Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5739

Search results for: ability of normal walking

5739 Exoskeleton for Hemiplegic Patients: Mechatronic Approach to Move One Disabled Lower Limb

Authors: Alaoui Hamza, Moutacalli Mohamed Tarik, Chebak Ahmed

Abstract:

The number of people suffering from hemiplegia is growing each year. This lower limb disability affects all the aspects of their lives by taking away their autonomy. This implicates their close relatives, as well as the health system to provide the necessary care they need. The integration of exoskeletons in the medical field became a promising solution to resolve this issue. This paper presents an exoskeleton designed to help hemiplegic people get back the sensation and ability of normal walking. For this purpose, three step models have been created. The first step allows a simple forward movement of the leg. The second method is designed to overcome some obstacles in the patient path, and finally the third step model gives the patient total control over the device. Each of the control methods was designed to offer a solution to the challenges that the patients may face during the walking process.

Keywords: ability of normal walking, exoskeleton, hemiplegic patients, lower limb motion- mechatronics

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
5738 Walking Progression in Ambulatory Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury Who Daily Walked with a Walking Device

Authors: Makamas Kumprou, Pipatana Amatachaya, Sugalya Amatachaya, Thiwabhorn Thaweewannakij, Preeda Arayawichanon

Abstract:

Many individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) need an ambulatory assistive device (AAD) to promote their independence and experience of task-specific walking practice. Without a periodic follow-up for their walking progression, however, many individuals may use the same AAD even though up to 66% of them had the potential to progress walking ability. This may distort their optimal ability and increase the possibility of having negative impacts due to the long-lasting used of an AAD. However, these findings were cross-sectionally collected without data confirmation for the benefit or negative impacts of those who changed the types of AAD used. Therefore, this study prospectively assessed the proportion of ambulatory individuals with SCI who were able to progress their walking ability as determined using a type of AAD, and the changes of their functional ability as well as the incidence of falls over 6 months. Twenty-four subjects with SCI who daily walked with an AAD were involved in the study for 2 visits over 6 months. At the first visit (baseline assessments), the subjects were assessed for their spatiotemporal variables (i.e., cadence, step length, stride length, and step symmetry) and walking ability using the 10-meter walk test (10MWT). Then, they were assessed for the possibility of their walking progression as determined using the ability of walking with the least support AAD with no more than contact guarding assist. Those who were capable of changing an AAD were trained for the ability to walk with a new AAD. Thereafter, all subjects were monthly monitored for incidence of fall over 6 months. At the second visit (after 6 months followed-up), subjects were reassessed for their spatiotemporal variables and 10MWT. The findings indicated that, of all 24 subjects, 8 subjects (33.3%) were able to walk with less support AAD than their usual one. The walking cadence, step length symmetry, and walking ability of these subjects improved significantly greater than those who walked with the same AAD (p < 0.05). Among these subjects, one subject (12.5%) reported fell (3 times) during the follow-up period, whereas 5 subjects (31.3%) who walked with the same AAD experienced at least one fall (range 1 – 16 times). The findings indicated that a large proportion of ambulatory individuals with SCI who daily walked with an AAD could progress their walking ability, whereby their walking ability and safety also significantly improved after they walked with an optimal AAD. The findings suggest the need for a periodic follow-up for an appropriate AAD used for these individuals.

Keywords: walking device, walker, crutches, cane, rehabilitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
5737 Cepstrum Analysis of Human Walking Signal

Authors: Koichi Kurita

Abstract:

In this study, we propose a real-time data collection technique for the detection of human walking motion from the charge generated on the human body. This technique is based on the detection of a sub-picoampere electrostatic induction current, generated by the motion, flowing through the electrode of a wireless portable sensor attached to the subject. An FFT analysis of the wave-forms of the electrostatic induction currents generated by the walking motions showed that the currents generated under normal and restricted walking conditions were different. Moreover, we carried out a cepstrum analysis to detect any differences in the walking style. Results suggest that a slight difference in motion, either due to the individual’s gait or a splinted leg, is directly reflected in the electrostatic induction current generated by the walking motion. The proposed wireless portable sensor enables the detection of even subtle differences in walking motion.

Keywords: human walking motion, motion measurement, current measurement, electrostatic induction

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
5736 How to Evaluate Resting and Walking Energy Expenditures of Individuals with Different Body Mass Index

Authors: Zeynep Altinkaya, Ugur Dal, Figen Dag, Dilan D. Koyuncu, Merve Turkegun

Abstract:

Obesity is defined as abnormal fat-tissue accumulation as a result of imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. Since 50-70% daily energy expenditure of sedantary individuals is consumed as resting energy expenditure (REE), it takes an important place in the evaluation of new methods for obesity treatment. Also, it is known that walking is a prevalent activity in the prevention of obesity. The primary purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare the resting and walking energy expenditures of individuals with different body mass index (BMI). In this research, 4 groups are formed as underweight (BMI < 18,5 kg/m2), normal (BMI=18,5-24,9 kg/m2), overweight (BMI=25-29,9 kg/m2), and obese (BMI ≥ 30) according to BMI of individuals. 64 healthy young adults (8 man and 8 woman per group, age 18-30 years) with no known gait disabilities were recruited in this study. The body compositions of all participants were measured via bioelectric empedance analysis method. The energy expenditure of individuals was measured with indirect calorimeter method as inspired and expired gas samples are collected breath-by-breath through a special facemask. The preferred walking speed (PWS) of each subject was determined by using infrared sensors placed in 2nd and 12th meters of 14 m walkway. The REE was measured for 15 min while subjects were lying, and walking energy expenditure was measured during subjects walk in their PWS on treadmill. The gross REE was significantly higher in obese subjects compared to underweight and normal subjects (p < 0,0001). When REE was normalized to body weight, it was higher in underweight and normal groups than overweight and obese groups (p < 0,0001). However, when REE was normalized to fat-free mass, it did not differ significantly between groups. The gross walking energy expenditure in PWS was higher in obese and overweight groups than underweight and normal groups (p < 0,0001). The regression coefficient between gross walking energy expenditure and body weight was significiant among normal and obese groups (p < 0.05). It accounted for 70,5% of gross walking energy expenditure in normal group, and 57,9% of gross walking energy expenditure in obese group. It is known that obese individuals have more metabolically inactive fat-tissue compared to other groups. While excess fat-tissue increases total body weight, it does not contribute much to REE. Therefore, REE results normalized to body weight could lead to misleading results. In order to eliminate fat-mass effect on REE of obese individuals, REE normalized to fat-free mass should be used to acquire more accurate results. On the other hand, the fat-mass increasement raises energy requirement while walking to retain the body balance. Thus, gross walking energy expenditure should be taken into consideration for the evaluating energy expenditure of walking.

Keywords: body composition, obesity, resting energy expenditure, walking energy expenditure

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
5735 Percentage Contribution of Lower Limb Moments to Vertical Ground Reaction Force in Normal Walking

Authors: Salam M. Elhafez, Ahmed A. Ashour, Naglaa M. Elhafez, Ghada M. Elhafez, Azza M. Abdelmohsen

Abstract:

Patients suffering from gait disturbances are referred by having muscle group dysfunctions. There is a need for more studies investigating the contribution of muscle moments of the lower limb to the vertical ground reaction force using 3D gait analysis system. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the hip, knee and ankle moments in the sagittal plane contribute to the vertical ground reaction force in healthy subjects during normal speed of walking. Forty healthy male individuals volunteered to participate in this study. They were filmed using six high speed (120 Hz) Pro-Reflex Infrared cameras (Qualisys) while walking on an AMTI force platform. The data collected were the percentage contribution of the moments of the hip, knee and ankle joints in the sagittal plane at the instant of occurrence of the first peak, second peak, and the trough of the vertical ground reaction force. The results revealed that at the first peak of the ground reaction force (loading response), the highest contribution was generated from the knee extension moment, followed by the hip extension moment. Knee flexion and ankle plantar flexion moments produced high contribution to the trough of the ground reaction force (midstance) with approximately equal values. The second peak of the ground reaction force was mainly produced by the ankle plantar flexion moment. Conclusion: Hip and knee flexion and extension moments and ankle plantar flexion moment play important roles in the supporting phase of normal walking.

Keywords: gait analysis, ground reaction force, moment contribution, normal walking

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
5734 The Application of Rhizophora Wood to Design a Walking Stick for Elderly

Authors: Noppadon Sangwalpetch

Abstract:

The objective of this research is to use Rhizophora wood to design a walking stick for elderly by applying its properties on strength and toughness. The research was conducted by studying the behavior and the type of walking sticks used by 70 elderly aged between 60-80 years in Pragnamdaeng Sub-District, Ampawa District, Samudsongkram Province. Questionnaires were used to collect data which were calculated to find percentage, mean, and standard deviation. The results are as follows: 1) most elderly use walking sticks due to the Osteoarthritis of the knees. 2) Most elderly need to use walking sticks because the walking sticks help to balance their positioning and prevent from stumble. 3) Most elderly agree that Rhizophora wood is suitable to make a walking stick because of its strength and toughness. In addition, it is a local plant which is available and cheap. 4) The design of the walking stick should be fine and practical with comfortable handle and the tip of the stick must not be slippery.

Keywords: rhizophora wood, the design of a walking stick, elderly, visual arts

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
5733 Effect of vr Based Wii Fit Training on Muscle Strength, Sensory Integration Ability and Walking Abilities in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: A Randomized Control Trial

Authors: Ying-Yi Laio, Yea-Ru Yang, Yih-Ru Wu, Ray-Yau Wang

Abstract:

Background: Virtual reality (VR) systems are proved to increase motor performance in stroke and elderly. However, the effects have not been established in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Purpose: To examine the effects of VR based training in improving muscle strength, sensory integration ability and walking abilities in patients with PD by a randomized controlled trial. Method: Thirty six participants with diagnosis of PD were randomly assigned to one of the three groups (n=12 for each group). Participants received VR-based Wii Fit exercise (VRWii group) or traditional exercise (TE group) for 45 minutes, followed by treadmill training for another 15 minutes for 12 sessions in 6 weeks. Participants in the control group received no structured exercise program but fall-prevention education. Outcomes included lower extremity muscle strength, sensory integration ability, walking velocity, stride length, and functional gait assessment (FGA). All outcomes were assessed at baseline, after training and at 1-month follow-up. Results: Both VRWii and TE groups showed more improvement in level walking velocity, stride length, FGA, muscle strength and vestibular system integration than control group after training and at 1-month follow-up. The VRWii training, but not the TE training, resulted in more improvement in visual system integration than the control. Conclusions: VRWii training is as beneficial as traditional exercise in improving walking abilities, sensory integration ability and muscle strength in patients with PD, and such improvements persisted at least for 1 month. The VRWii training is then suggested to be implemented in patients with PD.

Keywords: virtual reality, walking, sensory integration, muscle strength, Parkinson’s disease

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
5732 Non-Contact Human Movement Monitoring Technique for Security Control System Based 2n Electrostatic Induction

Authors: Koichi Kurita

Abstract:

In this study, an effective non-contact technique for the detection of human physical activity is proposed. The technique is based on detecting the electrostatic induction current generated by the walking motion under non-contact and non-attached conditions. A theoretical model for the electrostatic induction current generated because of a change in the electric potential of the human body is proposed. By comparing the obtained electrostatic induction current with the theoretical model, it becomes obvious that this model effectively explains the behavior of the waveform of the electrostatic induction current. The normal walking motions are recorded using a portable sensor measurement located in a passageway of office building. The obtained results show that detailed information regarding physical activity such as a walking cycle can be estimated using our proposed technique. This suggests that the proposed technique which is based on the detection of the walking signal, can be successfully applied to the detection of human walking motion in a secured building.

Keywords: human walking motion, access control, electrostatic induction, alarm monitoring

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
5731 Stress Evaluation at Lower Extremity during Walking with Unstable Shoe

Authors: Sangbaek Park, Seungju Lee, Soo-Won Chae

Abstract:

Unstable shoes are known to strengthen lower extremity muscles and improve gait ability and to change the user’s gait pattern. The change in gait pattern affects human body enormously because the walking is repetitive and steady locomotion in daily life. It is possible to estimate the joint motion including joint moment, force and inertia effect using kinematic and kinetic analysis. However, the change of internal stress at the articular cartilage has not been possible to estimate. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the internal stress of human body during gait with unstable shoes. In this study, FE analysis was combined with motion capture experiment to obtain the boundary condition and loading condition during walking. Motion capture experiments were performed with a participant during walking with normal shoes and with unstable shoes. Inverse kinematics and inverse kinetic analysis was performed with OpenSim. The joint angle and muscle forces were estimated as results of inverse kinematics and kinetics analysis. A detailed finite element (FE) lower extremity model was constructed. The joint coordinate system was added to the FE model and the joint coordinate system was coincided with OpenSim model’s coordinate system. Finally, the joint angles at each phase of gait were used to transform the FE model’s posture according to actual posture from motion capture. The FE model was transformed into the postures of three major phases (1st peak of ground reaction force, mid stance and 2nd peak of ground reaction force). The direction and magnitude of muscle force were estimated by OpenSim and were applied to the FE model’s attachment point of each muscle. Then FE analysis was performed to compare the stress at knee cartilage during gait with normal shoes and unstable shoes.

Keywords: finite element analysis, gait analysis, human model, motion capture

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
5730 Human Walking Vertical Force and Vertical Vibration of Pedestrian Bridge Induced by Its Higher Components

Authors: Masahiro Yoneda

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to identify human walking vertical force by using FFT power spectrum density from the experimental acceleration data of the human body. An experiment on human walking is carried out on a stationary floor especially paying attention to higher components of dynamic vertical walking force. Based on measured acceleration data of the human lumbar part, not only in-phase component with frequency of 2 fw, 3 fw, but also in-opposite-phase component with frequency of 0.5 fw, 1.5 fw, 2.5 fw where fw is the walking rate is observed. The vertical vibration of pedestrian bridge induced by higher components of human walking vertical force is also discussed in this paper. A full scale measurement for the existing pedestrian bridge with center span length of 33 m is carried out focusing on the resonance phenomenon due to higher components of human walking vertical force. Dynamic response characteristics excited by these vertical higher components of human walking are revealed from the dynamic design viewpoint of pedestrian bridge.

Keywords: simplified method, human walking vertical force, higher component, pedestrian bridge vibration

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
5729 Evaluation of Joint Contact Forces and Muscle Forces in the Subjects with Non-Specific Low Back Pain

Authors: Mohammad Taghi Karimi, Maryam Hasan Zahraee

Abstract:

Background: Low back pain (LBP) is a common health and socioeconomic problem, especially the chronic one. The joint contact force is an important parameter during walking which increases the incidence of injury and degenerative joint disease. To our best knowledge, there are not enough evidences in literature on the muscular forces and joint contact forces in subjects with low back pain. Purpose: The main hypothesis associated with this research was that joint contact force of L4/L5 of non-specific chronic low back pain subjects was the same as that of normal. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the joint contact force difference between non-specific chronic low back pain and normal subjects. Method: This was an experimental-comparative study. 20 normal subjects and 20 non-specific chronic low back pain patients were recruited in this study. Qualysis motion analysis system and a Kistler force plate were used to collect the motions and the force applied on the leg, respectively. OpenSimm software used to determine joint contact force and muscle forces in this study. Some parameters such as force applied on the legs (pelvis), kinematic of hip and pelvic, peaks of muscles, force of trunk musculature and joint contact force of L5/S1 were used for further analysis. Differences between mean values of all data were measured using two-sample t-test among the subjects. Results: The force produced by Semitendinosus, Biceps Femoris, and Adductor muscles were significantly different between low back pain and normal subjects. Moreover, the mean value of breaking component of the force of the knee joint increased significantly in low back pain subjects, besides a significant decrease in mean value of the vertical component of joint reaction force compared to the normal ones. Conclusions: The forces produced by the trunk and pelvic muscles, and joint contact forces differ significantly between low back pain and normal subjects. It seems that those with non-specific chronic low back pain use trunk muscles more than normal subjects to stabilize the pelvic during walking.

Keywords: low back pain, joint contact force, kinetic, muscle force

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
5728 Influence of Peripheral Vision Restrictions on the Walking Trajectory When Texting While Walking

Authors: Macky Kato, Takeshi Sato, Mizuki Nakajima

Abstract:

One major problem related to the use of smartphones is texting while simultaneously engaging in other things, resulting in serious road accidents. Apart from texting while driving being one of the most dangerous behaviors, texting while walking is also dangerous because it narrows the pedestrians’ field of vision. However, many of pedestrian text while walking very habitually. Smartphone users often overlook the potential harm associated with this behavior even while crossing roads. The successful texting while walking make them think that they are safe. The purpose of this study is to reveal of the influence of peripheral vision to the stability of walking trajectory with texting while walking. In total, 9 healthy male university students participated in the experiment. Their mean age was 21.4 years, and standard deviation was 0.7 years. They attempted to walk 10 m in three conditions. First one is the control (CTR) condition, with no phone and no restriction. The second one is the texting while walking (TWG) with no restrictions. The third one is restriction condition (PRS), with phone restricted by experimental peripheral goggles. The horizontal distances (HDS) and directions are measured as the scale of horizontal stability. The longitudinal distances (LDS) between the footprints were measured as the scale of the walking rhythm. The results showed that the HDS of the footprints from the straight line increased as the participants walked in the TWG and PRS conditions. In the PRS condition, this tendency was particularly remarkable. In addition, the LDS between the footprints decreased in the order of the CTR, TWG, and PRS conditions. The ANOVA results showed significant differences in the three conditions with respect to HDS. The differences among these conditions showed that the narrowing of the Pedestrian's vision because of smartphone use influences the walking trajectory and rhythm. It can be said that the pedestrians seem to use their peripheral vision marginally on texting while walking. Therefore, we concluded that the texting while walking narrows the peripheral vision so danger to increase the risk of the accidents.

Keywords: peripheral vision, stability, texting while walking, walking trajectory

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
5727 Factors Influencing Walking in Bandar Baru Bangi, Malaysia

Authors: Zeinab Aliyas

Abstract:

Walking is known as the most common type of physical activity that helps mental and physical health of people. In the recent years, promoting walking activity in neighborhood areas and cities become as one of the important issues in terms of sustainable cities. Therefore the study aimed to investigate the influence of fear of crime and personal barriers as social and personal factor respectively on neighborhood walking. 464 questionnaires in Bandar Baru Bangi in Malaysia was distributed to collect data, and finally, 424 questionnaires were qualified to be used in the study. The Smart-PLS was used to analyze the data. The findings of the study revealed that individual barriers and fear of crime both have significant influence on the level of walking behavior in the neighborhood area. It was found that fear of crime has higher influence on walking behavior in comparison to individual factors. The finding of this study can help urban researcher and planner to know the significant influence of crime safety and individual attitudes on the level of walking activity.

Keywords: fear of crime, neighborhood walking, personal barriers, residential neighborhood

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
5726 Kinematical Analysis of Normal Children in Different Age Groups during Gait

Authors: Nawaf Al Khashram, Graham Arnold, Weijie Wang

Abstract:

Background—Gait classifying allows clinicians to differentiate gait patterns into clinically important categories that help in clinical decision making. Reliable comparison of gait data between normal and patients requires knowledge of the gait parameters of normal children's specific age group. However, there is still a lack of the gait database for normal children of different ages. Objectives—The aim of this study is to investigate the kinematics of the lower limb joints during gait for normal children in different age groups. Methods—Fifty-three normal children (34 boys, 19 girls) were recruited in this study. All the children were aged between 5 to 16 years old. Age groups were defined as three types: young child aged (5-7), child (8-11), and adolescent (12-16). When a participant agreed to take part in the project, their parents signed a consent form. Vicon® motion capture system was used to collect gait data. Participants were asked to walk at their comfortable speed along a 10-meter walkway. Each participant walked up to 20 trials. Three good trials were analyzed using the Vicon Plug-in-Gait model to obtain parameters of the gait, e.g., walking speed, cadence, stride length, and joint parameters, e.g. joint angle, force, moments, etc. Moreover, each gait cycle was divided into 8 phases. The range of motion (ROM) angle of pelvis, hip, knee, and ankle joints in three planes of both limbs were calculated using an in-house program. Results—The temporal-spatial variables of three age groups of normal children were compared between each other; it was found that there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the groups. The step length and walking speed were gradually increasing from young child to adolescent, while cadence was gradually decreasing from young child to adolescent group. The mean and standard deviation (SD) of the step length of young child, child and adolescent groups were 0.502 ± 0.067 m, 0.566 ± 0.061 m and 0.672 ± 0.053 m, respectively. The mean and SD of the cadence of the young child, child and adolescent groups were 140.11±15.79 step/min, 129±11.84 step/min, and a 115.96±6.47 step/min, respectively. Moreover, it was observed that there were significant differences in kinematic parameters, either whole gait cycle or each phase. For example, RoM of knee angle in the sagittal plane in whole cycle of young child group is (65.03±0.52 deg) larger than child group (63.47±0.47 deg). Conclusion—Our result showed that there are significant differences between each age group in the gait phases and thus children walking performance changes with ages. Therefore, it is important for the clinician to consider age group when analyzing the patients with lower limb disorders before any clinical treatment.

Keywords: age group, gait analysis, kinematics, normal children

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5725 Effects of a Brisk-Walking Program on Anxiety, Depression and Self-Concept in Adolescents: A Time-Series Design

Authors: Ming Yi Hsu, Hui Jung Chao

Abstract:

The anxiety and depression adolescents in Taiwan experience can cause suicide attempts and result in unfortunate deaths. An effective method for relieving anxiety and depression is brisk walking; a moderate and low intensity aerobic exercise, which uses large muscle groups rhythmically. The research purpose was to investigate the effects of a 12-week, school-based, brisk-walking program in decreasing anxiety and depression, and in improving self-concept among high school students living in central Taiwan. A quasi-experiment using the time series design (T1 T2 X T3 T4) was conducted. The Beck Youth Inventories 2 (BYI-II) Chinese version was given four times: the first time T1 was in the 4th week prior to intervention, T2 was in the intervention week, T3 was in the 6th week after the start of the intervention period and T4 was in the 12th week post intervention. The baseline phase of the time series constituted T1 and T2. The intervention phase constituted T2, T3, and T4. The amounts of brisk walking were recorded by self-report The Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) was used to examine the effects of brisk walking on anxiety, depression, and self-concept. The independent t-test was used to compare mean scores on three dependent variables between brisk walking over and less than 90-minutes per week. Findings revealed that levels of anxiety and self-concept had nonsignificant change during the baseline phase, while the level of depression increased significantly. In contrast, the study demonstrated significant decreases in anxiety and depression as well as increases in positive self-concept (p=.001, p<.001, p=.017) during the intervention phase. Furthermore, a subgroup analysis was completed on participants who demonstrated elevated anxiety (23.4%), and depression (29.7%), and below average self-concept (18.6%) at baseline (T2). The subgroup of anxious, depressed, or low self-concept participants who received the brisk-walking intervention demonstrated significant decreases in anxiety and depression, and significant increases in self-concept scores. Participants who engaged in brisk walking over 90 minutes per week reported decreased mean scores on anxiety (t=-2.395, p=.035) and depression (t=-2.142, p=.036) in contrast with those who engaged in brisk-walking time less than 90 minutes per week. Regarding the effects on participants whose anxiety, scores were within the normal range at baseline, there was demonstrated significant decrease in the level of anxiety when they increased their time on brisk walking before each term examination. Overall, the brisk-walking program was effective and feasible to promote adolescents’ mental health by decreasing anxiety and depression as well as elevating self-concept. It also helped adolescents from anxiety before term examinations.

Keywords: adolescents, anxiety, depression, self-concept

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
5724 Electromyography Analysis during Walking and Seated Stepping in the Elderly

Authors: P. Y. Chiang, Y. H. Chen, Y. J. Lin, C. C. Chang, W. C. Hsu

Abstract:

The number of the elderly in the world population and the rate of falls in this increasing numbers of older people are increasing. Decreasing muscle strength and an increasing risk of falling are associated with the ageing process. Because the effects of seated stepping training on the walking performance in the elderly remain unclear, the main purpose of the proposed study is to perform electromyography analysis during walking and seated stepping in the elderly. Four surface EMG electrodes were sticked on the surface of lower limbs muscles, including vastus lateralis (VL), and gastrocnemius (GT) of both sides. Before test, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the respective muscle was obtained using manual muscle testing. The analog raw data of EMG signals were digitized with a sampling frequency of 2000 Hz. The signals were fully rectified and the linear envelope were calculated. Stepping motion cycle was separated into two phases by stepping timing (ST) and pedal return timing (PRT). ST refer to the time when the pedal marker reached the highest height, representing the contra-lateral leg was going to release the pedal. PRT refer to the time when the pedal marker reached the lowest height, representing the contra-lateral leg was going to step the pedal. We assumed that ST acted the same role in initial contact during walking, and PRT for toe-off. The period from ST to next PRT was called pushing phase (PP), during which the leg would start to step with resistance, and we compare this phase with the stance phase in level walking. The period from PRT to next ST was called returning phase (RP), during which leg would not have any resistance in this phase, and we compare this phase with the swing phase in level walking. VL and Gastro muscular activation had similar patterns in both side. The ability may transfer to those needed during loading response, mid-stance and terminal swing phase. User needed to make more effort in stepping compared with walking with similar timing; thus the strengthening of the VL and Gastro may be helpful to improve the walking endurance and efficiency for the elderly.

Keywords: elderly, electromyography, seated stepping, walking

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
5723 Study on Stability and Wear in a Total Hip Prostheses

Authors: Virgil Florescu, Lucian Capitanu

Abstract:

The studies performed by the author and presented here focus mainly on the FE simulation of some relevant phenomena related to stability of orthopedic implants, especially those components of Total Hip Prostheses. The objectives are to study the mechanisms of achieving stability of acetabular prosthetic components and the influence of some characteristic parameters, to evaluate the effect of femoral stem fixation modality on the stability of prosthetic component and to predict long-term behavior, to analyze a critical phenomena which influence the loading transfer mechanism through artificial joints and could lead to aseptic loosening – the wear of joint frictional surfaces. After a theoretical background an application is made considering only three activities: normal walking, stair ascending and stair descending. For each activity, this function is maximized in a different locations: if for normal walking the maxima is in the superior-posterior part of the acetabular cup, for stair descending this maxim value could be located rather in the superior-anterior part, for stair ascending being even closer to the central area of the cup.

Keywords: THA, acetabular stability, FEM simulation, stresses and displacements, wear tests, wear simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
5722 Reduction in the Metabolic Cost of Human Walking Gaits Using Quasi-Passive Upper Body Exoskeleton

Authors: Nafiseh Ebrahimi, Gautham Muthukumaran, Amir Jafari

Abstract:

Human walking gait is considered to be the most efficient biped walking gait. There are various types of gait human follows during locomotion and arm swing is one of the most important factors which controls and differentiates human gaits. Earlier studies declared a 7% reduction in the metabolic cost due to the arm swing. In this research, we compared different types of arm swings in terms of metabolic cost reduction and then suggested, designed, fabricated and tested a quasi-passive upper body exoskeleton to study the metabolic cost reduction in the folded arm walking gate scenarios. Our experimental results validate a 10% reduction in the metabolic cost of walking aided by the application of the proposed exoskeleton.

Keywords: arm swing, MET (metabolic equivalent of a task), calorimeter, oxygen consumption, upper body quasi-passive exoskeleton

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
5721 Creative Mathematics – Action Research of a Professional Development Program in an Icelandic Compulsory School

Authors: Osk Dagsdottir

Abstract:

Background—Gait classifying allows clinicians to differentiate gait patterns into clinically important categories that help in clinical decision making. Reliable comparison of gait data between normal and patients requires knowledge of the gait parameters of normal children's specific age group. However, there is still a lack of the gait database for normal children of different ages. Objectives—This study aims to investigate the kinematics of the lower limb joints during gait for normal children in different age groups. Methods—Fifty-three normal children (34 boys, 19 girls) were recruited in this study. All the children were aged between 5 to 16 years old. Age groups were defined as three types: young child aged (5-7), child (8-11), and adolescent (12-16). When a participant agreed to take part in the project, their parents signed a consent form. Vicon® motion capture system was used to collect gait data. Participants were asked to walk at their comfortable speed along a 10-meter walkway. Each participant walked up to 20 trials. Three good trials were analyzed using the Vicon Plug-in-Gait model to obtain parameters of the gait, e.g., walking speed, cadence, stride length, and joint parameters, e.g., joint angle, force, moments, etc. Moreover, each gait cycle was divided into 8 phases. The range of motion (ROM) angle of pelvis, hip, knee, and ankle joints in three planes of both limbs were calculated using an in-house program. Results—The temporal-spatial variables of three age groups of normal children were compared between each other; it was found that there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the groups. The step length and walking speed were gradually increasing from young child to adolescent, while cadence was gradually decreasing from young child to adolescent group. The mean and standard deviation (SD) of the step length of young child, child and adolescent groups were 0.502 ± 0.067 m, 0.566 ± 0.061 m and 0.672 ± 0.053 m, respectively. The mean and SD of the cadence of the young child, child and adolescent groups were 140.11±15.79 step/min, 129±11.84 step/min, and a 115.96±6.47 step/min, respectively. Moreover, it was observed that there were significant differences in kinematic parameters, either whole gait cycle or each phase. For example, RoM of knee angle in the sagittal plane in the whole cycle of young child group is (65.03±0.52 deg) larger than child group (63.47±0.47 deg). Conclusion—Our result showed that there are significant differences between each age group in the gait phases and thus children walking performance changes with ages. Therefore, it is important for the clinician to consider the age group when analyzing the patients with lower limb disorders before any clinical treatment.

Keywords: action research, creative learning, mathematics education, professional development

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5720 Rehabilitative Walking: The Development of a Robotic Walking Training Device Using Functional Electrical Stimulation for Treating Spinal Cord Injuries and Lower-Limb Paralysis

Authors: Chung Hyun Goh, Armin Yazdanshenas, X. Neil Dong, Yong Tai Wang

Abstract:

Physical rehabilitation is a necessary step in regaining lower body function after a partial paralysis caused by a spinal cord injury or a stroke. The purpose of this paper is to present the development and optimization of a training device that accurately recreates the motions in a gait cycle with the goal of rehabilitation for individuals with incomplete spinal cord injuries or who are victims of a stroke. A functional electrical stimulator was used in conjunction with the training device to stimulate muscle groups pertaining to rehabilitative walking. The feasibility and reliability of the design are presented. To validate the design functionality, motion analyses of the knee and ankle gait paths were made using motion capture systems. Key results indicate that the robotic walking training device provides a viable mode of physical rehabilitation.

Keywords: functional electrical stimulation, rehabilitative walking, robotic walking training device, spinal cord injuries

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5719 Pedestrian Behavior at Signalized Intersections in Izmir, Turkey

Authors: Pelin Onelcin, Yalcin Alver

Abstract:

This paper investigates the walking speed and delays of pedestrians at two signalized intersections where the vehicle speed limits are different. Data was collected during afternoon and evening peak hours on November 15, 2013 and on December 6, 2013. Observational surveys were conducted by video recording technique. Pedestrians were categorized according to their gender, group size, stuff carrying condition and age. Results showed that individuals walked fastest when the group size is taken into consideration. The smallest 15th percentile walking speed was seen in the oldest age group (over 60 years old). Pedestrians experienced high delays both at roadsides and at medians. Factors affecting the pedestrian walking speed were analyzed by ANOVA.

Keywords: pedestrian delay, pedestrian walking speed, signalized crosswalk, ANOVA

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5718 Assessing the Walkability and Urban Design Qualities of Campus Streets

Authors: Zhehao Zhang

Abstract:

Walking has become an indispensable and sustainable way of travel for college students in their daily lives; campus street is an important carrier for students to walk and take part in a variety of activities, improving the walkability of campus streets plays an important role in optimizing the quality of campus space environment, promoting the campus walking system and inducing multiple walking behaviors. The purpose of this paper is to explore the effect of campus layout, facility distribution, and location site selection on the walkability of campus streets, and assess the street design qualities from the elements of imageability, enclosure, complexity, transparency, and human scale, and further examines the relationship between street-level urban design perceptual qualities and walkability and its effect on walking behavior in the campus. Taking Tianjin University as the research object, this paper uses the optimized walk score method based on walking frequency, variety, and distance to evaluate the walkability of streets from a macro perspective and measures the urban design qualities in terms of the calculation of street physical environment characteristics, as well as uses behavior annotation and street image data to establish temporal and spatial behavior database to analyze walking activity from the microscopic view. In addition, based on the conclusions, the improvement and design strategy will be presented from the aspects of the built walking environment, street vitality, and walking behavior.

Keywords: walkability, streetscapes, pedestrian activity, walk score

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5717 Passenger Movement Pattern during Ship Evacuation Considering the Combined Effect of Ship Heeling and Trim

Authors: Jinlu Sun, Shouxiang Lu, Siuming Lo

Abstract:

Large passenger ship, especially luxury cruise, is one of the most prevalent means of marine transportation and tourism nowadays. In case of an accident, an effective evacuation would be the ultimate way to minimize the consequence. Ship heeling and trim has a considerable influence on passenger walking speed and posture during ship evacuation. To investigate passenger movement pattern under the combined effect of ship heeling and trim, a ship corridor simulator was developed. Both fast and freely individual walking experiments by male and female experimental subjects under heeling and trim conditions were conducted and recorded therein. It is found that routes of experimental subjects would change due to the heeling and trim angles, although they always walk along the right side because of cultural factors. Experimental subjects would also change their posture to adapt the combined heeling and trim conditions, such as leaning forward, adopting larger arm swaying, shorter and more frequent steps. While for individual walking speed, the speed would decrease with the increasing heeling and trim angles. But the maximum individual walking speed is achieved at heeling angle of 0° with trim angle ranging from -15° to -5 °, instead of on level ground, which may be attributable to the effect of the gravitational acceleration. Female is approximately 10% slower than male due to the discrepancy in physical quality. Besides, individual walking speed shows similar trends in both fast and freely walking modes, and the speed value in freely walking mode is about 78% of that in fast walking mode under each experimental condition. Furthermore, to designate the movement pattern of passengers in heeling and trim conditions, a model of the walking speed reduction was proposed. This work would provide guidance on the development of evacuation models and the design of evacuation facilities on board.

Keywords: evacuation, heeling, individual walking speed, ship corridor simulator, trim

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5716 The Development of Ability in Reading Comprehension Based on Metacognitive Strategies for Mattayom 3 Students

Authors: Kanlaya Ratanasuphakarn, Suttipong Boonphadung

Abstract:

The research on the development of ability in reading comprehension based on metacognitive strategies aimed to (1) improve the students’development of ability in reading comprehension based on metacognitive strategies, (2) evaluate the students’ satisfaction on using metacognitive strategies in learning as a tool developing the ability in reading comprehension. Forty-eight of Mattayom 3 students who have enrolled in the subject of research for learning development of semester 2 in 2013 were purposively selected as the research cohort. The research tools were lesson plans for reading comprehension, pre-posttest and satisfaction questionnaire that were approved as content validity and reliability (IOC=.66-1.00,0.967). The research found that the development of ability in reading comprehension of the research samples before using metacognitive strategies in learning activities was in the normal high level. Additionally, the research discovered that the students’ satisfaction of the research cohort after applying model in learning activities appeared to be high level of satisfaction on using metacognitive strategies in learning as a tool for the development of ability in reading comprehension.

Keywords: development of ability, metacognitive strategies, satisfaction, reading comprehension

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5715 Effect of Tai-Chi and Cyclic Meditation on Hemodynamic Responses of the Prefrontal Cortex: A Functional near Infrared Spectroscopy

Authors: Singh Deepeshwar, N. K. Manjunath, M. Avinash

Abstract:

Meditation is a self-regulated conscious process associated with improved awareness, perception, attention and overall performance. Different traditional origin of meditation technique may have different effects on autonomic activity and brain functions. Based on this quest, the present study evaluated the effect of Tai-Chi Chuan (TCC, a Chines movement based meditation technique) and Cyclic Meditation (CM, an Indian traditional based stimulation and relaxation meditation technique) on the hemodynamic responses of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and autonomic functions (such as R-R interval of heart rate variability and respiration). These two meditation practices were compared with simple walking. Employing 64 channel near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), we measured hemoglobin concentration change (i.e., Oxyhemoglobin [ΔHbO], Deoxyhemoglobin [ΔHbR] and Total hemoglobin change [ΔTHC]) in the bilateral PFC before and after TCC, CM and Walking in young college students (n=25; average mean age ± SD; 23.4 ± 3.1 years). We observed the left PFC activity predominantly modulates sympathetic activity effects during the Tai-Chi whereas CM showed changes on right PFC with vagal dominance. However, the changes in oxyhemoglobin and total blood volume change after Tai-Chi was significant higher (p < 0.05, spam t-maps) on the left hemisphere, whereas after CM, there was a significant increase in oxyhemoglobin (p < 0.01) with a decrease in deoxyhemoglobin (p < 0.05) on right PFC. The normal walking showed decrease in Oxyhemoglobin with an increase in deoxyhemoglobin on left PFC. The autonomic functions result showed a significant increase in RR- interval (p < 0.05) along with significant reductions in HR (p < 0.05) in CM, whereas Tai-chi session showed significant increase in HR (p < 0.05) when compared to walking session. Within a group analysis showed a significant reduction in RR-I and significant increase in HR both in Tai-chi and walking sessions. The CM showed there were a significant improvement in the RR - interval of HRV (p < 0.01) with the reduction of heart rate and breath rate (p < 0.05). The result suggested that Tai-Chi and CM both have a positive effect on left and right prefrontal cortex and increase sympathovagal balance (alertful rest) in autonomic nervous system activity.

Keywords: brain, hemodynamic responses, yoga, meditation, Tai-Chi Chuan (TCC), walking, heart rate variability (HRV)

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5714 Validation and Fit of a Biomechanical Bipedal Walking Model for Simulation of Loads Induced by Pedestrians on Footbridges

Authors: Dianelys Vega, Carlos Magluta, Ney Roitman

Abstract:

The simulation of loads induced by walking people in civil engineering structures is still challenging It has been the focus of considerable research worldwide in the recent decades due to increasing number of reported vibration problems in pedestrian structures. One of the most important key in the designing of slender structures is the Human-Structure Interaction (HSI). How moving people interact with structures and the effect it has on their dynamic responses is still not well understood. To rely on calibrated pedestrian models that accurately estimate the structural response becomes extremely important. However, because of the complexity of the pedestrian mechanisms, there are still some gaps in knowledge and more reliable models need to be investigated. On this topic several authors have proposed biodynamic models to represent the pedestrian, whether these models provide a consistent approximation to physical reality still needs to be studied. Therefore, this work comes to contribute to a better understanding of this phenomenon bringing an experimental validation of a pedestrian walking model and a Human-Structure Interaction model. In this study, a bi-dimensional bipedal walking model was used to represent the pedestrians along with an interaction model which was applied to a prototype footbridge. Numerical models were implemented in MATLAB. In parallel, experimental tests were conducted in the Structures Laboratory of COPPE (LabEst), at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. Different test subjects were asked to walk at different walking speeds over instrumented force platforms to measure the walking force and an accelerometer was placed at the waist of each subject to measure the acceleration of the center of mass at the same time. By fitting the step force and the center of mass acceleration through successive numerical simulations, the model parameters are estimated. In addition, experimental data of a walking pedestrian on a flexible structure was used to validate the interaction model presented, through the comparison of the measured and simulated structural response at mid span. It was found that the pedestrian model was able to adequately reproduce the ground reaction force and the center of mass acceleration for normal and slow walking speeds, being less efficient for faster speeds. Numerical simulations showed that biomechanical parameters such as leg stiffness and damping affect the ground reaction force, and the higher the walking speed the greater the leg length of the model. Besides, the interaction model was also capable to estimate with good approximation the structural response, that remained in the same order of magnitude as the measured response. Some differences in frequency spectra were observed, which are presumed to be due to the perfectly periodic loading representation, neglecting intra-subject variabilities. In conclusion, this work showed that the bipedal walking model could be used to represent walking pedestrians since it was efficient to reproduce the center of mass movement and ground reaction forces produced by humans. Furthermore, although more experimental validations are required, the interaction model also seems to be a useful framework to estimate the dynamic response of structures under loads induced by walking pedestrians.

Keywords: biodynamic models, bipedal walking models, human induced loads, human structure interaction

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5713 Agent-Based Modeling of Pedestrian Corridor Congestion on the Characteristics of Physical Space Form

Authors: Sun Shi, Sun Cheng

Abstract:

The pedestrian corridor is the most crowded area in the public space. The crowded severity has been focused on the field of evacuation strategies of the entrance in large public spaces. The aim of this paper is to analyze the walking efficiency in different spaces of pedestrian corridor with the variation of spatial parameters. The congestion condition caused by the variation of walking efficiency is modeled as well. This study established the space model of the walking corridor by setting the width, slope, turning form and turning angle of the pedestrian corridor. The pedestrian preference of walking mode varied with the difference of the crowded severity, walking speed, field of vision, sight direction and the expected destination, which is influenced by the characters of physical space form. Swarm software is applied to build Agent model. According to the output of the Agent model, the relationship between the pedestrian corridor width, ground slope, turning forms, turning angle and the walking efficiency, crowded severity is acquired. The results of the simulation can be applied to pedestrian corridor design in order to reduce the crowded severity and the potential safety risks caused by crowded people.

Keywords: crowded severity, multi-agent, pedestrian preference, urban space design

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5712 Effect of Pole Weight on Nordic Walking

Authors: Takeshi Sato, Mizuki Nakajima, Macky Kato, Shoji Igawa

Abstract:

The purpose of study was to investigate the effect of varying pole weights on energy expenditure, upper limb and lower limb muscle activity as Electromyogram during Nordic walking (NW). Four healthy men [age = 22.5 (±1.0) years, body mass = 61.4 (±3.6) kg, height = 170.3 (±4.3) cm] and three healthy women [age = 22.7 (±2.9) years, body mass = 53.0 (±1.7) kg, height = 156.7 (±4.5) cm] participated in the experiments after informed consent. Seven healthy subjects were tested on the treadmill, walking, walking (W) with Nordic Poles (NW) and walking with 1kg weight Nordic Poles (NW+1). Walking speed was 6 km per hours in all trials. Eight EMG activities were recorded by bipolar surface methods in biceps brachii, triceps brachii, trapezius, deltoideus, tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius, rectus femoris and biceps femoris muscles. And heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. The level of significance was set at a = 0.05, with p < 0.05 regarded as statistically significant. Our results confirmed that use of NW poles increased HR at a given upper arm muscle activity but decreased lower limb EMGs in comparison with W. Moreover NW was able to increase more step lengths with hip joint extension during NW rather than W. Also, EMG revealed higher activation of upper limb for almost all NW and 1kgNW tests plus added masses compared to W (p < 0.05). Therefore, it was thought either of NW and 1kgNW were to have benefit as a physical exercise for safe, feasible, and readily training for a wide range of aged people in the quality of daily life. However, there was no significant effected in leg muscles activity by using 1kgNW except for upper arm muscle activity during Nordic pole walking.

Keywords: Nordic walking, electromyogram, heart rate, RPE

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5711 Factors That Influence Choice of Walking Mode in Work Trips: Case Study of Rasht, Iran

Authors: Nima Safaei, Arezoo Masoud, Babak Safaei

Abstract:

In recent years, there has been a growing emphasis on the role of urban planning in walking capability and the effects of individual and socioeconomic factors on the physical activity levels of city dwellers. Although considerable number of studies are conducted about walkability and for identifying the effective factors in walking mode choice in developed countries, to our best knowledge, literature lacks in the study of factors affecting choice of walking mode in developing countries. Due to the high importance of health aspects of human societies and in order to make insights and incentives for reducing traffic during rush hours, many researchers and policy makers in the field of transportation planning have devoted much attention to walkability studies; they have tried to improve the effective factors in the choice of walking mode in city neighborhoods. In this study, effective factors in walkability that have proven to have significant impact on the choice of walking mode, are studied at the same time in work trips. The data for the study is collected from the employees in their workplaces by well-instructed people using questionnaires; the statistical population of the study consists of 117 employed people who commute daily from work to home in Rasht city of Iran during the beginning of spring 2015. Results of the study which are found through the linear regression modeling, show that people who do not have freedom of choice for choosing their living locations and need to be present at their workplaces in certain hours have lower levels of walking. Additionally, unlike some of the previous studies which were conducted in developed countries, coincidental effects of Body Mass Index (BMI) and the income level of employees, do not have a significant effect on the walking level in work travels.

Keywords: BMI, linear regression, transportation, walking, work trips

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5710 Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Investigating the Efficacy of Walking-based Aerobic Exercise Interventions to Treat Postpartum Depression

Authors: V. Pentland, S. Spilsbury, A. Biswas, M. F. Mottola, S. Paplinskie, M. S. Mitchell

Abstract:

Postpartum depression (PPD) is a form of major depressive disorder that afflicts 10–22% of mothers worldwide. Rising demands for traditional PPD treatment options (e.g., psychiatry), especially in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, are increasingly difficult to meet. More accessible treatment options (e.g., walking) are needed. The objective of this review is to determine the impact of walking on PPD severity. A structured search of seven electronic databases for randomised controlled trials published between 2000 and July 29, 2021, was completed. Studies were included if walking was the sole or primary aerobic exercise modality. A random-effects meta-analysis was conducted for studies reporting PPD symptoms measured using a clinically validated tool. A simple count of positive/null effect studies was undertaken as part of a narrative summary. Five studies involving 242 participants were included (mean age=~28.9 years; 100% with mild-to-moderate depression). Interventions were 12 (n=4) and 24 (n=1) weeks long. Each assessed PPD severity using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and was included in the meta-analysis. The pooled effect estimate suggests that relative to controls, walking yielded clinically significant decreases in mean EPDS scores from baseline to intervention end (pooled MD=-4.01; 95% CI:-7.18 to -0.84, I2=86%). The narrative summary provides preliminary evidence that walking-only, supervised, and group-based interventions, including 90-120+ minutes/week of moderate-intensity walking, may produce greater EPDS reductions. While limited by a relatively small number of included studies, pooled effect estimates suggest walking may help mothers manage PPD. This is the first time walking as a treatment for PPD, an exercise modality that uniquely addresses many barriers faced by mothers has been summarized in a systematic way. Trial registration: PROSPERO (CRD42020197521) on August 16th, 2020

Keywords: postpartum, exercise, depression, walking

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