Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 993

Search results for: Tracked Vehicles

993 Vibration Control of a Tracked Vehicle Driver Seat via Magnetorheological Damper

Authors: Wael Ata


Tracked vehicles are exposed to severe operating conditions during their battlefield. The suspension system of such vehicles plays a crucial role in the mitigation of vibration transmitted from unevenness to vehicle hull and consequently to the crew. When the vehicles are crossing the road with high speeds, the driver is subjected to a high magnitude of vibration dose. This is because of the passive suspension system of the tracked vehicle lack the effectiveness to withstand induced vibration from irregular terrains. This paper presents vibration control of a semi-active seat suspension incorporating Magnetorheological (MR) damper fitted to a driver seat of an amphibious tracked vehicle (BMP-1). A half vehicle model featuring the proposed semi-active seat suspension is developed and its governing equations are derived. Two controllers namely; skyhook and fuzzy logic skyhook based to suppress the vibration dose at driver’s seat are formulated. The results show that the controlled MR suspension seat along with the vehicle model has substantially suppressed vibration levels at the driver’s seat under bump and sinusoidal excitations

Keywords: Tracked Vehicles, MR dampers, Skyhook controller, fuzzy logic controller

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992 Learning the Dynamics of Articulated Tracked Vehicles

Authors: Mario Gianni, Manuel A. Ruiz Garcia, Fiora Pirri


In this work, we present a Bayesian non-parametric approach to model the motion control of ATVs. The motion control model is based on a Dirichlet Process-Gaussian Process (DP-GP) mixture model. The DP-GP mixture model provides a flexible representation of patterns of control manoeuvres along trajectories of different lengths and discretizations. The model also estimates the number of patterns, sufficient for modeling the dynamics of the ATV.

Keywords: Dirichlet processes, gaussian mixture models, learning motion patterns, tracked robots for urban search and rescue

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991 Automated Tracking and Statistics of Vehicles at the Signalized Intersection

Authors: Qiang Zhang, Xiaojian Hu1


Intersection is the place where vehicles and pedestrians must pass through, turn and evacuate. Obtaining the motion data of vehicles near the intersection is of great significance for transportation research. Since there are usually many targets and there are more conflicts between targets, this makes it difficult to obtain vehicle motion parameters in traffic videos of intersections. According to the characteristics of traffic videos, this paper applies video technology to realize the automated track, count and trajectory extraction of vehicles to collect traffic data by roadside surveillance cameras installed near the intersections. Based on the video recognition method, the vehicles in each lane near the intersection are tracked with extracting trajectory and counted respectively in various degrees of occlusion and visibility. The performances are compared with current recognized CPU-based algorithms of real-time tracking-by-detection. The speed of the presented system is higher than the others and the system has a better real-time performance. The accuracy of direction has reached about 94.99% on average, and the accuracy of classification and statistics has reached about 75.12% on average.

Keywords: tracking and statistics, vehicle, signalized intersection, motion parameter, trajectory

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990 Tracked Robot with Blade Arms to Enhance Crawling Capability

Authors: Jhu-Wei Ji, Fa-Shian Chang, Lih-Tyng Hwang, Chih-Feng Liu, Jeng-Nan Lee, Shun-Min Wang, Kai-Yi Cho


This paper presents a tracked robot with blade arms powered to assist movement in difficult environments. As a result, the tracked robot is able to pass a ramp or climb stairs. The main feature is a pair of blade arms on both sides of the vehicle body working in collaboration with previously validated transformable track system. When the robot encounters an obstacle in a terrain, it enlists the blade arms with power to overcome the obstacle. In disaster areas, there usually will be terrains that are full of broken and complicated slopes, broken walls, rubbles, and ditches. Thereupon, a robot, which is instructed to pass through such disaster areas, needs to have a good off-road capability for such complicated terrains. The robot with crawling-assisting blade arms would overcome the obstacles along the terrains, and possibly become to be a rescue robot. A prototype has been developed and built; experiments were carried out to validate the enhanced crawling capability of the robot.

Keywords: tracked robot, rescue robot, blade arm, crawling ability, control system

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989 A Review on the Potential of Electric Vehicles in Reducing World CO2 Footprints

Authors: S. Alotaibi, S. Omer, Y. Su


The conventional Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) based vehicles are a threat to the environment as they account for a large proportion of the overall greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the world. Hence, it is required to replace these vehicles with more environment-friendly vehicles. Electric Vehicles (EVs) are promising technologies which offer both human comfort “noise, pollution” as well as reduced (or no) emissions of GHGs. In this paper, different types of EVs are reviewed and their advantages and disadvantages are identified. It is found that in terms of fuel economy, Plug-in Hybrid EVs (PHEVs) have the best fuel economy, followed by Hybrid EVs (HEVs) and ICE vehicles. Since Battery EVs (BEVs) do not use any fuel, their fuel economy is estimated as price per kilometer. Similarly, in terms of GHG emissions, BEVs are the most environmentally friendly since they do not result in any emissions while HEVs and PHEVs produce less emissions compared to the conventional ICE based vehicles. Fuel Cell EVs (FCEVs) are also zero-emission vehicles, but they have large costs associated with them. Finally, if the electricity is provided by using the renewable energy technologies through grid connection, then BEVs could be considered as zero emission vehicles.

Keywords: electric vehicles, zero emission car, fuel economy, CO₂ footprint

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988 Improvement of Brige Weigh-In-Motion Technique Considering the Driving Conditions of Vehicles

Authors: Changgil Lee, Jooyoung Park, Seunghee Park


In this study, bridge weigh-in-motion (BWIM) system was simulated under various driving conditions of vehicles to improve the performance of the BWIM system. Two driving conditions were considered. One was the number of the axle of the vehicles. Since the vehicles have different number of axle according to the types of the vehicle, the vehicles were modeled considering the number of the axle. The other was the speed of the vehicles because the speed of the vehicles is not consistent on the bridge. To achieve the goal, the dynamic characteristics of a bridge such as modal parameters were considered in numerical simulation by analyzing precision models. Also, the driving vehicles were modeled as mass-spring-damping systems reflecting the axle information.

Keywords: bridge weigh-in-motion (BWIM) system, driving conditions, precision analysis model, the number of axle, the speed of vehicle

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987 Design of a Robot with a Transformable Track System in Tackling Motion Barrier

Authors: Kai-Yi Cho, Fa-Shian Chang, Lih-Tyng Hwang, Chih-Feng Liu, Jeng-Nan Lee, Shun-Min Wang, Jhu-Wei Ji


This paper presents a ground robot which has the tracked transformative structures of the motion mechanism. The robot has a good ability to adapt to the terrain, due to the front end of the track can be deformed, it can more easily pass the more complex area, such as to climb stairs and ramp areas. Usually in the disaster area, where the terrain is generally broken and complicated, there will be many slopes, broken walls, rubble, and obstacles, then if you want the robot through this area, you need to have a good off-road performance for possible complex terrain, this robot with the transformative tracked mechanism has a strong adaptability, it can overcome the limitation of the terrains to be a good rescue robot. Also, the robot has a good flexibility in the shape of contact with the ground; that can adapt the varied terrain by the deformable track, thus able to pass the different terrains, that was verified through the experiments on a test-platform and a field test. The prototype of the robot system has been developed, and experiments are carried out to verify the validity of the proposed design.

Keywords: tracked robot, rescue robot, transformation mechanism, deformable track, hull design

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986 A Centralized Architecture for Cooperative Air-Sea Vehicles Using UAV-USV

Authors: Salima Bella, Assia Belbachir, Ghalem Belalem


This paper deals with the problem of monitoring and cleaning dirty zones of oceans using unmanned vehicles. We present a centralized cooperative architecture for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to monitor ocean regions and clean dirty zones with the help of unmanned surface vehicles (USVs). Due to the rapid deployment of these unmanned vehicles, it is convenient to use them in oceanic regions where the water pollution zones are generally unknown. In order to optimize this process, our solution aims to detect and reduce the pollution level of the ocean zones while taking into account the problem of fault tolerance related to these vehicles.

Keywords: centralized architecture, fault tolerance, UAV, USV

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985 Characteristics of Elastic Tracked-Crawler Based on Worm-Rack Mechanism

Authors: Jun-ya Nagase


There are many pipes such as a water pipe and a gas pipe in a chemical plant and house. It is possible to prevent accidents by these inspections. However, many pipes are very narrow and it is difficult for people to inspect directly. Therefore, development of a robot that can move in narrow pipe is necessary. A wheel movement type robot, a snake-like robot and a multi-leg robot are all described in the relevant literature as pipe inspection robots that are currently studied. Among them, the tracked crawler robot can travel by traversing uneven ground flexibly with a crawler belt attached firmly to the ground surface. Although conventional crawler robots have high efficiency and/or high ground-covering ability, they require a comparatively large space to move. In this study, a cylindrical crawler robot based on worm-rack mechanism, which does not need large space to move and which has high ground-covering ability, is proposed. Experiments have demonstrated smooth operation and a forward movement of the robot by application of voltage to the motor. In addition, performance tests show that it can propel itself in confined spaces. This paper reports the structure, drive mechanism, prototype, and experimental evaluation.

Keywords: tracked-crawler, pipe inspection robot, worm-rack mechanism, amoeba locomotion

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984 Non-Linear Control Based on State Estimation for the Convoy of Autonomous Vehicles

Authors: M-M. Mohamed Ahmed, Nacer K. M’Sirdi, Aziz Naamane


In this paper, a longitudinal and lateral control approach based on a nonlinear observer is proposed for a convoy of autonomous vehicles to follow a desired trajectory. To authors best knowledge, this topic has not yet been sufficiently addressed in the literature for the control of multi vehicles. The modeling of the convoy of the vehicles is revisited using a robotic method for simulation purposes and control design. With these models, a sliding mode observer is proposed to estimate the states of each vehicle in the convoy from the available sensors, then a sliding mode control based on this observer is used to control the longitudinal and lateral movement. The validation and performance evaluation are done using the well-known driving simulator Scanner-Studio. The results are presented for different maneuvers of 5 vehicles.

Keywords: autonomous vehicles, convoy, non-linear control, non-linear observer, sliding mode

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983 Energy Consumption Models for Electric Vehicles: Survey and Proposal of a More Realistic Model

Authors: I. Sagaama, A. Kechiche, W. Trojet, F. Kamoun


Replacing combustion engine vehicles by electric vehicles (EVs) is a major step in recent years due to their potential benefits. Battery autonomy and charging processes are still a big issue for that kind of vehicles. Therefore, reducing the energy consumption of electric vehicles becomes a necessity. Many researches target introducing recent information and communication technologies in EVs in order to propose reducing energy consumption services. Evaluation of realistic scenarios is a big challenge nowadays. In this paper, we will elaborate a state of the art of different proposed energy consumption models in the literature, then we will present a comparative study of these models, finally, we will extend previous works in order to propose an accurate and realistic energy model for calculating instantaneous power consumption of electric vehicles.

Keywords: electric vehicle, vehicular networks, energy models, traffic simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
982 Aerodynamic Analysis of Vehicles

Authors: E. T. L. Cöuras Ford, V. A. C. Vale, J. U. L. Mendes


Two of the objective principal in the study of the aerodynamics of vehicles are the safety and the acting. Those objectives can be reached through the development of devices modify the drainage of air about of the vehicle and also through alterations in the way of the external surfaces. The front lowest profile of the vehicle, for instance, has great influence on the coefficient of aerodynamic penetration (Cx) and later on great part of the pressure distribution along the surface of the vehicle. The objective of this work was of analyzing the aerodynamic behavior that it happens on some types the trucks of vehicles, based on experimentation in aerodynamic tunnel, seeking to determine the aerodynamic efficiency of each one of them.

Keywords: aerodynamic, vehicles, wind tunnel, safety, acting

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981 Modeling and Simulation of Standalone Photovoltaic Charging Stations for Electric Vehicles

Authors: R. Mkahl, A. Nait-Sidi-Moh, M. Wack


Batteries of electric vehicles (BEV) are becoming more attractive with the advancement of new battery technologies and promotion of electric vehicles. BEV batteries are recharged on board vehicles using either the grid (G2V for Grid to Vehicle) or renewable energies in a stand-alone application (H2V for Home to Vehicle). This paper deals with the modeling, sizing and control of a photo voltaic stand-alone application that can charge the BEV at home. The modeling approach and developed mathematical models describing the system components are detailed. Simulation and experimental results are presented and commented.

Keywords: electric vehicles, photovoltaic energy, lead-acid batteries, charging process, modeling, simulation, experimental tests

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980 Utilization of Composite Components for Land Vehicle Systems: A Review

Authors: Kivilcim Ersoy, Cansu Yazganarikan


In recent years, composite materials are more frequently utilized not only in aviation but also in automotive industry due to its high strength to weight ratio, fatigue and corrosion resistances as well as better performances in specific environments. The market demand also favors lightweight design for wheeled and tracked armored vehicles due to the increased demand for land and amphibious mobility features. This study represents the current application areas and trends in automotive, bus and armored land vehicles industries. In addition, potential utilization areas of fiber composite and hybrid material concepts are being addressed. This work starts with a survey of current applications and patent trends of composite materials in automotive and land vehicle industries. An intensive investigation is conducted to determine the potential of these materials for application in land vehicle industry, where small series production dominates and challenging requirements are concerned. In the end, potential utilization areas for combat land vehicle systems are offered. By implementing these light weight solutions with alternative materials and design concepts, it is possible to achieve drastic weight reduction, which will enable both land and amphibious mobility without unyielding stiffness and survivability capabilities.

Keywords: land vehicle, composite, light-weight design, armored vehicle

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979 Mathematical Modelling for Diesel Consumption of Articulated Vehicle Used in Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: Ganiyu Samson Okunlola, Ladanu Abiodun Ajala, Olaide Oluwaseun Adegbayo


Since the usefulness of articulated vehicles is becoming more apparent and the diesel consumption of these vehicles constitutes a major portion of operating costs, development of mathematical model for their diesel consumption is of a great importance. Therefore, the present work developed a quantitative relationship between diesel consumption and vehicle age, annual use and cost of maintenance of the different makes of articulated vehicles. The vehicles selected for the study were FIAT 682 T3, IVECO 19036 and M.A.N. Diesel 19.240. The operating parameters for 90 vehicles of different age groups were recorded. Multiple regression models for diesel consumption of articulated vehicles of different makes were developed. From the analysis of results, it can be concluded that as the age of the vehicles increases, the diesel consumption increases. Also, as the diesel consumption increases, the cost of maintenance increases and there is a subsequent decrease in annual use. Moreover, FIAT 682 T3 and IVECO 19036 should be replaced at 7 years of age while M.A.N diesel should be replaced at 8 years of age. These are the ages where the diesel consumption becomes abnormal and uneconomical and they are points of optimal overhaul.

Keywords: vehicle, overhaul, age, uneconomical, diesel, consumption

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978 Rotational Energy Recovery System

Authors: Vijayendra Anil Menon, Ashwath Narayan Murali


The present day vehicles do not reuse the energy expelled in running the vehicle. The energy used to run the vehicle is expelled immediately.This has remained a constant for many decades. With all the vehicles running on non-renewable resources like fossil fuels, there is an urgent need to improve efficiency of the vehicles until a reliable replacement for fossil fuels is found.Our design is based on the concept of Kinetic energy recovery systems. Though our design lies in principle with the KERS, our design can be used in day-to-day driving. With our design, efficiency of vehicles increases and fuel conservation is possible thereby reducing the carbon footprint.

Keywords: KERS, Battery, Wheels, Efficiency.

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977 VANETs: Security Challenges and Future Directions

Authors: Jared Oluoch


Connected vehicles are equipped with wireless sensors that aid in Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) communication. These vehicles will in the near future provide road safety, improve transport efficiency, and reduce traffic congestion. One of the challenges for connected vehicles is how to ensure that information sent across the network is secure. If security of the network is not guaranteed, several attacks can occur, thereby compromising the robustness, reliability, and efficiency of the network. This paper discusses existing security mechanisms and unique properties of connected vehicles. The methodology employed in this work is exploratory. The paper reviews existing security solutions for connected vehicles. More concretely, it discusses various cryptographic mechanisms available, and suggests areas of improvement. The study proposes a combination of symmetric key encryption and public key cryptography to improve security. The study further proposes message aggregation as a technique to overcome message redundancy. This paper offers a comprehensive overview of connected vehicles technology, its applications, its security mechanisms, open challenges, and potential areas of future research.

Keywords: VANET, connected vehicles, 802.11p, WAVE, DSRC, trust, security, cryptography

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976 A Comparison Between the Internal Combustion Engine and Electric Motor in the Automobile

Authors: Jack Mason, Ahmad Pourmovhed


This paper will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the internal combustion engine when compared to different types of electric vehicles. The Internal Combustion Engine (ICE)'s overall cost, environmental impact, and usability will all be compared to different types of Electric Vehicles (EVs) including Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) and Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs). Also, the ways to solve the issues of the problems each vehicle presents will be discussed.

Keywords: interal combustion engine, battery electric vehicle, fuel cell electric vehicle, emissions

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975 Advanced Simulation of Power Consumption of Electric Vehicles

Authors: Ilya Kavalchuk, Hayrettin Arisoy, Alex Stojcevski, Aman Maun Than Oo


Electric vehicles are one of the most complicated electric devices to simulate due to the significant number of different processes involved in electrical structure of it. There are concurrent processes of energy consumption and generation with different onboard systems, which make simulation tasks more complicated to perform. More accurate simulation on energy consumption can provide a better understanding of all energy management for electric transport. As a result of all those processes, electric transport can allow for a more sustainable future and become more convenient in relation to the distance range and recharging time. This paper discusses the problems of energy consumption simulations for electric vehicles using different software packages to provide ideas on how to make this process more precise, which can help engineers create better energy management strategies for electric vehicles.

Keywords: electric vehicles, EV, power consumption, power management, simulation

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974 Guidance and Control of a Torpedo Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

Authors: Soheil Arash Moghadam, Abdol R. Kashani Nia, Ali Akrami Zade


Considering numerous applications of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles in various industries, there has been plenty of researches and studies on the motion control of such vehicles. One of the useful aspects for studying is the guidance of these vehicles. In this paper, while presenting motion equations with six degrees of freedom for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles, Proportional Navigation Guidance Law and the first order sliding mode control for TAIPAN AUV was used to address its guidance for the purpose of collision with a moving target.

Keywords: Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV), degree of freedom (DOF), hydrodynamic, line of sight(LOS), proportional navigation guidance(PNG), sliding mode control(SMC)

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973 Electric Propulsion System Development for High Floor Trolley Bus

Authors: Asep Andi Suryandi, Katri Yulianto, Dewi Rianti Mandasari


The development of environmentally friendly vehicles increasingly attracted the attention of almost all countries in the world, including Indonesia. There are various types of environmentally friendly vehicles, such as: electric vehicles, hybrid, and fuel gas. The Electric vehicle has been developed in Indonesia, a private or public vehicle. But many electric vehicles had been developed using the battery as a power source, while the battery technology for electric vehicles still constraints in capacity, dimensions of the battery itself and charging system. Trolley bus is one of the electric buses with the main power source of the network catenary / overhead line with trolley pole as the point of contact. This paper will discuss the design and manufacture electrical system in Trolleybus.

Keywords: trolley bus, electric propulsion system, design, manufacture, electric vehicle

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972 Optimization of E-motor Control Parameters for Electrically Propelled Vehicles by Integral Squared Method

Authors: Ibrahim Cicek, Melike Nikbay


Electrically propelled vehicles, either road or aerial vehicles are studied on contemporarily for their robust maneuvers and cost-efficient transport operations. The main power generating systems of such vehicles electrified by selecting proper components and assembled as e-powertrain. Generally, e-powertrain components selected considering the target performance requirements. Since the main component of propulsion is the drive unit, e-motor control system is subjected to achieve the performance targets. In this paper, the optimization of e-motor control parameters studied by Integral Squared Method (ISE). The overall aim is to minimize power consumption of such vehicles depending on mission profile and maintaining smooth maneuvers for passenger comfort. The sought-after values of control parameters are computed using the Optimal Control Theory. The system is modeled as a closed-loop linear control system with calibratable parameters.

Keywords: optimization, e-powertrain, optimal control, electric vehicles

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971 Path-Tracking Controller for Tracked Mobile Robot on Rough Terrain

Authors: Toshifumi Hiramatsu, Satoshi Morita, Manuel Pencelli, Marta Niccolini, Matteo Ragaglia, Alfredo Argiolas


Automation technologies for agriculture field are needed to promote labor-saving. One of the most relevant problems in automated agriculture is represented by controlling the robot along a predetermined path in presence of rough terrain or incline ground. Unfortunately, disturbances originating from interaction with the ground, such as slipping, make it quite difficult to achieve the required accuracy. In general, it is required to move within 5-10 cm accuracy with respect to the predetermined path. Moreover, lateral velocity caused by gravity on the incline field also affects slipping. In this paper, a path-tracking controller for tracked mobile robots moving on rough terrains of incline field such as vineyard is presented. The controller is composed of a disturbance observer and an adaptive controller based on the kinematic model of the robot. The disturbance observer measures the difference between the measured and the reference yaw rate and linear velocity in order to estimate slip. Then, the adaptive controller adapts “virtual” parameter of the kinematics model: Instantaneous Centers of Rotation (ICRs). Finally, target angular velocity reference is computed according to the adapted parameter. This solution allows estimating the effects of slip without making the model too complex. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed solution is tested in a simulation environment.

Keywords: the agricultural robot, autonomous control, path-tracking control, tracked mobile robot

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970 Energy Benefits of Urban Platooning with Self-Driving Vehicles

Authors: Eduardo F. Mello, Peter H. Bauer


The primary focus of this paper is the generation of energy-optimal speed trajectories for heterogeneous electric vehicle platoons in urban driving conditions. Optimal speed trajectories are generated for individual vehicles and for an entire platoon under the assumption that they can be executed without errors, as would be the case for self-driving vehicles. It is then shown that the optimization for the “average vehicle in the platoon” generates similar transportation energy savings to optimizing speed trajectories for each vehicle individually. The introduced approach only requires the lead vehicle to run the optimization software while the remaining vehicles are only required to have adaptive cruise control capability. The achieved energy savings are typically between 30% and 50% for stop-to-stop segments in cities. The prime motivation of urban platooning comes from the fact that urban platoons efficiently utilize the available space and the minimization of transportation energy in cities is important for many reasons, i.e., for environmental, power, and range considerations.

Keywords: electric vehicles, energy efficiency, optimization, platooning, self-driving vehicles, urban traffic

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969 Analyzing of Speed Disparity in Mixed Vehicle Technologies on Horizontal Curves

Authors: Tahmina Sultana, Yasser Hassan


Vehicle technologies rapidly evolving due to their multifaceted advantages. Adapted different vehicle technologies like connectivity and automation on the same roads with conventional vehicles controlled by human drivers may increase speed disparity in mixed vehicle technologies. Identifying relationships between speed distribution measures of different vehicles and road geometry can be an indicator of speed disparity in mixed technologies. Previous studies proved that speed disparity measures and traffic accidents are inextricably related. Horizontal curves from three geographic areas were selected based on relevant criteria, and speed data were collected at the midpoint of the preceding tangent and starting, ending, and middle point of the curve. Multiple linear mixed effect models (LME) were developed using the instantaneous speed measures representing the speed of vehicles at different points of horizontal curves to recognize relationships between speed variance (standard deviation) and road geometry. A simulation-based framework (Monte Carlo) was introduced to check the speed disparity on horizontal curves in mixed vehicle technologies when consideration is given to the interactions among connected vehicles (CVs), autonomous vehicles (AVs), and non-connected vehicles (NCVs) on horizontal curves. The Monte Carlo method was used in the simulation to randomly sample values for the various parameters from their respective distributions. Theresults show that NCVs had higher speed variation than CVs and AVs. In addition, AVs and CVs contributed to reduce speed disparity in the mixed vehicle technologies in any penetration rates.

Keywords: autonomous vehicles, connected vehicles, non-connected vehicles, speed variance

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968 Electric Vehicles Charging Stations: Strategies and Algorithms Integrated in a Power-Sharing Model

Authors: Riccardo Loggia, Francesca Pizzimenti, Francesco Lelli, Luigi Martirano


Recent air emission regulations point toward the complete electrification of road vehicles. An increasing number of users are beginning to prefer full electric or hybrid, plug-in vehicle solutions, incentivized by government subsidies and the lower cost of electricity compared to gasoline or diesel. However, it is necessary to optimize charging stations so that they can simultaneously satisfy as many users as possible. The purpose of this paper is to present optimization algorithms that enable simultaneous charging of multiple electric vehicles while ensuring maximum performance in relation to the type of charging station.

Keywords: electric vehicles, charging stations, sharing model, fast charging, car park, power profiles

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967 Deep Neural Network Approach for Navigation of Autonomous Vehicles

Authors: Mayank Raj, V. G. Narendra


Ever since the DARPA challenge on autonomous vehicles in 2005, there has been a lot of buzz about ‘Autonomous Vehicles’ amongst the major tech giants such as Google, Uber, and Tesla. Numerous approaches have been adopted to solve this problem, which can have a long-lasting impact on mankind. In this paper, we have used Deep Learning techniques and TensorFlow framework with the goal of building a neural network model to predict (speed, acceleration, steering angle, and brake) features needed for navigation of autonomous vehicles. The Deep Neural Network has been trained on images and sensor data obtained from the dataset. A heatmap was used to check for correlation among the features, and finally, four important features were selected. This was a multivariate regression problem. The final model had five convolutional layers, followed by five dense layers. Finally, the calculated values were tested against the labeled data, where the mean squared error was used as a performance metric.

Keywords: autonomous vehicles, deep learning, computer vision, artificial intelligence

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966 RSU Aggregated Message Delivery for VANET

Authors: Auxeeliya Jesudoss, Ashraph Sulaiman, Ratnakar Kotnana


V2V communication brings up several questions of scalability issues although message sharing in vehicular ad-hoc networks comprises of both Vehicle-to-Vehicle communications (V2V) and Vehicle to Infrastructure communication (V2I). It is not an easy task for a vehicle to verify all signatures of the messages sent by its neighboring vehicles in a timely manner, without resulting in message loss. Moreover, the communication overhead of a vehicle to authenticate another vehicle would increase together with the security of the system. Another issue to be addressed is the continuous mobility of vehicles which requires at least some information on the node’s own position to be revealed to the neighboring vehicles. This may facilitate the attacker to congregate information on a node’s position or its mobility patterns. In order to tackle these issues, this paper introduces a RSU aggregated message deliverance scheme called RAMeD. With RAMeD, roadside units (RSUs) are responsible for verifying the identity of the vehicles entering in its range, collect messages from genuine vehicles and to aggregate similar messages into groups before sending them to all the vehicles in its communication range. This aggregation will tremendously improve the rate of message delivery and reduce the message lose ratio by avoiding similar messages being sent to the vehicles redundantly. The proposed protocol is analyzed extensively to evaluate its merits and efficiency for vehicular communication.

Keywords: vehicular ad-hoc networks, V2V, V2I, VANET communication, scalability, message aggregation

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965 A Study on Bicycle Riding Behavior on Bike-Only Road

Authors: Hyeon Jong Yoo, Jae Hwan Yang, Dong Kyu Kim


Recently, riding a bicycle is recommended as an eco-friendly means of transportation. In Seoul, the mayor has secured budget for extending bicycle infrastructure. As bicycle rental centers are adopted in places, more citizens are using bike rental service on bike-only roads for leisure. However, most of the citizens are not experienced in riding bicycles. They usually do not wear helmets, keep the balance of bicycle riding, and pay attention to nearby occasions. Therefore, in this study, bicycles on Han-river bike-only road were tracked, and their behaviors were analyzed in order to show how dangerously beginner riders are riding. The number of conflicts is calculated to evaluate riding safety on the most crowded bike-only road. As a result, conflicts between beginner riders and fast-driving skilled drivers are frequently observed especially at night, and on weekends. In conclusion, it is suggested that the government should acknowledge citizens the fact that bikes are vehicles and adopt a test for bike driving.

Keywords: bicycles, safety, bike-only road, policy proposal

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964 Optimal Energy Management System for Electrical Vehicles to Further Extend the Range

Authors: M. R. Rouhi, S. Shafiei, A. Taghavipour, H. Adibi-Asl, A. Doosthoseini


This research targets at alleviating the problem of range anxiety associated with the battery electric vehicles (BEVs) by considering mechanical and control aspects of the powertrain. In this way, all the energy consuming components and their effect on reducing the range of the BEV and battery life index are identified. On the other hand, an appropriate control strategy is designed to guarantee the performance of the BEV and the extended electric range which is evaluated by an extensive simulation procedure and a real-world driving schedule.

Keywords: battery, electric vehicles, ultra-capacitor, model predictive control

Procedia PDF Downloads 182