Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Search results for: Hema V. Vanar

24 Comparison of Analytical Method and Software for Analysis of Flat Slab Subjected to Various Parametric Loadings

Authors: Hema V. Vanar, R. K. Soni, N. D. Shah


Slabs supported directly on columns without beams are known as Flat slabs. Flat slabs are highly versatile elements widely used in construction, providing minimum depth, fast construction and allowing flexible column grids. The main objective of this thesis is comparison of analytical method and soft ware for analysis of flat slab subjected to various parametric loadings. Study presents analysis of flat slab is performed under different types of gravity.

Keywords: fat slab, parametric load, analysis, software

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23 Magnetic Nanoparticles for Protein C Purification

Authors: Duygu Çimen, Nilay Bereli, Adil Denizli


In this study is to synthesis magnetic nanoparticles for purify protein C. For this aim, N-Methacryloyl-(L)-histidine methyl ester (MAH) containing 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) based magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized by using micro-emulsion polymerization technique for templating protein C via metal chelation. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), zeta-size analysis and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. After that, they were used for protein C purification from aqueous solution to evaluate/optimize the adsorption condition. Hereby, the effecting factors such as concentration, pH, ionic strength, temperature, and reusability were evaluated. As the last step, protein C was determined with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

Keywords: immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC), magnetic nanoparticle, protein C, hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)

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22 Infra Red Laser Induced Ablation of Graphene Based Polymer Nanocomposites

Authors: Jadranka Blazhevska Gilev


IR laser-induced ablation of poly(butylacrylate-methylmethacrylate/hydroxyl ethyl methacrylate)/reduced graphene oxide (p(BA/MMA/HEMA)/rGO) was examined with 0.5, 0.75 and 1 wt% reduced graphene oxide content in relation to polymer. The irradiation was performed with TEA (transversely excited atmosphere) CO₂ laser using incident fluence of 15-20 J/cm², repetition frequency of 1 Hz, in an evacuated (10-3 Pa) Pyrex spherical vessel. Thin deposited nanocomposites films with large specific area were obtained using different substrates. The properties of the films deposited on these substrates were evaluated by TGA, FTIR, (Thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier Transformation Infrared) Raman spectroscopy and SEM microscopy. Homogeneous distribution of graphene sheets was observed from the SEM images, making polymer/rGO deposit an ideal candidate for SERS application. SERS measurements were performed using Rhodamine 6G as probe molecule on the substrate Ag/p(BA/MMA/HEMA)/rGO.

Keywords: laser ablation, reduced graphene oxide, polymer/rGO nanocomposites, thin deposited film

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21 Spontaneous Generation of Wrinkled Patterns on pH-Sensitive Smart-Hydrogel Films

Authors: Carmen M. Gonzalez-Henriquez, Mauricio A. Sarabia-Vallejos, Juan Rodriguez-Hernandez


DMAEMA, as a monomer, has been widely studied and used in several application fields due to their pH-sensitive capacity (tertiary amine protonation), being relevant in the biomedical area as a potential carrier for drugs focused on the treatment of genetic or acquired diseases (efficient gene transfection), among others. Additionally, the inhibition of bacterial growth and, therefore, their antimicrobial activity, can be used as dual-functional antifogging/antimicrobial polymer coatings. According to their interesting physicochemical characteristics and biocompatible properties, DMAEMA was used as a monomer to synthesize a smart pH-sensitive hydrogel, namely poly(HEMA-co-PEGDA575-co-DMAEMA). Thus, different mole ratios (ranging from 5:1:0 to 0:1:5, according to the mole ratio between HEMA, PEGDA, and DEAEMA, respectively) were used in this research. The surface patterns formed via a two-step polymerization (redox- and photo-polymerization) were first chemically studied via 1H-NMR and elemental analysis. Secondly, the samples were morphologically analyzed by using Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) techniques. Then, a particular relation between HEMA, PEGDA, and DEAEMA (0:1:5) was also characterized at three different pH (5.4, 7.4 and 8.3). The hydrodynamic radius and zeta potential of the micro-hydrogel particles (emulsion) were carried out as a possible control for morphology, exploring the effect that produces hydrogel micelle dimensions in the wavelength, height, and roughness of the wrinkled patterns. Finally, contact angle and cross-hatch adhesion test was carried out for the hydrogels supported on glass using TSM-silanized surfaces in order to measure their mechanical properties.

Keywords: wrinkled patterns, smart pH-sensitive hydrogels, hydrogel micelle diameter, adhesion tests

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20 Characterization of Poly(Hydroxyethyl Methacrylate-Glycidyl Methacrylate)-Imino Diacetic Acid Membrane to Adsorbing Leather Dye

Authors: Ahmet Aslan, Safiye Meric Acikel, Raziye Hilal Senay, Sinan Akgol


Different chemical substances and too much water are used during leather production. Therefore, the waste water load of the leather industry is harmful to the environment. One of the pollution sources is the production of leather coloring process is a further need to focus on the removal of dye waste waters subject. These water-soluble dyes have a small organic molecular size. Besides the environmental hazards, these dyes cannot be underestimated, they also have harmful effects on human health. In this study, poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-glycidyl methacrylate) p(HEMA-GMA) hydrogel membranes were synthesized by UV polymerization method. The hydrogel synthesized is modified with imino diacetic acid (IDA) and then chelated with Cr (III) ions. The chelating capacity of the membranes was determined according to the time, pH and concentration parameters. Dynamic swelling test, elemental analysis, ninhydrin analysis and adsorption, desorption and reusability performances of membranes were also determined.

Keywords: adsorption, dye, leather, p(HEMA-GMA)-IDA

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19 Dye Retention by a Photochemicaly Crosslinked Poly(2-Hydroxy-Ethyl-Meth-Acrylic) Network in Water

Authors: Yasmina Houda Bendahma, Tewfik Bouchaour, Meriem Merad, Ulrich Maschke


The purpose of this work is to study retention of dye dissolved in distilled water, by an hydrophilic acrylic polymer network. The polymer network considered is Poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA): it is prepared by photo-polymerization under UV irradiation in the presence of a monomer (HEMA), initiator and an agent cross-linker. PHEMA polymer network obtained can be used in the retention of dye molecules present in the wastewater. The results obtained are interesting in the study of the kinetics of swelling and de-swelling of cross linked polymer networks PHEMA in colored aqueous solutions. The dyes used for retention by the PHEMA networks are eosin Y and Malachite Green, dissolved in distilled water. Theoretical conformational study by a simplified molecular model of system cross linked PHEMA / dye (eosin Y and Malachite Green), is used to simulate the retention phenomenon (or Docking) dye molecules in cavities in nano-domains included in the PHEMA polymer network.

Keywords: dye retention, molecular modeling, photochemically crosslinked polymer network, swelling deswelling, PHEMA, HEMA

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18 Synthesis and Properties of Photocured Surface Modified Polyaniline Hybrid Composites

Authors: Asli Beyler Çi̇ği̇l, Memet Vezi̇r Kahraman


Organic–inorganic hybrids have become an effective source of advanced materials because they combine the advantages of both the organic moiety such as flexibility, low dielectric constant, and processability, and inorganic moiety as rigidity, strength, durability, and thermal stability. By incorporating cross-linkable side chains, the hybrid materials can be made photosensitive and UV curable, which offers many advantages including low processing temperature, low equipment cost and compatibility. In this study, uv-curable organic-inorganic hybrid material, which was contained surface modified polyaniline particles (PANI), was prepared. PANI surface photografted with hydroxy ethyl methacrylate (HEMA) to produce hydroxyl groups. Hydroxyl functionalized PANI/HEMA was acrylated using isocyanato ethyl methacrylate (IEM) in order to improve the dispersion and interfacial interaction in composites. UV-curable formulation was prepared by mixing the surface modified PANI, polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA), trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA), hydrolized 3- methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (hyd. MEMO) and photoinitiator. Chemical structure of nano-hybrid material was characterized by FTIR. FTIR spectra showed that the photografting of PANI was prepared successfully. Thermal properties of the nano-hybrid material were determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The morphology of the nano-hybrid material was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Keywords: polyaniline, photograft, sol-gel, uv-curable polymer

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17 Synthesis and Characterization of PH Sensitive Hydrogel and Its Application in Controlled Drug Release of Tramadol

Authors: Naima Bouslah, Leila Bounabi, Farid Ouazib, Nabila Haddadine


Conventional release dosage forms are known to provide an immediate release of the drug. Controlling the rate of drug release from polymeric matrices is very important for a number of applications, particularly in the pharmaceutical area. Hydrogels are polymers in three-dimensional network arrangement, which can absorb and retain large amounts of water without dissolution. They have been frequently used to develop controlled released formulations for oral administration because they can extend the duration of drug release and thus reduce dose to be administrated improving patient compliance. Tramadol is an opioid pain medication used to treat moderate to moderately severe pain. When taken as an immediate-release oral formulation, the onset of pain relief usually occurs within about an hour. In the present work, we synthesized pH-responsive hydrogels of (hydroxyl ethyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid), (HEMA-AA) for control drug delivery of tramadol in the gastro-intestinal tractus. The hydrogels with different acrylic acid content, were synthesized by free radical polymerization and characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, X ray diffraction analysis (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). FTIR spectroscopy has shown specific hydrogen bonding interactions between the carbonyl groups of the hydrogels and hydroxyl groups of tramadol. Both the XRD and DSC studies revealed that the introduction of tramadol in the hydrogel network induced the amorphization of the drug. The swelling behaviour, absorptive kinetics and the release kinetics of tramadol in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) and in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 7.4) were also investigated. The hydrogels exhibited pH-responsive behavior in the swelling study. The (HEMA-AA) hydrogel swelling was much higher in pH =7.4 medium. The tramadol release was significantly increased when pH of the medium was changed from simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) to simulated intestinal fluid (pH 7.4). Using suitable mathematical models, the apparent diffusional coefficients and the corresponding kinetic parameters have been calculated.

Keywords: biopolymres, drug delivery, hydrogels, tramadol

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16 Preliminary Studies of Antibiofouling Properties in Wrinkled Hydrogel Surfaces

Authors: Mauricio A. Sarabia-Vallejos, Carmen M. Gonzalez-Henriquez, Adolfo Del Campo-Garcia, Aitzibier L. Cortajarena, Juan Rodriguez-Hernandez


In this study, it was explored the formation and the morphological differences between wrinkled hydrogel patterns obtained via generation of surface instabilities. The slight variations in the polymerization conditions produce important changes in the material composition and pattern structuration. The compounds were synthesized using three main components, i.e. an amphiphilic monomer, hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), a hydrophobic monomer, trifluoroethyl methacrylate (TFMA), and a hydrophilic crosslinking agent, poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA). The first part of this study was related to the formation of wrinkled surfaces using only HEMA and PEGDA and varying the amount of water added in the reaction. The second part of this study involves the gradual insertion of TFMA into the hydrophilic reaction mixture. Interestingly, the manipulation of the chemical composition of this hydrogel affects both surface morphology and physicochemical characteristics of the patterns, inducing transitions from one particular type of structure (wrinkles or ripples) to different ones (creases, folds, and crumples). Contact angle measurements show that the insertion of TFMA produces a slight decrease in surface wettability of the samples, remaining however highly hydrophilic (contact angle below 45°). More interestingly, by using confocal Raman spectroscopy, important information about the wrinkle formation mechanism is obtained. The procedure involving two consecutive thermal and photopolymerization steps lead to a “pseudo” two-layer system. Thus, upon photopolymerization, the surface is crosslinked to a higher extent than the bulk and water evaporation drives the formation of wrinkled surfaces. Finally, cellular, and bacterial proliferation studies were performed to the samples, showing that the amount of TFMA included in each sample slightly affects the proliferation of both (bacteria and cells), but in the case of bacteria, the morphology of the sample also plays an important role, importantly reducing the bacterial proliferation.

Keywords: antibiofouling properties, hydrophobic/hydrophilic balance, morphologic characterization, wrinkled hydrogel patterns

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15 Language Ideology and Classroom Discursive Practices in ESL Classrooms

Authors: Hema Vanita Kesevan


This study investigated the impact of teacher’s language ideology on their classroom discursive practice in ESL / EFL classrooms. It examines teachers’ perceptions of the use of local variety of Malaysian English in the classroom. The investigation shows that although teachers and students are against its use in the classroom, it is widely employed. The participants of this study consist of two Malaysian non-native English teachers with different linguistic and cultural backgrounds. This study employs a comparative case study approach which focuses on the teachers and their classroom discourse practice. There are two modes of inquiry used in this study: classroom observation and semi-guided interviews. The findings are of interest to ESL / EFL teachers, policy makers and language researchers in the Malaysian and other similar ESL / EFL contexts.

Keywords: language ideology, Malaysian English, native teachers, non-native teachers

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14 Audio-Visual Entrainment and Acupressure Therapy for Insomnia

Authors: Mariya Yeldhos, G. Hema, Sowmya Narayanan, L. Dhiviyalakshmi


Insomnia is one of the most prevalent psychological disorders worldwide. Some of the deficiencies of the current treatments of insomnia are: side effects in the case of sleeping pills and high costs in the case of psychotherapeutic treatment. In this paper, we propose a device which provides a combination of audio visual entrainment and acupressure based compression therapy for insomnia. This device provides drug-free treatment of insomnia through a user friendly and portable device that enables relaxation of brain and muscles, with certain advantages such as low cost, and wide accessibility to a large number of people. Tools adapted towards the treatment of insomnia: -Audio -Continuous exposure to binaural beats of a particular frequency of audible range -Visual -Flash of LED light -Acupressure points -GB-20 -GV-16 -B-10

Keywords: insomnia, acupressure, entrainment, audio-visual entrainment

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13 Optimization of Hydrogel Conductive Nanocomposite as Solar Cell

Authors: Shimaa M. Elsaeed, Reem K. Farag, Ibrahim M. Nassar


Hydrogel conductive polymer nanocomposite fabricated via in-situ polymerization of polyaniline (PANI) inside thermosensitive hydrogels based on hydroxy ethyl meth acrylate (HEMA) copolymer with 2-acrylamido-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid (AMPS). SEM micrographs show the nanometric size of the conductive material (polyaniline, PANI) dispersed in the hydrogel matrix. The swelling parameters of hydrogel are measured. The incorporation of PANI improves the mechanical properties and swelling up to 30,000% without breaking. X-ray diffraction shows that typical polyaniline crystallization is formed in composite, which is advantageous to increase the electrical conductivity of the composite hydrogel. Open-circuit voltage (I-V) curve fill factor of the highest photo-conversion efficiency and enhanced to use in solar cell.

Keywords: hydrogel, solar cell, conductive polymer, nanocomposite

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12 Performance Analysis of Proprietary and Non-Proprietary Tools for Regression Testing Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: K. Hema Shankari, R. Thirumalaiselvi, N. V. Balasubramanian


The present paper addresses to the research in the area of regression testing with emphasis on automated tools as well as prioritization of test cases. The uniqueness of regression testing and its cyclic nature is pointed out. The difference in approach between industry, with business model as basis, and academia, with focus on data mining, is highlighted. Test Metrics are discussed as a prelude to our formula for prioritization; a case study is further discussed to illustrate this methodology. An industrial case study is also described in the paper, where the number of test cases is so large that they have to be grouped as Test Suites. In such situations, a genetic algorithm proposed by us can be used to reconfigure these Test Suites in each cycle of regression testing. The comparison is made between a proprietary tool and an open source tool using the above-mentioned metrics. Our approach is clarified through several tables.

Keywords: APFD metric, genetic algorithm, regression testing, RFT tool, test case prioritization, selenium tool

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11 Learning for the Future: Flipping English Language Learning Classrooms for Future

Authors: Natarajan Hema, Tamilarasan Karunakaran


Technology is remodeling the process of teaching and learning. An inflection point is faced where technological interventions are rewiring learning process in formal classrooms. Employment depends on dynamic learning capability. Transforming the functionalities of teaching-learning-assessment through innovation is needed to modify the roles of teacher to enabler and learner to the dynamic learner. This makeover is vital for English language teaching where English is acquired as a skill, exercised as ability and get stabilized as a competence. This reshaping could be achieved through providing autonomy to participants of learning. This paper explores parameters and components aiding such a transformation. The differentiated responsibilities and other critical learning support systems are projected as viable options. New age teaching practices are studied for feasibilities to aid transformation and being put forth an inter-operable teaching-learning system for a learner-centric ELT classrooms. LOTUS model developed by the authors is also studied for its inclusiveness to promote skill acquisition.

Keywords: ELT methodology, communicative competence, skill acquisition , new age teaching

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10 Variation in the Morphology of Soft Palate

Authors: Hema Lattupalli


Introduction: The palate forms a partition between the oral cavity and nasal cavity. The palate is made up of two parts hard palate and soft palate. The Hard palate forms the anterior part of the palate, the soft palate forms a movable muscular fold covered by mucous membrane that is suspended from the posterior border of a hard palate. Aim and Objectives: Soft palate morphological variations have a great paucity in the literature. It’s also believed that the soft palate has no such important anatomical variations. There is a variable presentation of the soft palate morphology in the lateral cephalograms. The aim of this study is to identify the velar morphology. Materials and Methods: 100 normal subjects between the age group of 20 – 35 were taken for the study. Method: Lateral Cephalogram (radiologic study). Results: Different shapes of the soft palate were observed in the lateral cephalograms. The morphology of soft palate was classified into six types 1.Leaf like (50 cases) most common type, 2.Straight line (20 cases), 3.S shaped (4 cases) very rare, 4.Butt like (10 cases), 5. Rat tail (6 cases), 6. Hook shaped (10 cases). Conclusion: This classification helps us to understand the better diversity of the velar morphology in mid-sagittal plane. These findings help us to understand the etiology of OSAS.

Keywords: soft palate, cephalometric radiographs, morphology, cleft palate, obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome

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9 Biotransformation of Glycerine Pitch as Renewable Carbon Resource into P(3HB-co-4HB) Biopolymer

Authors: Amirul Al-Ashraf Abdullah, Hema Ramachandran, Iszatty Ismail


Oleochemical industry in Malaysia has been diversifying significantly due to the abundant supply of both palm and kernel oils as raw materials as well as the high demand for downstream products such as fatty acids, fatty alcohols and glycerine. However, environmental awareness is growing rapidly in Malaysia because oleochemical industry is one of the palm-oil based industries that possess risk to the environment. Glycerine pitch is one of the scheduled wastes generated from the fatty acid plants in Malaysia and its discharge may cause a serious environmental problem. Therefore, it is imperative to find alternative applications for this waste glycerine. Consequently, the aim of this research is to explore the application of glycerine pitch as direct fermentation substrate in the biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] copolymer, aiming to contribute toward the sustainable production of biopolymer in the world. Utilization of glycerine pitch (10 g/l) together with 1,4-butanediol (5 g/l) had resulted in the achievement of 40 mol% 4HB monomer with the highest PHA concentration of 2.91 g/l. Synthesis of yellow pigment which exhibited antimicrobial properties occurred simultaneously with the production of P(3HB-co-4HB) through the use of glycerine pitch as renewable carbon resource. Utilization of glycerine pitch in the biosynthesis of P(3HB-co-4HB) will not only contribute to reducing society’s dependence on non-renewable resources but also will promote the development of cost efficiency microbial fermentation towards biosustainability and green technology.

Keywords: biopolymer, glycerine pitch, natural pigment, P(3HB-co-4HB)

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8 A Kinetic Study of Radical Polymerization of Acrylic Monomers in the Presence of the Liquid Crystal and the Electro-Optical Properties of These Mixtures

Authors: A. Bouriche, D. Merah, L.Alachaher-Bedjaoui, U. Maschke


Intensive research continues in the field of liquid crystals (LCs) for their potential use in modern display applications. Nematic LCs has been most commonly used due to the large birefringence and their sensitivity to even weak perturbation forces induced by electric, magnetic and optical fields. Polymer dispersed liquid crystals (PDLCs), composed of micron-sized nematic LC droplets dispersed in a polymer matrix is an important class of materials for applications in different domains of technology involving large area display devices, optical switches, phase modulators, variable attenuators, polarisers, flexible displays and smart windows. In this study the composites are prepared from mixtures of monofunctional acrylic monomers, (Butylacrylate (ABu), 2-Ethylhexylacrylate (2-EHA), 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and hydroxybutylmethacrylate (HBMA)) and two liquid crystals: (4-cyano-4'-n-pentyl-biphenyl) (5CB) and E7 which is an eutectic mixtures of four cyanoparaphenylenes. These mixtures are prepared adding the Darocur 1173 as photoinitiateor, the 1.6-hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA) as cross-linker agent, and finally they are exposed to UV irradiation. The kinetic polymerization of monomer/LC mixture were investigated with the Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy (FTIR). The electro-optical properties of the PDLC films were determined by measuring the voltage dependence on the transmitted light.

Keywords: acrylic monomers, films PDLC, liquid crystal, polymerisation

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7 A Kinetic Study of Radical Polymerisation of Acrylic Monomers in the Presence of the Liquid Crystal and the Electro-Optical Properties of These Mixtures

Authors: A. Bouriche, D. Merah, T. Bouchaour, L. Alachaher-Bedjaoui, U. Maschke


Intensive research continues in the field of liquid crystals (LCs) for their potential use in modern display applications. Nematic LCs has been most commonly used due to the large birefringence and their sensitivity to even weak perturbation forces induced by electric, magnetic and optical fields. Polymer dispersed liquid crystals (PDLCs), composed of micron-sized nematic LC droplets dispersed in a polymer matrix is an important class of materials for applications in different domains of technology involving large area display devices, optical switches, phase modulators, variable attenuators, polarisers, flexible displays and smart windows. In this study the composites are prepared from mixtures of mono functional acrylic monomers, (Butylacrylate (ABu), 2-Ethylhexylacrylate (2-EHA), 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and hydroxybutylmethacrylate (HBMA)) and two liquid crystals: (4-cyano-4'-n-pentyl-biphenyl) (5CB) and E7 which is an eutectic mixtures of four cyanoparaphenylenes. These mixtures are prepared adding the Darocur 1173 as photoinitiator, the 1.6-hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA) as cross-linker agent, and finally they are exposed to UV irradiation. The kinetic polymerization of monomer/LC mixture were investigated with the Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy (FTIR). The electro-optical properties of the PDLC films were determined by measuring the voltage dependence on the transmitted light.

Keywords: acrylic monomers, films PDLC, liquid crystal, polymerisation

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6 Techno-Economic Analysis of the Production of Aniline

Authors: Dharshini M., Hema N. S.


The project for the production of aniline is done by providing 295.46 tons per day of nitrobenzene as feed. The material and energy balance calculations for the different equipment like distillation column, heat exchangers, reactor and mixer are carried out with simulation via DWSIM. The conversion of nitrobenzene to aniline by hydrogenation process is considered to be 96% and the total production of the plant was found to be 215 TPD. The cost estimation of the process is carried out to estimate the feasibility of the plant. The net profit and percentage return of investment is estimated to be ₹27 crores and 24.6%. The payback period was estimated to be 4.05 years and the unit production cost is ₹113/kg. A techno-economic analysis was performed for the production of aniline; the result includes economic analysis and sensitivity analysis of critical factors. From economic analysis, larger the plant scale increases the total capital investment and annual operating cost, even though the unit production cost decreases. Uncertainty analysis was performed to predict the influence of economic factors on profitability and the scenario analysis is one way to quantify uncertainty. In scenario analysis the best-case scenario and the worst-case scenario are compared with the base case scenario. The best-case scenario was found at a feed rate of 120 kmol/hr with a unit production cost of ₹112.05/kg and the worst-case scenario was found at a feed rate of 60 kmol/hr with a unit production cost of ₹115.9/kg. The base case is closely related to the best case by 99.2% in terms of unit production cost. since the unit production cost is less and the profitability is more with less payback time, it is feasible to construct a plant at this capacity.

Keywords: aniline, nitrobenzene, economic analysis, unit production cost

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5 The Associations between Ankle and Brachial Systolic Blood Pressures with Obesity Parameters

Authors: Matei Tudor Berceanu, Hema Viswambharan, Kirti Kain, Chew Weng Cheng


Background - Obesity parameters, particularly visceral obesity as measured by the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), correlate with insulin resistance. The metabolic microvascular changes associated with insulin resistance causes increased peripheral arteriolar resistance primarily to the lower limb vessels. We hypothesize that ankle systolic blood pressures (SBPs) are more significantly associated with visceral obesity than brachial SBPs. Methods - 1098 adults enriched in south Asians or Europeans with diabetes (T2DM) were recruited from a primary care practice in West Yorkshire. Their medical histories, including T2DM and cardiovascular disease (CVD) status, were gathered from an electronic database. The brachial, dorsalis pedis, and posterior tibial SBPs were measured using a Doppler machine. Their body mass index (BMI) and WHtR were calculated after measuring their weight, height, and waist circumference. Linear regressions were performed between the 6 SBPs and both obesity parameters, after adjusting for covariates. Results - Generally, the left posterior tibial SBP (P=4.559*10⁻¹⁵) and right posterior tibial SBP (P=1.114* 10⁻¹³ ) are the pressures most significantly associated with the BMI, as well as in south Asians (P < 0.001) and Europeans (P < 0.001) specifically. In South Asians, although the left (P=0.032) and right brachial SBP (P=0.045) were associated to the WHtR, the left posterior tibial SBP (P=0.023) showed the strongest association. Conclusion - Regardless of ethnicity, ankle SBPs are more significantly associated with generalized obesity than brachial SBPs, suggesting their screening potential for screening for early detection of T2DM and CVD. A combination of ankle SBPs with WHtR is proposed in south Asians.

Keywords: ankle blood pressures, body mass index, insulin resistance, waist-to-height-ratio

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4 Ponticuli of Atlas Vertebra: A Study in South Coastal Region of Andhra Pradesh

Authors: Hema Lattupalli


Introduction: A bony bridge extends from the lateral mass of the atlas to postero medial margin of vertebral artery groove, termed as a posterior bridge of atlas or posterior ponticulus. The foramen formed by the bridge is called as arcuate foramen or retroarticulare superior. Another bony bridge sometimes extends laterally from lateral mass to posterior root of transverse foramen forming and additional groove for vertebral artery, above and behind foramen transversarium called Lateral bridge or ponticulus lateralis. When both posterior and lateral are present together it is called as Posterolateral ponticuli. Aim and Objectives: The aim of the present study is to detect the presence of such Bridge or Ponticuli called as Lateral, Posterior and Posterolateral reported by earlier investigators in atlas vertebrae. Material and Methods: The study was done on 100 Atlas vertebrae from the Department of Anatomy Narayana Medical College Nellore, and also from SVIMS Tirupati was collected over a period of 2 years. The parameters that were studied include the presence of ponticuli, complete and incomplete and right and left side ponticuli. They were observed for all these parameters and the results were documented and photographed. Results: Ponticuli were observed in 25 (25%) of atlas vertebrae. Posterior ponticuli were found in 16 (16%), Lateral in 01 (01%) and Posterolateral in 08(08%) of the atlas vertebrae. Complete ponticuli were present in 09 (09%) and incomplete ponticuli in 16 (16%) of the atlas vertebrae. Bilateral ponticuli were seen in 10 (10%) and unilateral ponticuli were seen in 15 (15%) of the atlas vertebrae. Right side ponticuli were seen in 04 (04%) and Left side ponticuli in 05 (05%) of the atlas vertebrae respectively. Interpretation and Conclusion: In the present study posterior complete ponticuli were said to be more than the lateral complete ponticuli. The presence of Bilateral Incomplete Posterior ponticuli is higher and also Atlantic ponticuli. The present study is to say that knowledge of normal anatomy and variations in the atlas vertebra is very much essential to the neurosurgeons giving a message that utmost care is needed to perform surgeries related to craniovertebral regions. This is additional information to the Anatomists, Neurosurgeons and Radiologist. This adds an extra page to the literature.

Keywords: atlas vertebra, ponticuli, posterior arch, arcuate foramen

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3 Discovering Word-Class Deficits in Persons with Aphasia

Authors: Yashaswini Channabasavegowda, Hema Nagaraj


Aim: The current study aims at discovering word-class deficits concerning the noun-verb ratio in confrontation naming, picture description, and picture-word matching tasks. A total of ten persons with aphasia (PWA) and ten age-matched neurotypical individuals (NTI) were recruited for the study. The research includes both behavioural and objective measures to assess the word class deficits in PWA. Objective: The main objective of the research is to identify word class deficits seen in persons with aphasia, using various speech eliciting tasks. Method: The study was conducted in the L1 of the participants, considered to be Kannada. Action naming test and Boston naming test adapted to the Kannada version are administered to the participants; also, a picture description task is carried out. Picture-word matching task was carried out using e-prime software (version 2) to measure the accuracy and reaction time with respect to identification verbs and nouns. The stimulus was presented through auditory and visual modes. Data were analysed to identify errors noticed in the naming of nouns versus verbs, with respect to the Boston naming test and action naming test and also usage of nouns and verbs in the picture description task. Reaction time and accuracy for picture-word matching were extracted from the software. Results: PWA showed a significant difference in sentence structure compared to age-matched NTI. Also, PWA showed impairment in syntactic measures in the picture description task, with fewer correct grammatical sentences and fewer correct usage of verbs and nouns, and they produced a greater proportion of nouns compared to verbs. PWA had poorer accuracy and lesser reaction time in the picture-word matching task compared to NTI, and accuracy was higher for nouns compared to verbs in PWA. The deficits were noticed irrespective of the cause leading to aphasia.

Keywords: nouns, verbs, aphasia, naming, description

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2 Effect of Different Sterilization Processes on Drug Loaded Silicone-Hydrogel

Authors: Raquel Galante, Marina Braga, Daniela Ghisleni, Terezinha J. A. Pinto, Rogério Colaço, Ana Paula Serro


The sensitive nature of soft biomaterials, such as hydrogels, renders their sterilization a particularly challenging task for the biomedical industry. Widely used contact lenses are now studied as promising platforms for topical corneal drug delivery. However, to the best of the authors knowledge, the influence of sterilization methods on these systems has yet to be evaluated. The main goal of this study was to understand how different pairs drug-hydrogel would interact under an ozone-based sterilization method in comparison with two conventional processes (steam heat and gamma irradiation). For that, Si-Hy containing hydroxylethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and [tris(trimethylsiloxy)silyl]propyl methacrylate (TRIS) was produced and soaked in different drug solutions, commonly used for the treatment of ocular diseases (levofloxacin, chlorhexidine, diclofenac and timolol maleate). The drug release profiles and main material properties were evaluated before and after the sterilization. Namely, swelling capacity was determined by water uptake studies, transparency was accessed by UV-Vis spectroscopy, surface topography/morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and mechanical properties by performing tensile tests. The drug released was quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The effectiveness of the sterilization procedures was assured by performing sterility tests. Ozone gas method led to a significant reduction of drug released and to the formation of degradation products specially for diclofenac and levofloxacin. Gamma irradiation led to darkening of the loaded Si-Hys and to the complete degradation of levofloxacin. Steam heat led to smoother surfaces and to a decrease of the amount of drug released, however, with no formation of degradation products. This difference in the total drug released could be the related to drug/polymer interactions promoted by the sterilization conditions in presence of the drug. Our findings offer important insights that, in turn, could be a useful contribution to the safe development of actual products.

Keywords: drug delivery, silicone hydrogels, sterilization, gamma irradiation, steam heat, ozone gas

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1 Sensing Study through Resonance Energy and Electron Transfer between Föster Resonance Energy Transfer Pair of Fluorescent Copolymers and Nitro-Compounds

Authors: Vishal Kumar, Soumitra Satapathi


Föster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) is a powerful technique used to probe close-range molecular interactions. Physically, the FRET phenomenon manifests as a dipole–dipole interaction between closely juxtaposed fluorescent molecules (10–100 Å). Our effort is to employ this FRET technique to make a prototype device for highly sensitive detection of environment pollutant. Among the most common environmental pollutants, nitroaromatic compounds (NACs) are of particular interest because of their durability and toxicity. That’s why, sensitive and selective detection of small amounts of nitroaromatic explosives, in particular, 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) has been a critical challenge due to the increasing threat of explosive-based terrorism and the need of environmental monitoring of drinking and waste water. In addition, the excessive utilization of TNP in several other areas such as burn ointment, pesticides, glass and the leather industry resulted in environmental accumulation, and is eventually contaminating the soil and aquatic systems. To the date, high number of elegant methods, including fluorimetry, gas chromatography, mass, ion-mobility and Raman spectrometry have been successfully applied for explosive detection. Among these efforts, fluorescence-quenching methods based on the mechanism of FRET show good assembly flexibility, high selectivity and sensitivity. Here, we report a FRET-based sensor system for the highly selective detection of NACs, such as TNP, DNT and TNT. The sensor system is composed of a copolymer Poly [(N,N-dimethylacrylamide)-co-(Boc-Trp-EMA)] (RP) bearing tryptophan derivative in the side chain as donor and dansyl tagged copolymer P(MMA-co-Dansyl-Ala-HEMA) (DCP) as an acceptor. Initially, the inherent fluorescence of RP copolymer is quenched by non-radiative energy transfer to DCP which only happens once the two molecules are within Förster critical distance (R0). The excellent spectral overlap (Jλ= 6.08×10¹⁴ nm⁴M⁻¹cm⁻¹) between donors’ (RP) emission profile and acceptors’ (DCP) absorption profile makes them an exciting and efficient FRET pair i.e. further confirmed by the high rate of energy transfer from RP to DCP i.e. 0.87 ns⁻¹ and lifetime measurement by time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) to validate the 64% FRET efficiency. This FRET pair exhibited a specific fluorescence response to NACs such as DNT, TNT and TNP with 5.4, 2.3 and 0.4 µM LODs, respectively. The detection of NACs occurs with high sensitivity by photoluminescence quenching of FRET signal induced by photo-induced electron transfer (PET) from electron-rich FRET pair to electron-deficient NAC molecules. The estimated stern-volmer constant (KSV) values for DNT, TNT and TNP are 6.9 × 10³, 7.0 × 10³ and 1.6 × 104 M⁻¹, respectively. The mechanistic details of molecular interactions are established by time-resolved fluorescence, steady-state fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy confirmed that the sensing process is of mixed type, i.e. both dynamic and static quenching as lifetime of FRET system (0.73 ns) is reduced to 0.55, 0.57 and 0.61 ns DNT, TNT and TNP, respectively. In summary, the simplicity and sensitivity of this novel FRET sensor opens up the possibility of designing optical sensor of various NACs in one single platform for developing multimodal sensor for environmental monitoring and future field based study.

Keywords: FRET, nitroaromatic, stern-Volmer constant, tryptophan and dansyl tagged copolymer

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