Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 80

Search results for: MR dampers

80 Seismic Performance of Benchmark Building Installed with Semi-Active Dampers

Authors: B. R. Raut

Abstract:

The seismic performance of 20-storey benchmark building with semi-active dampers is investigated under various earthquake ground motions. The Semi-Active Variable Friction Dampers (SAVFD) and Magnetorheological Dampers (MR) are used in this study. A recently proposed predictive control algorithm is employed for SAVFD and a simple mechanical model based on a Bouc–Wen element with clipped optimal control algorithm is employed for MR damper. A parametric study is carried out to ascertain the optimum parameters of the semi-active controllers, which yields the minimum performance indices of controlled benchmark building. The effectiveness of dampers is studied in terms of the reduction in structural responses and performance criteria. To minimize the cost of the dampers, the optimal location of the damper, rather than providing the dampers at all floors, is also investigated. The semi-active dampers installed in benchmark building effectively reduces the earthquake-induced responses. Lesser number of dampers at appropriate locations also provides comparable response of benchmark building, thereby reducing cost of dampers significantly. The effectiveness of two semi-active devices in mitigating seismic responses is cross compared. Among two semi-active devices majority of the performance criteria of MR dampers are lower than SAVFD installed with benchmark building. Thus the performance of the MR dampers is far better than SAVFD in reducing displacement, drift, acceleration and base shear of mid to high-rise building against seismic forces.

Keywords: benchmark building, control strategy, input excitation, MR dampers, peak response, semi-active variable friction dampers

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79 Optimal Design of Friction Dampers for Seismic Retrofit of a Moment Frame

Authors: Hyungoo Kang, Jinkoo Kim

Abstract:

This study investigated the determination of the optimal location and friction force of friction dampers to effectively reduce the seismic response of a reinforced concrete structure designed without considering seismic load. To this end, the genetic algorithm process was applied and the results were compared with those obtained by simplified methods such as distribution of dampers based on the story shear or the inter-story drift ratio. The seismic performance of the model structure with optimally positioned friction dampers was evaluated by nonlinear static and dynamic analyses. The analysis results showed that compared with the system without friction dampers, the maximum roof displacement and the inter-story drift ratio were reduced by about 30% and 40%, respectively. After installation of the dampers about 70% of the earthquake input energy was dissipated by the dampers and the energy dissipated in the structural elements was reduced by about 50%. In comparison with the simplified methods of installation, the genetic algorithm provided more efficient solutions for seismic retrofit of the model structure.

Keywords: friction dampers, genetic algorithm, optimal design, RC buildings

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78 Review and Evaluation of Viscose Damper on Structural Responses

Authors: Ehsan Sadie

Abstract:

Developments in the field of damping technology and advances in the area of dampers in equipping many structures have been the result of efforts and testing by researchers in this field. In this paper, a sample of a two-story building is simulated with the help of SAP2000 software, and the effect of a viscous damper on the performance of the structure is explained. The effect of dampers on the response of the structure is investigated. This response involves the horizontal displacement of floors. In this case, the structure is modeled once without a damper and again with a damper. In this regard, the results are presented in the form of tables and graphs. Since the seismic behavior of the structure is studied, the responses show the appropriate effect of viscous dampers in reducing the displacement of floors, and also the energy dissipation in the structure with dampers compared to structures without dampers is significant. Therefore, it is economical to use viscous dampers in areas that have a higher relative earthquake risk.

Keywords: bending frame, displacement criterion, dynamic response spectra, earthquake, non-linear history spectrum, SAP2000 software, structural response, viscous damper

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77 Seismic Response of Viscoelastic Dampers for Steel Structures

Authors: Ali Khoshraftar, S. A. Hashemi

Abstract:

This paper is focused on the advantages of Viscoelastic Dampers (VED) to be used as energy-absorbing devices in buildings. The properties of VED are briefly described. The analytical studies of the model structures exhibiting the structural response reduction due to these viscoelastic devices are presented. Computer simulation of the damped response of a multi-storey steel frame structure shows significant reduction in floor displacement levels.

Keywords: dampers, seismic evaluation, steel frames, viscoelastic

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76 Seismic Response Control of 20-Storey Benchmark Building Using True Negative Stiffness Device

Authors: Asim Qureshi, R. S. Jangid

Abstract:

Seismic response control of structures is generally achieved by using control devices which either dissipate the input energy or modify the dynamic properties of structure.In this paper, the response of a 20-storey benchmark building supplemented by viscous dampers and Negative Stiffness Device (NSD) is assessed by numerical simulations using the Newmark-beta method. True negative stiffness is an adaptive passive device which assists the motion unlike positive stiffness. The structure used in this study is subjected to four standard ground motions varying from moderate to severe, near fault to far-field earthquakes. The objective of the present study is to show the effectiveness of the adaptive negative stiffness device (NSD and passive dampers together) relative to passive dampers alone. This is done by comparing the responses of the above uncontrolled structure (i.e., without any device) with the structure having passive dampers only and also with the structure supplemented with adaptive negative stiffness device. Various performance indices, top floor displacement, top floor acceleration and inter-storey drifts are used as comparison parameters. It is found that NSD together with passive dampers is quite effective in reducing the response of aforementioned structure relative to structure without any device or passive dampers only. Base shear and acceleration is reduced significantly by incorporating NSD at the cost of increased inter-storey drifts which can be compensated using the passive dampers.

Keywords: adaptive negative stiffness device, apparent yielding, NSD, passive dampers

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75 Life Cycle Cost Evaluation of Structures with Hysteretic Dampers

Authors: Jinkoo Kim, Hyungoo Kang, Hyungjun Shin

Abstract:

In this study, a hybrid energy dissipation device is developed by combining a steel slit plate and friction pads to be used for seismic retrofit of structures, and its effectiveness is investigated by comparing the life cycle costs of the structure before and after the retrofit. The seismic energy dissipation capability of the dampers is confirmed by cyclic loading tests. The probabilities of reaching various damage states are obtained by fragility analysis, and the life cycle costs of the model structures are computed using the PACT (Performance Assessment Calculation Tool) program based on FEMA P-58 methodology. The fragility analysis shows that the probabilities of reaching limit states are minimized by the seismic retrofit with hybrid dampers and increasing column size. The seismic retrofit with increasing column size and hybrid dampers results in the lowest repair cost and shortest repair time.

Keywords: slit dampers, friction dampers, seismic retrofit, life cycle cost, FEMA P-58, PACT

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74 Cost Effectiveness of Slit-Viscoelastic Dampers for Seismic Retrofit of Structures

Authors: Minsung Kim, Jinkoo Kim

Abstract:

In order to reduce or eliminate seismic damage in structures, many researchers have investigated various energy dissipation devices. In this study, the seismic capacity and cost of a slit-viscoelastic seismic retrofit system composed of a steel slit plate and viscoelastic dampers connected in parallel are evaluated. The combination of the two different damping mechanisms is expected to produce enhanced seismic performance of the building. The analysis model of the system is first derived using various link elements in the nonlinear dynamic analysis software Perform 3D, and fragility curves of the structure retrofitted with the dampers are obtained using incremental dynamic analyses. The analysis results show that the displacement of the structure equipped with the hybrid dampers is smaller than that of the structure with slit dampers due to the enhanced self-centering capability of the system. It is also observed that the initial cost of hybrid system required for the seismic retrofit is smaller than that of the structure with viscoelastic dampers. Acknowledgement: This research was financially supported by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy(MOTIE) and Korea Institute for Advancement of Technology(KIAT) through the International Cooperative R&D program(N043100016_Development of low-cost high-performance seismic energy dissipation devices using viscoelastic material).

Keywords: damped cable systems, seismic retrofit, viscous dampers, self-centering

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73 Story-Wise Distribution of Slit Dampers for Seismic Retrofit of RC Shear Wall Structures

Authors: Minjung Kim, Hyunkoo Kang, Jinkoo Kim

Abstract:

In this study, a seismic retrofit scheme for a reinforced concrete shear wall structure using steel slit dampers was presented. The stiffness and the strength of the slit damper used in the retrofit were verified by cyclic loading test. A genetic algorithm was applied to find out the optimum location of the slit dampers. The effects of the slit dampers on the seismic retrofit of the model were compared with those of jacketing shear walls. The seismic performance of the model structure with optimally positioned slit dampers was evaluated by nonlinear static and dynamic analyses. Based on the analysis results, the simple procedure for determining required damping ratio using capacity spectrum method along with the damper distribution pattern proportional to the inter-story drifts was validated. The analysis results showed that the seismic retrofit of the model structure using the slit dampers was more economical than the jacketing of the shear walls and that the capacity spectrum method combined with the simple damper distribution pattern led to satisfactory damper distribution pattern compatible with the solution obtained from the genetic algorithm.

Keywords: seismic retrofit, slit dampers, genetic algorithm, jacketing, capacity spectrum method

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72 Seismic Analysis of Adjacent Buildings Connected with Dampers

Authors: Devyani D. Samarth, Sachin V. Bakre, Ratnesh Kumar

Abstract:

This work deals with two buildings adjacent to each other connected with dampers. The “Imperial Valley Earthquake - El Centro", "May 18, 1940 earthquake time history is used for dynamic analysis of the system in the time domain. The effectiveness of fluid joint dampers is then investigated in terms of the reduction of displacement, acceleration and base shear responses of adjacent buildings. Finally, an extensive parametric study is carried out to find optimum damper properties like stiffness (Kd) and damping coefficient (Cd) for adjacent buildings. Results show that using fluid dampers to connect the adjacent buildings of different fundamental frequencies can effectively reduce earthquake-induced responses of either building if damper optimum properties are selected.

Keywords: energy dissipation devices, time history analysis, viscous damper, optimum parameters

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71 Supplemental VisCo-friction Damping for Dynamical Structural Systems

Authors: Sharad Singh, Ajay Kumar Sinha

Abstract:

Coupled dampers like viscoelastic-frictional dampers for supplemental damping are a newer technique. In this paper, innovative Visco-frictional damping models have been presented and investigated. This paper attempts to couple frictional and fluid viscous dampers into a single unit of supplemental dampers. Visco-frictional damping model is developed by series and parallel coupling of frictional and fluid viscous dampers using Maxwell and Kelvin-Voigat models. The time analysis has been performed using numerical simulation on an SDOF system with varying fundamental periods, subject to a set of 12 ground motions. The simulation was performed using the direct time integration method. MATLAB programming tool was used to carry out the numerical simulation. The response behavior has been analyzed for the varying time period and added damping. This paper compares the response reduction behavior of the two modes of coupling. This paper highlights the performance efficiency of the suggested damping models. It also presents a mathematical modeling approach to visco-frictional dampers and simultaneously suggests the suitable mode of coupling between the two sub-units.

Keywords: hysteretic damping, Kelvin model, Maxwell model, parallel coupling, series coupling, viscous damping

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70 Low-Level Forced and Ambient Vibration Tests on URM Building Strengthened by Dampers

Authors: Rafik Taleb, Farid Bouriche, Mehdi Boukri, Fouad Kehila

Abstract:

The aim of the paper is to investigate the dynamic behavior of an unreinforced masonry (URM) building strengthened by DC-90 dampers by ambient and low-level forced vibration tests. Ambient and forced vibration techniques are usually applied to reinforced concrete or steel buildings to understand and identify their dynamic behavior, however, less is known about their applicability for masonry buildings. Ambient vibrations were measured before and after strengthening of the URM building by DC-90 dampers system. For forced vibration test, a series of low amplitude steady state harmonic forced vibration tests were conducted after strengthening using eccentric mass shaker. The resonant frequency curves, mode shapes and damping coefficients as well as stress distribution in the steel braces of the DC-90 dampers have been investigated and could be defined. It was shown that the dynamic behavior of the masonry building, even if not regular and with deformable floors, can be effectively represented. It can be concluded that the strengthening of the building does not change the dynamic properties of the building due to the fact of low amplitude excitation which do not activate the dampers.

Keywords: ambient vibrations, masonry buildings, forced vibrations, structural dynamic identification

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69 Seismic Retrofitting of Structures Using Steel Plate Slit Dampers Based on Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Mohamed Noureldin, Jinkoo Kim

Abstract:

In this study, a genetic algorithm was used to find out the optimum locations of the slit dampers satisfying a target displacement. A seismic retrofit scheme for a building structure was presented using steel plate slit dampers. A cyclic loading test was used to verify the energy dissipation capacity of the slit damper. The seismic retrofit of the model structure using the slit dampers was compared with the retrofit with enlarging shear walls. The capacity spectrum method was used to propose a simple damper distribution scheme proportional to the inter-story drifts. The validity of the simple story-wise damper distribution procedure was verified by comparing the results of the genetic algorithm. It was observed that the proposed simple damper distribution pattern was in a good agreement with the optimum distribution obtained from the genetic algorithm. Acknowledgment: This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2017R1D1A1B03032809).

Keywords: slit dampers, seismic retrofit, genetic algorithm, optimum design

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68 Life Cycle Cost Evaluation of Structures Retrofitted with Damped Cable System

Authors: Asad Naeem, Mohamed Nour Eldin, Jinkoo Kim

Abstract:

In this study, the seismic performance and life cycle cost (LCC) are evaluated of the structure retrofitted with the damped cable system (DCS). The DCS is a seismic retrofit system composed of a high-strength steel cable and pressurized viscous dampers. The analysis model of the system is first derived using various link elements in SAP2000, and fragility curves of the structure retrofitted with the DCS and viscous dampers are obtained using incremental dynamic analyses. The analysis results show that the residual displacements of the structure equipped with the DCS are smaller than those of the structure with retrofitted with only conventional viscous dampers, due to the enhanced stiffness/strength and self-centering capability of the damped cable system. The fragility analysis shows that the structure retrofitted with the DCS has the least probability of reaching the specific limit states compared to the bare structure and the structure with viscous damper. It is also observed that the initial cost of the DCS method required for the seismic retrofit is smaller than that of the structure with viscous dampers and that the LCC of the structure equipped with the DCS is smaller than that of the structure with viscous dampers.

Keywords: damped cable system, fragility curve, life cycle cost, seismic retrofit, self-centering

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67 Hybrid Seismic Energy Dissipation Devices Made of Viscoelastic Pad and Steel Plate

Authors: Jinkoo Kim, Minsung Kim

Abstract:

This study develops a hybrid seismic energy dissipation device composed of a viscoelastic damper and a steel slit damper connected in parallel. A cyclic loading test is conducted on a test specimen to validate the seismic performance of the hybrid damper. Then a moment-framed model structure is designed without seismic load so that it is retrofitted with the hybrid dampers. The model structure is transformed into an equivalent simplified system to find out optimum story-wise damper distribution pattern using genetic algorithm. The effectiveness of the hybrid damper is investigated by fragility analysis and the life cycle cost evaluation of the structure with and without the dampers. The analysis results show that the model structure has reduced probability of reaching damage states, especially the complete damage state, after seismic retrofit. The expected damage cost and consequently the life cycle cost of the retrofitted structure turn out to be significantly small compared with those of the original structure. Acknowledgement: This research was supported by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE) and Korea Institute for Advancement of Technology (KIAT) through the International Cooperative R & D program (N043100016).

Keywords: seismic retrofit, slit dampers, friction dampers, hybrid dampers

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66 Seismic Performance Evaluation of Structures with Hybrid Dampers Based on FEMA P-58 Methodology

Authors: Minsung Kim, Hyunkoo Kang, Jinkoo Kim

Abstract:

In this study, a hybrid energy dissipation device is developed by combining a steel slit plate and friction pads to be used for seismic retrofit of structures, and its effectiveness is investigated by comparing the life cycle costs of the structure before and after the retrofit. The seismic energy dissipation capability of the dampers is confirmed by cyclic loading tests. The probabilities of reaching various damage states are obtained by fragility analysis, and the life cycle costs of the model structures are computed using the PACT (Performance Assessment Calculation Tool) program based on FEMA P-58 methodology. The fragility analysis shows that the probabilities of reaching limit states are minimized by the seismic retrofit with hybrid dampers and increasing column size. The seismic retrofit with increasing column size and hybrid dampers results in the lowest repair cost and shortest repair time. This research was supported by a grant (13AUDP-B066083-01) from Architecture & Urban Development Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

Keywords: FEMA P-58, friction dampers, life cycle cost, seismic retrofit

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65 Retrofitting of Asymmetric Steel Structure Equipped with Tuned Liquid Column Dampers by Nonlinear Finite Element Modeling

Authors: A. Akbarpour, M. R. Adib Ramezani, M. Zhian, N. Ghorbani Amirabad

Abstract:

One way to improve the performance of structures against of earthquake is passive control which requires no external power source. In this research, tuned liquid column dampers which are among of systems with the capability to transfer energy between various modes of vibration, are used. For the first time, a liquid column damper for vibration control structure is presented. After modeling this structure in design building software and performing the static and dynamic analysis and obtaining the necessary parameters for the design of tuned liquid column damper, the whole structure will be analyzed in finite elements software. The tuned liquid column dampers are installed on the structure and nonlinear time-history analysis is done in two cases of structures; with and without dampers. Finally the seismic behavior of building in the two cases will be examined. In this study the nonlinear time-history analysis on a twelve-story steel structure equipped with damper subject to records of earthquake including Loma Prieta, Northridge, Imperiall Valley, Pertrolia and Landers was performed. The results of comparing between two cases show that these dampers have reduced lateral displacement and acceleration of levels on average of 10%. Roof displacement and acceleration also reduced respectively 5% and 12%. Due to structural asymmetric in the plan, the maximum displacements of surrounding structures as well as twisting were studied. The results show that the dampers lead to a 10% reduction in the maximum response of structure stories surrounding points. At the same time, placing the dampers, caused to reduce twisting on the floor plan of the structure, Base shear of structure in the different earthquakes also has been reduced on the average of 6%.

Keywords: retrofitting, passive control, tuned liquid column damper, finite element analysis

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64 Vibration Control of Building Using Multiple Tuned Mass Dampers Considering Real Earthquake Time History

Authors: Rama Debbarma, Debanjan Das

Abstract:

The performance of multiple tuned mass dampers to mitigate the seismic vibration of structures considering real time history data is investigated in this paper. Three different real earthquake time history data like Kobe, Imperial Valley and Mammoth Lake are taken in the present study. The multiple tuned mass dampers (MTMD) are distributed at each storey. For comparative study, single tuned mass damper (STMD) is installed at top of the similar structure. This study is conducted for a fixed mass ratio (5%) and fixed damping ratio (5%) of structures. Numerical study is performed to evaluate the effectiveness of MTMDs and overall system performance. The displacement, acceleration, base shear and storey drift are obtained for both combined system (structure with MTMD and structure with STMD) for all earthquakes. The same responses are also obtained for structure without damper system. From obtained results, it is investigated that the MTMD configuration is more effective for controlling the seismic response of the primary system with compare to STMD configuration.

Keywords: Earthquake, multiple tuned mass dampers, single tuned mass damper, Time history.

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63 A Comparative Study on the Performance of Viscous and Friction Dampers under Seismic Excitation

Authors: Apetsi K. Ampiah, Zhao Xin

Abstract:

Earthquakes over the years have been known to cause devastating damage on buildings and induced huge loss on human life and properties. It is for this reason that engineers have devised means of protecting buildings and thus protecting human life. Since the invention of devices such as the viscous and friction dampers, scientists/researchers have been able to incorporate these devices into buildings and other engineering structures. The viscous damper is a hydraulic device which dissipates the seismic forces by pushing fluid through an orifice, producing a damping pressure which creates a force. In the friction damper, the force is mainly resisted by converting the kinetic energy into heat by friction. Devices such as viscous and friction dampers are able to absorb almost all the earthquake energy, allowing the structure to remain undamaged (or with some amount of damage) and ready for immediate reuse (with some repair works). Comparing these two devices presents the engineer with adequate information on the merits and demerits of these devices and in which circumstances their use would be highly favorable. This paper examines the performance of both viscous and friction dampers under different ground motions. A two-storey frame installed with both devices under investigation are modeled in commercial computer software and analyzed under different ground motions. The results of the performance of the structure are then tabulated and compared. Also included in this study is the ease of installation and maintenance of these devices.

Keywords: friction damper, seismic, slip load, viscous damper

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62 Direct-Displacement Based Design for Buildings with Non-Linear Viscous Dampers

Authors: Kelly F. Delgado-De Agrela, Sonia E. Ruiz, Marco A. Santos-Santiago

Abstract:

An approach is proposed for the design of regular buildings equipped with non-linear viscous dissipating devices. The approach is based on a direct-displacement seismic design method which satisfies seismic performance objectives. The global system involved is formed by structural regular moment frames capable of supporting gravity and lateral loads with elastic response behavior plus a set of non-linear viscous dissipating devices which reduce the structural seismic response. The dampers are characterized by two design parameters: (1) a positive real exponent α which represents the non-linearity of the damper, and (2) the damping coefficient C of the device, whose constitutive force-velocity law is given by F=Cvᵃ, where v is the velocity between the ends of the damper. The procedure is carried out using a substitute structure. Two limits states are verified: serviceability and near collapse. The reduction of the spectral ordinates by the additional damping assumed in the design process and introduced to the structure by the viscous non-linear dampers is performed according to a damping reduction factor. For the design of the non-linear damper system, the real velocity is considered instead of the pseudo-velocity. The proposed design methodology is applied to an 8-story steel moment frame building equipped with non-linear viscous dampers, located in intermediate soil zone of Mexico City, with a dominant period Tₛ = 1s. In order to validate the approach, nonlinear static analyses and nonlinear time history analyses are performed.

Keywords: based design, direct-displacement based design, non-linear viscous dampers, performance design

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61 Seismic Performance of a Framed Structure Retrofitted with Damped Cable Systems

Authors: Asad Naeem, Minsung Kim, Jinkoo Kim

Abstract:

In this work, the effectiveness of damped cable systems (DCS) on the mitigation of earthquake-induced response of a framed structure is investigated. The seismic performance of DCS is investigated using fragility analysis and life cycle cost evaluation of an existing building retrofitted with DCS, and the results are compared with those of the structure retrofitted with viscous dampers. The comparison of the analysis results reveals that, due to the self-centering capability of the DCS, residual displacement becomes nearly zero in the structure retrofitted with the DCS. According to the fragility analysis, the structure retrofitted with the DCS has smaller probability of reaching a limit states compared to the structure with viscous dampers. It is also observed that both the initial and life cycle costs of the DCS method required for the seismic retrofit is smaller than those of the structure retrofitted with viscous dampers. Acknowledgment: This research was supported by a grant (17CTAP-C132889-01) from Technology Advancement Research Program (TARP) funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport of Korean government.

Keywords: damped cable system, seismic retrofit, self centering, fragility analysis

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60 Comparison between the Performances of Different Boring Bars in the Internal Turning of Long Overhangs

Authors: Wallyson Thomas, Zsombor Fulop, Attila Szilagyi

Abstract:

Impact dampers are mainly used in the metal-mechanical industry in operations that generate too much vibration in the machining system. Internal turning processes become unstable during the machining of deep holes, in which the tool holder is used with long overhangs (high length-to-diameter ratios). The devices coupled with active dampers, are expensive and require the use of advanced electronics. On the other hand, passive impact dampers (PID – Particle Impact Dampers) are cheaper alternatives that are easier to adapt to the machine’s fixation system, once that, in this last case, a cavity filled with particles is simply added to the structure of the tool holder. The cavity dimensions and the diameter of the spheres are pre-determined. Thus, when passive dampers are employed during the machining process, the vibration is transferred from the tip of the tool to the structure of the boring bar, where it is absorbed by the fixation system. This work proposes to compare the behaviors of a conventional solid boring bar and a boring bar with a passive impact damper in turning while using the highest possible L/D (length-to-diameter ratio) of the tool and an Easy Fix fixation system (also called: Split Bushing Holding System). It is also intended to optimize the impact absorption parameters, as the filling percentage of the cavity and the diameter of the spheres. The test specimens were made of hardened material and machined in a Computer Numerical Control (CNC) lathe. The laboratory tests showed that when the cavity of the boring bar is totally filled with minimally spaced spheres of the largest diameter, the gain in absorption allowed of obtaining, with an L/D equal to 6, the same surface roughness obtained when using the solid boring bar with an L/D equal to 3.4. The use of the passive particle impact damper resulted in, therefore, increased static stiffness and reduced deflexion of the tool.

Keywords: active damper, fixation system, hardened material, passive damper

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59 Effects of Viscoelastic and Viscous Links on Seismic Pounding Mitigation in Buildings

Authors: Ali Reza Mirzagoltabar Roshan, H. Ahmadi Taleshian, A. Eliasi

Abstract:

This paper examines the effects of viscous and viscoelastic dampers as an efficient technique for seismic pounding mitigation. To aim that, 15 steel frame models with different numbers of stories and bays and also with different types of ductility were analyzed under 10 different earthquake records for assigned values of link damping and stiffness and the most suitable values of damper parameters (damping and stiffness) are presented. Moreover, it is demonstrated that viscous dampers can perform as efficiently as viscoelastic alternative with a more economical aspect for pounding mitigation purposes.

Keywords: adjacent buildings, separation distance, seismic pounding mitigation, viscoelastic link

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58 Effects of Soil-Structure Interaction on Seismic Performance of Steel Structures Equipped with Viscous Fluid Dampers

Authors: Faramarz Khoshnoudian, Saeed Vosoughiyan

Abstract:

The main goal of this article is to clarify the soil-structure interaction (SSI) effects on the seismic performance of steel moment resisting frame buildings which are rested on soft soil and equipped with viscous fluid dampers (VFDs). For this purpose, detailed structural models of a ten-story SMRF with VFDs excluding and including the SSI are constructed first. In order to simulate the dynamic response of the foundation, in this paper, the simple cone model is applied. Then, the nonlinear time-history analysis of the models is conducted using three kinds of earthquake excitations with different intensities. The analysis results have demonstrated that the SSI effects on the seismic performance of a structure equipped with VFDs and supported by rigid foundation on soft soil need to be considered. Also VFDs designed based on rigid foundation hypothesis fail to achieve the expected seismic objective while SSI goes into effect.

Keywords: nonlinear time-history analysis, soil-structure interaction, steel moment resisting frame building, viscous fluid dampers

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57 Effect of Damper Combinations in Series or Parallel on Structural Response

Authors: Ajay Kumar Sinha, Sharad Singh, Anukriti Sinha

Abstract:

Passive energy dissipation method for earthquake protection of structures is undergoing developments for improved performance. Combined use of different types of damping mechanisms has shown positive results in the near past. Different supplemental damping methods like viscous damping, frictional damping and metallic damping are being combined together for optimum performance. The conventional method of connecting passive dampers to structures is a parallel connection between the damper unit and structural member. Researchers are investigating coupling effect of different types of dampers. The most popular choice among the research community is coupling of viscous dampers and frictional dampers. The series and parallel coupling of these damping units are being studied for relative performance of the coupled system on response control of structures against earthquake. In this paper an attempt has been made to couple Fluid Viscous Dampers and Frictional Dampers in series and parallel to form a single unit of damping system. The relative performance of the coupled units has been studied on three dimensional reinforced concrete framed structure. The current theories of structural dynamics in practice for viscous damping and frictional damping have been incorporated in this study. The time history analysis of the structural system with coupled damper units, uncoupled damper units as well as of structural system without any supplemental damping has been performed in this study. The investigations reported in this study show significant improved performance of coupled system. A higher natural frequency of the system outside the forcing frequency has been obtained for structural systems with coupled damper units as against the other cases. The structural response of the structure in terms of storey displacement and storey drift show significant improvement for the case with coupled damper units as against the cases with uncoupled units or without any supplemental damping. The results are promising in terms of improved response of the structure with coupled damper units. Further investigations in this regard for a comparative performance of the series and parallel coupled systems will be carried out to study the optimum behavior of these coupled systems for enhanced response control of structural systems.

Keywords: frictional damping, parallel coupling, response control, series coupling, supplemental damping, viscous damping

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56 Influence оf Viscous Dampers on Seismic Response оf Isolated Bridges Including Soil Structure Interaction

Authors: Marija Vitanova, Aleksandra Bogdanovic, Kemal Edip, Viktor Hristovski, Vlado Micov

Abstract:

Bridges represent critical structures in lifeline systems. They provide reliable modes of transportation, so their failure can seriously obstruct relief and rehabilitation work. Earthquake ground motions can cause significant damages in bridges, so during the strong earthquakes, they can easily collapse. The base isolation technique has been quite effective in seismic response mitigation of the bridges in reducing the piers base shear. The effect of soil structure interaction on the dynamic responses of seismically isolated three span girder bridge with viscous dampers is investigated. Viscous dampers are installed in the mid span of the bridge to control bearing displacement. The soil surrounding the foundation of piers has been analyzed by applying different soil densities in order to consider the soil stiffness. The soil medium has been assumed as a four layered infill as dense and loose medium. The boundaries in the soil medium are considered as infinite elements in order to absorb the radiating waves. The formulation of infinite elements is the same as for the finite elements in addition to the mapping of the domain. Based on the iso-parametric concept, the infinite element in global coordinate is mapped onto an element in local coordinate system. In the formulation of the infinite element, only the positive direction extends to infinity thus allowing the waves to propagate outside of the soil medium. Dynamic analyses for two levels of earthquake intensity are performed in time domain using direct integration method. In order to specify the effects of the SSI, the responses of the isolated and controlled isolated bridges are compared. It is observed that the soil surrounding the piers has significant effects on the bearing displacement of the isolated RC bridges. In addition, it is observed that the seismic responses of isolated RC bridge reduced significantly with the installation of the viscous dampers.

Keywords: viscous dampers, reinforced concrete girder bridges, seismic response, SSI

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55 Acceleration Techniques of DEM Simulation for Dynamics of Particle Damping

Authors: Masato Saeki

Abstract:

Presented herein is a novel algorithms for calculating the damping performance of particle dampers. The particle damper is a passive vibration control technique and has many practical applications due to simple design. It consists of granular materials constrained to move between two ends in the cavity of a primary vibrating system. The damping effect results from the exchange of momentum during the impact of granular materials against the wall of the cavity. This damping has the advantage of being independent of the environment. Therefore, particle damping can be applied in extreme temperature environments, where most conventional dampers would fail. It was shown experimentally in many papers that the efficiency of the particle dampers is high in the case of resonant vibration. In order to use the particle dampers effectively, it is necessary to solve the equations of motion for each particle, considering the granularity. The discrete element method (DEM) has been found to be effective for revealing the dynamics of particle damping. In this method, individual particles are assumed as rigid body and interparticle collisions are modeled by mechanical elements as springs and dashpots. However, the computational cost is significant since the equation of motion for each particle must be solved at each time step. In order to improve the computational efficiency of the DEM, the new algorithms are needed. In this study, new algorithms are proposed for implementing the high performance DEM. On the assumption that behaviors of the granular particles in the each divided area of the damper container are the same, the contact force of the primary system with all particles can be considered to be equal to the product of the divided number of the damper area and the contact force of the primary system with granular materials per divided area. This convenience makes it possible to considerably reduce the calculation time. The validity of this calculation method was investigated and the calculated results were compared with the experimental ones. This paper also presents the results of experimental studies of the performance of particle dampers. It is shown that the particle radius affect the noise level. It is also shown that the particle size and the particle material influence the damper performance.

Keywords: particle damping, discrete element method (DEM), granular materials, numerical analysis, equivalent noise level

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54 A Methodology for Seismic Performance Enhancement of RC Structures Equipped with Friction Energy Dissipation Devices

Authors: Neda Nabid

Abstract:

Friction-based supplemental devices have been extensively used for seismic protection and strengthening of structures, however, the conventional use of these dampers may not necessarily lead to an efficient structural performance. Conventionally designed friction dampers follow a uniform height-wise distribution pattern of slip load values for more practical simplicity. This can lead to localizing structural damage in certain story levels, while the other stories accommodate a negligible amount of relative displacement demand. A practical performance-based optimization methodology is developed to tackle with structural damage localization of RC frame buildings with friction energy dissipation devices under severe earthquakes. The proposed methodology is based on the concept of uniform damage distribution theory. According to this theory, the slip load values of the friction dampers redistribute and shift from stories with lower relative displacement demand to the stories with higher inter-story drifts to narrow down the discrepancy between the structural damage levels in different stories. In this study, the efficacy of the proposed design methodology is evaluated through the seismic performance of five different low to high-rise RC frames equipped with friction wall dampers under six real spectrum-compatible design earthquakes. The results indicate that compared to the conventional design, using the suggested methodology to design friction wall systems can lead to, by average, up to 40% reduction of maximum inter-story drift; and incredibly more uniform height-wise distribution of relative displacement demands under the design earthquakes.

Keywords: friction damper, nonlinear dynamic analysis, RC structures, seismic performance, structural damage

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53 Proposing a New Design Method for Added Viscoelastic Damper’s Application in Steel Moment-Frame

Authors: Saeed Javaherzadeh, Babak Dindar Safa

Abstract:

Structure, given its ductility, can depreciate significant amount of seismic energy in the form of hysteresis behavior; the amount of energy depreciation depends on the structure ductility rate. So in seismic guidelines such as ASCE7-10 code, to reduce the number of design forces and using the seismic energy dissipation capacity of structure, when entering non-linear behavior range of the materials, the response modification factor is used. Various parameters such as ductility modification factor, overstrength factor and reliability factor, are effective in determining the value of this factor. Also, gradually, energy dissipation systems, especially added dampers, have become an inseparable part of the seismic design. In this paper, in addition to reviewing of previous studies, using the response modification factor caused by using more added viscoelastic dampers, a new design method has introduced for steel moment-frame with added dampers installed. To do this, in addition to using bilinear behavior models and quick ways such as using the equivalent lateral force method and capacity spectrum method for the proposed design methodology, the results has been controlled with non-linear time history analysis for a number of structural. The analysis is done by Opensees Software.

Keywords: added viscoelastic damper, design base shear, response modification factor, non-linear time history

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52 Research Developments in Vibration Control of Structure Using Tuned Liquid Column Dampers: A State-of-the-Art Review

Authors: Jay Gohel, Anant Parghi

Abstract:

A tuned liquid column damper (TLCD) is a modified passive system of tuned mass damper, where a liquid is used in place of mass in the structure. A TLCD consists of U-shaped tube with an orifice that produces damping against the liquid motion in the tube. This paper provides a state-of-the-art review on the vibration control of wind and earthquake excited structures using liquid dampers. Further, the paper will also discuss the theoretical background of TCLD, history of liquid dampers and existing literature on experimental, numerical, and analytical study. The review will also include different configuration of TLCD viz single TLCD, multi tuned liquid column damper (MTLCD), TLCD-Interior (TLCDI), tuned liquid column ball damper (TLCBD), tuned liquid column ball gas damper (TLCBGD), and pendulum liquid column damper (PLCD). The dynamic characteristics of the different configurate TLCD system and their effectiveness in reducing the vibration of structure will be discussed. The effectiveness of semi-active TLCD will be also discussed with reference to experimental and analytical results. In addition, the review will also provide the numerous examples of implemented TLCD to control the vibration in real structures. Based on the comprehensive review of literature, some important conclusions will be made and the need for future research will be identified for vibration control of structures using TLCD.

Keywords: earthquake, wind, tuned liquid column damper, passive response control, structures

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51 Development of a Human Vibration Model Considering Muscles and Stiffness of Intervertebral Discs

Authors: Young Nam Jo, Moon Jeong Kang, Hong Hee Yoo

Abstract:

Most human vibration models have been modeled as a multibody system consisting of some rigid bodies and spring-dampers. These models are developed for certain posture and conditions. So, the models cannot be used in vibration analysis in various posture and conditions. The purpose of this study is to develop a human vibration model that represent human vibration characteristics under various conditions by employing a musculoskeletal model. To do this, the human vibration model is developed based on biomechanical models. In addition, muscle models are employed instead of spring-dampers. Activations of muscles are controlled by PD controller to maintain body posture under vertical vibration is applied. Each gain value of the controller is obtained to minimize the difference of apparent mass and acceleration transmissibility between experim ent and analysis by using an optimization method.

Keywords: human vibration analysis, hill type muscle model, PD control, whole-body vibration

Procedia PDF Downloads 353