Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 43

Search results for: WhatsApp

43 WhatsApp as Part of a Blended Learning Model to Help Programming Novices

Authors: Tlou J. Ramabu


Programming is one of the challenging subjects in the field of computing. In the higher education sphere, some programming novices’ performance, retention rate, and success rate are not improving. Most of the time, the problem is caused by the slow pace of learning, difficulty in grasping the syntax of the programming language and poor logical skills. More importantly, programming forms part of major subjects within the field of computing. As a result, specialized pedagogical methods and innovation are highly recommended. Little research has been done on the potential productivity of the WhatsApp platform as part of a blended learning model. In this article, the authors discuss the WhatsApp group as a part of blended learning model incorporated for a group of programming novices. We discuss possible administrative activities for productive utilisation of the WhatsApp group on the blended learning overview. The aim is to take advantage of the popularity of WhatsApp and the time students spend on it for their educational purpose. We believe that blended learning featuring a WhatsApp group may ease novices’ cognitive load and strengthen their foundational programming knowledge and skills. This is a work in progress as the proposed blended learning model with WhatsApp incorporated is yet to be implemented.

Keywords: blended learning, higher education, WhatsApp, programming, novices, lecturers

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
42 A Survey of WhatsApp as a Tool for Instructor-Learner Dialogue, Learner-Content Dialogue, and Learner-Learner Dialogue

Authors: Ebrahim Panah, Muhammad Yasir Babar


Thanks to the development of online technology and social networks, people are able to communicate as well as learn. WhatsApp is a popular social network which is growingly gaining popularity. This app can be used for communication as well as education. It can be used for instructor-learner, learner-learner, and learner-content interactions; however, very little knowledge is available on these potentials of WhatsApp. The current study was undertaken to investigate university students’ perceptions of WhatsApp used as a tool for instructor-learner dialogue, learner-content dialogue, and learner-learner dialogue. The study adopted a survey approach and distributed the questionnaire developed by Google Forms to 54 (11 males and 43 females) university students. The obtained data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. The result of data analysis indicates that students have positive attitudes towards WhatsApp as a tool for Instructor-Learner Dialogue: it easy to reach the lecturer (4.07), the instructor gives me valuable feedback on my assignment (4.02), the instructor is supportive during course discussion and offers continuous support with the class (4.00). Learner-Content Dialogue: WhatsApp allows me to academically engage with lecturers anytime, anywhere (4.00), it helps to send graphics such as pictures or charts directly to the students (3.98), it also provides out of class, extra learning materials and homework (3.96), and Learner-Learner Dialogue: WhatsApp is a good tool for sharing knowledge with others (4.09), WhatsApp allows me to academically engage with peers anytime, anywhere (4.07), and we can interact with others through the use of group discussion (4.02). It was also found that there are significant positive correlations between students’ perceptions of Instructor-Learner Dialogue (ILD), Learner-Content Dialogue (LCD), Learner-Learner Dialogue (LLD) and WhatsApp Application in classroom. The findings of the study have implications for lectures, policy makers and curriculum developers.

Keywords: instructor-learner dialogue, learners-contents dialogue, learner-learner dialogue, whatsapp application

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
41 The Impact of WhatsApp Groups as Supportive Technology in Teaching

Authors: Pinn Tsin Isabel Yee


With the advent of internet technologies, students are increasingly turning toward social media and cross-platform messaging apps such as WhatsApp, Line, and WeChat to support their teaching and learning processes. Although each messaging app has varying features, WhatsApp remains one of the most popular cross-platform apps that allow for fast, simple, secure messaging and free calls anytime, anywhere. With a plethora of advantages, students could easily assimilate WhatsApp as a supportive technology in their learning process. There could be peer to peer learning, and a teacher will be able to share knowledge digitally via the creation of WhatsApp groups. Content analysis techniques were utilized to analyze data collected by closed-ended question forms. Studies demonstrated that 98.8% of college students (n=80) from the Monash University foundation year agreed that the employment of WhatsApp groups was helpful as a learning tool. Approximately 71.3% disagreed that notifications and alerts from the WhatsApp group were disruptions in their studies. Students commented that they could silence the notifications and hence, it would not disturb their flow of thoughts. In fact, an overwhelming majority of students (95.0%) found it enjoyable to participate in WhatsApp groups for educational purposes. It was a common perception that some students felt pressured to post a reply in such groups, but data analysis showed that 72.5% of students did not feel pressured to comment or reply. It was good that 93.8% of students felt satisfactory if their posts were not responded to speedily, but was eventually attended to. Generally, 97.5% of students found it useful if their teachers provided their handphone numbers to be added to a WhatsApp group. If a teacher posts an explanation or a mathematical working in the group, all students would be able to view the post together, as opposed to individual students asking their teacher a similar question. On whether students preferred using Facebook as a learning tool, there was a 50-50 divide in the replies from the respondents as 51.3% of students liked WhatsApp, while 48.8% preferred Facebook as a supportive technology in teaching and learning. Taken altogether, the utilization of WhatsApp groups as a supportive technology in teaching and learning should be implemented in all classes to continuously engage our generation Y students in the ever-changing digital landscape.-

Keywords: education, learning, messaging app, technology, WhatsApp groups

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40 Using Smartphone Instant Messaging (IM) App for Academic Discussion in an Undergraduate Chemistry Course

Authors: Mei Xuan Tan, Eng Ying Bong


Academic discussion during and after instructional teaching is an integral part of learning. Such discussion between the instructor and student or peer-to-peer discussion can be in several different forms. It could be face-to-face discussion, via email and use of online discussion forum. In this study, the effectiveness of using WhatsApp for academic discussion for a first year half-credit Chemistry course was examined. This study was run over two years with two different batches of students. Participation in the study was voluntary and student volunteers were recruited within the first week of the term. The activity in the WhatsApp group was monitored by two instructors teaching the course. At the end of the course, the students participated in an online survey to evaluate their experience of using WhatsApp for academic discussion. There were a total of 26 questions. The survey had a total of 4 sections with regards to the use of WhatsApp for academic discussion: 1) Familiarity with WhatsApp, 2) Effectiveness of using WhatsApp for discussion, 3) Challenges and 4) Overall experience. The main purpose of using an IM platform for academic discussion was to encourage after-class discussion amongst the students. 32% of the participants had used other online platform, such as Piazza and forums in Learning Management System (LMS), for after-class academic discussion with their instructors and peers. This was a low percentage considering that some courses use such online platform as their main forum amongst instructors and students. At the end of our study, over 83% of the participants felt that WhatsApp was a more effective platform compared to other online forum. One interesting finding was the effect of WhatsApp discussion on face-to-face interaction with instructors. 28% of the students agreed that the use of WhatsApp as a discussion forum had encouraged them to approach their instructors during or after class. 51% of students answered neutral. This could be interpreted that the use of WhatsApp had not affected the frequent (or lack of) face-to-face interaction with their instructors. A second survey question, similar but phrased differently from the first, was also asked to evaluate the aspect of face-to-face interaction with instructors. 34% disagreed that the use of WhatsApp had reduced the frequency of face-to-face interaction. This could imply that the frequency remained the same or might have increased. The 38% who agreed to a decrease in face-to-face interaction have either asked the questions in WhatsApp or had their questions answered by a query from another student in the group chat. These outcomes suggested that the use of technology aided and complemented face-to-face interaction between instructors and students. The study also looked at the challenges of using WhatsApp for academic discussion. Some challenges included difficulty in referring back to previous discussion and students finding some discussions irrelevant to them. In conclusion, the use of IM platform for academic discussion was desirable for the students, but it should not be the only channel as face-to-face consultation and online forum for lengthy discussion are still important for after-class learning of students.

Keywords: chemistry, pedogogy, technological tools, undergraduate

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39 Whatsapp Messaging Platform and Academic Performance of Mass Communication Students, Abdu Gusau Polytechnic, Talata Mafara

Authors: Ibrahim Magaji


WhatsApp messaging platform brings about new opportunities for users to participate in unique storytelling experiences and audience engagement, particularly to Students of Mass communication who receive training to report events and issues accurately and objectively in accordance with official controls. Also, the complex nature of society today made it possible to use the WhatsApp platform that revolutionizes the means of sharing information, ideas, and experiences. This paper examined the WhatsApp messaging platform and how it influenced the academic performance of students in the Department of Mass Communication, Abdu Gusau Polytechnic, Talata Mafara. It used in-depth interview techniques and focus group discussion with students, as well as the use of published materials as well as unpublished materials to gather related and relevant data. Also, the paper used procedures involved to analyze long interview content. This procedure includes observation of a useful utterance, development of expanded observation, the examination of the interconnection of observed comments, collective scrutiny of observation for patterns and themes, and review and analysis of the themes across all interviews for development of the thesis. The result revealed that the majority of students used WhatsApp messenger for making friends and chatting. Also, the students experienced negative effects such as poor grammar and spelling, less study time, and poor academic performance because of active participation in the use of WhatsApp messaging platform. Surprisingly, there was a high addiction rate among students in the usage of WhatsApp messenger. However, other students experienced an improvement in their readings skills as a result of participation in the use of the platform. Also, students shared ideas, discussed, and shared examination questions among themselves on WhatsApp messenger.

Keywords: WhatsApp messenger, students, participation, group

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
38 WhatsApp Application and Challenges of Radio Broadcasting in Northern Nigeria: Special Interest on FRCN Kaduna

Authors: Aliyu Damri


This study analyzed the emergence of WhatsApp and how employees at the Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria, Kaduna defined the concept base on their vast broadcasting experiences for over five decades and application of the phenomenon to the radio station. It also analyzed the nature, patterns, dimensions, features, challenges as well as the effects of WhatsApp as a social networking site with specific interest on the radio outlet. Also, the study identified how the radio organization responded to the challenges in an attempt to adapt to the new pattern of broadcasting characterized by many technological transformations. The study further explained in details such skills journalists need to function optimally using WhatsApp as well as the impacts of the WhatsApp on radio broadcasting. It used a combination of published materials, focus group discussion, in depth interviews and participant observation on the activities of the radio stations to address the research questions. The data generated provided insight to better understand the challenges posed to FRCN Kaduna as a result of WhatsApp application and how FRCN Kaduna responded to the challenges. It also provided information on the skills journalists need to function optimally in using WhatsApp application in the radio station. The interview and focus group discussion’s transcripts and the published materials were analyzed along thematic pattern related to the research questions in the study. The dominant response relied heavily on change in the radio station’s organizational and technical integration of newsrooms, the use of a multiskilled workforce, application of a flexible and user-friendly technology in all aspects of production, expansion of the station’s services in to new media such as internet and mobile phones as well as sharing of ideas across different units in the radio outfit.

Keywords: broadcasting, challenge, northern Nigeria, radio, WhatsApp application

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
37 Modified InVEST for Whatsapp Messages Forensic Triage and Search through Visualization

Authors: Agria Rhamdhan


WhatsApp as the most popular mobile messaging app has been used as evidence in many criminal cases. As the use of mobile messages generates large amounts of data, forensic investigation faces the challenge of large data problems. The hardest part of finding this important evidence is because current practice utilizes tools and technique that require manual analysis to check all messages. That way, analyze large sets of mobile messaging data will take a lot of time and effort. Our work offers methodologies based on forensic triage to reduce large data to manageable sets resulting easier to do detailed reviews, then show the results through interactive visualization to show important term, entities and relationship through intelligent ranking using Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF) and Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) Model. By implementing this methodology, investigators can improve investigation processing time and result's accuracy.

Keywords: forensics, triage, visualization, WhatsApp

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36 A Cross-Sectional Study Assessing Communication Practices among Doctors at a University Hospital in Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Waqas Baqai, Noman Shahzad, Rehman Alvi


Communication among health care givers is the essence of quality patient care and any compromise results in errors and inefficiency leading to cumbersome outcomes. The use of smartphone among health professionals has increased tremendously. Almost every health professional carries it and majority of them uses a third party communication software called whatsApp for work related communications. It gives instant access to the person responsible for any particular query and therefore helps in efficient and timely decision making. It is also an easy way of sharing medical documents, multimedia and provides platform for consensual decision making through group discussions. However clinical communication through whatsApp has some demerits too including reduction in verbal communication, worsening professional relations, unprofessional behavior, risk of confidentiality breach and threats from cyber-attacks. On the other hand the traditional pager device being used in many health care systems is a unidirectional communication that lacks the ability to convey any information other than the number to which the receiver has to respond. Our study focused on these two widely used modalities of communication among doctors of the largest tertiary care center of Pakistan i.e. The Aga Khan University Hospital. Our aim was to note which modality is considered better and has fewer threats to medical data. Approval from ethical review committee of the institute was taken prior to conduction of this study. We submitted an online survey form to all the interns and residents working at our institute and collected their response in a month’s time. 162 submissions were recorded and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Only 20% of them were comfortable with using pagers exclusively, 52% with whatsApp and 28% with both. 65% think that whatsApp is time-saving and quicker than pager. 54% of them considered whatsApp to be causing nuisance from work related notifications in their off-work hours. 60% think that they are more likely to miss information through pager system because of the unidirectional nature. Almost all (96%) of residents and interns found whatsApp to be useful in terms of saving information for future reference. For urgent issues, majority (70%) preferred pager over whatsApp and also pager was considered more valid in terms of hospital policies and legal issues. Among major advantages of whatsApp as listed by them were; easy mass communication, sharing of clinical pictures, universal access and no need of carrying additional device. However the major drawback of using whatsApp for clinical communication that everyone shared was threat to patients’ confidentiality as clinicians usually share pictures of wounds, clinical documents etc. Lastly we asked them if they think there is a need of a separate application for instant communication dedicated to clinical communication only and 90% responded positively. Therefore, we concluded that both modalities have their merits and demerits but the greatest drawback with whatsApp is the risk of breach in patients’ confidentiality and off-work disturbance. Hence, we recommend a more secure, institute-run application for all intra hospital communications where they can share documents, pictures etc. easily under a controlled environment.

Keywords: WhatsApp, pager, clinical communication, confidentiality

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35 WhatsApp as a Public Health Management Tool in India

Authors: Drishti Sharma, Mona Duggal


Background: WhatsApp can serve as a cost-effective, scalable, convenient, and popular medium for public health management related communication in the developing world where the existing system of communication is top-down and slow. The product supports sending and receiving a variety of media: text, photos, videos, documents, and location, as well as voice/video calls. With growing number of users of smartphones and improving access and penetration of internet, the scope of information technology remains immense in resolving the hurdles faced by traditional public health system. Poor infrastructure, gap in digital literacy, faulty documentation, strict organizational hierarchy and slow movement of information across desks and offices- all these, make WhatsApp an efficient prospect to complement the existing system for communication, feedback and leadership for public health system in India. Objective: This study investigates the benefits, challenges and limitations associated with WhatsApp usage as a public health management tool. Methods: The study was conducted within the Chandigarh Union Territory. We used a qualitative approach and conducted individual semi-structured interviews and group interviews (n = 10). Participants included medical officers (n 20), Program managers (n = 4), academicians (n=2) and administrators (n=2). Thematic and content qualitative analyses were conducted. Message log of the WhatsApp group of one of the health program was assessed. Results: Medical Officers said that WhatsApp helped them remain in touch with the program officer. They could easily give feedback and highlight those challenges which needed immediate intervention from the program managers, hence they felt supported. Also, the application helped them share pictures of their activities (meetings and field activities) with the group which they thought inspired others and gave themselves immense satisfaction. Also, it helped build stronger relationships and better coordination among themselves, the same being important in team events. For program managers, it had become a portal for coordinating large scale campaigns. Its reach and the fact that the feedback is real-time make WhatsApp ideal for district level events. Though the easy informal connectivity made them answerable to their staff but it also provided them with flexibility in operations. It turned out to be an important portal for sharing outcome and goals related feedback (both positive and negative) to the team. To be sure, using WhatsApp for the purpose of public health program presents considerable challenges, including technological barriers, organizational challenges, gender issues, confidentiality concerns and unplanned aftereffects. Nevertheless, its advantages in a low-cost setting make it an efficient alternative. Conclusion: WhatsApp has become an integral part of our lives. Use of this app for public health program management within closed groups looks promising and useful. At the same time, addressing the challenges involved would make its usage safer.

Keywords: communication, mobile technology, public health management, WhatsApp

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34 The Use of Whatsapp Platform in Spreading Fake News among Mass Communication Students of Abdu Gusau Polytechnic, Talata Mafara

Authors: Aliyu Damri


In every educational institution, students of mass communication receive training to report events and issues accurately and objectively in accordance with official controls. However, the complex nature of society today made it possible to use WhatsApp platform that revolutionizes the means of sharing information, ideas, and experiences. This paper examined how students in the Department of Mass Communication, Abdu Gusau Polytechnic, Talata Mafara used WhatsApp platform in spreading fake news. It used in depth interview techniques and focus group discussion with students as well as the use of published materials to gather related and relevant data. Also, the paper used procedures involved to analyze long interview content. This procedure includes observation of a useful utterance, development of expanded observation, examination of interconnection of observed comments, collective scrutiny of observation for patterns and themes, and review and analysis of the themes across all interviews for development of thesis. The result indicated that inadequate and absent of official controls guiding the conduct of online information sharing, inaccuracies and poor source verification, lack of gate keeping procedures to ensure ethical and legal provisions, bringing users into the process, sharing all information, availability of misinformation, disinformation and rumor and problem of conversation strongly encouraged the emergence of fake news. Surprisingly, the idea of information as a commodity has increased, and transparency of a source as new ethics emerged.

Keywords: disinformation, fake news, group, mass communication, misinformation, WhatsApp

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
33 Use of WhatsApp Messenger for Optimal Healthcare Operational Communication during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors: Josiah O. Carter, Charlotte Hayden, Elizabeth Arthurs


Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, hospital management policies have changed frequently and rapidly. This has created novel challenges in keeping the workforce abreast of these changes to enable them to deliver safe and effective care. Traditional communication methods, e.g. email, do not keep pace with the rapidly changing environment in the hospital, resulting in inaccurate, irrelevant, or outdated information being communicated, resulting in inefficiencies in patient care. Methods: The creation of a WhatsApp messaging group within the medical division at the Bristol Royal Infirmary has enabled senior clinicians and the hospital management team to update the medical workforce in real-time. It has two primary functions: (1) To enable dissemination of a concise, important operational summary. This comprises information on bed status and infection control procedural changes. It is fed directly from a daily critical incident briefing (2) To facilitate a monthly scheduled question and answer (Q&A) session for junior doctors to clarify issues with clinical directors, rota, and management staff. Additional ad-hoc updates are sent out for time-critical information; otherwise, it mainly functions as a broadcast-only group to prevent important information from being lost amongst other communication. All junior doctors within the medical division were invited to join the group. At present, the group comprises 131 participants, of which 10 are administrative staff (rota coordinators, management staff & clinical directors); the remaining 121 are junior clinicians working within the medical division. An electronic survey via Microsoft forms was sent out to junior doctors via the WhatsApp group and via email to assess its utilisation and effectiveness with the aim of quality improvements. Results: Of the 121 group participants, 19 completed the questionnaire (response rate 15.7%). Of these, 16/19 (84.2%) used it regularly, and 12/19 (63.2%) rated it as the most useful source for reliable updates relating to the hospital response to the COVID-19 pandemic, whereas only 2/19 (10.5%) found the trust intranet and the trust COVID-19 operational email update most useful. Respondents rated the WhatsApp group more useful as an information source (mean score 7.7/10) than as a means of providing feedback to management staff (mean score 6.3/10). Qualitative feedback suggested information around ward closures and changes to COVID cohorting, along with updates on staffing issues, were most useful. Respondents also noted the Q&A sessions were an efficient way of relaying feedback about management decisions but that it would be preferable if these sessions could be delivered more frequently. Discussion: During the current global COVID-19 pandemic, there is an increased need for rapid dissemination of critical information within NHS trusts; this includes communication between junior doctors, managers, and senior clinicians. The versatility of WhatsApp permits a variety of functions allowing for regular updates, the dissemination of time-critical information, and enables conversing and feedback. The project has demonstrated that reserved and well-managed use of a WhatsApp group is a welcome, efficient and practical means of communication between the senior management team and the junior medical workforce.

Keywords: communication, COVID-19, hospital management, WhatsApp

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32 Social Networking Application: What Is Their Quality and How Can They Be Adopted in Open Distance Learning Environments?

Authors: Asteria Nsamba


Social networking applications and tools have become compelling platforms for generating and sharing knowledge across the world. Social networking applications and tools refer to a variety of social media platforms which include Facebook, Twitter WhatsApp, blogs and Wikis. The most popular of these platforms are Facebook, with 2.41 billion active users on a monthly basis, followed by WhatsApp with 1.6 billion users and Twitter with 330 million users. These communication platforms have not only impacted social lives but have also impacted students’ learning, across different delivery modes in higher education: distance, conventional and blended learning modes. With this amount of interest in these platforms, knowledge sharing has gained importance within the context in which it is required. In open distance learning (ODL) contexts, social networking platforms can offer students and teachers the platform on which to create and share knowledge, and form learning collaborations. Thus, they can serve as support mechanisms to increase interactions and reduce isolation and loneliness inherent in ODL. Despite this potential and opportunity, research indicates that many ODL teachers are not inclined to using social media tools in learning. Although it is unclear why these tools are uncommon in these environments, concerns raised in the literature have indicated that many teachers have not mastered the art of teaching with technology. Using technological, pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) and product quality theory, and Bloom’s Taxonomy as lenses, this paper is aimed at; firstly, assessing the quality of three social media applications: Facebook, Twitter and WhatsApp, in order to determine the extent to which they are suitable platforms for teaching and learning, in terms of content generation, information sharing and learning collaborations. Secondly, the paper demonstrates the application of teaching, learning and assessment using Bloom’s Taxonomy.

Keywords: distance education, quality, social networking tools, TPACK

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31 Recurrent Patterns of Netspeak among Selected Nigerians on WhatsApp Platform: A Quest for Standardisation

Authors: Lily Chimuanya, Esther Ajiboye, Emmanuel Uba


One of the consequences of online communication is the birth of new orthography genres characterised by novel conventions of abbreviation and acronyms usually referred to as Netspeak. Netspeak, also known as internet slang, is a style of writing mainly used in online communication to limit the length of text characters and to save time. The aim of this study is to evaluate how second language users of the English language have internalised this new convention of writing; identify the recurrent patterns of Netspeak; and assess the consistency of the use of the identified patterns in relation to their meanings. The study is corpus-based, and data drawn from WhatsApp chart pages of selected groups of Nigerian English speakers show a large occurrence of inconsistencies in the patterns of Netspeak and their meanings. The study argues that rather than emphasise the negative impact of Netspeak on the communicative competence of second language users, studies should focus on suggesting models as yardsticks for standardising the usage of Netspeak and indeed all other emerging language conventions resulting from online communication. This stance stems from the inevitable global language transformation that is eminent with the coming of age of information technology.

Keywords: abbreviation, acronyms, Netspeak, online communication, standardisation

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30 Penetration of Social Media in Primary Education to Nurture Learning Habits in Toddlers during Covid-19

Authors: Priyadarshini Kiran, Gulshan Kumar


: Social media are becoming the most important tools for interaction among learners, pedagogues and parents where everybody can share, exchange, comment, discuss and create information and knowledge in a collaborative way. The present case study attempts to highlight the role of social media (WhatsApp) in nurturing learning habits in toddlers with the help of parents in primary education. The Case study is based on primary data collected from a primary school situated in a small town in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, India. In research methodology, survey and structured interviews have been used as a tool collected from parents and pedagogues. The findings Suggest: - To nurture learning habits in toddlers, parents and pedagogues use social media site (WhatsApp) in real-time and that too is convenient and handy; - Skill enhancement on the part of Pedagogues as a result of employing innovative teaching-learning techniques; - Social media sites serve as a social connectivity tool to ward off negativity and monotony on the part of parents and pedagogues in the wake of COVID- 19

Keywords: innovative teaching-learning techniques, pedagogues, social media, nurture, toddlers

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
29 Decision Making to Study Abroad among Indonesian Student Migrants in Europe: The Role of Communication Technology

Authors: Inayah Hidayati


Innovation in communication technology has opened up opportunities for student to migrate and study abroad. The increasing number of Indonesian students migrating to study abroad suggests the importance of understanding the reason underline their movements. Objective: This research aims to explain the migration decision-making process of Indonesian student migrants in Europe. In detail, this research will consider the innovation in communication technology in the migration decision-making process of students who emigrated from Indonesia and how they use that in the context of the migration decision-making process. Methods: The data collected included qualitative data from in-depth interviews. An interview guide was formulated to facilitate the in-depth interviews and generate a better understanding of migration behavior. Expectation: 1). Innovation in communication technology help Indonesian student migrants on migration decision making process. 2). Student migrants use communication technology platforms for searching information about destination area. Result: Student migrant in Europe use their communication technology platforms to gain information before they choose that country for study. They use WhatsApp and LINE to making contact with their friends and colleagues in the destination country. WhatsApp and LINE group help Indonesian student to get information about school and daily life.

Keywords: international migration, student, decision making process, communication technology platforms

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28 WormHex: Evidence Retrieval Tool of Social Media from Volatile Memory

Authors: Norah Almubairik, Wadha Almattar, Amani Alqarni


Social media applications are increasingly being used in our everyday communications. These applications utilise end-to-end encryption mechanisms, which make them suitable tools for criminals to exchange messages. These messages are preserved in the volatile memory until the device is restarted. Therefore, volatile forensics has become an important branch of digital forensics. In this study, the WormHex tool was developed to inspect the memory dump files of Windows and Mac-based workstations. The tool supports digital investigators to extract valuable data written in Arabic and English through web-based WhatsApp and Twitter applications. The results verify that social media applications write their data into the memory regardless of the operating system running the application, with there being no major differences between Windows and Mac.

Keywords: volatile memory, REGEX, digital forensics, memory acquisition

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27 Integration of Social Media in Teaching and Learning Activities: A Case Study

Authors: A. Nagaletchimee Annamalai


The study investigated on how a small group of pre-service teachers and lecturers used social media to interact and collaborate to complete their tasks. The study is a qualitative case study that explored the lecturers’ reflections and pre-service teachers’ interviews. The lecturers were given the option to choose Facebook or any other social media as their teaching and learning platforms. However, certain guidelines based on were given to lecturers to conduct their teaching and learning activities. The findings revealed that although Facebook was a popular social networking site, it was not a preferred educational platform. Lecturers preferred to use WhatsApp, Canvas, and email. The focus group interview found positive and negative experiences of the pre-service teachers. The study suggested several pedagogical implications and importantly highlighted the need for changes in curriculum to ensure lecturers leverage the potential of technology in education.

Keywords: social media, interactions, collaboration, online learning environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
26 Research into Factors Affecting the Attitudes of University Students towards WeChat Marketing Based on AISAS Mode

Authors: Du Zhiqin


WeChat is an instant messaging service similar to WhatsApp developed by Tencent, one of China's largest and most used Internet service portals. This paper investigates the penetration of WeChat among university students through a questionnaire, analyzes the effect of brand influence, information quality, interactivity, opinions of opinion-leaders, promotion, personal interests on the attitudes of university students towards WeChat marketing. This paper concludes that the penetration rate of WeChat marketing among university students is generally high enough, WeChat has generally been accepted by students as a way for businesses to market their products, and that all the above-mentioned five factors play a positive role in the process of WeChat marketing. It also proposes that businesses could maximize the effect of WeChat marketing by focusing more resources on the increase of brand influence, and the interactivity of WeChat contents and the use of opinions of opinion-leaders.

Keywords: WeChat, university students, marketing, AISAS

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25 The Smart Record and Replay Mechanism for Android

Authors: Kuei-Chun Liu, Yu-Yu Lai, Ching-Hong Wu, Hsiao-Han Huang


The number of Android applications (Apps) has increased rapidly in recent years. In order to get better programmatic control over Apps, we designed a record-and-replay mechanism to record Android input events and accessibility service events then make shortcuts. The shortcut is useful for complicated routine works and to Android beginners. We also generated graphical user interface (GUI) API by these shortcuts. GUI API helps developers make integrated Apps which can control other third-party Apps even if the official API is not offered by their providers. We demonstrated the usage of GUI API with two integrated Apps: Universal Bank App and Universal Communication App. Universal Bank App integrates three accounts from different banks and Universal Communication App integrates Line with WhatsApp. Both of them show the advantage of extendable GUI API. Furthermore, using our mechanism, shortcuts could replay almost all of the Top-100 Apps on Google Play correctly. In sum, the approach we present can help both Android developers and general users.

Keywords: graphical user interface, GUI API, record-and-replay, third-party apps

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24 Infodemic and Misinformation in the Era of Coronavirus: An Analysis of Selected Rhetoric from Africa

Authors: Kunle Oparinde


The Covid-19 pandemic has seen several rumors and conspiracy theories overtake the truth in many online platforms across several African countries. Just as the coronavirus has travelled widely, misinformation has equally spread. Thus, it is important to launch investigations into these conspiracy theories in order to detect them early and as a result, implore health practitioners and agencies to be more proactive in repelling misinformation while at the same time provide the general populace with purely undiluted information regarding the virus. Through social media posts on platforms such as Twitter, Facebook, and WhatsApp, as well as online platforms such as Google, this study intends to draw as many instances as possible of infodemic and misinformation by reviewing and analyzing these texts and the resulting implication if the misinformation continues to gain popularity. The study discovers the use of conspiracy theories, rumors, hyperbolism, and unverified claims as elements of infodemic used during the coronavirus pandemic. Importantly, the findings of the study will assist the public to be cautious and vigilant against false information that are being peddled as original.

Keywords: infodemic, miscommunication, accuracy, social media, rumors, conspiracy

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23 Perception of Aerospace Engineering Students in Saudi Arabia on Aviation Sustainability

Authors: Badr A. Al-Harbi, Fahd T. Abdullah, Mazen T. Wali, Mohammed W. Al-Obaidi, Reda M. Bakhdlg


Over the past few years, the aviation society had demonstrated a huge concern for securing the sustainability of commercial aviation. Future aerospace engineers in Saudi Arabia are expected to play a major role in dealing with these aspects, taking into consideration the expected growth in both traffic, passenger mileage, and fleet expansions in the region. In the present work, the authors investigate the perception of engineering students in the two undergraduate aerospace engineering programs in the Kingdom. A questionnaire was distributed using google forms and targeted approximately 300 students in both programs on several WhatsApp groups. Data collection was stopped after one week when a response rate above 35% was reached. The questionnaire aimed at assessing the students’ awareness of sustainable aviation and associated obstacles. The results obtained from the study indicate the necessity of introducing curricular modifications to address the subject with more targeted extracurricular activities and better use of social media, which is becoming a main source of students’ awareness.

Keywords: aviation, engineering education, students’ perception, sustainable aviation

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22 Evidence-Based Investigation of the Phonology of Nigerian Instant Messaging

Authors: Emmanuel Uba, Lily Chimuanya, Maryam Tar


Orthographic engineering is no longer the preserve of the Short Messaging Service (SMS), which is characterised by limited space. Such stylistic creativity or deviation is fast creeping into real-time messaging, popularly known as Instant Messaging (IM), despite the large number of characters allowed. This occurs at various linguistic levels: phonology, morphology, syntax, etc. Nigerians are not immune to this linguistic stylisation. This study investigates the phonological and meta-phonological conventions of the messages sent and received via WhatsApp by Nigerian graduates. This is ontological study of 250 instant messages collected from 98 graduates from different ethnic groups in Nigeria. The selection and analysis of the messages are based on figure and ground principle. The results reveal the use of accent stylisation, phoneme substitution, blending, consonantisation (a specialised form of deletion targeting vowels), numerophony (using a figure/number, usually 1-10, to represent a word or syllable that has the same sound) and phonetic respelling in the IMs sent by Nigerians. The study confirms the existence of linguistic creativity.

Keywords: figure and ground principle, instant messaging, linguistic stylisation, meta-phonology

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21 Users and Non-Users of Social Media: An Exploratory Study of Rural Women in Eastern Uttar Pradesh

Authors: Neha Bhushan


For the purpose of this study a village of district Azamgarh has been selected which is a part of the most populous and backward state of the country, Uttar Pradesh. In the age of information, everyone has the right to acquire information and it becomes important to assess the acceptance and non-acceptance of social media among rural population. Rural women of the state are showing positive trends in the form of increased social media and mobile usage. This study is an effort to know the purpose of rural women for using social media. The study design is exploratory and qualitative in nature. Data collection primarily consisted of 25 semi-structured individual interviews having 10 open-ended specific questions in one of the villages of Azamgarh district of Eastern Uttar Pradesh. Sampling approach is flexible and situational. Data reveals that rural women have become active on social media since last six months to one year. Most of them are using Facebook, Whatsapp, and YouTube for the purpose of interaction, learning new skills, checking out recipes and latest fashion. This pilot study gives a bird eye view of the problem and opens door for exploring this least explored area.

Keywords: exploratory research, mobile usage, rural women, social media

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20 Variety and the Distribution of the Java Language Lexicon “Sleeping” in Jombang District East Java: Study of Geographic Dialectology

Authors: Krismonika Khoirunnisa


This research article aims to describe the variation of the Javanese lexicon "Sleep " and its distribution in the Jombang area, East Java. The objectives of this study were (1) to classify the variation of the "Sleep" lexicon in the Jombang area and (2) to design the fish rips for the variation of the "Sleep" lexicon according to their distribution. This type of research is a qualitative descriptive study using the method of leading proficiency, namely conducting interviews with speakers without directly meeting the speakers (interviews via WhatsApp and email as the media). This research article uses techniques record as support and tools for mapping and classifying data, collecting data in this study conducted at four points, namely the Kaliwungu village (Jombang City), Banjardowo village (District of Jombang), Mayangan Village (Subdistrict Jogoroto), and Karobelah village (Subdistrict Mojoagung) as a target investigators to conduct the interview. This study uses the dialectology theory as a basis for analyzing the data obtained. The results of this study found that the Javanese language variation "Sleep" has many different linguals, meanings, and forms even though they are in the same area (Jombang).

Keywords: geographical dialectology, lexicon variations, jombangan dialect, sssavanese language

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19 Investigating the Influences of Preschool Teachers’ Self-Efficacy on Their Perceptions of National Preschool Standard Curriculum (NPSC) Implementation in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur

Authors: Pei Xin Ker


The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of teachers’ self-efficacy (TSE) on teachers’ perceptions of the levels of implementation of the NPSC. A total of 187 respondents were selected by using purposive homogeneous sampling to represent preschool teachers in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur. This study involved a cross-sectional survey in which quantitative data were collected and analysed using descriptive statistics. The survey was containing 74 questionnaire items created using Google Form and distributed through online platforms such as WhatsApp, Telegram, and Facebook Messenger. The results indicated a high level of overall self-efficacy among the preschool teachers and the overall teachers' perceived level of NPSC. The findings also showed a significant and positive relationship at a high level between TSE and teachers' perceptions of the level of implementation of NPSC. Student involvement was one of the TSE factors that had the greatest influence in shaping teachers' perceptions of the level of implementation of NPSC. The findings of the predictors to teachers' perceptions of the implementation of NPSC within this study can be used as an indication to the researchers to reassure the validity of this study by repeating with similar research settings. Further studies to include other factors are also encouraged to explore the possible factors that may influence the teachers' perceptions of the implementation of NPSC.

Keywords: teachers’ self-efficacy, national preschool standard curriculum, preschool teachers, preschool education

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18 Social Media Creating Communication Gap among Individuals

Authors: Muneeza Anwar, Muniba Raza, Zunahs Khalid


The study discusses the communication gap that has been created due to excessive use of social networking websites such as Facebook, WhatsApp, Viber etc. In this growing world of technology and awareness among people about social media it has also increased its usage. The objective of this study is to measure the ways the internet is affecting the communications among individuals through social media and to check whether this is affecting the society in a positive manner. The study signifies the theoretical and practical aspects of communication gaps among the individuals through social media. The study is conducted to check whether social networking websites are the main causes of creating communication gap among individuals. In this world of fast growing technology every day, there is a new invention, affecting the lives of people both directly and indirectly. Moreover with the usage of technology people keep updating about themselves, about different events happening around their surrounding by creating events, uploading pictures, checking in different place, and creating awareness among people who are not aware of people about what is happening. From the study, we deduced how social media is affecting individual’s life. The findings suggest that social media is although creating communication gaps among people but is also bridging them. Showing that social media is one of the causes that is creating communication gap among the individuals. Communication gap has although increased on a daily basis but on average it has remained the same as they are communicating on social networking websites but eventually decreasing the communication on personal grounds.

Keywords: communication gaps, usage of social networking websites, interaction with friends and family, social media

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17 Omani Community in Digital Age: A Study of Omani Women Using Back Channel Media to Empower Themselves for Frontline Entrepreneurship

Authors: Sangeeta Tripathi, Muna Al Shahri


This research article presents the changing role and status of women in Oman. Transformation of women’s status started with the regime of His Majesty Sultan Qaboos Bin Said in 1970. It is always desired by the Sultan to enable women in all the ways for the balance growth of the country. Forbidding full face veil for women in public offices is one of the best efforts for their empowerment. Women education is also increasing rapidly. They are getting friendly with new information communication technology and using different social media applications such as WhatsApp, Instagram and Facebook for interaction and economic growth. Though there are some traditional and tribal boundaries, women are infused with courage and enjoying fair treatment and equal opportunities in different career positions. The study will try to explore changing mindset of young Omani women towards these traditional tribal boundaries, cultural heritage, business and career: ‘How are young Omani women making balance between work and social prestige?’, ‘How are they preserving their cultural values, embracing new technologies and approaching social network to enhance their economic power.’ This paper will discover their hurdles while using internet for their new entrepreneur. It will also examine the prospects of online business in Oman. The mixed research methodology is applied to find out the result.

Keywords: advertising, business, entrepreneurship, tribal barrier

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16 Influence of Social Media on Perceived Learning Outcome of Agricultural Students in Tertiary Institutions in Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: Adedoyin Opeyemi Osokoya


The study assesses the influence of social media on perceived learning outcome of agricultural science students in tertiary institutions in Oyo state, Nigeria. The four-stage sampling procedure was used to select participants. All students in the seven tertiary institutions that offer agriculture science as a course of study in Oyo State was the population. A university, a college of agriculture and a college of education were sampled, and a department from each was randomly selected. Twenty percent of the students’ population in the respective selected department gave a sample size of 165. Questionnaire was used to collect information on respondents’ personal characteristics and information related to access to social media. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, chi-square, correlation, and multiple regression at the 0.05 confidence level. Age and household size were 21.13 ± 2.64 years and 6 ± 2.1 persons respectively. All respondents had access to social media, majority (86.1%) owned Android phone, 57.6% and 52.7% use social media for course work and entertainment respectively, while the commonly visited sites were WhatsApp, Facebook, Google, Opera mini. Over half (53.9%) had an unfavourable attitude towards the use of social media for learning; benefits of the use of social media for learning was high (56.4%). Removal of information barrier created by distance (x̄=1.58) was the most derived benefit, while inadequate power supply (x̄=2.36), was the most severe constraints. Age (β=0.23), sex (β=0.37), ownership of Android phone (β=-1.29), attitude (β=0.37), constraints (β =-0.26) and use of social media (β=0.23) were significant predictors of influence on perceived learning outcomes.

Keywords: use of social media, agricultural science students, undergraduates of tertiary institutions, Oyo State of Nigeria

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15 Secure Automatic Key SMS Encryption Scheme Using Hybrid Cryptosystem: An Approach for One Time Password Security Enhancement

Authors: Pratama R. Yunia, Firmansyah, I., Ariani, Ulfa R. Maharani, Fikri M. Al


Nowadays, notwithstanding that the role of SMS as a means of communication has been largely replaced by online applications such as WhatsApp, Telegram, and others, the fact that SMS is still used for certain and important communication needs is indisputable. Among them is for sending one time password (OTP) as an authentication media for various online applications ranging from chatting, shopping to online banking applications. However, the usage of SMS does not pretty much guarantee the security of transmitted messages. As a matter of fact, the transmitted messages between BTS is still in the form of plaintext, making it extremely vulnerable to eavesdropping, especially if the message is confidential, for instance, the OTP. One solution to overcome this problem is to use an SMS application which provides security services for each transmitted message. Responding to this problem, in this study, an automatic key SMS encryption scheme was designed as a means to secure SMS communication. The proposed scheme allows SMS sending, which is automatically encrypted with keys that are constantly changing (automatic key update), automatic key exchange, and automatic key generation. In terms of the security method, the proposed scheme applies cryptographic techniques with a hybrid cryptosystem mechanism. Proofing the proposed scheme, a client to client SMS encryption application was developed using Java platform with AES-256 as encryption algorithm, RSA-768 as public and private key generator and SHA-256 for message hashing function. The result of this study is a secure automatic key SMS encryption scheme using hybrid cryptosystem which can guarantee the security of every transmitted message, so as to become a reliable solution in sending confidential messages through SMS although it still has weaknesses in terms of processing time.

Keywords: encryption scheme, hybrid cryptosystem, one time password, SMS security

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14 Polarisation in Latin America: Examining the Role of Social Media in Ideological Positioning Based on 2018 Census Data

Authors: Sarah Ledoux


This paper analyses the quantitative effects of political content consumption in social media platforms on self-reported ideological preference across the Latin American region. Initially praising the democratic potential of the internet and its social networking websites, digital politics scholars have transitioned their discourse to warning against the undemocratic side-effects it cultivates, such as hate speech, filter bubbles, and ideological polarisation. Holding technology solely responsible for political trends worldwide is an oversimplification of the factors influencing social change. Nonetheless, widespread use of social media in new democracies raises questions on the reproduction of recent trends that have been observed in the US and Western Europe. Through the analysis of ordered logistic regressions on data from the 2018 AmericasBarometer survey, this study examines the extent to which the relationship between the consumption of political content on social media is related to ideological polarisation in Latin America. The findings indicate that there is a close link between consumption of political information on social media, specifically on Facebook and WhatsApp, and ideological positioning on the extremes of the political left- and right-wings. This relation holds when controlling for individual-level demographic and attitudinal factors, as well as country-level effects. These results demonstrate with empirical evidence that viewing political content on social media has a significant positive effect on the likelihood that citizens position themselves on the extreme ends of the left-right ideological spectrum and implies that political polarisation is a phenomenon that accompanies politically driven social media use.

Keywords: Latin America, polarisation, political consumption, political ideology, social media, survey

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