Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 38

Search results for: Ladanu Abiodun Ajala

38 Mathematical Modelling for Diesel Consumption of Articulated Vehicle Used in Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: Ganiyu Samson Okunlola, Ladanu Abiodun Ajala, Olaide Oluwaseun Adegbayo

Abstract:

Since the usefulness of articulated vehicles is becoming more apparent and the diesel consumption of these vehicles constitutes a major portion of operating costs, development of mathematical model for their diesel consumption is of a great importance. Therefore, the present work developed a quantitative relationship between diesel consumption and vehicle age, annual use and cost of maintenance of the different makes of articulated vehicles. The vehicles selected for the study were FIAT 682 T3, IVECO 19036 and M.A.N. Diesel 19.240. The operating parameters for 90 vehicles of different age groups were recorded. Multiple regression models for diesel consumption of articulated vehicles of different makes were developed. From the analysis of results, it can be concluded that as the age of the vehicles increases, the diesel consumption increases. Also, as the diesel consumption increases, the cost of maintenance increases and there is a subsequent decrease in annual use. Moreover, FIAT 682 T3 and IVECO 19036 should be replaced at 7 years of age while M.A.N diesel should be replaced at 8 years of age. These are the ages where the diesel consumption becomes abnormal and uneconomical and they are points of optimal overhaul.

Keywords: vehicle, overhaul, age, uneconomical, diesel, consumption

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37 Optimization and Simulation Models Applied in Engineering Planning and Management

Authors: Abiodun Ladanu Ajala, Wuyi Oke

Abstract:

Mathematical simulation and optimization models packaged within interactive computer programs provide a common way for planners and managers to predict the behaviour of any proposed water resources system design or management policy before it is implemented. Modeling presents a principal technique of predicting the behaviour of the proposed infrastructural designs or management policies. Models can be developed and used to help identify specific alternative plans that best meet those objectives. This study discusses various types of models, their development, architecture, data requirements, and applications in the field of engineering. It also outlines the advantages and limitations of each the optimization and simulation models presented. The techniques explored in this review include; dynamic programming, linear programming, fuzzy optimization, evolutionary algorithms and finally artificial intelligence techniques. Previous studies carried out using some of the techniques mentioned above were reviewed, and most of the results from different researches showed that indeed optimization and simulation provides viable alternatives and predictions which form a basis for decision making in building engineering structures and also in engineering planning and management.

Keywords: linear programming, mutation, optimization, simulation

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36 Gender Influence in Yoruba Festivals: A Case Study of Agbaasin Festival in Isanlu-Isin, Kwara State, Nigeria

Authors: Alice Abiodun Atolagbe, Samson Abiodun Atolagbe

Abstract:

All over the world and in the history of mankind, festivals have evolved to celebrate one thing or the other. The Yoruba people are no exemptions and they have several festivals which they celebrate at different times, for different reasons and in different communities. Because mankind is mainly of male and female, most of the festivals involve the two sexes, though different roles are usually assigned. In this paper, the writers examine the influence of gender in Yoruba festival using ‘Agbaasin’ festival in Isanlu-Isin, Kwara State of Nigeria as a case study. A research was conducted by visiting the priests, worshipers, and shrine of ‘Agbaasin’ during which interviews were conducted, documented, and analyzed. It was, thereafter, discovered that men dominated the process of celebrating the ‘Agbaasin’ festival even to the extent of cooking by themselves. The paper recommends that women should be more involved in political and communal activities, government should encourage and sponsor researches on gender issues and that, authors of books and writers of plays should create some fora to encourage women empowerment among the Yoruba people. It is hoped that this paper would contribute to the pool of literature available on gender issues among the Yoruba people of Nigeria.

Keywords: gender, Yoruba, festival, Agbaasin, Isanlu-Isin, Kwara State

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35 Analysis of Rainfall and Malaria Trends in Limpopo Province, South Africa

Authors: Abiodun M. Adeola, Hannes Rautenbach, Gbenga J. Abiodun, Thabo E. Makgoale, Joel O. Botai, Omolola M. Adisa, Christina M. Botai

Abstract:

There was a surge in malaria morbidity as well as mortality in 2016/2017 malaria season in malaria-endemic regions of South Africa. Rainfall is a major climatic driver of malaria transmission and has potential use for predicting malaria. Annual and seasonal trends and cross-correlation analyses were performed on time series of monthly total rainfall (derived from interpolated weather station data) and monthly malaria cases in five districts of Limpopo Province for the period of 1998 to 2017. The time series analysis indicated that an average of 629.5mm of rainfall was received over the period of study. The rainfall has an annual variation of about 0.46%. Rainfall amount varies among the five districts, with the north-eastern part receiving more rainfall. Spearman’s correlation analysis indicated that total monthly rainfall with one to two months lagged effect is significant in malaria transmission in all the five districts. The strongest correlation is noticed in Mopani (r=0.54; p-value = < 0.001), Vhembe (r=0.53; p-value = < 0.001), Waterberg (r=0.40; p-value = < 0.001), Capricorn (r=0.37; p-value = < 0.001) and lowest in Sekhukhune (r=0.36; p-value = < 0.001). More particularly, malaria morbidity showed a strong relationship with an episode of rainfall above 5-year running means of rainfall of 400 mm. Both annual and seasonal analyses showed that the effect of rainfall on malaria varied across the districts and it is seasonally dependent. Adequate understanding of climatic variables dynamics annually and seasonally is imperative in seeking answers to malaria morbidity among other factors, particularly in the wake of the sudden spike of the disease in the province.

Keywords: correlation, malaria, rainfall, seasonal, trends

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34 Efficacy of Plant Extracts on Insect Pests of Watermelon and Their Effects on Nutritional Contents of the Fruits

Authors: Fatai Olaitan Alao, Thimoty Abiodun Adebayo, Oladele Abiodun Olaniran

Abstract:

This experiment was conducted at Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Teaching and Research farm during the major and minor planting season , 2017 to determine the effects of Annona squamosa (Linn.) and Moringa oleifera (Lam) extracts on insect pests of watermelon and their effects on nutritional contents of watermelon fruits. Synthetic insecticide and untreated plots were included in the treatments for comparison. Selected plants were prepared with cold water and each plant extracts was applied at three different concentrations (5,10 and 20% v/v). Data were collected on population density of insect pests, number of aborted fruits, number of defoliated flowers , the yield was calculated in t/ha, nutritional and fatty acid contents were determine using gas chromatography. The results show that the two major insects were observed - Diabrotica undicimpunctata and Dacus cucurbitea. The tested plant extracts had about 65% control of the observed insect pests when compared with the control and the two plant extracts had the same insecticidal efficacy. However, the applied plant extracts at 20% v/v had higher insecticidal effects than the other tested concentrations. Significant higher yield was observed on the plant extracts treated plants compared with untreated plants which had the least yield() but none of the plant extracts performed effectively as Lambdachyalothrin in the control of insect pests and yield. Meanwhile, the tested plant extracts significantly improved the proximate and fatty acid contents of watermelon fruits while Lambdachyalothrin contributed negatively to the nutritional contents of watermelon fruits. Therefore, A. squpmosa and M. oleifera can be used in the management of insect pests and to improve the nutritional contents of the watermelon especially in the organic farming system.

Keywords: Annona squamosa, Dacus cucubitea, Diabrotical undicimpunctata, Moringa oleifera, watermelon

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33 The Impact of Electronic Commerce on Organisational Efectiveness: A Study of Zenith Bank Plc

Authors: Olusola Abiodun Arinde

Abstract:

This research work was prompted by the very important role e-commerce plays in every organization, be it private or public. The underlying objective of this study is to have a critical appraisal of the extent to which e-commerce impacts on organizational effectiveness. This research was carried out using Zenith Bank Plc as a case study. Relevant data were collected through structured questionnaire, oral interview, journals, newspapers, and textbooks. The data collected were analyzed and hypotheses were tested. Based on the result of the hypotheses, it was observed that e-commerce is significant to every organization. Through e-commerce, fast services delivery would be guaranteed to customers, this would lead to higher productivity and profit for organizations. E-commerce should be managed in such a way that it does not alienate customers; it should also prevent enormous risks that are associated with e-commerce.

Keywords: e-commerce, fast service, productivity, profit

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32 An Efficient Book Keeping Strategy for the Formation of the Design Matrix in Geodetic Network Adjustment

Authors: O. G. Omogunloye, J. B. Olaleye, O. E. Abiodun, J. O. Odumosu, O. G. Ajayi

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The focus of the study is to proffer easy formulation and computation of least square observation equation’s design matrix by using an efficient book keeping strategy. Usually, for a large network of many triangles and stations, a rigorous task is involved in the computation and placement of the values of the differentials of each observation with respect to its station coordinates (latitude and longitude), in their respective rows and columns. The efficient book keeping strategy seeks to eliminate or reduce this rigorous task involved, especially in large network, by simple skillful arrangement and development of a short program written in the Matlab environment, the formulation and computation of least square observation equation’s design matrix can be easily achieved.

Keywords: design, differential, geodetic, matrix, network, station

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31 Investigating the Effect of Juncture on Comprehension among Adult Learners of English in Nigeria

Authors: Emmanuel Uba, Oluwasegun Omidiora, Eugenia Abiodun-Eniayekan

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The role of phonology on reading comprehension is long established in the literature. However, the vast majority of studies on the relationship between phonology and reading or comprehension among adults involve investigating the role of intonation, stress, and segmental knowledge on understanding texts. Not much attention is paid to junctural observation and its effect on the interpretation of texts. This study, therefore, presents a preliminary case-study investigation of the effect of juncture on comprehension of texts among adult Nigerian learners of English. Eighty adult learners of English in Nigeria were presented with fifteen seemingly ambiguous sentences to interpret. The sentences were structured in a way that pausing at different points would produce different interpretations. The results reveal that wrong application of pause is capable of affecting comprehension even when other phonological factors such as stress and intonation are observed properly.

Keywords: comprehension, juncture, phonology, reading

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30 The Roles of Pay Satisfaction and Intent to Leave on Counterproductive Work Behavior among Non-Academic University Employees

Authors: Abiodun Musbau Lawal, Sunday Samson Babalola, Uzor Friday Ordu

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Issue of employees counterproductive work behavior in government owned organization in emerging economies has continued to be a major concern. This study investigated the factors of pay satisfaction, intent to leave and age as predictors of counterproductive work behavior among non-academic employee in a Nigerian federal government owned university. A sample of 200 non-academic employees completed questionnaires. Hierarchical multiple regression was conducted to determine the contribution of each of the predictor variables on the criterion variable on counterproductive work behavior. Results indicate that age of participants (β = -.18; p < .05) significantly independently predicted CWB by accounting for 3% of the explained variance. Addition of pay satisfaction (β = -.14; p < .05) significantly accounted for 5% of the explained variance, while intent to leave (β = -.17; p < .05) further resulted in 8% of the explained variance in counterproductive work behavior. The importance of these findings with regards to reduction in counterproductive work behavior is highlighted.

Keywords: counterproductive, work behaviour, pay satisfaction, intent to leave

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29 Beyond Rhetoric: Giving Effect to Social Rights Provisions under Chapter II of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria

Authors: Abiodun Odusote

Abstract:

This paper gives content to the Provisions of Chapter II of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, it offers new perspectives on the nature of fundamental objectives and directive principles of state policy and the duties of citizens. It makes inquiries into the justiciability of these rights and examines the reasoning of the Nigerian courts in the interpretation and enforcement of the rights. The paper examines the emerging jurisprudence in India and South Africa and lessons are drawn from their respective models of enforcement of similar rights. The paper concludes by proposing more creative and novel alternatives to the enforcement and enjoyments of these rights, including: enforcement through Acts of Parliament, enforcement through other Constitutional provisions, indirect enforcement, enforcement through regional and international courts, enforcement by constructive engagement, and enforcement through electoral process. Overall, it is shown that there are available a variety of practical and effective ways of improving the realization and enjoyment of the provisions of Chapter II of the CFRN.

Keywords: constructive-engagement, indirect enforcement, judicial activism, justiciability, social rights

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28 Corrosion Behavior of Induced Stress Duplex Stainless Steel in Chloride Environment

Authors: Serge Mudinga Lemika, Samuel Olukayode Akinwamide, Aribo Sunday, Babatunde Abiodun Obadele, Peter Apata Olubambi

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Use of Duplex stainless steel has become predominant in applications where excellent corrosion resistance is of utmost importance. Corrosion behavior of duplex stainless steel induced with varying stress in a chloride media were studied. Characterization of as received 2205 duplex stainless steels were carried out to reveal its structure and properties tensile sample produced from duplex stainless steel was initially subjected to tensile test to obtain the yield strength. Stresses obtained by various percentages (20, 40, 60 and 80%) of the yield strength was induced in DSS samples. Corrosion tests were carried out in magnesium chloride solution at room temperature. Morphologies of cracks observed with optical and scanning electron microscope showed that samples induced with higher stress had its austenite and ferrite grains affected by pitting.

Keywords: duplex stainless steel, hardness, nanoceramics, spark plasma sintering

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27 Web-Based Criminal Diary: Paperless Criminal Evidence for Federal Republic of Nigeria

Authors: Yekini Nureni Asafe, Haastrup Victor Adeleye, Ikotun Abiodun Motunrayo, Ojo Olanrewaju

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Web Based Criminal Diary is a web based application whereby data of criminals been convicted by a judge in the court of law in Nigeria are shown to the entire public. Presently, criminal records are kept manually in Nigeria, which means when a person needs to be investigated to know if the person has a criminal record in the country, there is need to pass through different manual processes. With the use of manual record keeping, the criminal records can easily be manipulated by people in charge. The focus of this research work is to design a web-based application system for criminal record in Nigeria, towards elimination of challenges (such as loss of criminal records, in-efficiency in criminal record keeping, data manipulation, and other attendant problems of paper-based record keeping) which surrounds manual processing currently in use. The product of this research work will also help to minimize crime rate in our country since the opportunities and benefits lost as a result of a criminal record create will a lifelong barriers for anyone attempting to overcome a criminal past in our country.

Keywords: court of law, criminal, criminal diary, criminal evidence, Nigeria, web-based

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26 Time Series Analysis on the Production of Fruit Juice: A Case Study of National Horticultural Research Institute (Nihort) Ibadan, Oyo State

Authors: Abiodun Ayodele Sanyaolu

Abstract:

The research was carried out to investigate the time series analysis on quarterly production of fruit juice at the National Horticultural Research Institute Ibadan from 2010 to 2018. Documentary method of data collection was used, and the method of least square and moving average were used in the analysis. From the calculation and the graph, it was glaring that there was increase, decrease, and uniform movements in both the graph of the original data and the tabulated quarter values of the original data. Time series analysis was used to detect the trend in the highest number of fruit juice and it appears to be good over a period of time and the methods used to forecast are additive and multiplicative models. Since it was observed that the production of fruit juice is usually high in January of every year, it is strongly advised that National Horticultural Research Institute should make more provision for fruit juice storage outside this period of the year.

Keywords: fruit juice, least square, multiplicative models, time series

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
25 Effects of International Trade on Economic Growth

Authors: Tanimola Kazeem Abiodun

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In the paper, attempt was made to investigate the impact of international trade on economic growth at the disaggregate level both from the theoretical and economic angle. The study in its contribution examines this impact at the disaggregated level. To this end, a hypothesis was formulated to investigate the short ?run and long run impact of international trade on growth in the country. In the econometrics investigation that follow, international trade was disaggregated to export and imports and their short run and long run effect on growth was examined. Also, the aggregate international trade was also investigated to see the long run effects of its own growth. The results of the findings indicate that; both export and import impact significantly to growth in the short run. The long-run impact of export on growth was found to be positive, significant and stable both. Engle-Granger co integration test and error correlation mechanism were applied to these long run relationships. For the import, while the short run was found to be positive and significant on its impact on growth, the long run relationship was found to be negative but not significant. Therefore, it is thus recommended among others that the country should engage more on export promotion drives.

Keywords: international trade, disaggregated, import, export, econometrics, trade, economic growth, foreign trade, import, export

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24 'Sea Power: Concept, Influence and Securitization'; the Nigerian Navy's Role in a Developing State like Nigeria

Authors: William Abiodun Duyile

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It is common knowledge that marine food has always been found from the sea, energy can also be found underneath and, to a growing extent; other mineral resources have come from the sea spaces. It is the importance of the sea and the sea lines of communication to littoral nations that has made concepts such as sea power, naval power, etc., significant to them. The study relied on documentary data. The documentary data were sourced from government annual departmental reports, newspapers and correspondence. The secondary sources used were subjected to internal and external criticism for authentication, and then to textual and contextual analyses. The study found that the differential level of seamanship amongst states defined their relationship. It was sea power that gave some states an edge over the others. The study proves that over the ages sea power has been core to the development of States or Empires. The study found that the Nigerian Navy was centre to Nigeria’s conquest of the littoral areas of Biafra, like Bonny, Port-Harcourt, and Calabar; it was also an important turning point of the Nigerian civil war since by it Biafra became landlocked. The research was able to identify succinctly the Nigerian Navy’s contribution to the security and development of the Nigerian State.

Keywords: sea power, naval power, land locked states, warship

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23 Prevalence and Determinants of Iron Deficiency Anaemia in Pregnant Xhosa Women

Authors: A. Abiodun, G. George, B. Longo-Mbenza, E. Blanco-Blanco

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Objective: To determine the prevalence and determinants of iron-deficiency anaemia in pregnant Xhosa women practising geophagia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant Xhosa women from rural areas of Mthatha, South Africa, according to socio-demographic, geophagia, haematologic and iron metabolism profiles using univariate and multivariate analyses. Anaemia was defined by haemoglobin <11 g/dL and iron deficiency was defined by serum ferritin < 12 ug/L. Results: Out of 210 pregnant women (mean age =23±5.3 for geophagic and 25.6±5.3 for non-geophagic), 51.4% (n = 108) had iron deficiency anaemia (50.9% geophagic and 49.1% non-geophagic). After adjusting for confounders, only geophagia (OR=2.1 95% CI 1.1-4.2; P=0.029) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration categories (< 30.5 g/dL with OR=16.6 95% CI 6.8-40.2; P < 0.0001; 30.5-31.5 g/dL with OR=2.9 95% CI 1.4-6.1; P=0.006; and ≥ 31.5 g/dL with OR=1) were identified as the most important significant and independent determinants of iron deficiency anaemia. Conclusion: The study results point to the potential harm geophagia can cause in pregnant women. The prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia is unacceptably high. Geophagic behaviour, low MCHC presented as particular risk factors of iron deficiency anaemia in this study. Education and counselling about appropriate diet during pregnancy and prevention of geophagic behaviour (and health consequences) are needed among pregnant Xhosa women.

Keywords: geophagia, pregnancy, iron deficiency anaemia, Xhosa

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22 Electrokinetic Application for the Improvement of Soft Clays

Authors: Abiola Ayopo Abiodun, Zalihe Nalbantoglu

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The electrokinetic application (EKA), a relatively modern chemical treatment has a potential for in-situ ground improvement in an open field or under existing structures. It utilizes a low electrical gradient to transport electrolytic chemical ions between bespoke electrodes inserted in the fine-grained, low permeable soft soils. The paper investigates the efficacy of the EKA as a mitigation technique for the soft clay beds. The laboratory model of the EKA comprises of rectangular plexiglass test tank, electrolytes compartments, geosynthetic electrodes and direct electric current supply. Within this setup, the EK effects resulted from the exchange of ions between anolyte (anodic) and catholyte (cathodic) ends through the tested soil were examined by basic experimental laboratory testing methods. As such, the treated soft soil properties were investigated as a function of the anode-to-cathode distances and curing periods. The test results showed that there have been some changes in the physical and engineering properties of the treated soft soils. The significant changes in the physicochemical and electrical properties suggested that their corresponding changes can be utilized as a monitoring technique to evaluate the improvement in the engineering properties EK treated soft clay soils.

Keywords: electrokinetic, electrolytes, exchange ions, geosynthetic electrodes, soft soils

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21 Athlete’s Preparation and Quality of Opponent as Determinants of Self-Efficacy among University Athletes in South-West Nigeria

Authors: Raimi Abiodun Moronfolu, Anthonia Olusola Moronfolu

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The purpose of this study was to assess athlete’s preparation and quality of opponent as determinants of self-efficacy among university athletes in south-west Nigeria. The descriptive research method was employed in conducting the study. A total of 200 athletes, selected from 4 universities in South-West geopolitical zone of Nigeria through a stratified random sampling technique, were used in the study. The instrument used for data collection was a self-structured questionnaire named ‘Athletes Self-Efficacy Assessment Questionnaire (ASAQ)’. This was developed by the researchers and face validated by three experts in sports psychology. The test-retest method was used in establishing the reliability of the instrument (r=0.79). A total of 200 copies of the validated ASAQ were administered on selected respondents using the spot method. The data collected was used to develop a frequency distribution table for analysis. The descriptive statistics of percentage was used in presenting the data collected, while inferential statistics of linear regression was used in drawing inferences at a 0.05 level of significance. The findings indicated that athlete’s preparation and quality of opponent were significant determinants of self-efficacy among university athletes in South-West Nigeria.

Keywords: athletes, preparation, opponent, self-efficacy

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20 The Reproducibility and Repeatability of Modified Likelihood Ratio for Forensics Handwriting Examination

Authors: O. Abiodun Adeyinka, B. Adeyemo Adesesan

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The forensic use of handwriting depends on the analysis, comparison, and evaluation decisions made by forensic document examiners. When using biometric technology in forensic applications, it is necessary to compute Likelihood Ratio (LR) for quantifying strength of evidence under two competing hypotheses, namely the prosecution and the defense hypotheses wherein a set of assumptions and methods for a given data set will be made. It is therefore important to know how repeatable and reproducible our estimated LR is. This paper evaluated the accuracy and reproducibility of examiners' decisions. Confidence interval for the estimated LR were presented so as not get an incorrect estimate that will be used to deliver wrong judgment in the court of Law. The estimate of LR is fundamentally a Bayesian concept and we used two LR estimators, namely Logistic Regression (LoR) and Kernel Density Estimator (KDE) for this paper. The repeatability evaluation was carried out by retesting the initial experiment after an interval of six months to observe whether examiners would repeat their decisions for the estimated LR. The experimental results, which are based on handwriting dataset, show that LR has different confidence intervals which therefore implies that LR cannot be estimated with the same certainty everywhere. Though the LoR performed better than the KDE when tested using the same dataset, the two LR estimators investigated showed a consistent region in which LR value can be estimated confidently. These two findings advance our understanding of LR when used in computing the strength of evidence in handwriting using forensics.

Keywords: confidence interval, handwriting, kernel density estimator, KDE, logistic regression LoR, repeatability, reproducibility

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19 Impacts of Teachers’ Cluster Model Meeting Intervention on Pupils’ Learning, Academic Achievement and Attitudinal Development in Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: Olusola Joseph Adesina, Abiodun Ezekiel Adesina

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Efforts at improving the falling standard of education in the country call for the need-based assessment of the primary tier of education in Nigeria. Teachers’ cluster meeting intervention is a step towards enhancing the teachers’ professional competency, efficient and effective pupils’ academic achievement and attitudinal development. The study thus determined the impact of the intervention on pupils’ achievement in Oyo State, Nigeria. Three research questions and four hypotheses guided the study. Pre-test, post-test control group, quasi-experimental design was adopted for the study. Eight intact classes from eight different schools were randomly selected into treatment and control groups. Two response instruments, pupils academic achievement test (PAAT; r = 0.87) and pupils attitude to lesson scale (PALS; r = 0.80) were used for data collection. Mean, standard deviation and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were used to analyse the collected data. The results showed that the teachers’ cluster meeting have significant impact on pupils academic achievement (F (1,327) =41.79; p<0.05) and attitudinal development (F (1,327) =26.01; p<0.05) in the core subjects of primary schools in Oyo State, Nigeria. The study therefore recommended among others that teachers’ cluster meeting should be sustained for teachers’ professional development and pupils’ upgradement in the State.

Keywords: teachers’ cluster meeting, pupils’ academic achievement, pupils’ attitudinal development, academic achievement

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18 Grammatical Forms and Functions in Selected Political Interviews of Nigerian Presidential Aspirants in 2015 General Election

Authors: Temitope Abiodun Balogun

Abstract:

Political interviews are one of the ways by which political office-seekers in Nigeria sell themselves to the electorates. Extant studies have examined the discourse of political interviews from conversational, philosophical, rhetorical, stylistic and pragmatic perspectives with insufficient attention paid to grammatical forms and communicative intentions of the interviews granted by the two presidential aspirants in the 2015 Nigerian general election. This study fills this scholarly gap to unmask their grammatical forms and communicative styles, intention and credibility. The paper adopts Halliday’s Systemic Functional Grammar, specifically interpersonal function coupled with Searle’s Model of Speech Acts Theory as a theoretical framework. A total of six interviews granted by the two presidential aspirants in media serve as the source of data. It is discovered that, in most cases, politicians’ communicative intention is to “pull-down” their political opponents. While declarative and interrogatives are simple, direct and straightforward, the intention is to condemn, lambast and castigate their opponents. This communicative style does not allow the general populace to decipher the political manifestoes of the political aspirants and the party they represent. The paper recommends that before Nigeria can boast of any sustainable growth and development, there is the need for her political office-seekers to adopt effective communication strategies and styles to unveil their intention and manifestoes so that electorates can evaluate their performance after their tenure of office.

Keywords: general election, grammatical forms and function, political interviews, presidential aspirants

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17 Effect of Extraction Methods on the Fatty Acids and Physicochemical Properties of Serendipity Berry Seed Oil

Authors: Olufunmilola A. Abiodun, Adegbola O. Dauda, Ayobami Ojo, Samson A. Oyeyinka

Abstract:

Serendipity berry (Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii diel) is a tropical dioecious rainforest vine and native to tropical Africa. The vine grows during the raining season and is used mainly as sweetener. The sweetener in the berry is known as monellin which is sweeter than sucrose. The sweetener is extracted from the fruits and the seed is discarded. The discarded seeds contain bitter principles but had high yield of oil. Serendipity oil was extracted using three methods (N-hexane, expression and expression/n-hexane). Fatty acids and physicochemical properties of the oil obtained were determined. The oil obtained was clear, liquid and have odour similar to hydrocarbon. The percentage oil yield was 38.59, 12.34 and 49.57% for hexane, expression and expression-hexane method respectively. The seed contained high percentage of oil especially using combination of expression and hexane. Low percentage of oil was obtained using expression method. The refractive index values obtained were 1.443, 1.442 and 1.478 for hexane, expression and expression-hexane methods respectively. Peroxide value obtained for expression-hexane was higher than those for hexane and expression. The viscosities of the oil were 125.8, 128.76 and 126.87 cm³/s for hexane, expression and expression-hexane methods respectively which showed that the oil from expression method was more viscous than the other oils. The major fatty acids in serendipity seed oil were oleic acid (62.81%), linoleic acid (22.65%), linolenic (6.11%), palmitic acid (5.67%), stearic acid (2.21%) in decreasing order. Oleic acid which is monounsaturated fatty acid had the highest value. Total unsaturated fatty acids were 91.574, 92.256 and 90.426% for hexane, expression, and expression-hexane respectively. Combination of expression and hexane for extraction of serendipity oil produced high yield of oil. The oil could be refined for food and non-food application.

Keywords: serendipity seed oil, expression method, fatty acid, hexane

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16 Computer Assisted Instructions for a Better Achievement in and Attitude towards Agricultural Economics

Authors: Abiodun Ezekiel Adesina, Alice M. Olagunju

Abstract:

This study determined the effects of Computer Assisted Instructions (CAI) and Academic Self-Concepts (ASC) on pre-service teachers’ achievement in AE concepts in CoE in Southwest, Nigeria. The study adopted pretest-posttest, control group, quasi-experimental design. Six CoE with e-library facilities were purposively selected. Two hundred and thirty-two intact 200 level Agricultural education students offering introduction to AE course across the six CoE were participants. The participants were assigned to three groups (D&PM, 77, TM, 73 and control, 82). Treatment lasted eight weeks. The AE achievement test (r=0.76), pre-service teachers’ ASC Scale (r=0.81); instructional guides for tutorial (r=0.76), drill and practice (r=0.81) and conventional lecture modes (r=0.83), and teacher performance assessment sheet were used for data collection. Data were analysed using analysis of covariance and Scheffe post-hoc at 0.05 level of significance. The participants were 55.6% female with mean age of 20.8 years. Treatment had significant main effects on pre-service teachers’ achievement (F(2,207)=60.52; η²=0.21; p < 0.05). Participants in D&PM (x̄ =27.83) had the best achievement compared to those in TM (x̄ =25.41) and control (x̄ =18.64) groups. ASC had significant main effect on pre-service teachers’ achievement (F(1,207)=22.011; η²=0.166; p < 0.05). Participants with high ASC (x̄ =27.52) had better achievement compared to those with low ASC (x̄ =22.37). The drill and practice and tutorial instructional modes enhanced students’ achievement in Agricultural Economics concepts. Therefore, the two instructional modes should be adopted for improved learning outcomes in agricultural economics concepts among pre-service teachers.

Keywords: achievement in agricultural economics concepts, colleges of education in southwestern Nigeria, computer-assisted instruction, drill and practice instructional mode, tutorial instructional mode

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15 Identifying Issues of Corporate Governance and the Effect on Organizational Performance

Authors: Abiodun Oluwaseun Ibude

Abstract:

Every now and then we hear of companies closing down their operations due to unethical practices like an overstatement of company’s balance sheet, concealing company’s debt, embezzlement of company’s fund, declaring false profit and so on. This has led to the liquidation of companies and the loss of investments of shareholders as well as the interest of other stakeholders. As a result of these ugly trends, there is need to put in place a formidable mechanism that will ensure that business activities are conducted in a healthy manner. It should also promote good ethics as well as ensure that the interest of stakeholders and the objectives of any organization is achieved within the confines of the law; wherein law exists to provide criminal penalties for falsification of documents and for conducting other irregularities. Based on the foregoing, it becomes imperative to ensure that steps are taken to stop this menace and face the challenges ahead. This calls for the practice of good governance. The purpose of this study is to identify various components of corporate governance and determine the impact of it on the performance of established organizations. A survey method with the use of questionnaire was applied in collecting data useful for this study which were later analyzed using correlation co-efficiency statistical tools in generating finding, making a conclusion, and necessary recommendation. From the research conducted, it was discovered that there are systems within organizations apart from regulatory agencies that ensure effective control of activities, promote accountability, and operational efficiency. However, some members of organizations fail to explore the usage of corporate governance and impact negatively of an organization’s performance. In conclusion, good corporate governance will not be achieved unless there is openness, honesty, transparency, accountability, and fairness.

Keywords: corporate governance, formidable mechanism, company’s balance sheet, stakeholders

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14 Impacts of Computer Assisted Instruction and Gender on High-Flyers Pre-Service Teachers' Attitude towards Agricultural Economics in Southwest Nigeria

Authors: Alice Morenike Olagunju, Olufemi A. Fakolade, Abiodun Ezekiel Adesina, Olufemi Akinloye Bolaji, Oriyomi Rabiu

Abstract:

The use of computer-assisted instruction(CAI) has been suggested as a way out of the problem of Colleges of Education (CoE) in Southwest, Nigeria persistent high failure rate in and negative attitude towards Agricultural Economics (AE).The impacts of this are yet unascertained on high-flyers. This study, therefore, determined the impacts of CAI onhigh-flyers pre-service teachers’ attitude towards AE concepts in Southwest, Nigeria. The study adopted pretest-posttest, control group, quasi-experimental design. Six CoE with e-library facilities were purposively selected. Fourty-nine 200 level Agricultural education students offering introduction to AE course across the six CoE were participants. The participants were assigned to two groups (CAI, 22 and control, 27). Treatment lasted eight weeks. The AE Attitude Scale(r=0.80), Instructional guides and Teacher Performance Assessment Sheets were used for data collection. Data were analysed using t-test. The participants were 62.8% male with mean age of 22 years. Treatment had significant effects on high-flyers pre-service teachers’ attitude (t = 17.44; df = 47, p < .5). Participants in CAI ( =71.03) had higher post attitude mean score compared to those in control ( = 64.92) groups. Gender had no significant effect on attitude (t= 3.06; df= 47, p > .5). The computer assisted instructional mode enhanced students’ attitude towards Agricultural Economics concepts. Therefore, CAI should be adopted for improved attitude towards agricultural economics concepts among high-flyers pre-service teachers.

Keywords: attitude towards agricultural economics concepts, colleges of education in southwest Nigeria, computer-assisted instruction, high-flyers pre-service teachers

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13 An Analysis of Laboratory Management Practices and Laid down Standard in Some Colleges of Education in Kano State, Nigeria

Authors: Joseph Abiodun Ayo

Abstract:

The main purpose of this study was to investigate the science laboratory management practices employed in some colleges of education in Kano State, Nigeria. Four specific objectives were stated to guide the study, four research questions were investigated, four null hypothesis were tested at 0.05 level of significance. A survey design was used and science laboratory management questionnaires which solicit responses that was used in answering the research questions and testing of hypotheses. These questionnaires were distributed to the respective respondents in the sampled colleges. The respondents for the study comprised biology chemistry, physics, integrated science teacher trainers and the paraprofessionals. Data were analyzed using mean and standard deviation to answer the questions. Chi-square statistical technique was used to test the hypothesis. The findings of the study revealed that all procedures on control of laboratory activities were rarely observed. Safety procedures were occasionally practiced. On provision and procurement of laboratory equipment and materials it was observed that both academic and the paraprofessional were not fully involved. While maintenance measures were occasionally observed, furthermore science laboratory management procedures are not frequently practiced. Hence making the acquisition of science process skills by students becoming difficult. To arrest these anomalies, it is recommended that direct labor in the maintenance of laboratory equipment and other apparatus by paraprofessional is crucial. Training of academic and paraprofessional through workshops to acquire technical skills in maintenance of science laboratory equipment be instituted to increase professionalism. Periodic supervision of activities in the science laboratories should be done promptly.

Keywords: laboratory, management, standard, facility

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12 Phylogenetic Inferences based on Morphoanatomical Characters in Plectranthus esculentus N. E. Br. (Lamiaceae) from Nigeria

Authors: Otuwose E. Agyeno, Adeniyi A. Jayeola, Bashir A. Ajala

Abstract:

P. esculentus is indigenous to Nigeria yet no wild relation has been encountered or reported. This has made it difficult to establish proper lineages between the varieties and landraces under cultivation. The present work is the first to determine the apormophy of 135 morphoanatomical characters in organs of 46 accessions drawn from 23 populations of this species based on dicta. The character states were coded in accession x character-state matrices and only 83 were informative and utilised for neighbour joining clustering based on euclidean values, and heuristic search in parsimony analysis using PAST ver. 3.15 software. Compatibility and evolutionary trends between accessions were then explored from values and diagrams produced. The low consistency indices (CI) recorded support monophyly and low homoplasy in this taxon. Agglomerative schedules based on character type and source data sets divided the accessions into mainly 3 clades, each of complexes of accessions. Solenostemon rotundifolius (Poir) J.K Morton was the outgroup (OG) used, and it occurred within the largest clades except when the characters were combined in a data set. The OG showed better compatibility with accessions of populations of landrace Isci, and varieties Riyum and Long’at. Otherwise, its aerial parts are more consistent with those of accessions of variety Bebot. The highly polytomous clades produced due to anatomical data set may be an indication of how stable such characters are in this species. Strict consensus trees with more than 60 nodes outputted showed that the basal nodes were strongly supported by 3 to 17 characters across the data sets, suggesting that populations of this species are more alike. The OG was clearly the first diverging lineage and closely related to accessions of landrace Gwe and variety Bebot morphologically, but different from them anatomically. It was also distantly related to landrace Fina and variety Long’at in terms of root, stem and leaf structural attributes. There were at least 5 other clades with each comprising of complexes of accessions from different localities and terrains within the study area. Spherical stem in cross section, size of vascular bundles at the stem corners as well as the alternate and whorl phyllotaxy are attributes which may have facilitated each other’s evolution in all accessions of the landrace Gwe, and they may be innovative since such states are not characteristic of the larger Lamiaceae, and Plectranthus L’Her in particular. In conclusion, this study has provided valuable information about infraspecific diversity in this taxon. It supports recognition of the varietal statuses accorded to populations of P. esculentus, as well as the hypothesis that the wild gene might have been distributed on the Jos Plateau. However, molecular characterisation of accessions of populations of this species would resolve this problem better.

Keywords: clustering, lineage, morphoanatomical characters, Nigeria, phylogenetics, Plectranthus esculentus, population

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11 Teachers’ Perceptions Related to the Guiding Skills within the Application Courses

Authors: Tanimola Kazeem Abiodun

Abstract:

In Nigeria, both formal education and distance learning opportunities are used in teacher training. Practical courses aim to improve the skills of teacher candidates in a school environment. Teacher candidates attend kindergarten classes under the supervision of a teacher. In this context, the guiding skills of teachers gain importance in terms of shaping candidates’ perceptions about teaching profession. In this study, the teachers’ perceptions related to the guiding skills within the practical courses were determined. Also, the perceptions and applications related to guiding skills were compared. A Likert scale questionnaire and an open-ended question were used to determine perceptions and applications. 120 questionnaires were taken into consideration and analyses of data were performed by using percentage distribution and QSR Nvivo 8 program. In this study, statements related to teachers’ perceptions about the guiding skills were asked and it is determined that almost all the teachers agreed about the importance of these statements. On the other hand, how these guidance skills are applied by teachers is also queried with an open-ended question. Finally, thoughts and applications related to guidance skills were compared to each other. Based on this comparison, it is seen that there are some differences between the thoughts and applications especially related with time management, planning, feedbacks, curriculum, workload, rules and guidance. It can be said that some guidance skills cannot be controlled only by teachers. For example, candidates’ motivation, attention, population and educational environment are also determinative factors for effective guidance. In summary, it is necessary to have prior conditions for teachers to apply these idealized guidance skills for training more successful candidates to pre-school education era. At this point, organization of practical courses by the faculties gains importance and in this context it is crucial for faculties to revise their applications based on more detailed researches.

Keywords: teacher training, guiding skills, education, practical courses

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10 Efficacy of Computer Mediated Power Point Presentations on Students' Learning Outcomes in Basic Science in Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: Sunmaila Oyetunji Raimi, Olufemi Akinloye Bolaji, Abiodun Ezekiel Adesina

Abstract:

The lingering poor performance of students in basic science spells doom for a vibrant scientific and technological development which pivoted the economic, social and physical upliftment of any nation. This calls for identifying appropriate strategies for imparting basic science knowledge and attitudes to the teaming youths in secondary schools. This study, therefore, determined the impact of computer mediated power point presentations on students’ achievement in basic science in Oyo State, Nigeria. A pre-test, posttest, control group quazi-experimental design adopted for the study. Two hundred and five junior secondary two students selected using stratified random sampling technique participated in the study. Three research questions and three hypotheses guided the study. Two evaluative instruments – Students’ Basic Science Attitudes Scale (SBSAS, r = 0.91); Students’ Knowledge of Basic Science Test (SKBST, r = 0.82) were used for data collection. Descriptive statistics of mean, standard deviation and inferential statistics of ANCOVA, scheffe post-hoc test were used to analyse the data. The results indicated significant main effect of treatment on students cognitive (F(1,200)= 171.680; p < 0.05) and attitudinal (F(1,200)= 34.466; p < 0.05) achievement in Basic science with the experimental group having higher mean gain than the control group. Gender has significant main effect (F(1,200)= 23.382; p < 0.05) on students cognitive outcomes but not significant for attitudinal achievement in Basic science. The study therefore recommended among others that computer mediated power point presentations should be incorporated into curriculum methodology of Basic science in secondary schools.

Keywords: basic science, computer mediated power point presentations, gender, students’ achievement

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9 Investigating the Efficacy of HIV/AIDS Psycho-Education and Behavioural Skills Training in Reducing Sexual Risk Behaviours in a Trucking Population in Nigeria

Authors: Abiodun Musbau Lawal, Benjamin Oladapo Olley

Abstract:

Long Distance Truck Drivers (LDTDs) have been found to be a high-risk group in the spread of HIV/AIDS globally; perhaps, due to their high Sexual Risk Behaviours (SRBs). Interventions for reducing SRBs in trucking population have not been fully exploited. A quasi-experimental control group pretest-posttest design was used to assess the efficacy of psycho-education and behavioural skills training in reducing SRBs among LDTDs. Sixteen drivers rivers were randomly assigned into either experimental or control groups using balloting technique. A questionnaire was used as an instrument for data collection. Repeated measures t-test and independent t-test were used to test hypotheses. The intervention had a significant effect on the SRBs among LDTDs at post-test(t{7}=6.01, p<.01) and at followup (t{7}=6.42, p<.01). No significant difference in sexual risk behaviour of LDTDs at post-test and at follow-up stage. Similarly, intervention had significant effects on sexual risk behaviour at post-test (t {14}=- 4.69, p<.05) and at follow-up (t {14}= -9.56, p < .05) respectively. At post-test and follow-up stages, drivers in experimental group reported reduced SRBs than those in the control group. Drivers in an experimental group reported lower sexual risk behaviour a week after intervention as well as at three months follow-up than those in the control group. It is concluded that HIV/AIDS preventive intervention that provides the necessary informational and behavioural skills content can significantly impact long distance truck drivers sexual risk behaviours.

Keywords: HIV/AIDS interventions, long distance truck drivers, Nigeria, sexual risk behaviours

Procedia PDF Downloads 374