Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 75

Search results for: enrollment

75 The Effects of Dual-Enrollment Programs on Students’ Post-Secondary Academic Performance

Authors: Cody Kirby, Kaustav Misra, Arundhati Bagchi Misra, Sharon P. Cox

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This paper focuses on the relationship that dual-enrollment programs have on academic performance and retention. Both performance and retention are significant issues in higher education. The first, performance, is a goal of higher education, having an impact on students’ lives. The second, retention, is key to the viability of any college or university. This paper uses survey research methodology to examine factors that lead to positive student academic performance, which leads to retention, specifically in dual-enrollment programs. The data show several characteristics that lead to a positive impact on GPA. These include the following; age, Caucasian race, full-time status, students in STEM programs, and finally dual enrollment participation.

Keywords: dual enrollment, early college, retention, undergraduate education

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
74 Higher Education and Empowerment of Women in Assam (India): An Empirical Analysis

Authors: Anupam Deka, Indira Bardoloi

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Gender discrimination has been considered as a major obstacle in granting equal opportunity for women in higher education as education plays a pivotal role in a country’s socioeconomic development. To examine the empowerment of women in the higher education field of Assam, a case study has been carried out. In the first stage, an overview of enrollment of students in different courses has been made by considering the whole state. In the second stage, a study has been conducted regarding the enrollment of students in various degree and postgraduate courses for the period 2000-2007 at Gauhati University (one of the four universities of Assam), and the relevant data has been collected. It has been found that though the enrollment of students in the degree levels has been constantly increasing, but the enrollment of girls are not proportionately increasing, especially in commerce and law. On the other hand, in the postgraduate level, these proportions are higher in almost all subjects (except some subjects like M. COM., L.L.M, M. C. A., Mathematics, etc.), indicating that compared to boys, a higher number of girls are being admitted in postgraduate courses.

Keywords: field study, enrollment of girls in degree and postgratudate levels, regression lines, chi square test, diagrams, statistical tables

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
73 Insights and Inferences Associated with Subscription of Health Insurance in the Informal Sector of India

Authors: Harinder Singh

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The paper sheds light on the perceptions of the uninsured workers employed in the urban informal sector of India, towards the health insurance. In addition to this, it also explores the association of the identified perceptions with household decisions to enroll for health insurance schemes in India. Firstly the data taken from the primary survey of the uninsured workers employed in the urban informal sector was analyzed using exploratory factor analysis to evaluate the perceptions. Thereafter, logistic regression was employed to determine the association of the identified perceptions regarding the enrollment. Our study identifies twelve perceptions related to the health insurance enrollment of the uninsured workers employed in the urban informal sector of India. The study demonstrates that perceptions have the strongest association with the voluntary enrollment. These specifically relate to the lack of awareness about the need to buy health insurance; comprehensive coverage; income constraint; future contingencies and social obligations; lack of information; availability of subsidized government health care; linkage with government hospitals and preference for government schemes. Conclusions: Along with the food security, health security has become a crying need of the workers employed in the informal sector and the time has come to scale up the health insurance schemes for them in the country. Policy makers or marketers of health insurance policies should recognize the household perceptions as a potential barrier and try to develop a health insurance package as per the actual needs of the informal sector (low income) in India.

Keywords: association, enrollment, health insurance, informal sector, perceptions, uninsured

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
72 Educational Policies Vis-à-Vis Implementation and Challenges in the Case of Physically Disabled Children in Balochistan, Pakistan

Authors: Mumtaz Ali Baloch

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This article aims at to review the policies and gaps including the socioeconomic and institutional factors that affected the enrollment of disabled children and caused drop-outs. It provides insights to scrutinize the gaps in policies, socioeconomic, and institutional factors with the specific concern in enrollment and drop out of disabled children in Pakistan, and Balochistan in particular. The findings of this study revealed that the old-age centralized policies and a number of socio-economic and institutional factors seemed to have significantly affected the enrollment and quality education in the case of physically disabled children. There were only a few schools functional in entire Balochistan. For example, an entire province (Balochistan) there are only two schools for disabled children, established in Quetta city. In the other 31 districts, an estimated population of 300,000 people of each district there were no schools for the disabled children. The findings of this study revealed that there is a great distinction between the policy and practice in the case of physically disabled children in Quetta, Balochistan. Consequently, such children seemed to have been out of schools. Dropout after the class eighth grade is almost 100%, as there are no high schools available for physically/disabled children, in Balochistan. The concerned organizations and authorities need to develop and ratify specific policies, provide required) facilities to the schools including sufficient budget, streamline the academic planning, and an effective monitoring and evaluation system. Only awareness and motivation could not help in improving the enrollment rate and decreasing the dropout in the case of physically disabled children. There is an urgent need to provide the required facilities to the schools. Almost all students needed assistive equipment, effective physical therapy as well as regular medical facilities. Such measures can improve the enrolment and rehabilitation of children.

Keywords: education policy, practices, physically disabled children, challenges, Balochistan, Pakistan

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
71 Educational Deprivation and Their Determinants in India: Evidence from National Sample Survey

Authors: Mukesh Ranjan

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Applying probit model on the micro data of NSS 71st round on education for understanding the access to education post the passage of Right to Education act,2009 in India. The empirical analysis shows that at all India level the mean age of enrollment in school is 5.5 years and drop-out age is around 14 years (or studied up to class 7) and around 60 percent females never get enrolled in any school in their lifetime. Nearly 20 percent children in Bihar never seen school and surprisingly, the relatively developed states like Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu have more than one-third of the children and half of the children in Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal and Orissa as educationally wasted. The relative contribution in educational wastage is maximum by Bengal (10 %) while UP contributed a maximum of 30 % in educational non-enrollment in the country. Educational wastage is more likely to increase with age. Marriage is a resistive factor in getting education. Muslims are educationally more deprived than Hindus. Larger family and rich household are less likely to be educationally deprived. Major reasons for drop-out until 9 years were lack of interest in education and financial constraint; between 10-12 years, lack of interest and unable to cope up with studies and post 12 years financial constraint, marriage and other household reasons.

Keywords: probit model, educational wastage, educational non-enrollment, educational deprivation

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70 Facilitating Written Biology Assessment in Large-Enrollment Courses Using Machine Learning

Authors: Luanna B. Prevost, Kelli Carter, Margaurete Romero, Kirsti Martinez

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Writing is an essential scientific practice, yet, in several countries, the increasing university science class-size limits the use of written assessments. Written assessments allow students to demonstrate their learning in their own words and permit the faculty to evaluate students’ understanding. However, the time and resources required to grade written assessments prohibit their use in large-enrollment science courses. This study examined the use of machine learning algorithms to automatically analyze student writing and provide timely feedback to the faculty about students' writing in biology. Written responses to questions about matter and energy transformation were collected from large-enrollment undergraduate introductory biology classrooms. Responses were analyzed using the LightSide text mining and classification software. Cohen’s Kappa was used to measure agreement between the LightSide models and human raters. Predictive models achieved agreement with human coding of 0.7 Cohen’s Kappa or greater. Models captured that when writing about matter-energy transformation at the ecosystem level, students focused on primarily on the concepts of heat loss, recycling of matter, and conservation of matter and energy. Models were also produced to capture writing about processes such as decomposition and biochemical cycling. The models created in this study can be used to provide automatic feedback about students understanding of these concepts to biology faculty who desire to use formative written assessments in larger enrollment biology classes, but do not have the time or personnel for manual grading.

Keywords: machine learning, written assessment, biology education, text mining

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
69 Effects of National Policy on Montana Medicaid Coverage and Enrollment

Authors: Ryan J. Trefethen, Vincent H. Smith

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This study explores the relationship between national spending on the Medicaid program, and total Medicaid spending and enrollment in Montana, a state that ranks thirty-third in per capita income and thirty-seventh in median household income in the United States. The purpose of the research is to estimate the potential effects that specific changes to national healthcare policy would likely have on funding for the Montana Medicaid Program and enrollees in the program, members of families in poverty whose incomes are low, even though in many cases they have steady jobs. A particular concern is the effect on access to care for children in poverty who tend to be food insecure and, therefore, especially in need of access to health care. The research uses data collected from a variety of government publications, including the Medicaid Financial Management Report, the Medicaid Managed Care Enrollment Report, and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services MSIS State Summaries for fiscal years 2000-2015. These data were examined using econometric analysis, to assess these impacts. The evidence indicates that the changes included in recent congressional legislative initiatives would potentially leave an additional 50,000 to 60,000 Montana residents, five to six percent of the state’s population, in poverty without access to health care. Impacts on children in poverty would potentially be substantial.

Keywords: children, healthcare, medicaid, montana, poverty

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
68 Using Repetition of Instructions in Course Design to Improve Instructor Efficiency and Increase Enrollment in a Large Online Course

Authors: David M. Gilstrap

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Designing effective instructions is a critical dimension of effective teaching systems. Due to a void in interpersonal contact, online courses present new challenges in this regard, especially with large class sizes. This presentation is a case study in how the repetition of instructions within the course design was utilized to increase instructor efficiency in managing a rapid rise in enrollment. World of Turf is a two-credit, semester-long elective course for non-turfgrass majors at Michigan State University. It is taught entirely online and solely by the instructor without any graduate teaching assistants. Discussion forums about subject matter are designated for each lecture, and those forums are moderated by a few undergraduate turfgrass majors. The instructions as to the course structure, navigation, and grading are conveyed in the syllabus and course-introduction lecture. Regardless, students email questions about such matters, and the number of emails increased as course enrollment grew steadily during the first three years of its existence, almost to a point that the course was becoming unmanageable. Many of these emails occurred because the instructor was failing to update and operate the course in a timely and proper fashion because he was too busy answering emails. Some of the emails did help the instructor ferret out poorly composed instructions, which he corrected. Beginning in the summer semester of 2015, the instructor overhauled the course by segregating content into weekly modules. The philosophy envisioned and embraced was that there can never be too much repetition of instructions in an online course. Instructions were duplicated within each of these modules as well as associated modules for syllabus and schedules, getting started, frequently asked questions, practice tests, surveys, and exams. In addition, informational forums were created and set aside for questions about the course workings and each of the three exams, thus creating even more repetition. Within these informational forums, students typically answer each other’s questions, which demonstrated to the students that that information is available in the course. When needed, the instructor interjects with corrects answers or clarifies any misinformation which students might be putting forth. Increasing the amount of repetition of instructions and strategic enhancements to the course design have resulted in a dramatic decrease in the number of email replies necessitated by the instructor. The resulting improvement in efficiency allowed the instructor to raise enrollment limits thus effecting a ten-fold increase in enrollment over a five-year period with 1050 students registered during the most recent academic year, thus becoming easily the largest online course at the university. Because of the improvement in course-delivery efficiency, sufficient time was created that allowed the instructor to development and launch an additional online course, hence further enhancing his productivity and value in terms of the number of the student-credit hours for which he is responsible.

Keywords: design, efficiency, instructions, online, repetition

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
67 Using Automated Agents to Facilitate Instructions in a Large Online Course

Authors: David M Gilstrap

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In an online course with a large enrollment, the potential exists for the instructor to become overburdened with having to respond to students’ emails, which consequently decreases the instructor’s efficiency in teaching the course. Repetition of instructions is an effective way of reducing confusion among students, which in turn increases their efficiencies, as well. World of Turf is the largest online course at Michigan State University, which employs Brightspace as its management system (LMS) software. Recently, the LMS upgraded its capabilities to utilize agents, which are auto generated email notifications to students based on certain criteria. Agents are additional tools that can enhance course design. They can be run on-demand or according to a schedule. Agents can be timed to effectively remind students of approaching deadlines. The content of these generated emails can also include reinforced instructions. With a large online course, even a small percentage of students that either do not read or do not comprehend the course syllabus or do not notice instructions on course pages can result in numerous emails to the instructor, often near the deadlines for assignments. Utilizing agents to decrease the number of emails from students has enabled the instructor to efficiently instruct more than one thousand students per semester without any graduate student teaching assistants.

Keywords: agents, Brightspace, large enrollment, learning management system, repetition of instructions

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
66 Low Enrollment in Civil Engineering Departments: Challenges and Opportunities

Authors: Alaa Yehia, Ayatollah Yehia, Sherif Yehia

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There is a recurring issue of low enrollments across many civil engineering departments in postsecondary institutions. While there have been moments where enrollments begin to increase, civil engineering departments find themselves facing low enrollments at around 60% over the last five years across the Middle East. There are many reasons that could be attributed to this decline, such as low entry-level salaries, over-saturation of civil engineering graduates in the job market, and a lack of construction projects due to the impending or current recession. However, this recurring problem alludes to an intrinsic issue of the curriculum. The societal shift to the usage of high technology such as machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) demands individuals who are proficient at utilizing it. Therefore, existing curriculums must adapt to this change in order to provide an education that is suitable for potential and current students. In this paper, In order to provide potential solutions for this issue, the analysis considers two possible implementations of high technology into the civil engineering curriculum. The first approach is to implement a course that introduces applications of high technology in Civil Engineering contexts. While the other approach is to intertwine applications of high technology throughout the degree. Both approaches, however, should meet requirements of accreditation agencies. In addition to the proposed improvement in civil engineering curriculum, a different pedagogical practice must be adapted as well. The passive learning approach might not be appropriate for Gen Z students; current students, now more than ever, need to be introduced to engineering topics and practice following different learning methods to ensure they will have the necessary skills for the job market. Different learning methods that incorporate high technology applications, like AI, must be integrated throughout the curriculum to make the civil engineering degree more attractive to prospective students. Moreover, the paper provides insight on the importance and approach of adapting the Civil Engineering curriculum to address the current low enrollment crisis that civil engineering departments globally, but specifically in the Middle East, are facing.

Keywords: artificial intelligence (AI), civil engineering curriculum, high technology, low enrollment, pedagogy

Procedia PDF Downloads 22
65 The Influence of Students’ Learning Factor and Parents’ Involvement in Their Learning and Suspension: The Application of Big Data Analysis of Internet of Things Technology

Authors: Chih Ming Kung

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This study is an empirical study examining the enrollment rate and dropout rate of students from the perspectives of students’ learning, parents’ involvement and the learning process. Methods: Using the data collected from the entry website of Internet of Things (IoT), parents’ participation and the installation pattern of exit poll website, an investigation was conducted. Results: This study discovered that in the aspect of the degree of involvement, the attractiveness of courses, self-performance and departmental loyalty exerts significant influences on the four aspects: psychological benefits, physical benefits, social benefits and educational benefits of learning benefits. Parents’ participation also exerts a significant influence on the learning benefits. A suitable tool on the cloud was designed to collect the dynamic big data of students’ learning process. Conclusion: This research’s results can be valuable references for the government when making and promoting related policies, with more macro view and consideration. It is also expected to be contributory to schools for the practical study of promotion for enrollment.

Keywords: students’ learning factor, parents’ involvement, involvement, technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
64 Perceptions of Higher Education Online Learning Faculty in Lebanon

Authors: Noha Hamie Haidar

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The purpose of this case study was to explore faculty attitudes toward online learning in a Lebanese Higher Education Institution (HEI). The research problem addressed the disinterest among faculty at the Arts, Sciences, and Technology University of Lebanon (AUL) in enhancing learning using online technology. The research questions for the study examined the attitudes of the faculty toward applying online learning and the extent of the faculty readiness to adopt this technological change. A qualitative case study design was used that employed multiple sources of information including semi-structured interviews and existing literature. The target population was AUL faculty including full-time instructors and administration (n=25). Data analysis was guided by the lens of Kanter’s theoretical approach, which focused on faculty’s awareness, desire, knowledge, ability, and reinforcement model (ADKAR) for adopting change. Key findings indicated negative impressions concerning online learning such as authority (ministry of education, culture, and rules); and change (increased enrollment and different teaching styles). Yet, within AUL’s academic environment, the opportunity for the adoption of online learning was identified; faculty showed positive elements, such as the competitive advantage to first enter the Lebanese Market, and higher student enrollment. These results may encourage AUL’s faculty to adopt online learning and to achieve a positive social change by expanding the ability of students in HEIs to compete globally.

Keywords: faculty, higher education, technology, online learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
63 Increasing National Health Insurance Scheme Enrolment in Ghana: Pro-Rata Insurance Premium Payment with Mobile Phone as the Answer

Authors: Joseph Marfo Boaheng, Daniel Ansong, Eugenia Amporfo

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Health Insurance is proposed to provide financial protection against catastrophic health care cost arising from disease. Ghana has had a National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) since 2003 with the current enrolment/retention rate of 36%. The main goal of the scheme is to provide equity in the health sector as well as ensuring affordable health care for the poor. However, the current payment system is not flexible to attract significant proportion of the poor informal sector onto the scheme. Looking at the extensive use of mobiles in the Ghana where about 29,220,602.00 registered mobile phone lines are actively in used as of June 2014, paying health insurance premium through mobile phone could be feasible to attract larger proportion of the informal sector onto the scheme. Methodology: The quantitative cross-sectional survey was used to solicit the required information from 877 respondents living in Kumasi, the second capital city of Ghana. The magnitude of the effect of Pro-rata system (flexible payment terms) on NHIS enrollment rate was estimated with binary logistic regression model. Results: The odds for an individual to enroll onto NHIS with mobile phone increases about 2 times more when payment of insurance premium is on pro-rata basis ie. flexible payment terms (p=0.008, CI=1.212-3.565). Conclusion: The study advocates the National Health Insurance Authority consider this alternative payment system that has the potential of attracting a greater proportion of the informal sector to be enrolled or retained onto the scheme.

Keywords: enrollment, health insurance, mobile phone, pro-rata

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
62 Low Enrollment in Antiretroviral Treatment among Pregnant Women Screened HIV Infected in Informal Health Centers in Cameroon

Authors: Lydie Audrey Amboua Schouame, Sylvie Kwedi Nolna, Antoine Socpa, Alexandre Benjamin Nkoum

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Background: Despite the struggle of the Cameroonian Ministry of Public Health against informal health centers (IHCs) because of their illegality, IHCs are booming in Cameroon and a large part of the population uses them. In 2017, more than 3.000 IHCs were counted across the country. Most of these IHCs have antenatal clinics and they screen pregnant women for HIV. However, there is no data on the Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT) in this informal health sector in Cameroon. This study aimed to investigate the initiation of Antiretroviral treatment (ART) in pregnant women screened HIV positive in IHCs and associated factors. Methods: From January 01, 2018, to June 30, 2020, we carried out a cohort study of pregnant women attending their first antenatal visit and screened HIV positive in informal health centers in the cities of Douala and Ebolowa in Cameroon. Consenting participants were interviewed at two points: at least one week after delivery of the HIV result and three months later. The collected data were entered into Kobo collected and analyzed in SPSS V23.0 software. Results: A total of 182 HIV-infected pregnant women were enrolled in the study. The median age at enrollment was 30 years (IQR, 24-34) and the median gestational age at first ANC was 25 weeks (IQR, 19-31). Overall 61% (111/182) had a secondary level of education, 65% (118/182) were married/in a common-law relationship and 69% (126/182) had no income activity. At their first ANC, 91% (166/182) were naïve to ARV treatment. Among them, only 45% (74/166) initiated ART. The median delay in initiating ARV treatment was 5 days (IQR, 0-25). Of those who have started ART, only 64% (48/74) remained on treatment 3 months later. Conclusion: In order to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV, attention should be paid to IHCs.

Keywords: informal health centers, human immunodeficiency, antiretroviral treatment, pregnant women

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
61 Assessment on the Pivotal Role of the Philippine Entrepreneurship Education in the Development of Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs)

Authors: Melchor C. Morandarte

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Entrepreneurship education if well-designed, supported, and true to its sense in its implementation, can play a pivotal role in the development of Micro, small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) of the country. As its foundation, there is no amount of economic shocks that can prevent the country’s economic development and sustainability. Likewise, if properly developed, entrepreneurship education is the only kind of academic activity that rains employment opportunities propel and sustain economic growth. The study will try to find the contributions of the entrepreneurship education in the Philippines. Provide possible solutions that will solve academic heads and educators of entrepreneurship dilemma in making graduates of the program to engage or pursue a business after their graduation. Transforming BS in Entrepreneurship graduates from employment to an entrepreneurial minded individuals to establish and manage their owned businesses (as designed) whether micro, small or medium enterprises justifies the purpose within which it was created. Formally started in academic year 2006-2007, the program suffers in a very low enrollment in the first three academic years when it was first offered in the different HEIs all over the country. It started to experience only some increase in enrollment as a result of the moratorium in the Bachelor of Science in Business Administration (BSBA) in academic year 2011-2012 till today. The number of enrollees resulted in a substantial number of graduates. Considering the number of Bachelor of Science in Entrepreneurship graduates as of today, there would have been an additional number of business establishments from since the program started to be offered in the different HEIs throughout the country. In conclusion, coming up with a well-designed curriculum, relevant curricular, co-curricular and extra-curricular activities couple with much needed support from concerned government agencies, the institutions, other government and non-governmental institutions, private organizations, entrepreneurship practitioners can make the difference in terms of the mindset of the students of entrepreneurship.

Keywords: economic shocks, educators dilemma, rains employment opportunities, co-curricular

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60 Social Infrastracture the Case of Education in Ethiopia

Authors: Tekalign Gidi Kure

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This paper addresses a range of serious problems involving higher education in Ethiopia. In spite of increased enrollment in higher education, educational quality is deteriorating afterwards. Thus, this paper tried to assess the role of social infrastructure in education for economic development of the country and examined major critical problems in higher education of Ethiopia such as higher education finance, curriculum development, and instructor’s career development. Primarily the paper discusses the fundamental contributions of social infrastructure in higher education to economic development; namely development of human capital, improved health, life expectancy, increased productivity, and personal saving, then, the paper examines critically higher education in three regimes of Ethiopia (Emperor Regime, Derg Regime and EPDRF/current government). Thus, four main questions were raised during this research: "What are the antecedents of Ethiopia Higher Education System under three regimes?", " what are the current and emerging higher educational needs in Ethiopia economic development?", " what are the role of private sector in addressing the gaps in the higher education of the country and its adverse effect on quality issues? ", and "what improvements are needed in higher education system of Ethiopia?". Documents from Ministry of Education in Ethiopia, National Statistical Abstracts, and Reports from the World Bank and other recognized institutions were used in addition to recent empirical researches conducted in the country. In doing so, care had been taken to reduce prejudiced reports by involving different reports from multiple sources. The paper concludes that during emperor system higher education enrollment was among the very lowest in the world, therefore, the skilled human resource available to guide development were little, but the cost was very high. During the Derg regime where an ideological change in the system penetrated into higher education resulted with the lack of a large amount of resources to support higher education; the war inside and outside the country diverts resources from the sector. The main purpose of this paper is not only to discuss the problems and issues of higher education in the past, but it also investigates the influence that the current expansion of higher education has on the finance, staff, and other resources for the quality of education. The paper concludes that higher education in Ethiopia are financed by government, outdated curriculum and lagging behind the standard regarding qualified staff. Finally, it provided inevitable solutions if the country wants to gain well record in quality of education as well.

Keywords: social infrastructure, higher education, ethiopia, education quality

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59 Towards a Doughnut Economy: The Role of Institutional Failure

Authors: Ghada El-Husseiny, Dina Yousri, Christian Richter

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Social services are often characterized by market failures, which justifies government intervention in the provision of these services. It is widely acknowledged that government intervention breeds corruption since resources are being transferred from one party to another. However, what is still being extensively studied is the magnitude of the negative impact of corruption on publicly provided services and development outcomes. Corruption has the power to hinder development and cripple our march towards the Sustainable Development Goals. Corruption diminishes the efficiency and effectiveness of public health and education spending and directly impacts the outcomes of these sectors. This paper empirically examines the impact of Institutional Failure on public sector services provision, with the sole purpose of studying the impact of corruption on SDG3 and 4; Good health and wellbeing and Quality education, respectively. The paper explores the effect of corruption on these goals from various perspectives and extends the analysis by examining if the impact of corruption on these goals differed when it accounted for the current corruption state. Using Pooled OLS(Ordinary Least Square) and Fixed effects panel estimation on 22 corrupt and 22 clean countries between 2000 and 2017. Results show that corruption in both corrupt and clean countries has a more severe impact on Health than the Education sector. In almost all specifications, corruption has an insignificant effect on School Enrollment rates but a significant effect on Infant Mortality rates. Results further indicate that, on average, a 1 point increase in the CPI(Consumer Price Index) can increase health expenditures by 0.116% in corrupt and clean countries. However, the fixed effects model indicates that the way Health and Education expenditures are determined in clean and corrupt countries are completely country-specific, in which corruption plays a minimal role. Moreover, the findings show that School Enrollment rates and Infant Mortality rates depend, to a large extent, on public spending. The most astounding results-driven is that corrupt countries, on average, have more effective and efficient healthcare expenditures. While some insights are provided as to why these results prevail, they should be further researched. All in all, corruption impedes development outcomes, and any Anti-corrupt policies taken will bring forth immense improvements and speed up the march towards sustainability.

Keywords: corruption, education, health, public spending, sustainable development

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
58 Industrial Engineering Higher Education in Saudi Arabia: Assessing the Current Status

Authors: Mohammed Alkahtani, Ahmed El-Sherbeeny

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Industrial engineering is among engineering disciplines that have been introduced relatively recently to higher education in Saudi Arabian engineering colleges. The objective of this paper is to shed light on the history and status of IE higher education in different Saudi universities, including statistics comparing student enrollment and graduation in different Saudi public and private universities. This paper then proposes how industrial engineering programs could participate successfully in the Saudi Vision 2030. Finally, the authors show the results of a survey conducted on a number of IE students evaluating various academic and administrative aspects of the IE program at King Saud University.

Keywords: higher education, history, industrial engineering, Vision 2030

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
57 Expansion of Subjective Learning at Japanese Universities: Experiential Learning Based on Social Participation

Authors: Kumiko Inagaki

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Qualitative changes to the undergraduate education have recently become the focus of attention in Japan. This is occurring against the backdrop of declining birthrate and increasing university enrollment, as well as drastic societal changes of advance toward globalization and a knowledge-based society. This paper describes the cases of Japanese universities that promoted various forms of experiential learning around the theme of social participation. The opportunity of learning through practical experience, where students turn their attention to social problems and take pains to consider means of resolving them, creates opportunities to demonstrate “human power” applicable to all sorts of activities the following graduation, thereby guaranteeing students’ continuous growth throughout their careers.

Keywords: career education, experiential learning, subjective learning, university education

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
56 Optimism, Skepticism, and Uncertainty: A Qualitative Study on the Knowledge and Perceived Impact of the Affordable Care Act among Adult Patients Seeking Care in a Free Clinic

Authors: Mike Wei, Mario Cedillo, Jiahui Lin, Carol Lorraine Storey-Johnson, Carla Boutin-Foster

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Purpose: The extent to which health insurance enrollment succeeds under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) rests heavily on the ability to reach the uninsured and motivate them to enroll. We sought to identify perceptions about the ACA among uninsured patients at a free clinic in New York City. Background: The ACA holds tremendous promise for reducing the number of uninsured Americans. As of April 2014, nearly 8 million people had signed up for health insurance through the Health Insurance Marketplace. Despite this early success, future and continued enrollment rests heavily on the degree of public awareness. Reaching eligible individuals and increasing their awareness and understanding remains a fundamental challenge to realizing the full potential of the ACA. Reaching out to uninsured patients who are seeking care through safety net facilities such as free clinics may provide important avenues for reaching potential enrollees. This project focuses on the experience at the free clinic at Weill Cornell Medical College, the Weill Cornell Community Clinic (WCCC), and seeks to understand perceptions about the ACA among its patient population. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of all patients who visited the free clinic at Weill Cornell Medical College, the Weill Cornell Community Clinic, from July 2013 to May 2014. Patients who provided informed consent at their visit and completed a semi-structured questionnaire were included (N=62). The questionnaire comprised of questions about demographic characteristics and open-ended questions about their knowledge and perception of the impact of the ACA. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the population demographics. Qualitative coding techniques were used for open-ended items. Results: Approximately one third of patients surveyed never had health insurance. Of the remaining 65%, 20% lost their insurance within the past year. Only 55% had heard about the ACA, and only 10% knew about the Health Benefits Exchange. Of those who had heard about the ACA, sentiments were tinged with optimistic misperceptions, such as “it will be free health care for all.” While optimistic, most of the responses focused on the economic implications of the ACA. Conclusions: These findings reveal the immense amount of misconception and lack of understanding with regards to the ACA. As such, the study highlights the need to educate and address the concerns of those who remain skeptical or uncertain about the implications of the ACA.

Keywords: Affordable Care Act, demographics, free clinics, underserved.

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55 Redesigning Clinical and Nursing Informatics Capstones

Authors: Sue S. Feldman

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As clinical and nursing informatics mature, an area that has gotten a lot of attention is the value capstone projects. Capstones are meant to address authentic and complex domain-specific problems. While capstone projects have not always been essential in graduate clinical and nursing informatics education, employers are wanting to see evidence of the prospective employee's knowledge and skills as an indication of employability. Capstones can be organized in many ways: a single course over a single semester, multiple courses over multiple semesters, as a targeted demonstration of skills, as a synthesis of prior knowledge and skills, mentored by one single person or mentored by various people, submitted as an assignment or presented in front of a panel. Because of the potential for capstones to enhance the educational experience, and as a mechanism for application of knowledge and demonstration of skills, a rigorous capstone can accelerate a graduate's potential in the workforce. In 2016, the capstone at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) could feel the external forces of a maturing Clinical and Nursing Informatics discipline. While the program had a capstone course for many years, it was lacking the depth of knowledge and demonstration of skills being asked for by those hiring in a maturing Informatics field. Since the program is online, all capstones were always in the online environment. While this modality did not change, other contributors to instruction modality changed. Pre-2016, the instruction modality was self-guided. Students checked in with a single instructor, and that instructor monitored progress across all capstones toward a PowerPoint and written paper deliverable. At the time, the enrollment was few, and the maturity had not yet pushed hard enough. By 2017, doubling enrollment and the increased demand of a more rigorously trained workforce led to restructuring the capstone so that graduates would have and retain the skills learned in the capstone process. There were three major changes: the capstone was broken up into a 3-course sequence (meaning it lasted about 10 months instead of 14 weeks), there were many chunks of deliverables, and each faculty had a cadre of about 5 students to advise through the capstone process. Literature suggests that the chunking, breaking up complex projects (i.e., the capstone in one summer) into smaller, more manageable chunks (i.e., chunks of the capstone across 3 semesters), can increase and sustain learning while allowing for increased rigor. By doing this, the teaching responsibility was shared across faculty with each semester course being taught by a different faculty member. This change facilitated delving much deeper in instruction and produced a significantly more rigorous final deliverable. Having students advised across the faculty seemed like the right thing to do. It not only shared the load, but also shared the success of students. Furthermore, it meant that students could be placed with an academic advisor who had expertise in their capstone area, further increasing the rigor of the entire capstone process and project and increasing student knowledge and skills.

Keywords: capstones, clinical informatics, health informatics, informatics

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54 Heart-Rate Resistance Electrocardiogram Identification Based on Slope-Oriented Neural Networks

Authors: Tsu-Wang Shen, Shan-Chun Chang, Chih-Hsien Wang, Te-Chao Fang

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For electrocardiogram (ECG) biometrics system, it is a tedious process to pre-install user’s high-intensity heart rate (HR) templates in ECG biometric systems. Based on only resting enrollment templates, it is a challenge to identify human by using ECG with the high-intensity HR caused from exercises and stress. This research provides a heartbeat segment method with slope-oriented neural networks against the ECG morphology changes due to high intensity HRs. The method has overall system accuracy at 97.73% which includes six levels of HR intensities. A cumulative match characteristic curve is also used to compare with other traditional ECG biometric methods.

Keywords: high-intensity heart rate, heart rate resistant, ECG human identification, decision based artificial neural network

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
53 Matching on Bipartite Graphs with Applications to School Course Registration Systems

Authors: Zhihan Li

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Nowadays, most universities use the course enrollment system considering students’ registration orders. However, the students’ preference level to certain courses is also one important factor to consider. In this research, the possibility of applying a preference-first system has been discussed and analyzed compared to the order-first system. A bipartite graph is applied to resemble the relationship between students and courses they tend to register. With the graph set up, we apply Ford-Fulkerson (F.F.) Algorithm to maximize parings between two sets of nodes, in our case, students and courses. Two models are proposed in this paper: the one considered students’ order first, and the one considered students’ preference first. By comparing and contrasting the two models, we highlight the usability of models which potentially leads to better designs for school course registration systems.

Keywords: bipartite graph, Ford-Fulkerson (F.F.) algorithm, graph theory, maximum matching

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
52 Linguistic Attitudes and Language Learning Needs of Heritage Language Learners of Spanish in the United States

Authors: Sheryl Bernardo-Hinesley

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Heritage language learners are students who have been raised in a home where a minority language is spoken, who speaks or merely understand the minority heritage language, but to some degree are bilingual in the majority and the heritage language. In view of the rising university enrollment by Hispanics in the United States who have chosen to study Spanish, university language programs are currently faced with challenges of accommodating the language needs of heritage language learners of Spanish. The present study investigates the heritage language perception and language attitudes by heritage language learners of Spanish, as well as their classroom language learning experiences and needs. In order to carry out the study, a qualitative survey was used to gather data from university students. Analysis of students' responses indicates that heritage learners are motivated to learn the heritage language. In relation to the aspects of focus of a language course for heritage learners, results show that the aspects of interest are accent marks and spelling, grammatical accuracy, vocabulary, writing, reading, and culture.

Keywords: heritage language learners, language acquisition, linguistic attitudes, Spanish in the US

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
51 Project Management at University: Towards an Evaluation Process around Cooperative Learning

Authors: J. L. Andrade-Pineda, J.M. León-Blanco, M. Calle, P. L. González-R

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The enrollment in current Master's degree programs usually pursues gaining the expertise required in real-life workplaces. The experience we present here concerns the learning process of "Project Management Methodology (PMM)", around a cooperative/collaborative mechanism aimed at affording students measurable learning goals and providing the teacher with the ability of focusing on the weaknesses detected. We have designed a mixed summative/formative evaluation, which assures curriculum engage while enriches the comprehension of PMM key concepts. In this experience we converted the students into active actors in the evaluation process itself and we endowed ourselves as teachers with a flexible process in which along with qualifications (score), other attitudinal feedback arises. Despite the high level of self-affirmation on their discussion within the interactive assessment sessions, they ultimately have exhibited a great ability to review and correct the wrong reasoning when that was the case.

Keywords: cooperative-collaborative learning, educational management, formative-summative assessment, leadership training

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
50 Active Learning in Engineering Courses Using Excel Spreadsheet

Authors: Promothes Saha

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Recently, transportation engineering industry members at the study university showed concern that students lacked the skills needed to solve real-world engineering problems using spreadsheet data analysis. In response to the concerns shown by industry members, this study investigated how to engage students in a better way by incorporating spreadsheet analysis during class - also, help them learn the course topics. Helping students link theoretical knowledge to real-world problems can be a challenge. In this effort, in-class activities and worksheets were redesigned to integrate with Excel to solve example problems using built-in tools including cell referencing, equations, data analysis tool pack, solver tool, conditional formatting, charts, etc. The effectiveness of this technique was investigated using students’ evaluations of the course, enrollment data, and students’ comments. Based on the data of those criteria, it is evident that the spreadsheet activities may increase student learning.

Keywords: civil, engineering, active learning, transportation

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
49 Higher Education in India Strength, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats

Authors: Renu Satish Nair

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Indian higher education system is the third largest in the world next to United States and China. India is experiencing a rapid growth in higher education in terms of student enrollment as well as establishment of new universities, colleges and institutes of national importance. Presently about 22 million students are being enrolled in higher education and more than 46 thousand institutions’ are functioning as centers of higher education. Indian government plays a 'command and control' role in higher education. The main governing body is University Grants Commission, which enforces its standards, advises the government, and helps coordinate between the centre and the state. Accreditation of higher learning is over seen by 12 autonomous institutions established by the University Grants Commission. The present paper is an effort to analyze the strength, weakness, opportunities and threat (SWOT Analysis) of Indian Higher education system. The higher education in India is progressing ahead by virtue of its strength which is being recognized at global level. Several institutions of India, such as Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs) and National Institutes of Technology (NITs) have been globally acclaimed for their standard of education. Three Indian universities were listed in the Times Higher Education list of the world’s top 200 universities i.e. Indian Institutes of Technology, Indian Institute of Management and Jawahar Lal Nehru University in 2005 and 2006. Six Indian Institutes of Technology and the Birla Institute of Technology and Science - Pilani were listed among the top 20 science and technology schools in Asia by the Asia Week. The school of Business situated in Hyderabad was ranked number 12 in Globe MBA ranking by the Financial Times of London in 2010 while the All India Institute of Medical Sciences has been recognized as a global leader in medical research and treatment. But at the same time, because of vast expansion, the system bears several weaknesses. The Indian higher education system in many parts of the country is in the state of disrepair. In almost half the districts in the country higher education enrollment are very low. Almost two third of total universities and 90% of colleges are rated below average on quality parameters. This can be attributed to the under prepared faculty, unwieldy governance and other obstacles to innovation and improvement that could prohibit India from meeting its national education goals. The opportunities in Indian higher education system are widely ranged. The national institutions are training their products to compete at global level and make them capable to grab opportunities worldwide. The state universities and colleges with their limited resources are giving the products that are capable enough to secure career opportunities and hold responsible positions in various government and private sectors with in the country. This is further creating opportunities for the weaker section of the society to join the main stream. There are several factors which can be defined as threats to Indian higher education system. It is a matter of great concern and needs proper attention. Some important factors are -Conservative society, particularly for women education; -Lack of transparency, -Taking higher education as a means of business

Keywords: Indian higher education system, SWOT analysis, university grants commission, Indian institutes of technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 599
48 Measuring the Effect of Intercollegiate Athletic Success on Private Giving and Enrollment

Authors: Jamie L. Stangel

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Increased popularity and visibility of college athletics has contributed to an environment in which institutions—most of which lack self-sufficient athletics department budgets—reallocate monies from the university general fund and seek additional funding sources to keep up with increasing levels of spending on athletics. Given the prevalence of debates on student debt levels, coach salaries, and athlete pay, empirical evidence on whether this spending yields expected return on investment is necessary. This study considered the relationship between the independent variable of winning percentage of the men’s basketball team at a mid-major university, moderated by NCAA tournament appearance, and number of applicants, number of enrollments, average SAT score of students, and donor giving to the university general and athletic funds. The results indicate that, other than a small correlation between athletic success and number of applicants, only when NCAA tournament appearance is used as a moderating variable, these purported benefits are not supported, suggesting the need for a reevaluation of athletic department spending and perceptions on tangible and intangible benefits for universities.

Keywords: NCAA, private giving, mid-major, admissions, athletic success

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
47 An Appraisal of Maintenance Management Practices in Federal University Dutse and Jigawa State Polytechnic Dutse, Nigeria

Authors: Aminu Mubarak Sadis

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This study appraised the maintenance management practice in Federal University Dutse and Jigawa State Polytechnic Dutse, in Nigeria. The Physical Planning, Works and Maintenance Departments of the two Higher Institutions (Federal University Dutse and Jigawa State Polytechnic) are responsible for production and maintenance management of their physical assets. Over–enrollment problem has been a common feature in the higher institutions in Nigeria, Data were collected by the administered questionnaires and subsequent oral interview to authenticate the completed questionnaires. Random sampling techniques was used in selecting 150 respondents across the various institutions (Federal University Dutse and Jigawa State Polytechnic Dutse). Data collected was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) and t-test statistical techniques The conclusion was that maintenance management activities are yet to be given their appropriate attention on functions of the university and polytechnic which are crucial to improving teaching, learning and research. The unit responsible for maintenance and managing facilities should focus on their stated functions and effect changes were possible.

Keywords: appraisal, maintenance management, university, Polytechnic, practices

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
46 Introducing Transcending Pedagogies

Authors: Wajeehah Aayeshah, Joy Higgs

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The term “transcending pedagogies” has been created to refer to teaching and learning strategies that transcend the mode of student enrolment, the needs of different students, and different learning spaces. The value of such pedagogies in the current arena when learning spaces, technologies and preferences are more volatile than ever before, is a key focus of this paper. The paper will examine current and emerging pedagogies that transcend the learning spaces and enrollment modes of on campus, distance, virtual and workplace learning contexts. A further point of interest is how academics in professional and higher education settings interpret and implement pedagogies in the current global conversation space and re-creation of higher education. This study questioned how the notion and practice of transcending pedagogies enables us to re-imagine and reshape university curricula. It explored the nature of teaching and learning spaces and those professional and higher education (current and emerging) pedagogies that can be implemented across these spaces. We set out to identify how transcending pedagogies can assist students in learning to deal with complexity, uncertainty and change in the practice worlds and better appeal to students who are making decisions on where to enrol. The data for this study was collected through in-depth interviews and focus groups with academics and policy makers within academia.

Keywords: Transcending Pedagogies, teaching and learning strategies, learning spaces, pedagogies

Procedia PDF Downloads 451