Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 77

Search results for: athletic men

77 Comparison of Aggression Amount among Athletic Students of Different Sports

Authors: Seyed Hossein Alavi, Farshad Ghazalian, Soghra Jamshidi

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Nowadays, athletic aggression discussion is considered as an important issue in sports psychology and sports effects have been noted by researchers from a long time ago. In this research, the amount of aggression among athletic students of different sport courses will be surveyed and compared. Statistics society in this research consists of all of boy athletic students in wrestling, taekwondo, football, and basketball of Mahmoudabad City that are 200 persons and the limitation of their ages are between 12-15 years old. Among all athletic students of different sport courses, 40 persons were chosen randomly for the sample. The method of research is a descriptive-comparative type that has been done according to field study and for measurement of examinations aggression amount, we have used Ayzank exam. In analysis step of foundations, for comparison of aggression of examined group, we have used Varian’s analysis exam. Research results show that among aggression amounts of athletic students of wrestling, taekwondo, football and basketball, there is no fundamental difference (p < 0.05). Stimulation of guest team with the host team fans, referees performance, exhaustion, physical confrontations, team position in the tournament table, and so on. There is no significant difference among aggression amount of selected sport athletic students.

Keywords: aggression, athletic, student, sports

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76 Comparison of Donor Motivations in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I vs Division II

Authors: Soojin Kim, Yongjae Kim

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Continuous economic downturn and ongoing budget cuts poses higher education with profound challenges which has a direct impact on the collegiate athletic programs. In response to the ever-changing landscape of the fiscal environment, universities seek to boost revenues, resorting to alternative sources of funding. In particular, athletic programs have become increasingly dependent on financial support from their alumni and boosters, which is how athletic departments attempt to offset budget shortfalls and make capital improvements. Although there currently exists three major divisions within National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), the majority of the sport management studies on college sport tend to focus on Division I level. Particularly within the donor motivation literature, a plethora of donor motivation studies exist, but mainly on NCAA Division I athletic programs. Since each athletic department functions differently in a number of different dimensions, while institutional difference can also have a huge impact on athletic donor motivations, the current study attempts to fill this gap that exists in the literature. As such, the purpose of this study was to (I) reexamine the factor structure of the Athletic Donor motivation scale; and (II) identify the prominent athletic donor motives in a NCAA Division II athletic program. For the purpose of this study, a total of 232 actual donors were used for analysis. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was employed to test construct validity, and the reliability of the scale was assessed using Composite Reliability. To identify the prominent motivational factors, the means and standard deviations were examined. Results of this study indicated that Vicarious Achievement, Philanthropy, and Commitment are the three primary motivational factors, while Tangible Benefits, was consistently found as an important motive in prior studies was found low. Such findings highlight the key difference and suggest different salient motivations exist that are specific to the context.

Keywords: college athletics, donor, motivation, NCAA

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75 High Arousal and Athletic Performance

Authors: Turki Mohammed Al Mohaid

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High arousal may lead to inhibited athletic performance, or high positive arousal may enhance performance is controversial. To evaluate and review this issue, 31 athletes (all male) were induced into high pre-determined goal arousal and high arousal without pre-determined goal motivational states and tested on a standard grip strength task. Paced breathing was used to change psychological and physiological arousal. It was noted that significant increases in grip strength performance occurred when arousal was high and experienced as delighted, happy, and pleasant excitement in those with no pre-determined goal motivational states. Blood pressure, Heart rate, and other indicators of physiological activity were not found to mediate between psychological arousal and performance. In a situation where athletic performance necessitates maximal motorstrength over a short period, performance benefits of high arousal may be enhanced by designing a specific motivational state.

Keywords: high arousal, athletic, performance, physiological

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74 Measuring the Effect of Intercollegiate Athletic Success on Private Giving and Enrollment

Authors: Jamie L. Stangel

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Increased popularity and visibility of college athletics has contributed to an environment in which institutions—most of which lack self-sufficient athletics department budgets—reallocate monies from the university general fund and seek additional funding sources to keep up with increasing levels of spending on athletics. Given the prevalence of debates on student debt levels, coach salaries, and athlete pay, empirical evidence on whether this spending yields expected return on investment is necessary. This study considered the relationship between the independent variable of winning percentage of the men’s basketball team at a mid-major university, moderated by NCAA tournament appearance, and number of applicants, number of enrollments, average SAT score of students, and donor giving to the university general and athletic funds. The results indicate that, other than a small correlation between athletic success and number of applicants, only when NCAA tournament appearance is used as a moderating variable, these purported benefits are not supported, suggesting the need for a reevaluation of athletic department spending and perceptions on tangible and intangible benefits for universities.

Keywords: NCAA, private giving, mid-major, admissions, athletic success

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73 Confirming the Factors of Professional Readiness in Athletic Training

Authors: Philip A. Szlosek, M. Susan Guyer, Mary G. Barnum, Elizabeth M. Mullin

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In the United States, athletic training is a healthcare profession that encompasses the prevention, examination, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of injuries and medical conditions. Athletic trainers work under the direction of or in collaboration with a physician and are recognized by the American Medical Association as allied healthcare professionals. Internationally, this profession is often known as athletic therapy. As healthcare professionals, athletic trainers must be prepared for autonomous practice immediately after graduation. However, new athletic trainers have been shown to have clinical areas of strength and weakness.To better assess professional readiness and improve the preparedness of new athletic trainers, the factors of athletic training professional readiness must be defined. Limited research exists defining the holistic aspects of professional readiness needed for athletic trainers. Confirming the factors of professional readiness in athletic training could enhance the professional preparation of athletic trainers and result in more highly prepared new professionals. The objective of this study was to further explore and confirm the factors of professional readiness in athletic training. Authors useda qualitative design based in grounded theory. Participants included athletic trainers with greater than 24 months of experience from a variety of work settings from each district of the National Athletic Trainer’s Association. Participants took the demographic questionnaire electronically using Qualtrics Survey Software (Provo UT). After completing the demographic questionnaire, 20 participants were selected to complete one-on-one interviews using GoToMeeting audiovisual web conferencing software. IBM Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, v. 21.0) was used to calculate descriptive statistics for participant demographics. The first author transcribed all interviews verbatim and utilized a grounded theory approach during qualitative data analysis. Data were analyzed using a constant comparative analysis and open and axial coding. Trustworthiness was established using reflexivity, member checks, and peer reviews. Analysis revealed four overarching themes, including management, interpersonal relations, clinical decision-making, and confidence. Management was categorized as athletic training services not involving direct patient care and was divided into three subthemes, including administration skills, advocacy, and time management. Interpersonal Relations was categorized as the need and ability of the athletic trainer to properly interact with others. Interpersonal relations was divided into three subthemes, including personality traits, communication, and collaborative practice. Clinical decision-making was categorized as the skills and attributes required by the athletic trainer whenmaking clinical decisions related to patient care. Clinical decision-making was divided into three subthemes including clinical skills, continuing education, and reflective practice. The final theme was confidence. Participants discussed the importance of confidence regarding relationships building, clinical and administrative duties, and clinical decision-making. Overall, participants explained the value of a well-rounded athletic trainer and emphasized that athletic trainers need communication and organizational skills, the ability to collaborate, and must value self-reflection and continuing education in addition to having clinical expertise. Future research should finalize a comprehensive model of professional readiness for athletic training, develop a holistic assessment instrument for athletic training professional readiness, and explore the preparedness of new athletic trainers.

Keywords: autonomous practice, newly certified athletic trainer, preparedness for professional practice, transition to practice skills

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72 Multiplayer Game System for Therapeutic Exercise in Which Players with Different Athletic Abilities Can Participate on an Even Competitive Footing

Authors: Kazumoto Tanaka, Takayuki Fujino

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Sports games conducted as a group are a form of therapeutic exercise for aged people with decreased strength and for people suffering from permanent damage of stroke and other conditions. However, it is difficult for patients with different athletic abilities to play a game on an equal footing. This study specifically examines a computer video game designed for therapeutic exercise, and a game system with support given depending on athletic ability. Thereby, anyone playing the game can participate equally. This video-game, to be specific, is a popular variant of balloon volleyball, in which players hit a balloon by hand before it falls to the floor. In this game system, each player plays the game watching a monitor on which the system displays tailor-made video-game images adjusted to the person’s athletic ability, providing players with player-adaptive assist support. We have developed a multiplayer game system with an image generation technique for the tailor-made video-game and conducted tests to evaluate it.

Keywords: therapeutic exercise, computer video game, disability-adaptive assist, tailor-made video-game image

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71 The Comparison of Forward Head Posture Measurements between Dominant and Non-Dominant Sides in Male Football Players and Non-Athletes

Authors: Mohamed Gomaa Mohamed

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Background and purpose: Ideal posture involves a minimal amount of stress or strain on various body segments which are aligned and worked in harmony to protect the body from injury or progressive deformity. One of most common faulty posture encountered in clinical setting is forward head posture (FHP) that was considered one of the main predictors for neck pain. Furthermore, FHP may predispose to thoracic outlet syndrome, temporomandibular joint dysfunction, shoulder pain and headache. The large financial burden related to neck disorders management raises the need to improve the quality of assessment and rehabilitation of FHP. So, the purpose of the study is to compare between measurements of FHP as indicated with craniovertebral (CVA) and gaze angles assessed from dominant and non-dominant sides in football players who extensively use their dominant side and non-athletic subjects. Participants: Twenty-four subjects were divided into 12 football players and 12 non-athletic subjects. Methods: CVA and gaze angles were assessed through photogrammetric method. Photos were taken from dominant and non-dominant sides of the subjects while assuming standing position. Paired t-test was used to assess angles differences between dominant and non-dominant sides of the subjects. Since there were no statistical differences between CVA and gaze angles measured from dominant and non-dominant sides in each group, we pooled data together to become 24 measurements for each group (12 from dominant and 12 from non-dominant). Independent t-test was used to assess angles differences between football players and non-athletic subjects. Results: No significant differences were found between CVA and gaze angles measured from dominant and non-dominant sides of both groups (P>0.05). Also, there were no significant differences between CVA and gaze angles measured from football players and non-athletic subjects (P>0.05). Conclusion: FHP can be assessed from dominant or non-dominant sides interchangeably either in football players or non-athletic subjects. Furthermore, playing football has no impact on measurements of FHP when compared to non-athletic subjects.

Keywords: dominant side, forward head posture, football players, non-dominant side

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70 Matching Coping Strategies to Athletic Retirement Stressors among Japanese Female Athletes

Authors: Miyako Oulevey, David Lavallee, Naohiko Kohtake

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Retirement from sport can be stressful to athletes for many reasons. Accordingly, it is necessary to match coping strategies depending on the stressors. One of the athlete career assistance programs for Japanese top athletes in Japan, the Japan Olympic Committee Career Academy (JCA), has focused on the service contents regarding occupational supports which can be said to cope with financial and occupational stress; however, other supports such as psychological support were unclear due to the lack of psychological professionals in the JCA. Tailoring the program, it is important to match the needs of the athletes at athletic retirement with the service contents. Japanese Olympic athletes have been found to retire for different reasons. Especially female athletes who competed in the Summer Olympic Games were found to retire with psychological reasons. The purpose of this research was to investigate the types of stressors Japanese female athletes experience as a result of athletic retirement. As part of the study, 44 female retired athletes from 13 competitive sports completed an open-ended questionnaire. The KJ method was used to analyze stress experienced as a result of retirement. As a result, nine conceptualized stressors were aggregated such as “Conflict with athletic identity”, “Desire to live as an athlete”, and “Career plan after retirement”. In order to match the coping strategies according to the stressors, each stressor was classified with the four types of adjustments; psychological, social, financial, and occupational changes. As a result, the stressor relating to psychological adjustment accounted for 69.0% of coping-related needs, the financial and occupational adjustment was 21.8%, and social adjustment was 9.2%. In conclusion, coping strategies according to the stressors are suggested.

Keywords: athletic retirement, coping, female athlete, stress

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69 Does Exercise Training Moderate the Effects of Ageing on Health

Authors: Elizabeth A. Haruna, Bulus Kpame, Kankanala Venkateswarlu

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The interaction of health and athletic performance with biologic aging has been an interesting and intriguing area for research. There has been a general acknowledgement of its importance to major public health and elite performance outcomes. There are many questions unanswered about the mechanisms of effects and dose-response changes. An attempt has been made in this paper to highlight potentially positive effects of regular training on the aging process and its effects on health. Age associated decline in health and performance results from the combination of the aging process itself, inactive lifestyle and primary diseases. An attempt is made in this paper to critically review what is known and what is unknown about evidence based changes, common to disuse and aging. Mechanisms responsible for the slowing decline in muscle mass and muscle force (sarcopenia) down of age – associated, weakness and fatigability due to year round athletic training have been discussed. It is in this regard we have attempted to share our views on advances made so far in understanding the impact of aging on health. We also attempted to explain how the biological effects of aging are minimized during appropriate year round athletic training. On the basis of available research evidence it was concluded that exercise training significantly slow down the deleterious effects of aging on health.

Keywords: aging, atrophy, sarcopenia, plyometric training

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68 Contact-Impact Analysis of Continuum Compliant Athletic Systems

Authors: Theddeus Tochukwu Akano, Omotayo Abayomi Fakinlede

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Proper understanding of the behavior of compliant mechanisms use by athletes is important in order to avoid catastrophic failure. Such compliant mechanisms like the flex-run require the knowledge of their dynamic response and deformation behavior under quickly varying loads. The modeling of finite deformations of the compliant athletic system is described by Neo-Hookean model under contact-impact conditions. The dynamic impact-contact governing equations for both the target and impactor are derived based on the updated Lagrangian approach. A method where contactor and target are considered as a united body is applied in the formulation of the principle of virtual work for the bodies. In this paper, methods of continuum mechanics and nonlinear finite element method were deployed to develop a model that could capture the behavior of the compliant athletic system under quickly varying loads. A hybrid system of symbolic algebra (AceGEN) and a compiled back end (AceFEM) were employed, leveraging both ease of use and computational efficiency. The simulated results reveal the effect of the various contact-impact conditions on the deformation behavior of the impacting compliant mechanism.

Keywords: eigenvalue problems, finite element method, robin boundary condition, sturm-liouville problem

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67 Using Analytics to Redefine Athlete Resilience

Authors: Phil P. Wagner

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There is an overwhelming amount of athlete-centric information available for sport practitioners in this era of tech and big data, but protocols in athletic rehabilitation remain arbitrary. It is a common assumption that the rate at which tissue heals amongst individuals is the same; yielding protocols that are entirely time-based. Progressing athletes through rehab programs that lack individualization can potentially expose athletes to stimuli they are not prepared for or unnecessarily lengthen their recovery period. A 7-year aggregated and anonymous database was used to develop reliable and valid assessments to measure athletic resilience. Each assessment utilizes force plate technology with proprietary protocols and analysis to provide key thresholds for injury risk and recovery. Using a T score to analyze movement qualities, much like the Z score used for bone density from a Dexa scan, specific prescriptions are provided to mitigate the athlete’s inherent injury risk. In addition to obliging to surgical clearance, practitioners must put in place a clearance protocol guided by standardized assessments and achievement in strength thresholds. In order to truly hold individuals accountable (practitioners, athletic trainers, performance coaches, etc.), success in improving pre-defined key performance indicators must be frequently assessed and analyzed.

Keywords: analytics, athlete rehabilitation, athlete resilience, injury prediction, injury prevention

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66 Percentile Reference Values of Vertical Jumping Performances and Anthropometric Characteristics in Athletic Tunisian Children and Adolescents

Authors: Chirine Aouichaoui, Mohamed Tounsi, Ines Mrizak, Zouhair Tabka, Yassine Trabelsi

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The aim of this study was to provide percentile values for vertical jumping performances and anthropometric characteristics for athletic Tunisian children. One thousand and fifty-five athletic Tunisian children and adolescents (643 boys and 412 girls) aged 7-18 years were randomly selected to participate in our study. They were asked to perform squat jumps and countermovement jumps. For each measurement, a least square regression model with high order polynomials was fitted to predict mean and standard deviation of vertical jumping parameters and anthropometric variables. Smoothed percentile curves and percentile values for the 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles are presented for boys and girls. In conclusion, percentiles values of vertical jumping performances and anthropometric characteristics are provided. The new Tunisian reference charts obtained can be used as a screening tool to determine growth disorders and to estimate the proportion of adolescents with high or low muscular strength levels. This study may help in verifying the effectiveness of a specific training program and detecting highly talented athletes.

Keywords: percentile values, jump height, leg muscle power, athletes, anthropometry

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65 The Effect of Relaxing Exercises in Water on Endorphin Hormone for the Beginner in Swimming

Authors: Yasmin Hussein Embaby

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Introduction: Athletic Training has its essentials, rules, and methods that help individual in reaching the maximum possible athletic level during the exercised physical activity, therefore; it is important for those working in athletic field to recognize and understand what is going on inside our bodies. This will show the close relationship between physiology and athletic training as the science that explains the various changes that happen to respond to the practice of physical activities. Swimming is one of the water sports that play a major role in influencing the full compatibility of body parts and its systems during the practice of different swimming methods, which uses aqueous to move. It is the initial nucleus in swimming learning and through which the beginner gain a sense of security, safety and the ability to move in aqueous by learning basic skills. Research Methodology: The researcher used the experimental methodology by using pre and post measurement on two equal groups (experimental – control) because it is appropriate for the research. Conclusions: Through the results and information found by the researcher, and in light of the related studies, theoretical readings and the statistical treatments of data; the researcher reached the following conclusions: 1. Muscle relaxation exercises have a positive effect on performance level in crawl swimming and on endorphin hormone as it helps in increasing its normal rater in body, the improvement percentage for experimental group in the relaxation ability, level of endorphin hormone exceeds those of control group. 2. The validity of muscle relaxation exercises proposed for the application, which achieved its objectives, namely increasing the level of endorphin hormone in the body; where research results showed a statistically significant difference in the level of endorphin hormone in favor of the experimental sample.

Keywords: beginners, endorphin hormone, relaxing exercises, swimming

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64 The Influence of Using Soft Knee Pads on Static and Dynamic Balance among Male Athletes and Non-Athletes

Authors: Yaser Kazemzadeh, Keyvan Molanoruzy, Mojtaba Izady

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The balance is the key component of motor skills to maintain postural control and the execution of complex skills. The present study was designed to evaluate the impact of soft knee pads on static and dynamic balance of male athletes. For this aim, thirty young athletes in different sport fields with 3 years professional sport training background and thirty healthy young men nonathletic (age: 24.5 ± 2.9, 24.3 ± 2.4, weight: 77.2 ± 4.3 and 80/9 ± 6/3 and height: 175 ± 2/84, 172 ± 5/44 respectively) as subjects selected. Then, subjects in two manner (without knee and with soft knee pads made of neoprene) execute standard error test (BESS) to assess static balance and star test to assess dynamic balance. For analyze of data, t-tests and one-way ANOVA were significant 05/0 ≥ α statistical analysis. The results showed that the use of soft knee significantly reduced error rate in static balance test (p ≥ 0/05). Also, use a soft knee pads decreased score of athlete group and increased score of nonathletic group in star test (p ≥ 0/05). These findings, indicates that use of knees affects static and dynamic balance in athletes and nonathletic in different manner and may increased athletic performance in sports that rely on static balance and decreased performance in sports that rely on dynamic balance.

Keywords: static balance, dynamic balance, soft knee, athletic men, non athletic men

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63 The Study of Participant Motivation, Social Support, and Training Satisfaction of Collegiate Teakwondo Athlete

Authors: Wen-Goang Yang, Li-Wei Liu, Peli-Ling Liu

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The purpose of this study was to explore relations among athletic participant motivation, social support, and training satisfaction. The approach was tested using structural equation modeling, involving 300 Teakwondo Athletics from 2017 National Intercollegiate Athletic Games, using a revised scale for Participant Motivation, Social Support, and Training Satisfaction. Statistical method included descriptive statistics and PLS-SEM. The results of the research as a follow: (1) The athletes ‘participant motivation’ positively effects the ‘social support’. (2) The athletes ‘participant motivation’ positively effects the ‘training satisfaction’. (3) The athletes ‘social support’ positively effects the ‘training satisfaction’.

Keywords: teakwondo, collegiate athlete, PLS-SEM, social support

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62 Bullying Rates Among Students with Special Needs in the United States

Authors: Kaycee Bills

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Past studies have indicated students who have disabilities are at a higher risk of experiencing bullying victimization in comparison to other student groups. Extracurricular activity participation has been shown to establish better social outcomes for students. These positive social outcomes indirectly decrease the number of times a student is bullied. The following study uses the National Crime Victimization Survey – School Crime Supplement (NCVS/SCS) to analyze the bullying concurrences experienced among students, with disabilities being a focal variable. To explore the relationship between extracurricular involvement and bullying occurrence rates, this study employs a binary logistic regression to determine if athletic and non-athletic extracurricular activities have an impact on the number of times a student with disabilities experiences bullying. Implications for future social welfare practice and research are discussed.

Keywords: disability, bullying, extracurricular activities, athletics

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61 The Comparison of Dismount Skill between National and International Men’s Artistic Gymnastics in Parallel Bars Apparatus

Authors: Chen ChihYu, Tang Wen Tzu, Chen Kuang Hui

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Aim —To compare the dismount skill between Taiwanese and elite international gymnastics in parallel bars following the 2017-2020 code of points. Methods—The gymnasts who advanced to the parallel bars event finals of these four competitions including World Championships, Universiade, the National Games of Taiwan, and the National Intercollegiate Athletic Games of Taiwan both 2017 and 2019 were selected in this study. The dismount skill of parallel bars was analyzed, and the average difficulty score was compared by one-way ANOVA. Descriptive statistics were applied to present the type of dismount skill and the difficulty of each gymnast in these four competitions. The data from World Championships and Universiade were combined as the international group (INT), and data of Taiwanese National Games and National Intercollegiate Athletic Games were also combined as the national group (NAT). The differences between INT and NAT were analyzed by the Chi-square test. The statistical significance of this study was set at α= 0.05. Results— i) There was a significant difference in the mean parallel bars dismount skill in these four competitions analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Both dismount scores of World Championships and Universiade were significantly higher than in Taiwanese National Games and National Intercollegiate Athletic Games (0.58±0.08 & 0.56±0.08 > 0.42±0.06 & 40±0.06, p < 0.05). ii) Most of the gymnasts in World Championships and Universiade selected the 0.6-point skill as the parallel bars dismount element, and for the Taiwanese National Games and the National Intercollegiate Athletic Games, most of the gymnasts performed the 0.4-point dismount skill. iii) The result of the Chi-square test has shown that there was a significant difference in the selection of parallel bars dismount skill. The INT group used the E or E+ difficulty element as the dismount skill, and the NAT group selected the D or D- difficulty element. Conclusion— The level of parallel bars dismount in Taiwanese gymnastics is inferior to elite international gymnastics. It is suggested that Taiwanese gymnastics must try to practice the F difficulty dismount (double salto forward tucked with half twist) in the future.

Keywords: Artistic Gymnastics World Championships, dismount, difficulty score, element

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60 The Effect of Dopamine D2 Receptor TAQ A1 Allele on Sprinter and Endurance Athlete

Authors: Öznur Özge Özcan, Canan Sercan, Hamza Kulaksız, Mesut Karahan, Korkut Ulucan

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Genetic structure is very important to understand the brain dopamine system which is related to athletic performance. Hopefully, there will be enough studies about athletics performance in the terms of addiction-related genetic markers in the future. In the present study, we intended to investigate the Receptor-2 Gene (DRD2) rs1800497, which is related to brain dopaminergic system. 10 sprinter and 10 endurance athletes were enrolled in the study. Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction method was used for genotyping. According to results, A1A1, A1A2 and A2A2 genotypes in athletes were 0 (%0), 3 (%15) and 17 (%85). A1A1 genotype was not found and A2 allele was counted as the dominating allele in our cohort. These findings show that dopaminergic mechanism effects on sport genetic may be explained by the polygenic and multifactorial view.

Keywords: addiction, athletic performance, genotype, sport genetics

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59 The Effect of Physical Biorhythm Cycle on Health-Related Fitness Factors

Authors: Leyli Khavari, Javad Yousefian

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The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of physical biorhythm cycle on health-related fitness factors. For this purpose, 120 athlete and non-athlete male and female students were selected randomly and based on the level of physical activity divided into athletic and non-athletic groups. The exact date of birth and also when the subjects were in the positive, negative and critical physical biorhythm cycle was determined by calculation software biorhythm. The physical fitness factors tests, including Queens College Step Test, AAHPERD sit-ups; Wells stretch test and hand dynamometer. Students in three stages in positive, negative and critical physical cycle were tested. Data processing using SPSS software and statistical tests ANOVA with repeated measures and student t test was used for dependent. The results of this study showed that changes in physical fitness and physical biorhythm were not affected by changes in the 23-day physical cycle.

Keywords: AAHPERD test, biorhythm, physical cycle, Queens College Step Test

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58 The Correlation between Nasal Resistance and Obligatory Oronasal Switching Point in Non-Athletic Non-Smoking Healthy Men

Authors: Amir H. Bayat, Mohammad R. Alipour, Saeed Khamneh

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As the respiration via nose is important physiologically, many studies have been done about nasal breathing that switches to oronasal breathing during exercise. The aim of this study was to assess the role of anterior nasal resistance as one of the effective factors on this switching. Twelve young, healthy, non-athletic and non-smoker male volunteers with normal BMI were selected after physical examination and participated in exercise protocol, including measurement of the ventilation, work load and oronasal switching point (OSP) during exercise, and anterior rhinomanometry at rest. The protocol was an incremental exercise with 25 watt increase in work load per minute up to OSP occurrence. There was a significant negative correlation between resting total anterior nasal resistance with OSP, work load and ventilation (p<0.05, r= -0.709). Resting total anterior nasal resistance can be considered as an important factor on OSP occurrence. So, the reducing the resistance of nasal passage may increase nasal respiration tolerance for longer time during exercise.

Keywords: anterior nasal resistance, exercise, OSP, ventilation, work load

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57 Athletics and Academics: A Mixed Methods Enquiry on University/College Student Athletes' Experiences

Authors: Tshepang Tshube

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The primary purpose of this study was to examine student-athletes’ experiences, particularly an in-depth account of balancing school and sport. The secondary objective was to assess student-athletes’ susceptibility to the effects of the “dumb-jock” stereotype threat and also determine the strength of athletic and academic identity as predicated by the extent to which stereotype is perceived by student-athletes. Sub-objectives are (a) examine support structures available for student-athletes in their respective academic institutions, (b) to establish the most effective ways to address student-athletes’ learning needs, (c) to establish crucial entourage members who play a pivotal role in student-athletes’ academic pursuits, (d) and unique and effective ways lecturers and coaches can contribute to student-athletes’ learning experiences. To achieve the above stated objectives, the study used a mixed methods approach. A total of 110 student-athletes from colleges and universities in Botswana completed an online survey that was followed by semi-structured interviews with eight student-athletes, and four coaches. The online survey assessed student-athletes’ demographic variables, measured athletic (AIMS), academic (modified from AIMS) identities, and perceived stereotype threat. Student-athletes reported a slightly higher academic identity (M=5.9, SD= .85) compared to athletic identity (M=5.4, SD=1.0). Student-athletes reported a moderate mean (M=3.6, SD=.82) just above the midpoint of the 7-point scale for stereotype threat. A univariate ANOVA was conducted to determine if there was any significant difference between university and college brackets in Botswana with regard to three variables: athletic identity, student identity and stereotype threat. The only significant difference was in the academic identity (Post Hoc-Tukey Student Identity: Bracket A < Bracket B, Bracket C) with Bracket A schools being the least athletically competitive. Bracket C and B are the most athletically competitive brackets in Botswana. Follow-up interviews with student-athletes and coaches were conducted. All interviews lasted an average of 55 minutes. Following all the interviews, all recordings were transcribed which is an obvious first step in qualitative data analysis process. The researcher and an independent academic with experience in qualitative research independently listened to all recordings of the interviews and read the transcripts several times. Qualitative data results indicate that even though student-athletes reported a slightly higher student identity, there are parallels between sports and academic structures on college campuses. Results also provide evidence of lack of academic support for student-athletes. It is therefore crucial for student-athletes to have access to academic support services (e.g., tutoring, flexible study times, and reduced academic loads) to meet their academic needs. Coaches and lecturers play a fundamental role in sporting student-athletes. Coaches and professors’ academic efficacy on student-athletes enhances student-athletes’ academic confidence. Results are discussed within the stereotype threat theory.

Keywords: athletic identity, colligiate sport, sterotype threat, student athletes

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56 A Study on Eliteathletes and Coaches' Attitude towards Sport Psychologyi the Areas of Sports

Authors: Mahdi PourAsghar, Abbas Mas'udzadeh, Abdulhakim Tirgari, Saeed Dabiri Roushan, Hooman Rashidi, Fariba Salehi

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Objective: One of the major objectives in sports areas is to achieve maximum athletic performance. Physical and psychological preparations are the basic factors for achieving maximum performance in athletes. Unfortunately, in the field of physical preparation, we can see maximum attention and planning of trainers and sports officials. But despite the importance of psychological preparation of athletes and its serious and profound effect on athletic performance, the results of sports competitions show that less attention is paid to this topic, and it is less under the control of counselors and psychologists in different areas of our sport. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the attitude of athletes and coaches to sport psychology. Materials and methods: A descriptive study with a sample size of 234 elite athletes and 216 skilled coaches was conducted in different areas of sports, in Sari, Mazandaran in 2015.The instrument was a questionnaire consisting of two parts of demographic data and Martin questionnaire, assessing the attitude to sport psychology. The data from this study were analyzed using Spss version 18, descriptive statistics tests, and Chi-square test. Results: In this study, positive attitudes of participants in need and confidence towards sport psychology consultation in athletes and coaches group were 55/1 and 56/5 percent, respectively. The positive attitude of female athletes in belief to psychology consultation was more than male athletes. Athletes with higher education had more positive attitude towards the presence of psychologists and psychiatrists in fields of sports. Conclusion: According to the findings based on the need to the psychology consultation in different areas of sports, it is recommended that through training of specialists in the field of sport psychology and review of sports programs in different fields of sports, the presence of these counselors to maintain the psychological preparation of athletes to achieve maximum athletic performance and reduce anxiety and stress be used.

Keywords: Keywords: Athletes, Eliteathletes, Coaches, Attitude, Sport psychology.

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55 Impact of Financial and Nutrition Support on Blood Health, Dietary Intake, and Well-Being among Female Student-Athletes

Authors: Kaila A. Vento

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Within the field of sports science, financial situations have been reported as a key barrier in purchasing high-quality foods. A lack of proper nutrition leads to insecurities of health, impairs training, and diminishes optimal performances. Consequently, insufficient nutrient intake, disordered eating patterns, and eating disorders may arise, leading to poor health and well-being. Athletic scholarships, nutrition resources, and meal programs are available, yet are disproportionally allocated, favoring male sports, Caucasian athletes, and higher sport levels. Direct athlete finances towards nutrition at various sport levels and the role race influences aid received has yet to be examined. Additionally, a diverse female athlete population is missing in the sports science literature, specifically in nutrition. To address this gap, the current project assesses how financial and nutrition support and nutrition knowledge impacts physical health, dietary intake, and overall quality of life of a diverse sample of female athletes at the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), National Junior Collegiate Athletic Association (NJCAA), and cub sport levels. The project will identify differences in financial support in relation to race, as well. Approximately (N = 120) female athletes will participate in a single 30-minute lab visit. At this visit, body composition (i.e., height, weight, body mass index, and fat percent), blood health indicators (fasted blood glucose and lipids), and resting blood pressure are measured. In addition, three validated questionnaires pertaining to nutrition knowledge (Sports Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire; SNKQ), dietary intake (Rapid Eating Assessment for Participants; REAP), and quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief; WHOQL-B) are gathered. Body composition and blood health indicators will be compared with the results of self-reported sports nutrition knowledge, dietary intake, and quality of life questionnaires. It is hypothesized that 1) financial and nutrition support and nutrition knowledge will differ between the sport levels and 2) financial and nutrition support and nutrition knowledge will have a positive association with quality of dietary intake and blood health indicators, 3) financial and nutrition support will differ significantly among racial background across the various competition levels, and 4) dietary intake will influence blood health indicators and quality of life. The findings from this study could have positive implications on athletic associations' policies on equity of financial and nutrition support to improve the health and safety of all female athletes across several sport levels.

Keywords: athlete, equity, finances, health, resources

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54 Transferring World Athletic Championship-Winning Principles to Entrepreneurship: The Case of Abdelkader El Mouaziz

Authors: Abderrahman Hassi, Omar Bacadi, Khaoula Zitouni

Abstract:

Abdelkader El Mouaziz is a Moroccan long-distance runner with a career-best time of 2:06:46 in the Chicago Marathon. El Mouaziz is a winner of the Madrid Marathon in 1994, the London Marathon in 1999 and 2001, as well as the New York Marathon in 2001. While he was playing for the Moroccan national team, he used to train in the Ifrane-Azrou region owing to its altitude, fresh forests, non-polluted air and quietness. After winning so many international competitions and retiring, he left his native Casablanca and went back to the Ifrane-Azrou region and started a business that employs ten people. In March 2010, El Mouaziz opened a bed and breakfast called Tourtite with a nice view on the mountain near the city of Ifrane in the way to Azrou. He wanted to give back to the region that helped him become a sport legend. His management style is not different than his sport style: performance and competitiveness combined with fair play. The objective of the present case study is to further enhance the understanding of the dynamics of transferring athletic championship-winning principles to entrepreneurial activities. The case study is a real-life situation and experience designed to provoke and stimulate reflections about a particular approach of management, especially for start-up businesses.

Keywords: sport, winning principles, entrepreneurship, Abdelkader El Mouaziz

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53 The Negative Relational Outcomes Bullying Has On Youth with Disabilities

Authors: Kaycee Bills

Abstract:

Studies have demonstrated that middle and high school students with disabilities are more likely to experience bullying than other student groups. The high rates of bullying victimization observed among youth with disabilities can result in severe socio-emotional consequences. These socio-emotional consequences often manifest in detrimental impacts on the students’ personal relationships. Past studies have indicated that participating in extracurricular athletic activities can have several socio-emotional benefits for students with disabilities. Given the findings of past studies demonstrating the positive relationship between mental health and participation in sports among students with disabilities, it is possible that participating in athletics could have a moderating relationship on the severity of the impact that bullying has on a student’s relationships with family and friends. Using the National Crime Victimization Survey/School Crime Supplement (NCVS/SCS), this study employs an ordinal logistic regression to determine if participation in extracurricular athletic activities mitigates the damaging impact bullying has on the personal relationships with friends and family among students who have disabilities. This study identified statistically significant results suggesting that students with disabilities who participate in athletics reported reduced levels of negative personal relationships resulting from bullying compared to their peers who did not participate in athletics.

Keywords: disability, inclusion, bullying, relationships

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52 Using Athletics to Mitigate the Negative Relational Outcomes Bullying Has On Youth with Disabilities

Authors: Kaycee Bills

Abstract:

Studies have demonstrated that middle and high school students with disabilities are more likely to experience bullying than other student groups. The high rates of bullying victimization observed among youth with disabilities can result in severe socio-emotional consequences. These socio-emotional consequences often manifest in detrimental impacts on the students’ personal relationships. Past studies have indicated that participating in extracurricular athletic activities can have several socio-emotional benefits for students with disabilities. Given the findings of past studies demonstrating the positive relationship between mental health and participation in sports among students with disabilities, it is possible that participating in athletics could have a moderating relationship on the severity of the impact that bullying has on a student’s relationships with family and friends. Using the National Crime Victimization Survey/School Crime Supplement (NCVS/SCS), this study employs an ordinal logistic regression to determine if participation in extracurricular athletic activities mitigates the damaging impact bullying has on the personal relationships with friends and family among students who have disabilities. This study identified statistically significant results suggesting that students with disabilities who participate in athletics reported reduced levels of negative personal relationships resulting from bullying compared to their peers who did not participate in athletics.

Keywords: disability, inclusion, bullying, relationships

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51 Seasonal Variation in 25(OH)D Concentration and Sprint Performance in Elite Athletes with a Spinal Cord Injury

Authors: Robert C. Pritchett, Elizabeth Broad, Kelly L. Pritchett

Abstract:

Individuals a with spinal cord injuries have been suggested to be at risk for a 25(OH)D insufficiency. However, little is known regarding the relationship between seasonal Vitamin D status and performance in a spinally injured athletic population. Purpose: The purpose of this study was: 1) to examine the seasonal change in 25(OH)D concentrations and 2) to determine whether 25(OH)D status impacts athletic performance in US Paralympic athletes. Methods: 25 (OH)D concentrations were measured in 11 outdoor track athletes ( 5 men/6 females), between fall (October/November) and winter(February). Dietary intake and lifestyle habits were assessed via questionnaire, and performance measurements were assessed using a 20meter sprint test. 25(OH)D concentrations were assessed using a blood spot method (ZRT Laboratory). Results: There was no significant change in 25 (OH) D concentrations across seasons (P=0.505; 31 + 6.35 ng/mL, 29 + 8.72 ng/mL (mean + SD) for Fall and Winter, respectively. In the Fall,42% of the athletes had sufficient levels (>32ng/mL), and 58% were insufficient. (20ng/mL -31ng/mL) where as the winter levels dropped with 33% being sufficient and 58% being insufficient and 1% being deficient (<20ng/mL). There was a weak but significant correlation between a change in 25(OH)D concentrations, and change in 20m sprint time (p<0.05; r=0.408). Conclusion: A substantial proportion of elite athletes with an SCI have low vitamin D status. However, results suggest there was little seasonal variation in 25(OH)D status in elite track athletes with an SCI. Furthermore, any change that was observed demonstrated a very weak relationship with a change in performance.

Keywords: 25(oh)d, performance, spinal cord injuries, elite, sprint, concentration

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50 Homophily in Youth Athletics: Sociodemographics, Group Cohesion, and the Psychology of Performance in Sport

Authors: Brandon Ko

Abstract:

Whether it’s a kitchen staff or a law firm, many groups tend to have homogenous characteristics of race, gender, interests, and goals. Social groups are not typically random samples of the population and will usually have common identifiers. According to Blau, age, sex, and education all play salient roles in shaping relationships within members of society. So if there is some degree of homogeneity within groups, the question arises whether this is beneficial or harmful to a group’s effectiveness. There has been much disagreement in the scientific community as to whether the presence of homophily benefits or hinders an athletic team's cohesiveness. For this paper, a comparative study of research of soccer case studies that followed various, youth players was studied against examinations of the effects that such a culture has on athletes. The case studies were used as evidence to determine what kind of homophily existed within the soccer camps. One case study followed several European developmental clubs such as Bayern Munich and Barcelona. Another study followed eight different players, four of each gender, implementing a similar method of interviewing, observing, and questioning. The individual and team goals of each athlete were reviewed to see which teams and players were ego-oriented and which were team-oriented. Additionally, there had been little research done on the relationship between homophily and how it applies to the sport community, suggesting the need to develop this neglected problem in applied psychology. This paper argues that the benefits of an egalitarian culture and stronger relations with people of a similar socio-demographic outweigh the liabilities of cohesion like being stereotyped and a lack of network outside the group as produced by homophily in athletic competition.

Keywords: group cohesion, homophily, sports psychology, youth athletics

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49 ACL Tear Prevention Program

Authors: Ervin Meqikukiqi

Abstract:

It is difficult to assess how athletes can best modify their movements to prevent non contact ACL injuries. Speaking with an athletic trainer, physical therapist, or sports medicine specialist is a good place to start. Recent research has allowed therapists and clinicians to easily identify and target weak muscle areas (e.g., weak hips, which leads to knock-kneed landing positions) and identify ways to improve strength and thus help prevent injury. In addition, other risk factors such as reduced hamstring strength and increased joint range of motion can be further assessed by a physical therapist or athletic trainer to improve performance-or rehabilitation efforts after an injury has occurred. Current studies also demonstrate that specific types of training, such as jump routines and learning to pivot properly, help athletes prevent ACL injuries. These types of exercises and training programs are more beneficial if athletes start when they are young. It may be optimal to integrate prevention programs during early adolescence, prior to when young athletes develop certain habits that increase the risk of an ACL injury. This is a 20 minute program designed to reduce the risk of tears of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament. It should be started at least four and preferably six weeks prior to start of competition.Ideally it is done five times per week preseason and three times per week in season.The coach or trainer must constantly observe athletes during these exercises to correct and maintain proper technique. Once the athletes understand the principles, they can monitor and coach each other. Four phases: Warm-up, Strengthening, Plyometrics, Agility and Balance.

Keywords: athletes, acl, prevention, injuries, plyoemtric, proprioception, agillity

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48 Assessing the Effects of Sub-Concussive Head Impacts on Clinical Measures of Neurologic Function

Authors: Gianluca Del Rossi

Abstract:

Sub-concussive impacts occur frequently in collision sports such as American tackle football. Sub-concussive level impacts are defined as hits to the head that do not result in the clinical manifestation of concussion injury. Presently, there is limited information known about the short-term effects of repeated sub-concussive blows to the head. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to determine if standard clinical measures could detect acute impairments in neurologic function resulting from the accumulation of sub-concussive impacts throughout a season of high school American tackle football. Simple reaction time using the ruler-drop test, and oculomotor performance using the King-Devick (KD) test, were assessed in 15 athletes prior to the start of the athletic season, then repeated each week of the season, and once following its completion. The mean reaction times and fastest KD scores that were recorded or calculated from each study participant and from each test session were analyzed to assess for change in reaction time and oculomotor performance over the course of the American tackle football season. Analyses of KD data revealed improvements in oculomotor performance from baseline measurements (i.e., decreased time), with most weekly comparisons to baseline being significantly different. Statistical tests performed on the mean reaction times obtained via the ruler-drop test throughout the season revealed statistically significant declines (i.e., increased time) between baseline and weeks 3, 4, 10, and 12 of the athletic season. The inconsistent and contrasting findings between KD data and reaction time demonstrate the need to identify more robust clinical measures to definitively assess if repeated sub-concussive impacts to the head are acutely detrimental to patients.

Keywords: head injury, mTBI and sport, subclinical head trauma, sub-concussive impacts

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