of briquettes at T0 is 1,0787 g/cm3, T1 is 1,1448 g/cm3, and T2 is 1,1133 g/cm3. Summary of the study is to take the difference of the composition of the feces and the husk do not have significant effects on moisture content and density of briquettes (p < 0.05).

Keywords: dairy cattle feces, briquette, moisture, density

Procedia PDF Downloads 649
7985 Empirical Modeling of Air Dried Rubberwood Drying System

Authors: S. Khamtree, T. Ratanawilai, C. Nuntadusit


Rubberwood is a crucial commercial timber in Southern Thailand. All processes in a rubberwood production depend on the knowledge and expertise of the technicians, especially the drying process. This research aims to develop an empirical model for drying kinetics in rubberwood. During the experiment, the temperature of the hot air and the average air flow velocity were kept at 80-100 °C and 1.75 m/s, respectively. The moisture content in the samples was determined less than 12% in the achievement of drying basis. The drying kinetic was simulated using an empirical solver. The experimental results illustrated that the moisture content was reduced whereas the drying temperature and time were increased. The coefficient of the moisture ratio between the empirical and the experimental model was tested with three statistical parameters, R-square (), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Chi-square (χ²) to predict the accuracy of the parameters. The experimental moisture ratio had a good fit with the empirical model. Additionally, the results indicated that the drying of rubberwood using the Henderson and Pabis model revealed the suitable level of agreement. The result presented an excellent estimation (= 0.9963) for the moisture movement compared to the other models. Therefore, the empirical results were valid and can be implemented in the future experiments.

Keywords: empirical models, rubberwood, moisture ratio, hot air drying

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
7984 The Use of Thermal Infrared Wavelengths to Determine the Volcanic Soils

Authors: Levent Basayigit, Mert Dedeoglu, Fadime Ozogul


In this study, an application was carried out to determine the Volcanic Soils by using remote sensing.  The study area was located on the Golcuk formation in Isparta-Turkey. The thermal bands of Landsat 7 image were used for processing. The implementation of the climate model that was based on the water index was used in ERDAS Imagine software together with pixel based image classification. Soil Moisture Index (SMI) was modeled by using the surface temperature (Ts) which was obtained from thermal bands and vegetation index (NDVI) derived from Landsat 7. Surface moisture values were grouped and classified by using scoring system. Thematic layers were compared together with the field studies. Consequently, different moisture levels for volcanic soils were indicator for determination and separation. Those thermal wavelengths are preferable bands for separation of volcanic soils using moisture and temperature models.

Keywords: Landsat 7, soil moisture index, temperature models, volcanic soils

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
7983 Studying the Moisture Sources and the Stable Isotope Characteristic of Moisture in Northern Khorasan Province, North-Eastern Iran

Authors: Mojtaba Heydarizad, Hamid Ghalibaf Mohammadabadi


Iran is a semi-arid and arid country in south-western Asia in the Middle East facing intense climatological drought from the early times. Therefore, studying the precipitation events and the moisture sources and air masses causing precipitation has great importance in this region. In this study, the moisture sources and stable isotope content of precipitation moisture in three main events in 2015 have been studied in North-Eastern Iran. HYSPLIT model backward trajectories showed that the Caspian Sea and the mixture of the Caspian and Mediterranean Seas are dominant moisture sources for the studied events. This showed the role of cP (Siberian) and Mediterranean (MedT) air masses. Stable isotope studies showed that precipitation events originated from the Caspian Sea with lower Sea Surface Temperature (SST) have more depleted isotope values. However, precipitation events sourced from the mixture of the Caspian and the Mediterranean Seas (with higher SST) showed more enriched isotope values.

Keywords: HYSPLIT, Iran, Northern Khorasan, stable isotopes

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
7982 Comparison of Different Techniques to Estimate Surface Soil Moisture

Authors: S. Farid F. Mojtahedi, Ali Khosravi, Behnaz Naeimian, S. Adel A. Hosseini


Land subsidence is a gradual settling or sudden sinking of the land surface from changes that take place underground. There are different causes of land subsidence; most notably, ground-water overdraft and severe weather conditions. Subsidence of the land surface due to ground water overdraft is caused by an increase in the intergranular pressure in unconsolidated aquifers, which results in a loss of buoyancy of solid particles in the zone dewatered by the falling water table and accordingly compaction of the aquifer. On the other hand, exploitation of underground water may result in significant changes in degree of saturation of soil layers above the water table, increasing the effective stress in these layers, and considerable soil settlements. This study focuses on estimation of soil moisture at surface using different methods. Specifically, different methods for the estimation of moisture content at the soil surface, as an important term to solve Richard’s equation and estimate soil moisture profile are presented, and their results are discussed through comparison with field measurements obtained from Yanco1 station in south-eastern Australia. Surface soil moisture is not easy to measure at the spatial scale of a catchment. Due to the heterogeneity of soil type, land use, and topography, surface soil moisture may change considerably in space and time.

Keywords: artificial neural network, empirical method, remote sensing, surface soil moisture, unsaturated soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
7981 Comparative Evaluation of Root Uptake Models for Developing Moisture Uptake Based Irrigation Schedules for Crops

Authors: Vijay Shankar


In the era of water scarcity, effective use of water via irrigation requires good methods for determining crop water needs. Implementation of irrigation scheduling programs requires an accurate estimate of water use by the crop. Moisture depletion from the root zone represents the consequent crop evapotranspiration (ET). A numerical model for simulating soil water depletion in the root zone has been developed by taking into consideration soil physical properties, crop and climatic parameters. The governing differential equation for unsaturated flow of water in the soil is solved numerically using the fully implicit finite difference technique. The water uptake by plants is simulated by using three different sink functions. The non-linear model predictions are in good agreement with field data and thus it is possible to schedule irrigations more effectively. The present paper describes irrigation scheduling based on moisture depletion from the different layers of the root zone, obtained using different sink functions for three cash, oil and forage crops: cotton, safflower and barley, respectively. The soil is considered at a moisture level equal to field capacity prior to planting. Two soil moisture regimes are then imposed for irrigated treatment, one wherein irrigation is applied whenever soil moisture content is reduced to 50% of available soil water; and other wherein irrigation is applied whenever soil moisture content is reduced to 75% of available soil water. For both the soil moisture regimes it has been found that the model incorporating a non-linear sink function which provides best agreement of computed root zone moisture depletion with field data, is most effective in scheduling irrigations. Simulation runs with this moisture uptake function result in saving 27.3 to 45.5% & 18.7 to 37.5%, 12.5 to 25% % &16.7 to 33.3% and 16.7 to 33.3% & 20 to 40% irrigation water for cotton, safflower and barley respectively, under 50 & 75% moisture depletion regimes over other moisture uptake functions considered in the study. Simulation developed can be used for an optimized irrigation planning for different crops, choosing a suitable soil moisture regime depending upon the irrigation water availability and crop requirements.

Keywords: irrigation water, evapotranspiration, root uptake models, water scarcity

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
7980 Major Mechanisms of Atmospheric Moisture Transport and Their Role in Precipitation Extreme Events in the Amazonia

Authors: Luis Gimeno, Rosmeri da Rocha, Raquel Nieto, Tercio Ambrizzi, Alex Ramos, Anita Drumond


The transport of moisture from oceanic sources to the continents represents the atmospheric branch of the water cycle, forming the connection between evaporation from the ocean and precipitation over the continents. In this regard two large scale dynamical/meteorological structures appear to play a key role, namely Low Level Jet (LLJ) systems and Atmospheric Rivers (ARs). The former are particularly important in tropical and subtropical regions; the latter is mostly confined to extratropical regions. A key question relates to the anomalies in the transport of moisture observed during natural hazards related to extremes of precipitation (i.e., drought or wet spells). In this study we will be focused on these two major atmospheric moisture transport mechanisms (LLJs and ARs) and its role in precipitation extreme events (droughts and wet spells) in the Amazonia paying particular attention to i) intensification (decreasing) of moisture transport by them and its role in wet spells (droughts), and ii) changes in their positions and occurrence with associated flooding and wet spells.

Keywords: droughts, wet spells, amazonia, LLJs, atmospheric rivers

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
7979 Cooking Attributes of Rice Stored under Varying Temperature and Moisture Regimes

Authors: Lakshmi E. Jayachandran, Manepally Rajkumar, Pavuluri Srinivasa Rao


The objective of this research was to study the changes in eating quality of rice during storage under varying temperature and moisture regimes. Paddy (IR-36) with high amylose content (27%) was stored at a temperature range between 10 to 40°C and moisture content from 9 to 18% (d.b.) for 6 months. Drastic changes in color and parameters representing cooking qualities, cooked rice texture, and surface morphology occurred after 4 months of storage, especially at elevated temperature conditions. Head rice yield was stable throughout the storage except at extreme conditions of temperature and moisture content. Yellowing of rice was prominent at combinations of high temperature and moisture content, both of which had a synergistic effect on the b* values of rice. The cooking time, length expansion ratio and volume expansion ratio of all the rice samples increased with prolonged storage. The texture parameter, primarily, the hardness, cohesiveness, and adhesiveness of cooked rice samples were higher following storage at elevated temperature. Surface morphology was also significantly affected in stored rice as compared to fresh rice. Storage of rice at 10°C with a grain moisture content of 10% for 2 months gave cooked rice samples with good palatability and minimal cooking time. The temperature was found to be the most prominent storage parameter for rough rice, followed by moisture content and storage duration, influencing the quality of rice.

Keywords: rice, cooking quality, storage, surface morphology

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
7978 Effect of Moisture Content Compaction in the Geometry Definition of Earth Dams

Authors: Julian B. García, Virginie Q. R. Pinto, André P. Assis


This paper presents numerical flow and slope stability simulations in three typical sections of earth dams built in tropical regions, two homogeneous with different slope inclinations, and the other one heterogeneous with impermeable core. The geotechnical material parameters used in this work were obtained from a lab testing of physical characterization, compaction, consolidation, variable load permeability and saturated triaxial type CD for compacted soil samples with standard proctor energy at optimum moisture content (23%), optimum moisture content + 2% and optimum moisture content +5%. The objective is to analyze the general behavior of earth dams built in rainy regions where optimum moisture is exceeded. The factor of safety is satisfactory for the three sections compacted in all moisture content during the stages of operation and end of construction. On The other hand, the rapid drawdown condition is the critical phase for homogeneus dams configuration, the factor of safety obtained were unsatisfactory. In general, the heterogeneous dam behavior is more efficient due to the fact that the slopes are made up of gravel, which favors the dissipation of pore pressures during the rapid drawdown. For the critical phase, the slopes should have lower inclinations of the upstream and downstream slopes to guarantee stability, although it increases the costs.

Keywords: earth dams, flow, moisture content, slope stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
7977 Study on the Thermal Conductivity about Porous Materials in Wet State

Authors: Han Yan, Jieren Luo, Qiuhui Yan, Xiaoqing Li


The thermal conductivity of porous materials is closely related to the thermal and moisture environment and the overall energy consumption of the building. The study of thermal conductivity of porous materials has great significance for the realization of low energy consumption building and economic construction building. Based on the study of effective thermal conductivity of porous materials at home and abroad, the thermal conductivity under a variety of different density of polystyrene board (EPS), plastic extruded board (XPS) and polyurethane (PU) and phenolic resin (PF) in wet state through theoretical analysis and experimental research has been studied. Initially, the moisture absorption and desorption properties of specimens had been discussed under different density, which led a result indicates the moisture absorption of four porous materials all have three stages, fast, stable and gentle. For the moisture desorption, there are two types. One is the existence of the rapid phase of the stage, such as XPS board, PU board. The other one does not have the fast desorption, instead, it is more stabilized, such as XPS board, PF board. Furthermore, the relationship between water content and thermal conductivity of porous materials had been studied and fitted, which figured out that in the wake of the increasing water content, the thermal conductivity of porous material is continually improving. At the same time, this result also shows, in different density, when the same kind of materials decreases, the saturated moisture content increases. Finally, the moisture absorption and desorption properties of the four kinds of materials are compared comprehensively, and it turned out that the heat preservation performance of PU board is the best, followed by EPS board, XPS board, PF board.

Keywords: porous materials, thermal conductivity, moisture content, transient hot-wire method

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
7976 Effect Different Moisture States of Surface-treated Recycled Concrete Aggregate on Properties of Fresh and Hardened Concrete

Authors: Sallehan Ismail, Mahyuddin Ramli


This study examined the properties of fresh and hardened concretes as influenced by the moisture state of the coarse recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) after surface treatment. Surface treatment was performed by immersing the coarse RCA in a calcium metasilicate (CM) solution. The treated coarse RCA was maintained in three controlled moisture states, namely, air-dried, oven-dried, and saturated surface-dried (SSD), prior to its use in a concrete mix. The physical properties of coarse RCA were evaluated after surface treatment during the first phase of the experiment to determine the density and the water absorption characteristics of the RCA. The second phase involved the evaluation of the slump, slump loss, density, and compressive strength of the concretes that were prepared with different proportions of natural and treated coarse RCA. Controlling the moisture state of the coarse RCA after surface treatment was found to significantly influence the properties of the fresh and hardened concretes.

Keywords: moisture state, recycled concrete aggregate, surface treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
7975 Characterization of Carbon/Polyamide 6,6 (C/PA66) Composite Material for Dry and Wet Conditions

Authors: Tariq Bashir, Muhammad Waseem Tahir, Ulf Stigh, Behnaz Baghaie, Mikael Skrifvars


Absorption of moisture may cause many problems in a composite material, such as delamination, degradation of the strength and increase in the weight. For small coupons, the increase in weight may be negligible, however, for large structures increase in weight due to moisture absorption may be quite significant. Polyamides (PA6, PA66) absorb more moisture as compared to other thermoplastics. There are many parameters which affect the moisture absorption of the composite material for example temperature, pressure, type of matrix and fibers, thickness of the material and relative humidity (RH) etc. So, it is utmost important to investigate the impact of moisture on PA66 based composites which can be done by characterizing the mechanical properties of composite materials both for dry and wet conditions. In this study, laminates of C/PA66 composite are manufactured by first heating the commingled material in conventional oven at a temperature of 220 °C followed by pressing in a manual hot press for 20 minutes with preheated platen at 220 °C. To observe the moisture absorption of the composite, coupons of the material were placed in a climate chamber at five different conditions 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% RH for 24 hours. Five specimens were used for each condition. These coupons were weighed before placing in the climate chamber and just after removing from the chamber to observe the moisture absorption of the material. The mechanical characterization such as tensile strength, flexural modulus, impact strength and DMTA of C/PA66 material are performed at 0, 50 and 100 % RH. The work is going on for the testing of the material and results will be presented in full paper.

Keywords: Carbon/Polyamide 66 composites, structural composites, mechanical characterizations, wet and dry conditions

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7974 Effect of 3-Dimensional Knitted Spacer Fabrics Characteristics on Its Thermal and Compression Properties

Authors: Veerakumar Arumugam, Rajesh Mishra, Jiri Militky, Jana Salacova


The thermo-physiological comfort and compression properties of knitted spacer fabrics have been evaluated by varying the different spacer fabric parameters. Air permeability and water vapor transmission of the fabrics were measured using the Textest FX-3300 air permeability tester and PERMETEST. Then thermal behavior of fabrics was obtained by Thermal conductivity analyzer and overall moisture management capacity was evaluated by moisture management tester. Spacer Fabrics compression properties were also tested using Kawabata Evaluation System (KES-FB3). In the KES testing, the compression resilience, work of compression, linearity of compression and other parameters were calculated from the pressure-thickness curves. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was performed using new statistical software named QC expert trilobite and Darwin in order to compare the influence of different fabric parameters on thermo-physiological and compression behavior of samples. This study established that the raw materials, type of spacer yarn, density, thickness and tightness of surface layer have significant influence on both thermal conductivity and work of compression in spacer fabrics. The parameter which mainly influence on the water vapor permeability of these fabrics is the properties of raw material i.e. the wetting and wicking properties of fibers. The Pearson correlation between moisture capacity of the fabrics and water vapour permeability was found using statistical software named QC expert trilobite and Darwin. These findings are important requirements for the further designing of clothing for extreme environmental conditions.

Keywords: 3D spacer fabrics, thermal conductivity, moisture management, work of compression (WC), resilience of compression (RC)

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7973 Influence of the Moisture Content on the Flowability of Fine-Grained Iron Ore Concentrate

Authors: C. Lanzerstorfer, M. Hinterberger


The iron content of the ore used is crucial for the productivity and coke consumption rate in blast furnace pig iron production. Therefore, most iron ore deposits are processed in beneficiation plants to increase the iron content and remove impurities. In several comminution stages, the particle size of the ore is reduced to ensure that the iron oxides are physically liberated from the gangue. Subsequently, physical separation processes are applied to concentrate the iron ore. The fine-grained ore concentrates produced need to be transported, stored, and processed. For smooth operation of these processes, the flow properties of the material are crucial. The flowability of powders depends on several properties of the material: grain size, grain size distribution, grain shape, and moisture content of the material. The flowability of powders can be measured using ring shear testers. In this study, the influence of the moisture content on the flowability for the Krivoy Rog magnetite iron ore concentrate was investigated. Dry iron ore concentrate was mixed with varying amounts of water to produce samples with a moisture content in the range of 0.2 to 12.2%. The flowability of the samples was investigated using a Schulze ring shear tester. At all measured values of the normal stress (1.0 kPa – 20 kPa), the flowability decreased significantly from dry ore to a moisture content of approximately 3-5%. At higher moisture contents, the flowability was nearly constant, while at the maximum moisture content the flowability improved for high values of the normal stress only. The results also showed an improving flowability with increasing consolidation stress for all moisture content levels investigated. The wall friction angle of the dust with carbon steel (S235JR), and an ultra-high molecule low-pressure polyethylene (Robalon) was also investigated. The wall friction angle increased significantly from dry ore to a moisture content of approximately 3%. For higher moisture content levels, the wall friction angles were nearly constant. Generally, the wall friction angle was approximately 4° lower at the higher wall normal stress.

Keywords: iron ore concentrate, flowability, moisture content, wall friction angle

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7972 Batch Biodrying of Pulp and Paper Secondary Sludge: Influence of Initial Moisture Content on the Process

Authors: César Huiliñir, Danilo Villanueva, Pedro Iván Alvarez, Francisco Cubillos


Biodrying aims at removing water from biowastes and has been mostly studied for municipal solid wastes (MSW), while few studies have dealt with secondary sludge from the paper and pulp industry. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of initial moisture content (MC) on the batch biodrying of pulp and paper secondary sludge, using rice husks as bulking agents. Three initial MCs were studied (54, 65, and 74% w.b.) in closed batch laboratory-scale reactors under adiabatic conditions and with a constant air-flow rate (0.65 l min-1 kg-1 wet solid). The initial MC of the mixture of secondary sludge and rice husks showed a significant effect on the biodrying process. Using initial moisture content between 54-65% w.b., the solid moisture content was reduce up to 37 % w.b. in ten days, getting calorific values between 8000-9000 kJ kg-1. It was concluded that a decreasing of initial MC improves the drying rate and decreases the solid volatile consumption, therefore, the optimization of biodrying should consider this parameter.

Keywords: biodrying, secondary sludge, initial moisture content, pulp and paper industry, rice husk

Procedia PDF Downloads 387