Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3324

Search results for: the speed of vehicle

3324 Speed Characteristics of Mixed Traffic Flow on Urban Arterials

Authors: Ashish Dhamaniya, Satish Chandra


Speed and traffic volume data are collected on different sections of four lane and six lane roads in three metropolitan cities in India. Speed data are analyzed to fit the statistical distribution to individual vehicle speed data and all vehicles speed data. It is noted that speed data of individual vehicle generally follows a normal distribution but speed data of all vehicle combined at a section of urban road may or may not follow the normal distribution depending upon the composition of traffic stream. A new term Speed Spread Ratio (SSR) is introduced in this paper which is the ratio of difference in 85th and 50th percentile speed to the difference in 50th and 15th percentile speed. If SSR is unity then speed data are truly normally distributed. It is noted that on six lane urban roads, speed data follow a normal distribution only when SSR is in the range of 0.86 – 1.11. The range of SSR is validated on four lane roads also.

Keywords: normal distribution, percentile speed, speed spread ratio, traffic volume

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3323 Analyzing of Speed Disparity in Mixed Vehicle Technologies on Horizontal Curves

Authors: Tahmina Sultana, Yasser Hassan


Vehicle technologies rapidly evolving due to their multifaceted advantages. Adapted different vehicle technologies like connectivity and automation on the same roads with conventional vehicles controlled by human drivers may increase speed disparity in mixed vehicle technologies. Identifying relationships between speed distribution measures of different vehicles and road geometry can be an indicator of speed disparity in mixed technologies. Previous studies proved that speed disparity measures and traffic accidents are inextricably related. Horizontal curves from three geographic areas were selected based on relevant criteria, and speed data were collected at the midpoint of the preceding tangent and starting, ending, and middle point of the curve. Multiple linear mixed effect models (LME) were developed using the instantaneous speed measures representing the speed of vehicles at different points of horizontal curves to recognize relationships between speed variance (standard deviation) and road geometry. A simulation-based framework (Monte Carlo) was introduced to check the speed disparity on horizontal curves in mixed vehicle technologies when consideration is given to the interactions among connected vehicles (CVs), autonomous vehicles (AVs), and non-connected vehicles (NCVs) on horizontal curves. The Monte Carlo method was used in the simulation to randomly sample values for the various parameters from their respective distributions. Theresults show that NCVs had higher speed variation than CVs and AVs. In addition, AVs and CVs contributed to reduce speed disparity in the mixed vehicle technologies in any penetration rates.

Keywords: autonomous vehicles, connected vehicles, non-connected vehicles, speed variance

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3322 Improvement of Ride Comfort of Turning Electric Vehicle Using Optimal Speed Control

Authors: Yingyi Zhou, Tohru Kawabe


With the spread of EVs (electric Vehicles), the ride comfort has been gaining a lot of attention. The influence of the lateral acceleration is important for the improvement of ride comfort of EVs as well as the longitudinal acceleration, especially upon turning of the vehicle. Therefore, this paper proposes a practical optimal speed control method to greatly improve the ride comfort in the vehicle turning situation. For consturcting this method, effective criteria that can appropriately evaluate deterioration of ride comfort is derived. The method can reduce the influence of both the longitudinal and the lateral speed changes for providing a confortable ride. From several simulation results, we can see the fact that the method can prevent aggravation of the ride comfort by suppressing the influence of longitudinal speed change in the turning situation. Hence, the effectiveness of the method is recognized.

Keywords: electric vehicle, speed control, ride comfort, optimal control theory, driving support system

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3321 Ergonomic Design of Speed Control Humps/Dips

Authors: Emad Khorshid, Habib Awada


Newly developed Ergonomic speed control hump/Dip designs are conducted. The numerical simulation for the driver-vehicle-hump dynamic system will be performed using computer software. The design problem for which the speed hump or dip should provide: (1) discomfort feeling to the driver if speed is over the specified limit, and (2) normal/good comfort level to the driver (and or other passengers) if the speed is within the limit. For comparison reasons, different vehicles suspension systems (active, semi-active and non-active suspension) are used in the simulation. The measuring of the acceptable range of vibration will be referenced to the British standard BS6841, ISO 2631/1 and the new ISO 2631/5. All these standards are related to human health and comfort level in terms of acceptable range of whole body vibration exposure.

Keywords: speed hump, speed dip, ergonomic design, human health, vehicle modeling

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3320 Analysis of Operating Speed on Four-Lane Divided Highways under Mixed Traffic Conditions

Authors: Chaitanya Varma, Arpan Mehar


The present study demonstrates the procedure to analyse speed data collected on various four-lane divided sections in India. Field data for the study was collected at different straight and curved sections on rural highways with the help of radar speed gun and video camera. The data collected at the sections were analysed and parameters pertain to speed distributions were estimated. The different statistical distribution was analysed on vehicle type speed data and for mixed traffic speed data. It was found that vehicle type speed data was either follows the normal distribution or Log-normal distribution, whereas the mixed traffic speed data follows more than one type of statistical distribution. The most common fit observed on mixed traffic speed data were Beta distribution and Weibull distribution. The separate operating speed model based on traffic and roadway geometric parameters were proposed in the present study. The operating speed model with traffic parameters and curve geometry parameters were established. Two different operating speed models were proposed with variables 1/R and Ln(R) and were found to be realistic with a different range of curve radius. The models developed in the present study are simple and realistic and can be used for forecasting operating speed on four-lane highways.

Keywords: highway, mixed traffic flow, modeling, operating speed

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3319 Influence of Driving Strategy on Power and Fuel Consumption of Lightweight PEM Fuel Cell Vehicle Powertrain

Authors: Suhadiyana Hanapi, Alhassan Salami Tijani, W. A. N Wan Mohamed


In this paper, a prototype PEM fuel cell vehicle integrated with a 1 kW air-blowing proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack as a main power sources has been developed for a lightweight cruising vehicle. The test vehicle is equipped with a PEM fuel cell system that provides electric power to a brushed DC motor. This vehicle was designed to compete with industrial lightweight vehicle with the target of consuming least amount of energy and high performance. Individual variations in driving style have a significant impact on vehicle energy efficiency and it is well established from the literature. The primary aim of this study was to assesses the power and fuel consumption of a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle operating at three difference driving technique (i.e. 25 km/h constant speed, 22-28 km/h speed range, 20-30 km/h speed range). The goal is to develop the best driving strategy to maximize performance and minimize fuel consumption for the vehicle system. The relationship between power demand and hydrogen consumption has also been discussed. All the techniques can be evaluated and compared on broadly similar terms. Automatic intelligent controller for driving prototype fuel cell vehicle on different obstacle while maintaining all systems at maximum efficiency was used. The result showed that 25 km/h constant speed was identified for optimal driving with less fuel consumption.

Keywords: prototype fuel cell electric vehicles, energy efficient, control/driving technique, fuel economy

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3318 Research on Control Strategy of Differential Drive Assisted Steering of Distributed Drive Electric Vehicle

Authors: J. Liu, Z. P. Yu, L. Xiong, Y. Feng, J. He


According to the independence, accuracy and controllability of the driving/braking torque of the distributed drive electric vehicle, a control strategy of differential drive assisted steering was designed. Firstly, the assisted curve under different speed and steering wheel torque was developed and the differential torques were distributed to the right and left front wheels. Then the steering return ability assisted control algorithm was designed. At last, the joint simulation was conducted by CarSim/Simulink. The result indicated: the differential drive assisted steering algorithm could provide enough steering drive-assisted under low speed and improve the steering portability. Along with the increase of the speed, the provided steering drive-assisted decreased. With the control algorithm, the steering stiffness of the steering system increased along with the increase of the speed, which ensures the driver’s road feeling. The control algorithm of differential drive assisted steering could avoid the understeer under low speed effectively.

Keywords: differential assisted steering, control strategy, distributed drive electric vehicle, driving/braking torque

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3317 Experimental Study of Exhaust Muffler System for Direct-Injection Gasoline Engine

Authors: Abdallah F. Abd El-Mohsen, Ahmed A. Abdelsamee, Nouby M. Ghazaly


Engine exhaust noise is considered one of the largest sources of vehicle exterior noise. Further reduction of noise from the vehicle exhaust system will be required, as the vehicle exterior noise regulations become stricter. Therefore, the present study has been carried out to illustrate the role of engine operating parameters and exhaust system construction factors on exhaust noise emitted. The measurements carried out using different exhaust systems, which are mainly used in today’s vehicle. The effect of engine speed on the spectra level of exhaust noise is recorded at engine speeds of 900 rpm, 1800 rpm, 2700, rpm 3600 rpm and 4500 rpm. The results indicate that the increase of engine speed causes a significant increase in the spectrum level of exhaust noise. The increase in the number of the outlet of the expansion chamber also reduces the overall level of exhaust noise.

Keywords: exhaust system, expansion chamber, engine speed, spectra

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3316 Clarifications on the Damping Mechanism Related to the Hunting Motion of the Wheel Axle of a High-Speed Railway Vehicle

Authors: Barenten Suciu


In order to explain the damping mechanism, related to the hunting motion of the wheel axle of a high-speed railway vehicle, a generalized dynamic model is proposed. Based on such model, analytic expressions for the damping coefficient and damped natural frequency are derived, without imposing restrictions on the ratio between the lateral and vertical creep coefficients. Influence of the travelling speed, wheel conicity, dimensionless mass of the wheel axle, ratio of the creep coefficients, ratio of the track span to the yawing diameter, etc. on the damping coefficient and damped natural frequency, is clarified.

Keywords: high-speed railway vehicle, hunting motion, wheel axle, damping, creep, vibration model, analysis.

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
3315 Artificial Neural Network Based Approach for Estimation of Individual Vehicle Speed under Mixed Traffic Condition

Authors: Subhadip Biswas, Shivendra Maurya, Satish Chandra, Indrajit Ghosh


Developing speed model is a challenging task particularly under mixed traffic condition where the traffic composition plays a significant role in determining vehicular speed. The present research has been conducted to model individual vehicular speed in the context of mixed traffic on an urban arterial. Traffic speed and volume data have been collected from three midblock arterial road sections in New Delhi. Using the field data, a volume based speed prediction model has been developed adopting the methodology of Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The model developed in this work is capable of estimating speed for individual vehicle category. Validation results show a great deal of agreement between the observed speeds and the predicted values by the model developed. Also, it has been observed that the ANN based model performs better compared to other existing models in terms of accuracy. Finally, the sensitivity analysis has been performed utilizing the model in order to examine the effects of traffic volume and its composition on individual speeds.

Keywords: speed model, artificial neural network, arterial, mixed traffic

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3314 A Metaheuristic Approach for the Pollution-Routing Problem

Authors: P. Parthiban, Sonu Rajak, R. Dhanalakshmi


This paper presents an Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) approach, combined with a Speed Optimization Algorithm (SOA) to solve the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) with environmental considerations, which is well known as Pollution-Routing Problem (PRP). It consists of routing a number of vehicles to serve a set of customers, and determining fuel consumption, driver wages and their speed on each route segment, while respecting the capacity constraints and time windows. Since VRP is NP-hard problem, so PRP also a NP-hard problem, which requires metaheuristics to solve this type of problems. The proposed solution method consists of two stages. Stage one is to solve a Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Window (VRPTW) using ACO and in the second stage, a SOA is run on the resulting VRPTW solution. Given a vehicle route, the SOA consists of finding the optimal speed on each arc of the route to minimize an objective function comprising fuel consumption costs and driver wages. The proposed algorithm tested on benchmark problem, the preliminary results show that the proposed algorithm can provide good solutions within reasonable computational time.

Keywords: ant colony optimization, CO2 emissions, speed optimization, vehicle routing

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
3313 Pedestrian Behavioral Analysis for Safety at Road Crossing at Selected Intersections in Dhaka City

Authors: Sumit Roy


A clear understanding of pedestrian behaviour at road crossing at intersections is needed for providing necessary infrastructure and also for enhancing pedestrian safety at any intersection. Pedestrian road crossing behaviour is studied at Motijheel and Kakrail intersections where Motijheel intersection is a controlled roundabout, and Kakrail intersection is a signalized intersection. Around 60 people at each intersection were interviewed for a questionnaire survey and video recording at different time of a day was done for observation at each intersection. In case of Motijeel intersection, we got pedestrian road crossings were much higher than Kakrail intersection. It is because the number of workplaces here is higher than Kakrail. From questionnaire survey, it is found that 80% of pedestrians crosses at intersection to avail buses and their loading and unloading locations are at intersection, whereas at Kakrail intersection only 25% pedestrian crosses the road for buses as buses do not slow down here. At Motijheel intersection 25 to 40% of pedestrians choose to jump over the barricade for crossing instead of using overbridge for saving time and labour. On the other hand, the pedestrians using overbridge told that they use overbridge for safety. Moreover, pedestrian crosses at the same pace for both red and green interval with vehicle movement in the range of 12.5 to 14.5 km/h and gaps between vehicle were more than 4 m. Here pedestrian crossing speed varies from 3.5 to 7.2 km/h. In Kakrail intersection the road crossing situation can be classified into 4 categories. In case of red time, pedestrians do not wait to cross the road, and crossing speed varies from 3.5 to 7.2 km/h. When vehicle speed varies from 5.4 to 7.4 km/h, and gaps between vehicle vary from 1.5 to 2 m, most of the pedestrians initially choose to wait and try to cross the road in group with crossing speed 2.7 to 3.5 km/h. When vehicle speed varies from 10.8 to 18 km/h, and gaps between vehicles varies from 2 to 3 m most of the people waits and cross the road in group with crossing speed 3.5 to 5.4 km/h. When vehicle speed varies from 25.2 to 32.4 km/h and gaps between vehicles vary from 4 to 6 m most of the pedestrians choose to wait until red time. In Kakrail intersection 87% of people said that they cross the road with risk and 60% of pedestrians told that it is risky to get on and off the bus at this intersection. Planned location of loading and unloading area for buses can improve the pedestrian road crossing behaviour at intersections.

Keywords: crossing speed, pedestrian behaviour, road crossing, use of overbridge

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3312 An Ant Colony Optimization Approach for the Pollution Routing Problem

Authors: P. Parthiban, Sonu Rajak, N. Kannan, R. Dhanalakshmi


This paper deals with the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) with environmental considerations which is called Pollution Routing Problem (PRP). The objective is to minimize the operational and environmental costs. It consists of routing a number of vehicles to serve a set of customers, and determining fuel consumption, driver wages and their speed on each route segment, while respecting the capacity constraints and time windows. In this context, we presented an Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) approach, combined with a Speed Optimization Algorithm (SOA) to solve the PRP. The proposed solution method consists of two stages. Stage one is to solve a Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Window (VRPTW) using ACO and in the second stage a SOA is run on the resulting VRPTW solutions. Given a vehicle route, the SOA consists of finding the optimal speed on each arc of the route in order to minimize an objective function comprising fuel consumption costs and driver wages. The proposed algorithm tested on benchmark problem, the preliminary results show that the proposed algorithm is able to provide good solutions.

Keywords: ant colony optimization, CO2 emissions, combinatorial optimization, speed optimization, vehicle routing

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3311 Vibration control of Bridge Super structure using Tuned Mass Damper (TMD)

Authors: Tauhidur Rahman, Dhrubajyoti Thakuria


In this article, vibration caused by earthquake excitation, wind load and the high-speed vehicle in the superstructure has been studied. An attempt has been made to control these vibrations using passive Tuned Mass Dampers (TMD). Tuned mass damper consists of a mass, spring, and viscous damper which dissipates the vibration energy of the primary structure at the damper of the TMD. In the present paper, the concrete box girder bridge superstructure is considered and is modeled using MIDAS software. The bridge is modeled as Euler-Bernoulli beam to study the responses imposed by high-speed vehicle, earthquake excitation and wind load. In the present study, comparative study for the responses has been done considering different velocities of the train. The results obtained in this study are based on Indian standard loadings specified in Indian Railways Board (Bridge Rules). A comparative study has been done for the responses of the high-speed vehicle with and without Tuned Mass Dampers. The results indicate that there is a significant reduction in displacement and acceleration in the bridge superstructure when Tuned Mass Damper is used.

Keywords: bridge superstructure, high speed vehicle, tuned mass damper, TMD, vibration control

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3310 Identification of the Interior Noise Sources of Rail Vehicles

Authors: Hyo-In Koh, Anders Nordborg, Alex Sievi, Chun-Kwon Park


The noise source for the interior room of the high speed train is constituted by the rolling contact between the wheel and the rail, aerodynamic noise and structure-borne sound generated through the vibrations of bogie, connection points to the carbody. Air-borne sound is radiated through the panels and structures into the interior room of the trains. The high-speed lines are constructed with slab track systems and many tunnels. The interior noise level and the frequency characteristics vary according to types of the track structure and the infrastructure. In this paper the main sound sources and the transfer paths are studied to find out the contribution characteristics of the sources to the interior noise of a high-speed rail vehicle. For the identification of the acoustic power of each parts of the rolling noise sources a calculation model of wheel/rail noise is developed and used. For the analysis of the transmission of the sources to the interior noise noise and vibration are measured during the operation of the vehicle. According to operation speeds, the mainly contributed sources and the paths could be analyzed. Results of the calculations on the source generation and the results of the measurement with a high-speed train are shown and discussed.

Keywords: rail vehicle, high-speed, interior noise, noise source

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3309 Stereo Camera Based Speed-Hump Detection Process for Real Time Driving Assistance System in the Daytime

Authors: Hyun-Koo Kim, Yong-Hun Kim, Soo-Young Suk, Ju H. Park, Ho-Youl Jung


This paper presents an effective speed hump detection process at the day-time. we focus only on round types of speed humps in the day-time dynamic road environment. The proposed speed hump detection scheme consists mainly of two process as stereo matching and speed hump detection process. Our proposed process focuses to speed hump detection process. Speed hump detection process consist of noise reduction step, data fusion step, and speed hemp detection step. The proposed system is tested on Intel Core CPU with 2.80 GHz and 4 GB RAM tested in the urban road environments. The frame rate of test videos is 30 frames per second and the size of each frame of grabbed image sequences is 1280 pixels by 670 pixels. Using object-marked sequences acquired with an on-vehicle camera, we recorded speed humps and non-speed humps samples. Result of the tests, our proposed method can be applied in real-time systems by computation time is 13 ms. For instance; our proposed method reaches 96.1 %.

Keywords: data fusion, round types speed hump, speed hump detection, surface filter

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3308 Solar Powered Front Wheel Drive (FWD) Electric Trike: An Innovation

Authors: Michael C. Barbecho, Romeo B. Morcilla


This study focused on the development of a solar powered front wheel drive electric trike for personal use and short distance travel, utilizing solar power and a variable speed transmission to adapt in places where varying road grades and unavailability of plug-in charging stations are of great problems. The actual performance of the vehicle was measured in terms of duration of charging using solar power, distance travel and battery power duration, top speed developed at full power, and load capacity. This project followed the research and development process which involved planning, designing, construction, and testing. Solar charging tests revealed that the vehicle requires 6 to 8 hours sunlight exposure to fully charge the batteries. At full charge, the vehicle can travel 35 km utilizing battery power down to 42%. Vehicle showed top speed of 25 kph at 0 to 3% road grade carrying a maximum load of 122 kg. The maximum climbing grade was 23% with the vehicle carrying a maximum load of 122 kg. Technically the project was feasible and can be a potential model for possible conversion of traditional Philippine made “pedicabs” and gasoline engine powered tricycle into modern electric vehicles. Moreover, it has several technical features and advantages over a commercialized electric vehicle such as the use solar charging system and variable speed power transmission and front drive power train for adaptability in any road gradient.

Keywords: electric vehicle, solar vehicles, front drive, solar, solar power

Procedia PDF Downloads 474
3307 Energy Benefits of Urban Platooning with Self-Driving Vehicles

Authors: Eduardo F. Mello, Peter H. Bauer


The primary focus of this paper is the generation of energy-optimal speed trajectories for heterogeneous electric vehicle platoons in urban driving conditions. Optimal speed trajectories are generated for individual vehicles and for an entire platoon under the assumption that they can be executed without errors, as would be the case for self-driving vehicles. It is then shown that the optimization for the “average vehicle in the platoon” generates similar transportation energy savings to optimizing speed trajectories for each vehicle individually. The introduced approach only requires the lead vehicle to run the optimization software while the remaining vehicles are only required to have adaptive cruise control capability. The achieved energy savings are typically between 30% and 50% for stop-to-stop segments in cities. The prime motivation of urban platooning comes from the fact that urban platoons efficiently utilize the available space and the minimization of transportation energy in cities is important for many reasons, i.e., for environmental, power, and range considerations.

Keywords: electric vehicles, energy efficiency, optimization, platooning, self-driving vehicles, urban traffic

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
3306 Comparative Operating Speed and Speed Differential Day and Night Time Models for Two Lane Rural Highways

Authors: Vinayak Malaghan, Digvijay Pawar


Speed is the independent parameter which plays a vital role in the highway design. Design consistency of the highways is checked based on the variation in the operating speed. Often the design consistency fails to meet the driver’s expectation which results in the difference between operating and design speed. Literature reviews have shown that significant crashes take place in horizontal curves due to lack of design consistency. The paper focuses on continuous speed profile study on tangent to curve transition for both day and night daytime. Data is collected using GPS device which gives continuous speed profile and other parameters such as acceleration, deceleration were analyzed along with Tangent to Curve Transition. In this present study, models were developed to predict operating speed on tangents and horizontal curves as well as model indicating the speed reduction from tangent to curve based on continuous speed profile data. It is observed from the study that vehicle tends to decelerate from approach tangent to between beginning of the curve and midpoint of the curve and then accelerates from curve to tangent transition. The models generated were compared for both day and night and can be used in the road safety improvement by evaluating the geometric design consistency.

Keywords: operating speed, design consistency, continuous speed profile data, day and night time

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3305 HEXAFLY-INT Project: Design of a High Speed Flight Experiment

Authors: S. Di Benedetto, M. P. Di Donato, A. Rispoli, S. Cardone, J. Riehmer, J. Steelant, L. Vecchione


Thanks to a coordinated funding by the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Commission (EC) within the 7th framework program, the High-Speed Experimental Fly Vehicles – International (HEXAFLY-INT) project is aimed at the flight validation of hypersonics technologies enabling future trans-atmospheric flights. The project, which is currently involving partners from Europe, Russian Federation and Australia operating under ESA/ESTEC coordination, will achieve the goal of designing, manufacturing, assembling and flight testing an unpowered high speed vehicle in a glider configuration by 2018. The main technical challenges of the project are specifically related to the design of the vehicle gliding configuration and to the complexity of integrating breakthrough technologies with standard aeronautical technologies, e.g. high temperature protection system and airframe cold structures. Also, the sonic boom impact, which is one of the environmental challenges of the high speed flight, will be assessed. This paper provides a comprehensive and detailed update on all the current projects activities carried out to date on both the vehicle and mission design.

Keywords: design, flight testing, HEXAFLY-INT, hypersonics

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
3304 Characteristics of Speed Dispersion in Urban Expressway

Authors: Fujian Wang, Shubin Ruan, Meiwei Dai


Speed dispersion has tight relation to traffic safety. In this paper, several kinds of indicating parameters (the standard speed deviation, the coefficient of variation, the deviation of V85 and V15, the mean speed deviations, and the difference between adjacent car speeds) are applied to investigate the characteristics of speed dispersion, where V85 and V15 are 85th and 15th percentile speed, respectively. Their relationships are into full investigations and the results show that: there exists a positive relation (linear) between mean speed and the deviation of V85 and V15; while a negative relation (quadratic) between traffic flow and standard speed deviation. The mean speed deviation grows exponentially with mean speed while the absolute speed deviation between adjacent cars grows linearly with the headway. The results provide some basic information for traffic management.

Keywords: headway, indicating parameters, speed dispersion, urban expressway

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3303 The Design and Modeling of Intelligent Learners Assistance System (ILASS)

Authors: Jelili Kunle Adedeji, Toeb Akorede Akinbola


The problem of vehicle mishap as a result of miscalculation, recklessness, or malfunction of some part in a vehicle is acknowledged to be a global issue. In most of the cases, it results into death or life injuries, all over the world; the issue becomes a nightmare to the stakeholders on how to curb mishaps on our roads due to these endemic factors. Hence this research typically examined the design of a device, specifically for learners that can lead to a society of intelligent vehicles (traffic) without withdrawing the driving authority from them, unlike pre-existing systems. Though ILASS shears a lot of principle with existing advance drivers assistance systems, yet there are two fundamental differences between ILASS system and existing systems. Firstly ILASS is meant to accept continuous input from the throttle at all time such that the devices will not constraint the driving process unnecessarily and ensure a change of speed at any point in time. Secondly, it made use of a variable threshold distance between the host vehicle and front vehicle which can be set by the host driver under the constraint of road maintenance agency, who communicates the minimum possible threshold for a different lane to the host vehicle. The results obtained from the simulation of the ILASS system concluded that ILASS is a good solution to road accidents, particularly road accident which occurs as a result of driving at high speed.

Keywords: front-vehicle, host-speed, threshold-distance, ILASS

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3302 Pedestrian Behavior at Signalized Intersections in Izmir, Turkey

Authors: Pelin Onelcin, Yalcin Alver


This paper investigates the walking speed and delays of pedestrians at two signalized intersections where the vehicle speed limits are different. Data was collected during afternoon and evening peak hours on November 15, 2013 and on December 6, 2013. Observational surveys were conducted by video recording technique. Pedestrians were categorized according to their gender, group size, stuff carrying condition and age. Results showed that individuals walked fastest when the group size is taken into consideration. The smallest 15th percentile walking speed was seen in the oldest age group (over 60 years old). Pedestrians experienced high delays both at roadsides and at medians. Factors affecting the pedestrian walking speed were analyzed by ANOVA.

Keywords: pedestrian delay, pedestrian walking speed, signalized crosswalk, ANOVA

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3301 Electronic Stability Control for a 7 DOF Vehicle Model Using Flex Ray and Neuro Fuzzy Techniques

Authors: Praveen Battula


Any high performance car has the tendency to over steer and Understeer under slippery conditions, An Electronic Stability Control System is needed under these conditions to regulate the steering of the car. It uses Anti-Lock Braking System (ABS) and Traction Control and Wheel Speed Sensor, Steering Angle Sensor, Rotational Speed Sensors to correct the problems. The focus of this paper is to improve the driving dynamics and safety by controlling the forces applied on each wheel. ESC Control the Yaw Stability, traction controls the Roll Stability, where actually the vehicle slip rate and lateral acceleration is controlled. ESC uses differential braking on all four brakes independently to control the vehicle’s motion. A mathematical model is developed in Simulink for the FlexRay based Electronic Stability Control. Vehicle steering is developed using Neuro Fuzzy Logic Controller. 7 Degrees of Freedom Vehicle Model is used as a Plant Model using dSpace autobox. The Performance of the system is assessed using two different road Scenarios, Vehicle Control under standard maneuvering conditions. The entire system is set using Dspace Control Desk. Results are provided by comparison of how a Vehicle with and without Electronic Stability Control which shows an improved performance in control.

Keywords: ESC, flexray, chassis control, steering, neuro fuzzy, vehicle dynamics

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3300 Effect of Traffic Volume and Its Composition on Vehicular Speed under Mixed Traffic Conditions: A Kriging Based Approach

Authors: Subhadip Biswas, Shivendra Maurya, Satish Chandra, Indrajit Ghosh


Use of speed prediction models sometimes appears as a feasible alternative to laborious field measurement particularly, in case when field data cannot fulfill designer’s requirements. However, developing speed models is a challenging task specifically in the context of developing countries like India where vehicles with diverse static and dynamic characteristics use the same right of way without any segregation. Here the traffic composition plays a significant role in determining the vehicular speed. The present research was carried out to examine the effects of traffic volume and its composition on vehicular speed under mixed traffic conditions. Classified traffic volume and speed data were collected from different geometrically identical six lane divided arterials in New Delhi. Based on these field data, speed prediction models were developed for individual vehicle category adopting Kriging approximation technique, an alternative for commonly used regression. These models are validated with the data set kept aside earlier for validation purpose. The predicted speeds showed a great deal of agreement with the observed values and also the model outperforms all other existing speed models. Finally, the proposed models were utilized to evaluate the effect of traffic volume and its composition on speed.

Keywords: speed, Kriging, arterial, traffic volume

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3299 An Experimental Study of Automotive Drum Brake Vibrations

Authors: Nouby Ghazaly


The present paper investigates experimentally the effect coefficient of friction at different operation conditions on the variation of the brake temperature, brake force, and brake vibration with the braking time. All the experimental tests were carried out using brake dynamometer which designed and constructed in Vehicle Dynamic Laboratory. The results indicate that the brake temperature increases with the increase of the normal force and sliding speed especially with the increase of the braking time. The normal force has the effect on increasing the brake force. On the contrary, the vehicle speed has the effect on decreasing the brake force. Both the normal force and sliding speed affect the brake vibration according to the friction behavior.

Keywords: brake dynamometer, coefficient of friction, drum brake vibrations, friction behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
3298 Modeling the Risk Perception of Pedestrians Using a Nested Logit Structure

Authors: Babak Mirbaha, Mahmoud Saffarzadeh, Atieh Asgari Toorzani


Pedestrians are the most vulnerable road users since they do not have a protective shell. One of the most common collisions for them is pedestrian-vehicle at intersections. In order to develop appropriate countermeasures to improve safety for them, researches have to be conducted to identify the factors that affect the risk of getting involved in such collisions. More specifically, this study investigates factors such as the influence of walking alone or having a baby while crossing the street, the observable age of pedestrian, the speed of pedestrians and the speed of approaching vehicles on risk perception of pedestrians. A nested logit model was used for modeling the behavioral structure of pedestrians. The results show that the presence of more lanes at intersections and not being alone especially having a baby while crossing, decrease the probability of taking a risk among pedestrians. Also, it seems that teenagers show more risky behaviors in crossing the street in comparison to other age groups. Also, the speed of approaching vehicles was considered significant. The probability of risk taking among pedestrians decreases by increasing the speed of approaching vehicle in both the first and the second lanes of crossings.

Keywords: pedestrians, intersection, nested logit, risk

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3297 Analysis and Experimental Research on the Influence of Lubricating Oil on the Transmission Efficiency of New Energy Vehicle Gearbox

Authors: Chen Yong, Bi Wangyang, Zang Libin, Li Jinkai, Cheng Xiaowei, Liu Jinmin, Yu Miao


New energy vehicle power transmission systems continue to develop in the direction of high torque, high speed, and high efficiency. The cooling and lubrication of the motor and the transmission system are integrated, and new requirements are placed on the lubricants for the transmission system. The effects of traditional lubricants and special lubricants for new energy vehicles on transmission efficiency were studied through experiments and simulation methods. A mathematical model of the transmission efficiency of the lubricating oil in the gearbox was established. The power loss of each part was analyzed according to the working conditions. The relationship between the speed and the characteristics of different lubricating oil products on the power loss of the stirring oil was discussed. The minimum oil film thickness was required for the life of the gearbox. The accuracy of the calculation results was verified by the transmission efficiency test conducted on the two-motor integrated test bench. The results show that the efficiency increases first and then decreases with the increase of the speed and decreases with the increase of the kinematic viscosity of the lubricant. The increase of the kinematic viscosity amplifies the transmission power loss caused by the high speed. New energy vehicle special lubricants have less attenuation of transmission efficiency in the range above mid-speed. The research results provide a theoretical basis and guidance for the evaluation and selection of transmission efficiency of gearbox lubricants for new energy vehicles.

Keywords: new energy vehicles, lubricants, transmission efficiency, kinematic viscosity, test and simulation

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3296 Observation of Critical Sliding Velocity

Authors: Visar Baxhuku, Halil Demolli, Alishukri Shkodra


This paper presents the monitoring of vehicle movement, namely the developing of speed of vehicles during movement in a certain twist. The basic geometry data of twist are measured with the purpose of calculating the slide in border speed. During the research, measuring developed speed of passenger vehicles for the real conditions of the road surface, dry road with average damage, was realised. After setting values, the analysis was done in function security of movement in twist.

Keywords: critical sliding velocity, moving velocity, curve, passenger vehicles

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3295 Improvement of Brige Weigh-In-Motion Technique Considering the Driving Conditions of Vehicles

Authors: Changgil Lee, Jooyoung Park, Seunghee Park


In this study, bridge weigh-in-motion (BWIM) system was simulated under various driving conditions of vehicles to improve the performance of the BWIM system. Two driving conditions were considered. One was the number of the axle of the vehicles. Since the vehicles have different number of axle according to the types of the vehicle, the vehicles were modeled considering the number of the axle. The other was the speed of the vehicles because the speed of the vehicles is not consistent on the bridge. To achieve the goal, the dynamic characteristics of a bridge such as modal parameters were considered in numerical simulation by analyzing precision models. Also, the driving vehicles were modeled as mass-spring-damping systems reflecting the axle information.

Keywords: bridge weigh-in-motion (BWIM) system, driving conditions, precision analysis model, the number of axle, the speed of vehicle

Procedia PDF Downloads 378