Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 141

Search results for: Lagrange multiplier

141 Monte Carlo Estimation of Heteroscedasticity and Periodicity Effects in a Panel Data Regression Model

Authors: Nureni O. Adeboye, Dawud A. Agunbiade

Abstract:

This research attempts to investigate the effects of heteroscedasticity and periodicity in a Panel Data Regression Model (PDRM) by extending previous works on balanced panel data estimation within the context of fitting PDRM for Banks audit fee. The estimation of such model was achieved through the derivation of Joint Lagrange Multiplier (LM) test for homoscedasticity and zero-serial correlation, a conditional LM test for zero serial correlation given heteroscedasticity of varying degrees as well as conditional LM test for homoscedasticity given first order positive serial correlation via a two-way error component model. Monte Carlo simulations were carried out for 81 different variations, of which its design assumed a uniform distribution under a linear heteroscedasticity function. Each of the variation was iterated 1000 times and the assessment of the three estimators considered are based on Variance, Absolute bias (ABIAS), Mean square error (MSE) and the Root Mean Square (RMSE) of parameters estimates. Eighteen different models at different specified conditions were fitted, and the best-fitted model is that of within estimator when heteroscedasticity is severe at either zero or positive serial correlation value. LM test results showed that the tests have good size and power as all the three tests are significant at 5% for the specified linear form of heteroscedasticity function which established the facts that Banks operations are severely heteroscedastic in nature with little or no periodicity effects.

Keywords: audit fee lagrange multiplier test, heteroscedasticity, lagrange multiplier test, Monte-Carlo scheme, periodicity

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140 Element-Independent Implementation for Method of Lagrange Multipliers

Authors: Gil-Eon Jeong, Sung-Kie Youn, K. C. Park

Abstract:

Treatment for the non-matching interface is an important computational issue. To handle this problem, the method of Lagrange multipliers including classical and localized versions are the most popular technique. It essentially imposes the interface compatibility conditions by introducing Lagrange multipliers. However, the numerical system becomes unstable and inefficient due to the Lagrange multipliers. The interface element-independent formulation that does not include the Lagrange multipliers can be obtained by modifying the independent variables mathematically. Through this modification, more efficient and stable system can be achieved while involving equivalent accuracy comparing with the conventional method. A numerical example is conducted to verify the validity of the presented method.

Keywords: element-independent formulation, interface coupling, methods of Lagrange multipliers, non-matching interface

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
139 Fast and Efficient Algorithms for Evaluating Uniform and Nonuniform Lagrange and Newton Curves

Authors: Taweechai Nuntawisuttiwong, Natasha Dejdumrong

Abstract:

Newton-Lagrange Interpolations are widely used in numerical analysis. However, it requires a quadratic computational time for their constructions. In computer aided geometric design (CAGD), there are some polynomial curves: Wang-Ball, DP and Dejdumrong curves, which have linear time complexity algorithms. Thus, the computational time for Newton-Lagrange Interpolations can be reduced by applying the algorithms of Wang-Ball, DP and Dejdumrong curves. In order to use Wang-Ball, DP and Dejdumrong algorithms, first, it is necessary to convert Newton-Lagrange polynomials into Wang-Ball, DP or Dejdumrong polynomials. In this work, the algorithms for converting from both uniform and non-uniform Newton-Lagrange polynomials into Wang-Ball, DP and Dejdumrong polynomials are investigated. Thus, the computational time for representing Newton-Lagrange polynomials can be reduced into linear complexity. In addition, the other utilizations of using CAGD curves to modify the Newton-Lagrange curves can be taken.

Keywords: Lagrange interpolation, linear complexity, monomial matrix, Newton interpolation

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138 DNA Multiplier: A Design Architecture of a Multiplier Circuit Using DNA Molecules

Authors: Hafiz Md. Hasan Babu, Khandaker Mohammad Mohi Uddin, Nitish Biswas, Sarreha Tasmin Rikta, Nuzmul Hossain Nahid

Abstract:

Nanomedicine and bioengineering use biological systems that can perform computing operations. In a biocomputational circuit, different types of biomolecules and DNA (Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid) are used as active components. DNA computing has the capability of performing parallel processing and a large storage capacity that makes it diverse from other computing systems. In most processors, the multiplier is treated as a core hardware block, and multiplication is one of the time-consuming and lengthy tasks. In this paper, cost-effective DNA multipliers are designed using algorithms of molecular DNA operations with respect to conventional ones. The speed and storage capacity of a DNA multiplier are also much higher than a traditional silicon-based multiplier.

Keywords: biological systems, DNA multiplier, large storage, parallel processing

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137 Designing and Simulation of a CMOS Square Root Analog Multiplier

Authors: Milad Kaboli

Abstract:

A new CMOS low voltage current-mode four-quadrant analog multiplier based on the squarer circuit with voltage output is presented. The proposed circuit is composed of a pair of current subtractors, a pair differential-input V-I converters and a pair of voltage squarers. The circuit was simulated using HSPICE simulator in standard 0.18 μm CMOS level 49 MOSIS (BSIM3 V3.2 SPICE-based). Simulation results show the performance of the proposed circuit and experimental results are given to confirm the operation. This topology of multiplier results in a high-frequency capability with low power consumption. The multiplier operates for a power supply ±1.2V. The simulation results of analog multiplier demonstrate a THD of 0.65% in 10MHz, a −3dB bandwidth of 1.39GHz, and a maximum power consumption of 7.1mW.

Keywords: analog processing circuit, WTA, LTA, low voltage

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136 Numerical Iteration Method to Find New Formulas for Nonlinear Equations

Authors: Kholod Mohammad Abualnaja

Abstract:

A new algorithm is presented to find some new iterative methods for solving nonlinear equations F(x)=0 by using the variational iteration method. The efficiency of the considered method is illustrated by example. The results show that the proposed iteration technique, without linearization or small perturbation, is very effective and convenient.

Keywords: variational iteration method, nonlinear equations, Lagrange multiplier, algorithms

Procedia PDF Downloads 418
135 Optimization and Design of Current-Mode Multiplier Circuits with Applications in Analog Signal Processing for Gas Industrial Package Systems

Authors: Mohamad Baqer Heidari, Hefzollah.Mohammadian

Abstract:

This brief presents two original implementations of improved accuracy current-mode multiplier/divider circuits. Besides the advantage of their simplicity, these original multiplier/divider structures present the advantage of very small linearity errors that can be obtained as a result of the proposed design techniques (0.75% and 0.9%, respectively, for an extended range of the input currents). The original multiplier/divider circuits permit a facile reconfiguration, the presented structures representing the functional basis for implementing complex function synthesizer circuits. The proposed computational structures are designed for implementing in 0.18-µm CMOS technology, with a low-voltage operation (a supply voltage of 1.2 V). The circuits’ power consumptions are 60 and 75 µW, respectively, while their frequency bandwidths are 79.6 and 59.7 MHz, respectively.

Keywords: analog signal processing, current-mode operation, functional core, multiplier, reconfigurable circuits, industrial package systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
134 Further Results on Modified Variational Iteration Method for the Analytical Solution of Nonlinear Advection Equations

Authors: A. W. Gbolagade, M. O. Olayiwola, K. O. Kareem

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In this paper, further to our result on recent paper on the solution of nonlinear advection equations, we present further results on the nonlinear nonhomogeneous advection equations using a modified variational iteration method.

Keywords: lagrange multiplier, non-homogeneous equations, advection equations, mathematics

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
133 PID Control of Quad-Rotor Unnamed Vehicle Based on Lagrange Approach Modelling

Authors: A. Benbouali, H. Saidi, A. Derrouazin, T. Bessaad

Abstract:

Aerial robotics is a very exciting research field dealing with a variety of subjects, including the attitude control. This paper deals with the control of a four rotor vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. The paper presents a mathematical model based on the approach of Lagrange for the flight control of an autonomous quad-rotor. It also describes the controller architecture which is based on PID regulators. The control method has been simulated in closed loop in different situations. All the calculation stages and the simulation results have been detailed.

Keywords: quad-rotor, lagrange approach, proportional integral derivate (PID) controller, Matlab/Simulink

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132 Numerical Applications of Tikhonov Regularization for the Fourier Multiplier Operators

Authors: Fethi Soltani, Adel Almarashi, Idir Mechai

Abstract:

Tikhonov regularization and reproducing kernels are the most popular approaches to solve ill-posed problems in computational mathematics and applications. And the Fourier multiplier operators are an essential tool to extend some known linear transforms in Euclidean Fourier analysis, as: Weierstrass transform, Poisson integral, Hilbert transform, Riesz transforms, Bochner-Riesz mean operators, partial Fourier integral, Riesz potential, Bessel potential, etc. Using the theory of reproducing kernels, we construct a simple and efficient representations for some class of Fourier multiplier operators Tm on the Paley-Wiener space Hh. In addition, we give an error estimate formula for the approximation and obtain some convergence results as the parameters and the independent variables approaches zero. Furthermore, using numerical quadrature integration rules to compute single and multiple integrals, we give numerical examples and we write explicitly the extremal function and the corresponding Fourier multiplier operators.

Keywords: fourier multiplier operators, Gauss-Kronrod method of integration, Paley-Wiener space, Tikhonov regularization

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131 Numerical Solutions of Generalized Burger-Fisher Equation by Modified Variational Iteration Method

Authors: M. O. Olayiwola

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Numerical solutions of the generalized Burger-Fisher are obtained using a Modified Variational Iteration Method (MVIM) with minimal computational efforts. The computed results with this technique have been compared with other results. The present method is seen to be a very reliable alternative method to some existing techniques for such nonlinear problems.

Keywords: burger-fisher, modified variational iteration method, lagrange multiplier, Taylor’s series, partial differential equation

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
130 Scalable Systolic Multiplier over Binary Extension Fields Based on Two-Level Karatsuba Decomposition

Authors: Chiou-Yng Lee, Wen-Yo Lee, Chieh-Tsai Wu, Cheng-Chen Yang

Abstract:

Shifted polynomial basis (SPB) is a variation of polynomial basis representation. SPB has potential for efficient bit-level and digit-level implementations of multiplication over binary extension fields with subquadratic space complexity. For efficient implementation of pairing computation with large finite fields, this paper presents a new SPB multiplication algorithm based on Karatsuba schemes, and used that to derive a novel scalable multiplier architecture. Analytical results show that the proposed multiplier provides a trade-off between space and time complexities. Our proposed multiplier is modular, regular, and suitable for very-large-scale integration (VLSI) implementations. It involves less area complexity compared to the multipliers based on traditional decomposition methods. It is therefore, more suitable for efficient hardware implementation of pairing based cryptography and elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) in constraint driven applications.

Keywords: digit-serial systolic multiplier, elliptic curve cryptography (ECC), Karatsuba algorithm (KA), shifted polynomial basis (SPB), pairing computation

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
129 Performance Analysis of Arithmetic Units for IoT Applications

Authors: Nithiya C., Komathi B. J., Praveena N. G., Samuda Prathima

Abstract:

At present, the ultimate aim in digital system designs, especially at the gate level and lower levels of design abstraction, is power optimization. Adders are a nearly universal component of today's integrated circuits. Most of the research was on the design of high-speed adders to execute addition based on various adder structures. This paper discusses the ideal path for selecting an arithmetic unit for IoT applications. Based on the analysis of eight types of 16-bit adders, we found out Carry Look-ahead (CLA) produces low power. Additionally, multiplier and accumulator (MAC) unit is implemented with the Booth multiplier by using the low power adders in the order of preference. The design is synthesized and verified using Synopsys Design Compiler and VCS. Then it is implemented by using Cadence Encounter. The total power consumed by the CLA based booth multiplier is 0.03527mW, the total area occupied is 11260 um², and the speed is 2034 ps.

Keywords: carry look-ahead, carry select adder, CSA, internet of things, ripple carry adder, design rule check, power delay product, multiplier and accumulator

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128 An Eigen-Approach for Estimating the Direction-of Arrival of Unknown Number of Signals

Authors: Dia I. Abu-Al-Nadi, M. J. Mismar, T. H. Ismail

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A technique for estimating the direction-of-arrival (DOA) of unknown number of source signals is presented using the eigen-approach. The eigenvector corresponding to the minimum eigenvalue of the autocorrelation matrix yields the minimum output power of the array. Also, the array polynomial with this eigenvector possesses roots on the unit circle. Therefore, the pseudo-spectrum is found by perturbing the phases of the roots one by one and calculating the corresponding array output power. The results indicate that the DOAs and the number of source signals are estimated accurately in the presence of a wide range of input noise levels.

Keywords: array signal processing, direction-of-arrival, antenna arrays, Eigenvalues, Eigenvectors, Lagrange multiplier

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127 Efficient Semi-Systolic Finite Field Multiplier Using Redundant Basis

Authors: Hyun-Ho Lee, Kee-Won Kim

Abstract:

The arithmetic operations over GF(2m) have been extensively used in error correcting codes and public-key cryptography schemes. Finite field arithmetic includes addition, multiplication, division and inversion operations. Addition is very simple and can be implemented with an extremely simple circuit. The other operations are much more complex. The multiplication is the most important for cryptosystems, such as the elliptic curve cryptosystem, since computing exponentiation, division, and computing multiplicative inverse can be performed by computing multiplication iteratively. In this paper, we present a parallel computation algorithm that operates Montgomery multiplication over finite field using redundant basis. Also, based on the multiplication algorithm, we present an efficient semi-systolic multiplier over finite field. The multiplier has less space and time complexities compared to related multipliers. As compared to the corresponding existing structures, the multiplier saves at least 5% area, 50% time, and 53% area-time (AT) complexity. Accordingly, it is well suited for VLSI implementation and can be easily applied as a basic component for computing complex operations over finite field, such as inversion and division operation.

Keywords: finite field, Montgomery multiplication, systolic array, cryptography

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
126 Welfare Dynamics and Food Prices' Changes: Evidence from Landholding Groups in Rural Pakistan

Authors: Lubna Naz, Munir Ahmad, G. M. Arif

Abstract:

This study analyzes static and dynamic welfare impacts of food price changes for various landholding groups in Pakistan. The study uses three classifications of land ownership, landless, small landowners and large landowners, for analysis. The study uses Panel Survey, Pakistan Rural Household Survey (PRHS) of Pakistan Institute of Development Economics Islamabad, of rural households from two largest provinces (Sindh and Punjab) of Pakistan. The study uses all three waves (2001, 2004 and 2010) of PRHS. This research work makes three important contributions in literature. First, this study uses Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System (QUAIDS) to estimate demand functions for eight food groups-cereals, meat, milk and milk products, vegetables, cooking oil, pulses and other food. The study estimates food demand functions with Nonlinear Seemingly Unrelated (NLSUR), and employs Lagrange Multiplier and test on the coefficient of squared expenditure term to determine inclusion of squared expenditure term. Test results support the inclusion of squared expenditure term in the food demand model for each of landholding groups (landless, small landowners and large landowners). This study tests for endogeneity and uses control function for its correction. The problem of observed zero expenditure is dealt with a two-step procedure. Second, it creates low price and high price periods, based on literature review. It uses elasticity coefficients from QUAIDS to analyze static and dynamic welfare effects (first and second order Tylor approximation of expenditure function is used) of food price changes across periods. The study estimates compensation variation (CV), money metric loss from food price changes, for landless, small and large landowners. Third, this study compares the findings on welfare implications of food price changes based on QUAIDS with the earlier research in Pakistan, which used other specification of the demand system. The findings indicate that dynamic welfare impacts of food price changes are lower as compared to static welfare impacts for all landholding groups. The static and dynamic welfare impacts of food price changes are highest for landless. The study suggests that government should extend social security nets to landless poor and categorically to vulnerable landless (without livestock) to redress the short-term impact of food price increase. In addition, the government should stabilize food prices and particularly cereal prices in the long- run.

Keywords: QUAIDS, Lagrange multiplier, NLSUR, and Tylor approximation

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125 Warning about the Risk of Blood Flow Stagnation after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation

Authors: Aymen Laadhari, Gábor Székely

Abstract:

In this work, the hemodynamics in the sinuses of Valsalva after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation is numerically examined. We focus on the physical results in the two-dimensional case. We use a finite element methodology based on a Lagrange multiplier technique that enables to couple the dynamics of blood flow and the leaflets’ movement. A massively parallel implementation of a monolithic and fully implicit solver allows more accuracy and significant computational savings. The elastic properties of the aortic valve are disregarded, and the numerical computations are performed under physiologically correct pressure loads. Computational results depict that blood flow may be subject to stagnation in the lower domain of the sinuses of Valsalva after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

Keywords: hemodynamics, simulations, stagnation, valve

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
124 Stem Covers of Leibniz n-Algebras

Authors: Natália Maria Rego

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ALeibnizn-algebraGis aK-vector space endowed whit a n-linearbracket operation [-,…-] : GG … G→ Gsatisfying the fundamental identity, which can be expressed saying that the right multiplication map Ry2, …, ᵧₙ: Gn→ G, Rᵧ₂, …, ᵧₙn(ˣ¹, …, ₓₙ) = [[ˣ¹, …, ₓₙ], ᵧ₂, …, ᵧₙ], is a derivation. This structure, together with its skew-symmetric version, named as Lie n-algebra or Filippov algebra, arose in the setting of Nambumechanics, an n-ary generalization of the Hamiltonian mechanics. Thefirst goal of this work is to provide a characterization of various classes of central extensions of Leibniz n-algebras in terms of homological properties. Namely, Commutator extension, Quasi-commutator extension, Stem extension, and Stem cover. These kind of central extensions are characterized by means of the character of the map *(E): nHL1(G) → M provided by the five-term exact sequence in homology with trivial coefficients of Leibniz n-algebras associated to an extension E : 0 → M → K → G → 0. For a free presentation 0 →R→ F →G→ 0of a Leibniz n-algebra G,the term M(G) = (R[F,…n.., F])/[R, F,..n-1..,F] is called the Schur multiplier of G, which is a Baer invariant, i.e., it does not depend on the chosen free presentation, and it is isomorphic to the first Leibniz n-algebras homology with trivial coefficients of G. A central extension of Leibniz n-algebras is a short exact sequenceE : 0 →M→K→G→ 0such that [M, K,.. ⁿ⁻¹.., K]=0. It is said to be a stem extension if M⊆[G, .. n.., G]. Additionally, if the induced map M(K) → M(G) is the zero map, then the stem extension Eis said to be a stem cover. The second aim of this work is to analyze the interplay between stem covers of Leibniz n-algebras and the Schur multiplier. Concretely, in the case of finite-dimensional Leibniz n-algebras, we show the existence of coverings, and we prove that all stem covers with finite-dimensional Schur multiplier are isoclinic. Additionally, we characterize stem covers of perfect Leibniz n-algebras.

Keywords: leibniz n-algebras, central extensions, Schur multiplier, stem cover

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123 Optimization of Multiplier Extraction Digital Filter On FPGA

Authors: Shiksha Jain, Ramesh Mishra

Abstract:

One of the most widely used complex signals processing operation is filtering. The most important FIR digital filter are widely used in DSP for filtering to alter the spectrum according to some given specifications. Power consumption and Area complexity in the algorithm of Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter is mainly caused by multipliers. So we present a multiplier less technique (DA technique). In this technique, precomputed value of inner product is stored in LUT. Which are further added and shifted with number of iterations equal to the precision of input sample. But the exponential growth of LUT with the order of FIR filter, in this basic structure, makes it prohibitive for many applications. The significant area and power reduction over traditional Distributed Arithmetic (DA) structure is presented in this paper, by the use of slicing of LUT to the desired length. An architecture of 16 tap FIR filter is presented, with different length of slice of LUT. The result of FIR Filter implementation on Xilinx ISE synthesis tool (XST) vertex-4 FPGA Tool by using proposed method shows the increase of the maximum frequency, the decrease of the resources as usage saving in area with more number of slices and the reduction dynamic power.

Keywords: multiplier less technique, linear phase symmetric FIR filter, FPGA tool, look up table

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
122 Postbuckling Analysis of End Supported Rods under Self-Weight Using Intrinsic Coordinate Finite Elements

Authors: C. Juntarasaid, T. Pulngern, S. Chucheepsakul

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A formulation of postbuckling analysis of end supported rods under self-weight has been presented by the variational method. The variational formulation involving the strain energy due to bending and the potential energy of the self-weight, are expressed in terms of the intrinsic coordinates. The variational formulation is accomplished by introducing the Lagrange multiplier technique to impose the boundary conditions. The finite element method is used to derive a system of nonlinear equations resulting from the stationary of the total potential energy and then Newton-Raphson iterative procedure is applied to solve this system of equations. The numerical results demonstrate the postbluckled configurations of end supported rods under self-weight. This finite element method based on variational formulation expressed in term of intrinsic coordinate is highly recommended for postbuckling analysis of end-supported rods under self-weight.

Keywords: postbuckling, finite element method, variational method, intrinsic coordinate

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
121 An ALM Matrix Completion Algorithm for Recovering Weather Monitoring Data

Authors: Yuqing Chen, Ying Xu, Renfa Li

Abstract:

The development of matrix completion theory provides new approaches for data gathering in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN). The existing matrix completion algorithms for WSN mainly consider how to reduce the sampling number without considering the real-time performance when recovering the data matrix. In order to guarantee the recovery accuracy and reduce the recovery time consumed simultaneously, we propose a new ALM algorithm to recover the weather monitoring data. A lot of experiments have been carried out to investigate the performance of the proposed ALM algorithm by using different parameter settings, different sampling rates and sampling models. In addition, we compare the proposed ALM algorithm with some existing algorithms in the literature. Experimental results show that the ALM algorithm can obtain better overall recovery accuracy with less computing time, which demonstrate that the ALM algorithm is an effective and efficient approach for recovering the real world weather monitoring data in WSN.

Keywords: wireless sensor network, matrix completion, singular value thresholding, augmented Lagrange multiplier

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120 Simulation Study of Multiple-Thick Gas Electron Multiplier-Based Microdosimeters for Fast Neutron Measurements

Authors: Amir Moslehi, Gholamreza Raisali

Abstract:

Microdosimetric detectors based on multiple-thick gas electron multiplier (multiple-THGEM) configurations are being used in various fields of radiation protection and dosimetry. In the present work, microdosimetric response of these detectors to fast neutrons has been investigated by Monte Carlo method. Three similar microdosimeters made of A-150 and rexolite as the wall materials are designed; the first based on single-THGEM, the second based on double-THGEM and the third is based on triple-THGEM. Sensitive volume of the three microdosimeters is a right cylinder of 5 mm height and diameter which is filled with the propane-based tissue-equivalent (TE) gas. The TE gas with 0.11 atm pressure at the room temperature simulates 1 µm of tissue. Lineal energy distributions for several neutron energies from 10 keV to 14 MeV including 241Am-Be neutrons are calculated by the Geant4 simulation toolkit. Also, mean quality factor and dose-equivalent value for any neutron energy has been determined by these distributions. Obtained data derived from the three microdosimeters are in agreement. Therefore, we conclude that the multiple-THGEM structures present similar microdosimetric responses to fast neutrons.

Keywords: fast neutrons, geant4, multiple-thick gas electron multiplier, microdosimeter

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119 Hydrodynamic Simulation of Co-Current and Counter Current of Column Distillation Using Euler Lagrange Approach

Authors: H. Troudi, M. Ghiss, Z. Tourki, M. Ellejmi

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Packed columns of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) consists of separating the liquid mixture of propane and butane to pure gas components by the distillation phenomenon. The flow of the gas and liquid inside the columns is operated by two ways: The co-current and the counter current operation. Heat, mass and species transfer between phases represent the most important factors that influence the choice between those two operations. In this paper, both processes are discussed using computational CFD simulation through ANSYS-Fluent software. Only 3D half section of the packed column was considered with one packed bed. The packed bed was characterized in our case as a porous media. The simulations were carried out at transient state conditions. A multi-component gas and liquid mixture were used out in the two processes. We utilized the Euler-Lagrange approach in which the gas was treated as a continuum phase and the liquid as a group of dispersed particles. The heat and the mass transfer process was modeled using multi-component droplet evaporation approach. The results show that the counter-current process performs better than the co-current, although such limitations of our approach are noted. This comparison gives accurate results for computations times higher than 2 s, at different gas velocity and at packed bed porosity of 0.9.

Keywords: co-current, counter-current, Euler-Lagrange model, heat transfer, mass transfer

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118 Effect of Fiscal Policy on Growth in India

Authors: Parma Chakravartti

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The impact of government spending and taxation on economic growth has remained a central issue of fiscal policy analysis. There is a wide range of opinions over the strength of fiscal policy’s effect on macroeconomic variables. It can be argued that the impact of fiscal policy depends on the structure and economic condition of the economy. This study makes an attempt to examine the effect of fiscal policy shocks on growth in India using the structural vector autoregressive model (SVAR), considering data from 1950 to 2019. The study finds that government spending is an important instrument of growth in India, where the share of revenue expenditure to capital expenditure plays a key role. The optimum composition of total expenditure is important for growth and it is not necessarily true that capital expenditure multiplier is more than revenue expenditure multiplier. The study also finds that the impact of public economic activities on private economic activities for both consumption expenditure and gross capital formation of government crowds in private consumption expenditure and private gross capital formation, respectively, thus indicating that government expenditure complements private expenditure in India.

Keywords: government spending, fiscal policy, multiplier, growth

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117 A Stokes Optimal Control Model of Determining Cellular Interaction Forces during Gastrulation

Authors: Yuanhao Gao, Ping Lin, Kees Weijer

Abstract:

An optimal control system model is proposed for the cell flow in the process of chick embryo gastrulation in this paper. The target is to determine the cellular interaction forces which are hard to measure. This paper will take an approach to investigate the forces with the idea of the inverse problem. By choosing the forces as the control variable and regarding the cell flow as Stokes fluid, an objective functional will be established to match the numerical result of cell velocity with the experimental data. So that the forces could be determined by minimizing the objective functional. The Lagrange multiplier method is utilized to derive the state and adjoint equations consisting the optimal control system, which specifies the first-order necessary conditions. Finite element method is used to discretize and approximate equations. A conjugate gradient algorithm is given for solving the minimum solution of the system and determine the forces.

Keywords: optimal control model, Stokes equation, conjugate gradient method, finite element method, chick embryo gastrulation

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116 Estimating the Government Consumption and Investment Multipliers Using Local Projection Method on the US Data from 1966 to 2020

Authors: Mustofa Mahmud Al Mamun

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Government spending, one of the major components of gross domestic product (GDP), is composed of government consumption, investment, and transfer payments. A change in government spending during recessionary periods can generate an increase in GDP greater than the increase in spending. This is called the "multiplier effect". Accurate estimation of government spending multiplier is important because fiscal policy has been used to stimulate a flagging economy. Many recent studies have focused on identifying parts of the economy that responds more to a stimulus under a variety of circumstances. This paper used the US dataset from 1966 to 2020 and local projection method assuming standard identification strategy to estimate the multipliers. The model includes important macroaggregates and controls for forecasted government spending, interest rate, consumer price index (CPI), export, import, and level of public debt. Investment multipliers are found to be positive and larger than the consumption multipliers. Consumption multipliers are either negative or not significantly different than zero. Results do not vary across the business cycle. However, the consumption multiplier estimated from pre-1980 data is positive.

Keywords: business cycle, consumption multipliers, forecasted government spending, investment multipliers, local projection method, zero lower bound

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
115 Periodic Topology and Size Optimization Design of Tower Crane Boom

Authors: Wu Qinglong, Zhou Qicai, Xiong Xiaolei, Zhang Richeng

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In order to achieve the layout and size optimization of the web members of tower crane boom, a truss topology and cross section size optimization method based on continuum is proposed considering three typical working conditions. Firstly, the optimization model is established by replacing web members with web plates. And the web plates are divided into several sub-domains so that periodic soft kill option (SKO) method can be carried out for topology optimization of the slender boom. After getting the optimized topology of web plates, the optimized layout of web members is formed through extracting the principal stress distribution. Finally, using the web member radius as design variable, the boom compliance as objective and the material volume of the boom as constraint, the cross section size optimization mathematical model is established. The size optimization criterion is deduced from the mathematical model by Lagrange multiplier method and Kuhn-Tucker condition. By comparing the original boom with the optimal boom, it is identified that this optimization method can effectively lighten the boom and improve its performance.

Keywords: tower crane boom, topology optimization, size optimization, periodic, SKO, optimization criterion

Procedia PDF Downloads 457
114 An Optimal Control Model to Determine Body Forces of Stokes Flow

Authors: Yuanhao Gao, Pin Lin, Kees Weijer

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In this paper, we will determine the external body force distribution with analysis of stokes fluid motion using mathematical modelling and numerical approaching. The body force distribution is regarded as the unknown variable and could be determined by the idea of optimal control theory. The Stokes flow motion and its velocity are generated by given forces in a unit square domain. A regularized objective functional is built to match the numerical result of flow velocity with the generated velocity data. So that the force distribution could be determined by minimizing the value of objective functional, which is also the difference between the numerical and experimental velocity. Then after utilizing the Lagrange multiplier method, some partial differential equations are formulated consisting the optimal control system to solve. Finite element method and conjugate gradient method are used to discretize equations and deduce the iterative expression of target body force to compute the velocity numerically and body force distribution. Programming environment FreeFEM++ supports the implementation of this model.

Keywords: optimal control model, Stokes equation, finite element method, conjugate gradient method

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113 Using Lagrange Equations to Study the Relative Motion of a Mechanism

Authors: R. A. Petre, S. E. Nichifor, A. Craifaleanu, I. Stroe

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The relative motion of a robotic arm formed by homogeneous bars of different lengths and masses, hinged to each other is investigated. The first bar of the mechanism is articulated on a platform, considered initially fixed on the surface of the Earth, while for the second case the platform is considered to be in rotation with respect to the Earth. For both analyzed cases the motion equations are determined using the Lagrangian formalism, applied in its traditional form, valid with respect to an inertial reference system, conventionally considered as fixed. However, in the second case, a generalized form of the formalism valid with respect to a non-inertial reference frame will also be applied. The numerical calculations were performed using a MATLAB program.

Keywords: Lagrange equations, relative motion, inertial reference frame, non-inertial reference frame

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112 Using Divergent Nozzle with Aerodynamic Lens to Focus Nanoparticles

Authors: Hasan Jumaah Mrayeh, Fue-Sang Lien

Abstract:

ANSYS Fluent will be used to simulate Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for an efficient lens and nozzle design which will be explained in this paper. We have designed and characterized an aerodynamic lens and a divergent nozzle for focusing flow that transmits sub 25 nm particles through the aerodynamic lens. The design of the lens and nozzle has been improved using CFD for particle trajectories. We obtained a case for calculating nanoparticles (25 nm) flowing through the aerodynamic lens and divergent nozzle. Nanoparticles are transported by air, which is pumped into the aerodynamic lens through the nozzle at 1 atmospheric pressure. We have also developed a computational methodology that can determine the exact focus characteristics of aerodynamic lens systems. Particle trajectories were traced using the Lagrange approach. The simulation shows the ability of the aerodynamic lens to focus on 25 nm particles after using a divergent nozzle.

Keywords: aerodynamic lens, divergent nozzle, ANSYS Fluent, Lagrange approach

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