Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5193

Search results for: active snubber cells

5193 A Soft Switching PWM DC-DC Boost Converter with Increased Efficiency by Using ZVT-ZCT Techniques

Authors: Yakup Sahin, Naim Suleyman Ting, Ismail Aksoy

Abstract:

In this paper, an improved active snubber cell is proposed on account of soft switching (SS) family of pulse width modulation (PWM) DC-DC converters. The improved snubber cell provides zero-voltage transition (ZVT) turn on and zero-current transition (ZCT) turn off for main switch. The snubber cell decreases EMI noise and operates with SS in a wide range of line and load voltages. Besides, all of the semiconductor devices in the converter operate with SS. There is no additional voltage and current stress on the main devices. Additionally, extra voltage stress does not occur on the auxiliary switch and its current stress is acceptable value. The improved converter has a low cost and simple structure. The theoretical analysis of converter is clarified and the operating states are given in detail. The experimental results of converter are obtained by prototype of 500 W and 100 kHz. It is observed that the experimental results and theoretical analysis of converter are suitable with each other perfectly.

Keywords: active snubber cells, DC-DC converters, zero-voltage transition, zero-current transition

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
5192 ZVZCT PWM Boost DC-DC Converter

Authors: Ismail Aksoy, Haci Bodur, Nihan Altintaş

Abstract:

This paper introduces a boost converter with a new active snubber cell. In this circuit, all of the semiconductor components in the converter softly turns on and turns off with the help of the active snubber cell. Compared to the other converters, the proposed converter has advantages of size, number of components and cost. The main feature of proposed converter is that the extra voltage stresses do not occur on the main switches and main diodes. Also, the current stress on the main switch is acceptable level. Moreover, the proposed converter can operates under light load conditions and wide input line voltage. In this study, the operating principle of the proposed converter is presented and its operation is verified with the Proteus simulation software for a 1 kW and 100 kHz model.

Keywords: active snubber cell, boost converter, zero current switching, zero voltage switching

Procedia PDF Downloads 516
5191 The Experience with SiC MOSFET and Buck Converter Snubber Design

Authors: Petr Vaculik

Abstract:

The newest semiconductor devices on the market are MOSFET transistors based on the silicon carbide – SiC. This material has exclusive features thanks to which it becomes a better switch than Si – silicon semiconductor switch. There are some special features that need to be understood to enable the device’s use to its full potential. The advantages and differences of SiC MOSFETs in comparison with Si IGBT transistors have been described in first part of this article. Second part describes driver for SiC MOSFET transistor and last part of article represents SiC MOSFET in the application of buck converter (step-down) and design of simple RC snubber.

Keywords: SiC, Si, MOSFET, IGBT, SBD, RC snubber

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
5190 1 kW Power Factor Correction Soft Switching Boost Converter with an Active Snubber Cell

Authors: Yakup Sahin, Naim Suleyman Ting, Ismail Aksoy

Abstract:

A 1 kW power factor correction boost converter with an active snubber cell is presented in this paper. In the converter, the main switch turns on under zero voltage transition (ZVT) and turns off under zero current transition (ZCT) without any additional voltage or current stress. The auxiliary switch turns on and off under zero current switching (ZCS). Besides, the main diode turns on under ZVS and turns off under ZCS. The output current and voltage are controlled by the PFC converter in wide line and load range. The simulation results of converter are obtained for 1 kW and 100 kHz. One of the most important feature of the given converter is that it has direct power transfer as well as excellent soft switching techniques. Also, the converter has 0.99 power factor with the sinusoidal input current shape.

Keywords: power factor correction, direct power transfer, zero-voltage transition, zero-current transition, soft switching

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
5189 Semiconductor Nanofilm Based Schottky-Barrier Solar Cells

Authors: Mariyappan Shanmugam, Bin Yu

Abstract:

Schottky-barrier solar cells are demonstrated employing 2D-layered MoS2 and WS2 semiconductor nanofilms as photo-active material candidates synthesized by chemical vapor deposition method. Large area MoS2 and WS2 nanofilms are stacked by layer transfer process to achieve thicker photo-active material studied by atomic force microscopy showing a thickness in the range of ~200 nm. Two major vibrational active modes associated with 2D-layered MoS2 and WS2 are studied by Raman spectroscopic technique to estimate the quality of the nanofilms. Schottky-barrier solar cells employed MoS2 and WS2 active materials exhibited photoconversion efficiency of 1.8 % and 1.7 % respectively. Fermi-level pinning at metal/semiconductor interface, electronic transport and possible recombination mechanisms are studied in the Schottky-barrier solar cells.

Keywords: two-dimensional nanosheet, graphene, hexagonal boron nitride, solar cell, Schottky barrier

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
5188 Polymer Solar Cells Synthesized with Copper Oxide Nanoparticles

Authors: Nidal H. Abu-Zahra, Aruna P. Wanninayake

Abstract:

Copper Oxide (CuO) is a p-type semiconductor with a band gap energy of 1.5 eV, this is close to the ideal energy gap of 1.4 eV required for solar cells to allow good solar spectral absorption. The inherent electrical characteristics of CuO nano particles make them attractive candidates for improving the performance of polymer solar cells when incorporated into the active polymer layer. The UV-visible absorption spectra and external quantum efficiency of P3HT/PC70BM solar cells containing different weight percentages of CuO nano particles showed a clear enhancement in the photo absorption of the active layer, this increased the power conversion efficiency of the solar cells by 24% in comparison to the reference cell. The short circuit current of the reference cell was found to be 5.234 mA/cm2 and it seemed to increase to 6.484 mA/cm2 in cells containing 0.6 mg of CuO NPs; in addition the fill factor increased from 61.15% to 68.0%, showing an enhancement of 11.2%. These observations suggest that the optimum concentration of CuO nano particles was 0.6 mg in the active layer. These significant findings can be applied to design high-efficiency polymer solar cells containing inorganic nano particles.

Keywords: copper oxide nanoparticle, UV-visible spectroscopy, polymer solar cells, P3HT/PCBM

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
5187 The Prodomain-Bound Form of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 10 is Biologically Active on Endothelial Cells

Authors: Austin Jiang, Richard M. Salmon, Nicholas W. Morrell, Wei Li

Abstract:

BMP10 is highly expressed in the developing heart and plays essential roles in cardiogenesis. BMP10 deletion in mice results in embryonic lethality due to impaired cardiac development. In adults, BMP10 expression is restricted to the right atrium, though ventricular hypertrophy is accompanied by increased BMP10 expression in a rat hypertension model. However, reports of BMP10 activity in the circulation are inconclusive. In particular it is not known whether in vivo secreted BMP10 is active or whether additional factors are required to achieve its bioactivity. It has been shown that high-affinity binding of the BMP10 prodomain to the mature ligand inhibits BMP10 signaling activity in C2C12 cells, and it was proposed that prodomain-bound BMP10 (pBMP10) complex is latent. In this study, we demonstrated that the BMP10 prodomain did not inhibit BMP10 signaling activity in multiple endothelial cells, and that recombinant human pBMP10 complex, expressed in mammalian cells and purified under native conditions, was fully active. In addition, both BMP10 in human plasma and BMP10 secreted from the mouse right atrium were fully active. Finally, we confirmed that active BMP10 secreted from mouse right atrium was in the prodomain-bound form. Our data suggest that circulating BMP10 in adults is fully active and that the reported vascular quiescence function of BMP10 in vivo is due to the direct activity of pBMP10 and does not require an additional activation step. Moreover, being an active ligand, recombinant pBMP10 may have therapeutic potential as an endothelial-selective BMP ligand, in conditions characterized by loss of BMP9/10 signaling.

Keywords: bone morphogenetic protein 10 (BMP10), endothelial cell, signal transduction, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-B)

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
5186 Effect of Plasma Radiation on Keratinocyte Cells Involved in the Wound Healing Process

Authors: B. Fazekas, I. Korolov, K. Kutasi

Abstract:

Plasma medicine, which involves the use of gas discharge plasmas for medical applications is a rapidly growing research field. The use of non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas in dermatology to assist tissue regeneration by improving the healing of infected and/or chronic wounds is a promising application. It is believed that plasma can activate cells, which are involved in the wound closure. Non-thermal atmospheric plasmas are rich in chemically active species (such as O and N-atoms, O2(a) molecules) and radiative species such as the NO, N2+ and N2 excited molecules, which dominantly radiate in the 200-500 nm spectral range. In order to understand the effect of plasma species, both of chemically active and radiative species on wound healing process, the interaction of physical plasma with the human skin cells is necessary. In order to clarify the effect of plasma radiation on the wound healing process we treated keratinocyte cells – that are one of the main cell types in human skin epidermis – covered with a layer of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) with a low power atmospheric pressure plasma. For the generation of such plasma we have applied a plasma needle. Here, the plasma is ignited at the tip of the needle in flowing helium gas in contact with the ambient air. To study the effect of plasma radiation we used a plasma needle configuration, where the plasma species – chemically active radicals and charged species – could not reach the treated cells, but only the radiation. For the comparison purposes, we also irradiated the cells using a UV-B light source (FS20 lamp) with a 20 and 40 mJ cm-2 dose of 312 nm. After treatment the viability and the proliferation of the cells have been examined. The proliferation of cells has been studied with a real time monitoring system called Xcelligence. The results have indicated, that the 20 mJ cm-2 dose did not affect cell viability, whereas the 40 mJ cm-2 dose resulted a decrease in cell viability. The results have shown that the plasma radiation have no quantifiable effect on the cell proliferation as compared to the non-treated cells.

Keywords: UV radiation, non-equilibrium gas discharges (non-thermal plasmas), plasma emission, keratinocyte cells

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5185 Investigation of Length Effect on Power Conversion Efficiency of Perovskite Solar Cells Composed of ZnO Nanowires

Authors: W. S. Li, S. T. Yang, H. C. Cheng

Abstract:

The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the perovskite solar cells has been achieved by inserting vertically-aligned ZnO nanowires (NWs) between the cathode and the active layer and shows better solar cells performance. Perovskite solar cells have drawn significant attention due to the superb efficiency and low-cost fabrication process. In this experiment, ZnO nanowires are used as the electron transport layer (ETL) due to its low temperature process. The main idea of this thesis is utilizing the 3D structures of the hydrothermally-grown ZnO nanowires to increase the junction area to improve the photovoltaic performance of the perovskite solar cells. The infiltration and the surface coverage of the perovskite precursor solution changed as tuning the length of the ZnO nanowires. It is revealed that the devices with ZnO nanowires of 150 nm demonstrated the best PCE of 8.46 % under the AM 1.5G illumination (100 mW/cm2).

Keywords: hydrothermally-grown ZnO nanowires, perovskite solar cells, low temperature process, pinholes

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
5184 Parametric Investigation of Aircraft Door’s Emergency Power Assist System (EPAS)

Authors: Marshal D. Kafle, Jun H. Kim, Hyun W. Been, Kyoung M. Min

Abstract:

Fluid viscous damping systems are well suited for many air vehicles subjected to shock and vibration. These damping system work with the principle of viscous fluid throttling through the orifice to create huge pressure difference between compression and rebound chamber and obtain the required damping force. One application of such systems is its use in aircraft door system to counteract the door’s velocity and safely stop it. In exigency situations like crash or emergency landing where the door doesn’t open easily, possibly due to unusually tilting of fuselage or some obstacles or intrusion of debris obstruction to move the parts of the door, such system can be combined with other systems to provide needed force to forcefully open the door and also securely stop it simultaneously within the required time i.e.less than 8seconds. In the present study, a hydraulic system called snubber along with other systems like actuator, gas bottle assembly which together known as emergency power assist system (EPAS) is designed, built and experimentally studied to check the magnitude of angular velocity, damping force and time required to effectively open the door. Whenever needed, the gas pressure from the bottle is released to actuate the actuator and at the same time pull the snubber’s piston to operate the emergency opening of the door. Such EPAS installed in the suspension arm of the aircraft door is studied explicitly changing parameters like orifice size, oil level, oil viscosity and bypass valve gap and its spring of the snubber at varying temperature to generate the optimum design case. Comparative analysis of the EPAS at several cases is done and conclusions are made. It is found that during emergency condition, the systemopening time and angular velocity, when snubber with 0.3mm piston and shaft orifice and bypass valve gap of 0.5 mm with its original spring is used,shows significant improvement over the old ones.

Keywords: aircraft door damper, bypass valve, emergency power assist system, hydraulic damper, oil viscosity

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5183 Derivation of Human NK Cells from T Cell-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Using Xenogeneic Serum-Free and Feeder Cell-Free Culture System

Authors: Aliya Sekenova, Vyacheslav Ogay

Abstract:

The derivation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from somatic cells by direct reprogramming opens wide perspectives in the regenerative medicine. It means the possibility to develop the personal and, consequently, any immunologically compatible cells for applications in cell-based therapy. The purpose of our study was to develop the technology for the production of NK cells from T cell-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (TiPSCs) for subsequent application in adoptive cancer immunotherapy. Methods: In this study iPSCs were derived from peripheral blood T cells using Sendai virus vectors expressing Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc. Pluripotent characteristics of TiPSCs were examined and confirmed with alkaline phosphatase staining, immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR analysis. For NK cell differentiation, embryoid bodies (EB) formed from (TiPSCs) were cultured in xenogeneic serum-free medium containing human serum, IL-3, IL-7, IL-15, SCF, FLT3L without using M210-B4 and AFT-024 stromal feeder cells. After differentiation, NK cells were characterized with immunofluorescence analysis, flow cytometry and cytotoxicity assay. Results: Here, we for the first time demonstrate that TiPSCs can effectively differentiate into functionally active NK cells without M210-B4 and AFT-024 xenogeneic stroma cells. Immunofluorescence and flow cytometry analysis showed that EB-derived cells can differentiate into a homogeneous population of NK cell expressing high levels of CD56, CD45 and CD16 specific markers. Moreover, these cells significantly express killing activation receptors such as NKp44 and NKp46. In the comparative analysis, we observed that NK cells derived using feeder-free culture system have more high killing activity against K-562 tumor cells, than NK cells derived by feeder-dependent method. Thus, we think that our obtained data will be useful for the development of large-scale production of NK cells for translation into cancer immunotherapy.

Keywords: induced pluripotent stem cells, NK cells, T cells, cell diffentiation, feeder cell-free culture system

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5182 Facile Synthesis of Novel Substituted Aryl-Thiazole (SAT) Analogs via One-Pot Multicomponent Reaction as Potent Cytotoxic Agents against Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Salma Mirza, Syeda Asma Naqvi, Khalid Mohammed Khan, M. Iqbal Choudhary

Abstract:

In this study twenty-five (25) newly synthesized compounds substituted aryl thiazoles (SAT) 1-25 were synthesized, and in vitro cytotoxicity of these compounds was evaluated against four cancer cell lines namely, MCF-7 (ER+ve breast), MDA-MB-231 (ER-ve breast), HCT116 (colorectal), and, HeLa (cervical) and compared with the standard anticancer drug doxorubicin with IC50 value of 1.56 ± 0.05 μM. Among them, compounds 1, 4-8 and 19 were found to be active against all four cell lines. Compound 20 was found to be selectively active against MCF7 cells with IC50 value of 40.21 ± 4.15 µM, whereas compound 19 was active against only MCF7 and HeLa cells with IC50 values of 46.72 ± 1.8 and 19.86 ± 0.11 μM, respectively. These results suggest that aryl thiazoles 1 and 4 deserve to be investigated further in vivo as anti-cancer agents.

Keywords: anticancer agents, breast cancer cell lines (MCF7, MDA-MB-231), colorectal cancer cell line (HCT-116), cervical cancer cell line (HeLa), Thiazole derivatives

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5181 Natural Honey and Effect on the Activity of the Cells

Authors: Abujnah Dukali

Abstract:

Natural honey was assessed in cell culture system for its anticancer activity. Human leukemic cell line HL 60 was treated with honey and cultured for 5 days and cytotoxicity was calculated by MTT assay. Honey showed cytotoxicity with CC50 value of 174.20 µg/ml. Radical modulation activities was assessed by lipid peroxidation assay using egg lecithin. Honey showed antioxidant activity with EC50 value of 159.73 µg/ml. In addition, treatment with HL60 cells also resulted in nuclear DNA fragmentation, as seen in agarose gel electrophoresis. This is a hallmark of cells undergoing apoptosis. Confirmation of apoptosis was performed by staining the cells with Annexin V and FACS analysis. Apoptosis is an active, genetically regulated disassembly of the cell form within. Disassembly creates changes in the phospholipid content of the cytoplasmic membrane outer leaflet. Phosphatidylserine (PS) is translocated from the inner to the outer surface of the cell for phagocytic cell recognition. The human anticoagulant, annexin V, is a Ca2+-dependent phospholipid protein with a high affinity for PS. Annexin V labeled with fluorescein can identify apoptotic cells in the population It is a confirmatory test for apoptosis. Annexin V-positive cells were defined as apoptotic cells. Since honey shows both antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity at almost the same concentration, it can prevent the free radical induced cancer as prophylactic agent and kill the cancer cells by apoptotic process as a chemotherapeutic agent. Everyday intake of honey can prevent the cancer induction.

Keywords: anticancer, cells, DNA, honey

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
5180 Luminescent and Conductive Cathode Buffer Layer for Enhanced Power Conversion Efficiency of Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells

Authors: Swati Bishnoi, D. Haranath, Vinay Gupta

Abstract:

In this work, we demonstrate that the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic solar cells (OSCs) could be improved significantly by using ZnO doped with Aluminum (Al) and Europium (Eu) as cathode buffer layer (CBL). The ZnO:Al,Eu nanoparticle layer has broadband absorption in the ultraviolet (300-400 nm) region. The Al doping contributes to the enhancement in the conductivity whereas Eu doping significantly improves emission in the visible region. Moreover, this emission overlaps with the absorption range of polymer poly [N -9′-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4′,7′-di-2-thienyl-2′,1′,3′- benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) significantly and results in an enhanced absorption by the active layer and hence high photocurrent. An increase in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.8% has been obtained for ZnO: Al,Eu CBL as compared to 5.9% for pristine ZnO, in the inverted device configuration ITO/CBL/active layer/MoOx/Al. The active layer comprises of a blend of PCDTBT donor and [6-6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) acceptor. In the reference device pristine ZnO has been used as CBL, whereas in the other one ZnO:Al,Eu has been used as CBL. The role of the luminescent CBL layer is to down-shift the UV light into visible range which overlaps with the absorption of PCDTBT polymer, resulting in an energy transfer from ZnO:Al,Eu to PCDTBT polymer and the absorption by active layer is enhanced as revealed by transient spectroscopy. This enhancement resulted in an increase in the short circuit current which contributes in an increased PCE in the device employing ZnO: Al,Eu CBL. Thus, the luminescent ZnO: Al, Eu nanoparticle CBL has great potential in organic solar cells.

Keywords: cathode buffer layer, energy transfer, organic solar cell, power conversion efficiency

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5179 Screening Active Components in YPFS for Regulating Initiative Key Factors in Allergic Inflammation

Authors: Dandan Shen, Hui-zhu Wang, Xi Yu, LiLi Gui, Xiao Wei, Xiao-yan Jiang, Da-wei Wang, Min Hong

Abstract:

Yu-ping-feng-san (YPFS) is a clinical medicine for asthma and other allergic diseases, but the mechanism of YPFS on relapse of allergy is unclear. Currently, people come to realize the epithelial cells(EC) play a key role in stimulating and regulating local immune response. The study of thymic stromal lymphopoietin(TSLP derived from EC provides an important evidence that the EC can regulate immune response to stimulate allergic response. In this study, we observed the effect of YPFS on TSLP in vivo and in vitro. We established a method by using bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE) for screening potential bioactive components by HPLC-MS in YPFS and then analyzed the components in serum containing YPFS by UPLC-MS. The results showed that YPFS could decrease TSLP protein level in OVA-sensitized mice and 16HBE cells. Five components combing with the 16HBE cells were both detected in the serum.

Keywords: TSLP, bronchial epithelial cells, cell-binding, drug-containing serum

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5178 A Comprehensive Evaluation of IGBTs Performance under Zero Current Switching

Authors: Ly. Benbahouche

Abstract:

Currently, several soft switching topologies have been studied to achieve high power switching efficiency, reduced cost, improved reliability and reduced parasites. It is well known that improvement in power electronics systems always depend on advanced in power devices. The IGBT has been successfully used in a variety of switching applications such as motor drives and appliance control because of its superior characteristics. The aim of this paper is focuses on simulation and explication of the internal dynamics of IGBTs behaviour under the most popular soft switching schemas that is Zero Current Switching (ZCS) environments. The main purpose of this paper is to point out some mechanisms relating to current tail during the turn-off and examination of the response at turn-off with variation of temperature, inductance L, snubber capacitors Cs, and bus voltage in order to achieve an improved understanding of internal carrier dynamics. It is shown that the snubber capacitor, the inductance and even the temperature controls the magnitude and extent of the tail current, hence the turn-off time (switching speed of the device). Moreover, it has also been demonstrated that the ZCS switching can be utilized efficiently to improve and reduce the power losses as well as the turn-off time. Furthermore, the turn-off loss in ZCS was found to depend on the time of switching of the device.

Keywords: PT-IGBT, ZCS, turn-off losses, dV/dt

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5177 Following the Modulation of Transcriptional Activity of Genes by Chromatin Modifications during the Cell Cycle in Living Cells

Authors: Sharon Yunger, Liat Altman, Yuval Garini, Yaron Shav-Tal

Abstract:

Understanding the dynamics of transcription in living cells has improved since the development of quantitative fluorescence-based imaging techniques. We established a method for following transcription from a single copy gene in living cells. A gene tagged with MS2 repeats, used for mRNA tagging, in its 3' UTR was integrated into a single genomic locus. The actively transcribing gene was detected and analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and live-cell imaging. Several cell clones were created that differed in the promoter regulating the gene. Thus, comparative analysis could be obtained without the risk of different position effects at each integration site. Cells in S/G2 phases could be detected exhibiting two adjacent transcription sites on sister chromatids. A sharp reduction in the transcription levels was observed as cells progressed along the cell cycle. We hypothesized that a change in chromatin structure acts as a general mechanism during the cell cycle leading to down-regulation in the activity of some genes. We addressed this question by treating the cells with chromatin decondensing agents. Quantifying and imaging the treated cells suggests that chromatin structure plays a role both in regulating transcriptional levels along the cell cycle, as well as in limiting an active gene from reaching its maximum transcription potential at any given time. These results contribute to understanding the role of chromatin as a regulator of gene expression.

Keywords: cell cycle, living cells, nucleus, transcription

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5176 Astaxanthin Induces Cytotoxicity through Down-Regulating Rad51 Expression in Human Lung Cancer Cells

Authors: Jyh-Cheng Chen, Tai-Jing Wang, Yun-Wei Lin

Abstract:

Astaxanthin has been demonstrated to exhibit a wide range of beneficial effects including anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. However, the molecular mechanism of astaxanthin-induced cytotoxicity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells has not been identified. Rad51 plays a central role in homologous recombination and high levels of Rad51 expression are observed in chemo- or radioresistant carcinomas. In this study, astaxanthin treatment inhibited cell viability and proliferation of two NSCLC cells, A549 and H1703. Treatment with astaxanthin decreased Rad51 expression and phospho-AKT protein level in a time and dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, expression of constitutively active AKT (AKT-CA) vector significantly rescued the decreased Rad51 protein and mRNA levels in astaxanthin-treated NSCLC cells. Combined treatment with PI3K inhibitors (LY294002 or wortmannin) and astaxanthin further decreased the Rad51 expression in NSCLC cells. Knockdown of Rad51 enhanced astaxanthin-induced cytotoxicity and growth inhibition in NSCLC cells. These findings may have implications for the rational design of future drug regimens incorporating astaxanthin for the treatment of NSCLC.

Keywords: astaxanthin, cytotoxicity, AKT, non-small cell lung cancer, PI3K

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5175 Artificial Neural Networks Controller for Active Power Filter Connected to a Photovoltaic Array

Authors: Rachid Dehini, Brahim Berbaoui

Abstract:

The main objectives of shunt active power filter (SAPF) is to preserve the power system from unwanted harmonic currents produced by nonlinear loads, as well as to compensate the reactive power. The aim of this paper is to present a (PAPF) supplied by the Photovoltaic cells ,in such a way that the (PAPF) feeds the linear and nonlinear loads by harmonics currents and the excess of the energy is injected into the power system. In order to improve the performances of conventional (PAPF) This paper also proposes artificial neural networks (ANN) for harmonics identification and DC link voltage control. The simulation study results of the new (SAPF) identification technique are found quite satisfactory by assuring good filtering characteristics and high system stability.

Keywords: SAPF, harmonics current, photovoltaic cells, MPPT, artificial neural networks (ANN)

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5174 Intensive Crosstalk between Autophagy and Intracellular Signaling Regulates Osteosarcoma Cell Survival Response under Cisplatin Stress

Authors: Jyothi Nagraj, Sudeshna Mukherjee, Rajdeep Chowdhury

Abstract:

Autophagy has recently been linked with cancer cell survival post drug insult contributing to acquisition of resistance. However, the molecular signaling governing autophagic survival response is poorly explored. In our study, in osteosarcoma (OS) cells cisplatin shock was found to activate both MAPK and autophagy signaling. An activation of JNK and autophagy acted as pro-survival strategy, while ERK1/2 triggered apoptotic signals upon cisplatin stress. An increased sensitivity of the cells to cisplatin was obtained with simultaneous inhibition of both autophagy and JNK pathway. Furthermore, we observed that the autophagic stimulation upon drug stress regulates other developmentally active signaling pathways like the Hippo pathway in OS cells. Cisplatin resistant cells were thereafter developed by repetitive drug exposure followed by clonal selection. Basal levels of autophagy were found to be high in resistant cells to. However, the signaling mechanism leading to autophagic up-regulation and its regulatory effect differed in OS cells upon attaining drug resistance. Our results provide valuable clues to regulatory dynamics of autophagy that can be considered for development of improved therapeutic strategy against resistant type cancers.

Keywords: JNK, autophagy, drug resistance, cancer

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5173 Active Learning: Increase Learning through Engagement

Authors: Jihan Albayati, Kim Abdullah

Abstract:

This poster focuses on the significance of active learning strategies and their usage in the ESL classroom. Active learning is a big shift from traditional lecturing to active student engagement which can enhance and enrich student learning; therefore, engaging students is the core of this approach. Students learn more when they participate in the process of learning such as discussions, debates, analysis, synthesis, or any form of activity that requires student involvement. In order to achieve active learning, teachers can use different instructional strategies that are conducive to learning and the selection of these strategies depends on student learning outcomes. Active learning techniques must be carefully designed and integrated into the classroom to increase critical thinking and student participation. This poster provides a concise definition of active learning and its importance, instructional strategies, active learning techniques and their impact on student engagement. Also, it demonstrates the differences between passive and active learners.

Keywords: active learning, learner engagement, student-centered, teaching strategies

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5172 Alleviation of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Mosquito Cells to Survive Dengue 2 Virus Infection

Authors: Jiun-Nan Hou, Tien-Huang Chen, Wei-June Chen

Abstract:

Dengue viruses (DENVs) are naturally transmitted between humans by mosquito vectors. Mosquito cells usually survive DENV infection, allowing infected mosquitoes to retain an active status for virus transmission. In this study, we found that DENV2 virus infection in mosquito cells causes the unfolded protein response (UPR) that activates the protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) signal pathway, leading to shutdown of global protein translation in infected cells which was apparently regulated by the PERK signal pathway. According to observation in this study, the PERK signal pathway in DENV2-infected C6/36 cells alleviates ER stress, and reduces initiator and effector caspases, as well as the apoptosis rate via shutdown of cellular proteins. In fact, phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2ɑ (eIF2ɑ) by the PERK signal pathway may impair recruitment of ribosomes that bind to the mRNA 5’-cap structure, resulting in an inhibitory effect on canonical cap-dependent cellular protein translation. The resultant pro-survival “byproduct” of infected mosquito cells is undoubtedly advantageous for viral replication. This finding provides insights into elucidating the PERK-mediated modulating web that is actively involved in dynamic protein synthesis, cell survival, and viral replication in mosquito cells.

Keywords: cap-dependent protein translation, dengue virus, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mosquito cells, PERK signal pathway

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5171 Photoimpedance Spectroscopy Analysis of Planar and Nano-Textured Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells

Authors: P. Kumar, D. Eisenhauer, M. M. K. Yousef, Q. Shi, A. S. G. Khalil, M. R. Saber, C. Becker, T. Pullerits, K. J. Karki

Abstract:

In impedance spectroscopy (IS) the response of a photo-active device is analysed as a function of ac bias. It is widely applied in a broad class of material systems and devices. It gives access to fundamental mechanisms of operation of solar cells. We have implemented a method of IS where we modulate the light instead of the bias. This scheme allows us to analyze not only carrier dynamics but also impedance of device locally. Here, using this scheme, we have measured the frequency-dependent photocurrent response of the thin-film planar and nano-textured Si solar cells using this method. Photocurrent response is measured in range of 50 Hz to 50 kHz. Bode and Nyquist plots are used to determine characteristic lifetime of both the cells. Interestingly, the carrier lifetime of both planar and nano-textured solar cells depend on back and front contact positions. This is due to either heterogeneity of device or contacts are not optimized. The estimated average lifetime is found to be shorter for the nano-textured cell, which could be due to the influence of the textured interface on the carrier relaxation dynamics.

Keywords: carrier lifetime, impedance, nano-textured, photocurrent

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5170 Novel Steviosides Analogs Induced Apoptosis in Breast Cancers

Authors: Ahmed Malki

Abstract:

Breast cancer has been identified as the most lethal form of cancer today. In our study, we designed and screened 16 steviosides derivatives for their cytotoxic activities in MCF-7human breast cancer cells and normal MCF-12a cells. Our data indicated that steviosides derivatives 9 and 15 decreased cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells more thannormal breast cells epithelial cells. Flow cytometric analysis showed that both steviosides, derivatives 9 and 15 arrested the MCF-7 cells in G1 phase, which is further confirmed by the increased expression level of p21. Moreover, both steviosides derivatives increased caspase-9 activity, and the induction of apoptosis was significantly reduced after treating cells with caspase-9 inhibitor LEHD-CHO. Both steviosides derivatives increased Caspase 3 activities and induced Parp-1 cleavage in H1299 cells. Based on previous results, we have identified two novel steviosides derivatives which provoked apoptosis in breast cancer cells by arresting cells in G1 phase and increasing caspase-9 and caspase-3 activities which merits further development and investigations.

Keywords: steviosides, breast cancer, p53, cell cycle

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5169 Comparison of the Performance of GaInAsSb and GaSb Cells under Different Temperature Blackbody Radiations

Authors: Liangliang Tang, Chang Xu, Xingying Chen

Abstract:

GaInAsSb cells probably show better performance than GaSb cells in low-temperature thermophotovoltaic systems due to lower bandgap; however, few experiments proved this phenomenon so far. In this paper, numerical simulation is used to evaluate GaInAsSb and GaSb cells with similar structures under different radiation temperatures. We found that GaInAsSb cells with n-type emitters show slightly higher output power densities compared with that of GaSb cells with n-type emitters below 1,550 K-blackbody radiation, and the power density of the later cells will suppress the formers above this temperature point. During the temperature range of 1,000~2,000 K, the efficiencies of GaSb cells are about twice of GaInAsSb cells if perfect filters are used to prevent the emission of the non-absorbed long wavelength photons. Several parameters that affect the GaInAsSb cell were analyzed, such as doping profiles, thicknesses of GaInAsSb epitaxial layer and surface recombination velocity. The non-p junctions, i.e., n-type emitters are better for GaInAsSb cell fabrication, which is similar to that of GaSb cells.

Keywords: thermophotovoltaic cell, GaSb, GaInAsSb, diffused emitters

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5168 A Novel Application of CORDYCEPIN (Cordycepssinensis Extract): Maintaining Stem Cell Pluripotency and Improving iPS Generation Efficiency

Authors: Shih-Ping Liu, Cheng-Hsuan Chang, Yu-Chuen Huang, Shih-Yin Chen, Woei-Cherng Shyu

Abstract:

Embryonic stem cells (ES) and induced pluripotnet stem cells (iPS) are both pluripotent stem cells. For mouse stem cells culture technology, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) was used to maintain the pluripotency of stem cells in vitro. However, LIF is an expensive reagent. The goal of this study was to find out a pure compound extracted from Chinese herbal medicine that could maintain stem cells pluripotency to replace LIF and improve the iPS generation efficiency. From 20 candidates traditional Chinese medicine we found that Cordycepsmilitaris triggered the up-regulation of stem cells activating genes (Oct4 and Sox2) expression levels in MEF cells. Cordycepin, a major active component of Cordycepsmilitaris, also could up-regulate Oct4 and Sox2 gene expression. Furthermore, we used ES and iPS cells and treated them with different concentrations of Cordycepin (replaced LIF in the culture medium) to test whether it was useful to maintain the pluripotency. The results showed higher expression levels of several stem cells markers in 10 μM Cordycepin-treated ES and iPS cells compared to controls that did not contain LIF, including alkaline phosphatase, SSEA1, and Nanog. Embryonic body formation and differentiation confirmed that 10 μM Cordycepin-containing medium was capable to maintain stem cells pluripotency after four times passages. For mechanism analysis, microarray analysis indicated extracellular matrix and Jak/Stat signaling pathway as the top two deregulated pathways. In ECM pathway, we determined that the integrin αVβ5 expression levels and phosphorylated Src levels increased after Cordycepin treatment. In addition, the phosphorylated Jak2 and phosphorylated Sat3 protein levels were increased after Cordycepin treatment and suppressed with the Jak2 inhibitor, AG490. The expression of cytokines associated with Jak2/Stat3 signaling pathway were also up-regulated by Q-PCR and ELISA assay. Lastly, we used Oct4-GFP MEF cells to test iPS generation efficiency following Cordycepin treatment. We observed that 10 Μm Cordycepin significantly increased the iPS generation efficiency in day 21. In conclusion, we demonstrated Cordycepin could maintain the pluripotency of stem cells through both of ECM and Jak2/Stat3 signaling pathway and improved iPS generation efficiency.

Keywords: cordycepin, iPS cells, Jak2/Stat3 signaling pathway, molecular biology

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5167 Studying the Anti-Cancer Effects of Thymoquinone on Tumor Cells Through Natural Killer Cells Activity

Authors: Nouf A. Aldarmahi, Nesrin I. Tarbiah, Nuha A. Alkhattabi, Huda F. Alshaibi

Abstract:

Nigella sativa which is known as dark cumin is a well-known example for a widely applicable herbal medicine. Nigella sativa can be effective in a variety of diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, bronchitis, gastrointestinal upset, and cancer. The anticancer effect of Nigella sativa appeared to be mediated by immune-modulatory effect through stimulating human natural killer (NK) cells. This is a type of lymphocytes which is part of the innate immunity, also known as the first line of defense in the body against pathogens. This study investigated the effect of thymoquinone as a major component of Nigella sativa on the molecular cytotoxic pathway of NK cell and the role of thymoquinone therapeutic effect on NK cells. NK cells were cultured with breast tumor cells in different ways and cultured media was collected and the concentration of perforin, granzyme B and interferon-α were measured by ELISA. The cytotoxic effect of NK cells on breast tumor cells was enhanced in the presence of thymoquinone, with increased activity of perforin in NK cells. This improved anticancer effect of thymoquinone on breast cancer cells.

Keywords: breast cancer, cancer cells, natural killer cells, thymoquinone

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5166 Umbilical Cord-Derived Cells in Corneal Epithelial Regeneration

Authors: Hasan Mahmud Reza

Abstract:

Extensive studies of the human umbilical cord, both basic and translational, over the last three decades have unveiled a plethora of information. The cord lining harbors at least two phenotypically different multipotent stem cells: mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and cord lining epithelial stem cells (CLECs). These cells exhibit a mixed genetic profiling of both embryonic and adult stem cells, hence display a broader stem features than cells from other sources. We have observed that umbilical cord-derived cells are immunologically privileged and non-tumorigenic by animal study. These cells are ethically acceptable, thus provides a significant advantage over other stem cells. The high proliferative capacity, viability, differentiation potential, and superior harvest of these cells have made them better candidates in comparison to contemporary adult stem cells. Following 30 replication cycles, these cells have been observed to retain their stemness, with their phenotype and karyotype intact. Transplantation of bioengineered CLEC sheets in limbal stem cell-deficient rabbit eyes resulted in regeneration of clear cornea with phenotypic expression of the normal cornea-specific epithelial cytokeratin markers. The striking features of low immunogenicity protecting self along with co-transplanted allografts from rejection largely define the transplantation potential of umbilical cord-derived stem cells.

Keywords: cord lining epithelial stem cells, mesenchymal stem cell, regenerative medicine, umbilical cord

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5165 Different Cathode Buffer Layers in Organic Solar Cells

Authors: Radia Kamel

Abstract:

Considerable progress has been made in the development of bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells (OSCs) based on a blend of p-type and n-type organic semiconductors. To optimize the interfacial properties between the active layer and the electrode, a cathode buffer layer (CBL) is introduced. This layer can reduce the leakage current, increasing the open-circuit voltage and the fill factor while improving the OSC stability. In this work, the performance of PM6:Y6 OSC with 1-Chloronaphthalene as an additive is examined. To accomplish this, three CBLs PNDIT-F3N-Br, ZrAcac, and PDINO, are compared using the conventional configuration. The device with PNDIT-F3N-Br as CBL exhibits the highest power conversion efficiency of 16.04%. The results demonstrate that modifying the cathode buffer layer is crucial for achieving high-performance OSCs.

Keywords: bulk heterojunction, cathode buffer layer, efficiency, organic solar cells

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5164 Biological Activities of Flaxseed Peptides (Linusorbs)

Authors: Youn Young Shim, Martin J. T. Reaney

Abstract:

Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) is gaining popularity in the food industry as a super-food due to its health-promoting properties. The flax plant synthesizes an array of biolog-ically active cyclic peptides or linusorbs (LOs, a.k.a. cyclolinopeptides) from three or more ribosome-derived precursors. [1–9-NαC]-linusorb B3 and [1–9-NαC]-linusorb B2, sup-press immunity, induce apoptosis in human epithelial cancer cell line (Calu-3) cells, and inhibit T-cell proliferation, but the mechanism of LOs action is unknown. Using gene ex-pression analysis in nematode cultures and human cancer cell lines we have observed that LOs exert their activity, in part, through induction of apoptosis. Specific LOs’ properties include: 1) distribute throughout the body after flaxseed consumption; 2) induce heat shock protein (HSP) 70A production as an indicator of stress and addressed the issue in Caeno-rhabditis elegans (exposure of nematode cultures to [1–9-NαC]-linusorb B3 induced a 30% increase in production of the HSP 70A protein); 3) induce apoptosis in Calu-3 cells; and 4) modulate regulatory genes in microarray analysis. These diverse activities indicate that LOs might induce apoptosis in cancer cells or act as versatile platforms to deliver a variety of biologically active molecules for cancer therapy.

Keywords: flaxseed, linusorb, oil seed, heat shock protein, anti-cancer

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