Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 34

Search results for: Jolly Puri

34 Fuzzy Multi-Component DEA with Shared and Undesirable Fuzzy Resources

Authors: Jolly Puri, Shiv Prasad Yadav

Abstract:

Multi-component data envelopment analysis (MC-DEA) is a popular technique for measuring aggregate performance of the decision making units (DMUs) along with their components. However, the conventional MC-DEA is limited to crisp input and output data which may not always be available in exact form. In real life problems, data may be imprecise or fuzzy. Therefore, in this paper, we propose (i) a fuzzy MC-DEA (FMC-DEA) model in which shared and undesirable fuzzy resources are incorporated, (ii) the proposed FMC-DEA model is transformed into a pair of crisp models using cut approach, (iii) fuzzy aggregate performance of a DMU and fuzzy efficiencies of components are defined to be fuzzy numbers, and (iv) a numerical example is illustrated to validate the proposed approach.

Keywords: multi-component DEA, fuzzy multi-component DEA, fuzzy resources, decision making units (DMUs)

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33 Graduate School of Biotechnology and Bioengineering/ YuanZe University

Authors: Sankhanil Das, Arunava Dasgupta, Keya Mitra

Abstract:

This paper investigates the relationship between natural ecological systems and modern urban morphology. Over years, ecological conditions represented by natural resources such as natural landforms, systems of water, urban geography and land covers have been a significant driving factor of how settlements have formed, expanded and functioned. These have played a pivotal role in formation of the community character and the cultural identity of the urban spaces, and have steered cultural behavior within these settings. Such cultural behaviors have been instrumental in transforming mere spaces to places with meaning and symbolism. The natural process of city formation is principally founded upon the idea of balance and harmony, mostly in a subconscious manner. Reimaging such processes of natural evolution, this paper systematically builds a development model that generates a balance between environment and development, with specific focus on the Urban-Rural fringe areas in the Temple Town of Puri, in Eastern India. Puri represents a unique cross section of ecological landscape, cultural practices and religious symbolism with a very rich history and a vibrant heritage. While the city centre gets more and more crowded by tourists and pilgrims to accommodate related businesses, the original residents of Puri relocate to move towards the urban peripheral areas for better living conditions, gradually converting agricultural lands into non agricultural uses. This rapid spread into the rural hinterland is devoid of any connection with the rich cultural identity of Puri. These past four decades of ‘development’ has been at the cost of 810 Hectares of ecological Lake systems in the region. Invaluable ecological resources at urban rural edges are often viewed as hindrances to development and conceptualized as taking away from the image of the city. This paper attempts to understand the language of development over years on existing natural resources through topo-analysis and proposes a sustainable approach of development using different planning tools, with ecological resources as the pivotal factor of development.

Keywords: livability, sustainable development, urbanization, urban-rural edge

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32 Analysis for Shear Spinning of Tubes with Hard-To-Work Materials

Authors: Sukhwinder Singh Jolly

Abstract:

Metal spinning is one such process in which the stresses are localized to a small area and the material is made to flow or move over the mandrel with the help of spinning tool. Spinning of tubular products can be performed by two techniques, forward spinning and backward spinning. Many researchers have studied the process both experimentally and analytically. An effort has been made to apply the process to the spinning of thin wall, highly precision, small bore long tube in hard-to-work materials such as titanium.

Keywords: metal spinning, hard-to-work materials, roller diameter, power consumption

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31 Processing and Characterization of (Pb0.55Ca0.45) (Fe0.5Nb0.5)O3 and (Pb0.45Ca0.55) (Fe0.5Nb0.5) O3 Dielectric Ceramics

Authors: Shalini Bahel, Maalti Puri, Sukhleen Bindra Narang

Abstract:

Ceramic samples of (Pb0.55Ca0.45) (Fe0.5Nb0.5)O3 and (Pb0.45Ca0.55)(Fe0.5Nb0.5)O3 were synthesized by columbite precursor method and characterized for structural and dielectric properties. Both the synthesized samples have perovskite structure with tetragonal symmetry. The variations in relative permittivity and loss tangent were measured as a function of frequency at room temperature. Both the relative permittivity and loss tangent decreased with increase in frequency. A reasonably high value of relative permittivity of 63.46, loss tangent of 0.0067 at 15 MHz and temperature coefficient of relative permittivity of -82 ppm/˚C was obtained for (Pb0.45Ca0.55) (Fe0.5Nb0.5) O3.

Keywords: loss tangent, perovskite, relative permittivity, X-ray diffraction

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30 Feasibility Conditions for Wind and Hydraulic Energy Coupling

Authors: Antonin Jolly, Bertrand Aubry, Corentin Michel, Rebecca Freva

Abstract:

Wind energy depends on wind strength and varies largely in time. When it is above the demand, it generates a loss while in the opposite case; energy needs are not fully satisfied. To overcome this problem specific to irregular energies, the process of pumped-storage hydroelectricity (PSH) is studied in present paper. A combination of wind turbine and pumped storage system is more predictable and is more compliant to provide electricity supply according to daily demand. PSH system is already used in several countries to accumulate electricity by pumping water during off-peak times into a storage reservoir, and to use it during peak times to produce energy. Present work discusses a feasibility study on size and financial productivity of PSH system actuated with wind turbines specific power.

Keywords: wind turbine, hydroelectricity, energy storage, pumped-storage hydroelectricity

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29 Starch Incorporated Hydroxyapatite/Chitin Nanocomposite as a Novel Bone Construct

Authors: Reshma Jolly, Mohammad Shakir, Mohammad Shoeb Khan, Noor E. Iram

Abstract:

A nanocomposite system integrating hydroxyapatite, chitin and starch (n-HA/CT/ST) has been synthesized via co-precipitation approach at room temperature, addressing the issues of biocompatibility, mechanical strength and cytotoxicity required for Bone tissue engineering. The interactions, crystallite size and surface morphology against n-HA/CT (nano-hydroxyapatite/chitin) nanocomposite have been obtained by correlating and comparing the results of FTIR, SEM, TEM and XRD. The comparative study of the bioactivity of n-HA/CT and n-HA/CT/ST nanocomposites revealed that the incorporation of starch as templating agent improved these properties in n-HA/CT/ST nanocomposite. The rise in thermal stability in n-HA/CT/ST nanocomposite as compared to n-HA/CT has been observed by comparing the TGA results. The comparison of SEM images of both the scaffolds indicated that the addition of ST influenced the surface morphology of n-HA/CT scaffold which appeared to be rougher and porous. The MTT assay on murine fibroblast L929 cells and in-vitro bioactivity of n-HA/CT/ST matrix referred superior non-toxic property of n-HA/CT/ST nanocomposite and higher possibility of osteo-integration in-vivo, respectively.

Keywords: bioactive, chitin, hyroxyapatite, nanocomposite

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28 Improving Overall Equipment Effectiveness of CNC-VMC by Implementing Kobetsu Kaizen

Authors: Nakul Agrawal, Y. M. Puri

Abstract:

TPM methodology is a proven approach to increase Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) of machine. OEE is an established method to monitor and improve the effectiveness of manufacturing process. OEE is a product of equipment availability, performance efficiency and quality performance of manufacturing operations. The paper presents a project work for improving OEE of CNC-VMC in a manufacturing industry with the help of TPM tools Kaizen and Autonomous Maintenance. The aim of paper is to enhance OEE by minimizing the breakdown and re-work, increase availability, performance and quality. The calculated OEE of bottle necking machines for 4 months is lower of 53.3%. Root Cause Analysis RCA tools like fishbone diagram, Pareto chart are used for determining the reasons behind low OEE. While Tool like Why-Why analysis is use for determining the basis reasons for low OEE. Tools like Kaizen and Autonomous Maintenance are effectively implemented on CNC-VMC which eliminate the causes of breakdown and prevent from reoccurring. The result obtains from approach shows that OEE of CNC-VMC improved from 53.3% to 73.7% which saves an average sum of Rs.3, 19,000.

Keywords: OEE, TPM, Kaizen, CNC-VMC, why-why analysis, RCA

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27 Nano-Hydroxyapatite/Dextrin/Chitin Nanocomposite System for Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: Mohammad Shakir, Reshma Jolly, Mohammad Shoeb Khan, Noor-E-Iram

Abstract:

A nanocomposite system incorporating dextrin into nano-hydroxyapatite/chitin matrix (n-HA/DX/CT) has been successfully synthesized via co-precipitation route at room temperature for the application in bone tissue engineering by investigating biocompatibility, cytotoxicity and mechanical properties. The FTIR spectra of n-HA/DX/CT nanocomposite indicated a considerable intermolecular interaction between the various components of the system. The results of XRD, TEM and TGA/DTA revealed that the crystallinity, size and thermal stability of the n-HA/DX/CT scaffold has decreased and increased respectively. The result of SEM image of the n-HA/DX/CT scaffold indicated that the incorporation of dextrin affected the surface morphology while considerable in-vitro bioactivity has been observed in n-HA/DX/CT based on SBF study, referring a step towards possibility of making direct bond to living bone if implanted. Moreover, MTT assay suggested the non-toxic nature of n-HA/DX/CT to murine fibroblast L929 cells. The swelling study of n-HA/DX/CT scaffold indicated the low swelling rate for n-HADX/CT. All these results have paved the way for n-HA/DX/CT to be used as a competent material for bone tissue engineering.

Keywords: autograft, chitin, dextrin, nanocomposite

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26 Coronavirus Academic Paper Sorting Application

Authors: Christina A. van Hal, Xiaoqian Jiang, Luyao Chen, Yan Chu, Robert D. Jolly, Yaobin Lin, Jitian Zhao, Kang Lin Hsieh

Abstract:

The COVID-19 Literature Summary App was created for the primary purpose of enabling academicians and clinicians to quickly sort through the vast array of recent coronavirus publications by topics of interest. Multiple methods of summarizing and sorting the manuscripts were created. A summary page introduces the application function and capabilities, while an interactive map provides daily updates on infection, death, and recovery rates. A page with a pivot table allows publication sorting by topic, with an interactive data table that allows sorting topics by columns, as wells as the capability to view abstracts. Additionally, publications may be sorted by the medical topics they cover. We used the CORD-19 database to compile lists of publications. The data table can sort binary variables, allowing the user to pick desired publication topics, such as papers that describe COVID-19 symptoms. The application is primarily designed for use by researchers but can be used by anybody who wants a faster and more efficient means of locating papers of interest.

Keywords: COVID-19, literature summary, information retrieval, Snorkel

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25 Temperature Dependence of Relative Permittivity: A Measurement Technique Using Split Ring Resonators

Authors: Sreedevi P. Chakyar, Jolly Andrews, V. P. Joseph

Abstract:

A compact method for measuring the relative permittivity of a dielectric material at different temperatures using a single circular Split Ring Resonator (SRR) metamaterial unit working as a test probe is presented in this paper. The dielectric constant of a material is dependent upon its temperature and the LC resonance of the SRR depends on its dielectric environment. Hence, the temperature of the dielectric material in contact with the resonator influences its resonant frequency. A single SRR placed between transmitting and receiving probes connected to a Vector Network Analyser (VNA) is used as a test probe. The dependence of temperature between 30 oC and 60 oC on resonant frequency of SRR is analysed. Relative permittivities ‘ε’ of test samples for different temperatures are extracted from a calibration graph drawn between the relative permittivity of samples of known dielectric constant and their corresponding resonant frequencies. This method is found to be an easy and efficient technique for analysing the temperature dependent permittivity of different materials.

Keywords: metamaterials, negative permeability, permittivity measurement techniques, split ring resonators, temperature dependent dielectric constant

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24 Geometry of the Bandaging Procedure and Its Application while Wrapping Bandages for Treatment of Leg Ulcers

Authors: Monica Puri Sikka, Subrato Ghosh Arunangshu Mukhopadhyay

Abstract:

Appropriate compression bandaging is important for compression therapeutic medical diseases. The high compression approach employed for treating venous leg ulcers should be used correctly so that sufficient (but not excessive) pressure is applied. Bandages used to treat venous disease by compression should achieve and sustain effective levels and gradients of pressure and minimise the risk of pressure trauma. To maintain graduated compression on the limb the bandage needs to be applied at same tension for each layer from ankle to the knee. In this paper the geometry for various bandaging procedures is used to wrap each layer of bandage by marking the relaxed length of the bandage. The relaxed length is calculated depending on the stretch, average circumference of the limb on which it is to be applied and the bandaging technique to be used. This paper aims at developing a scientific approach while applying the bandage to reduce the inter operator variability in applying same tension on each successive layer of bandage.

Keywords: bandaging, compression, inter operator variability, graduated, relaxed length, stretch

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23 Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and Molecular Modeling Studies on Chiral Chloroquine Analogues as Antimalarial Agents

Authors: Srinivasarao Kondaparla, Utsab Debnath, Awakash Soni, Vasantha Rao Dola, Manish Sinha, Kumkum Kumkum Srivastava, Sunil K. Puri, Seturam B. Katti

Abstract:

In a focused exploration, we have designed synthesized and biologically evaluated chiral conjugated new chloroquine (CQ) analogs with substituted piperazines as antimalarial agents. In vitro as well as in vivo studies revealed that compound 7c showed potent activity [for in vitro IC₅₀= 56.98nM (3D7), 97.76nM (K1); for in vivo (up to at the dose of 12.5 mg/kg); SI = 3510] as a new lead of antimalarial agent. Other compounds 6b, 6d, 7d, 7h, 8c, 8d, 9a, and 9c are also showing moderate activity against CQ-sensitive (3D7) strain and superior activity against resistant (K1) strain of P. falciparum. Furthermore, we have carried out docking and 3D-QSAR studies of all in-house data sets (168 molecules) of chiral CQ analogs to explain the structure activity relationships (SAR). Our new findings specified the significance of H-bond interaction with the side chain of heme for biological activity. In addition, the 3D-QSAR study against 3D7 strain indicated the favorable and unfavorable sites of CQ analogs for incorporating steric, hydrophobic and electropositive groups to improve the antimalarial activity.

Keywords: piperazines, CQ-sensitive strain-3D7, in-vitro and in-vivo assay, docking, 3D-QSAR

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22 Anxiety and Depression in Chronic Headache Patients: Major Concern for Community Mental Health

Authors: Neeti Sharma, Harshika Pareek, Prerna Puri, Manika Mohan

Abstract:

The present study is aimed at studying the significant relationship between anxiety and depression in chronic headache patients. Chronic Headache patients coming to the Neurology Unit-1 Outpatient Department of the Sawai Mansingh Hospital (SMS) Jaipur, Rajasthan, were included in this study. The sample consisted of 100 patients (N=100). Initially patients were examined by a physician and then they were assessed for Anxiety and Depression using the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. The relevant information was recorded on a Performa designed for this purpose comprising of socio-demographic variables like age, gender and triggering factors. The correlation-coefficient indicated a significant positive relationship between the anxiety and depression in chronic headache patients. These findings implicate high prevalence of anxiety and depression in the general population, and also indicate an association between headache and psychological disorders. Many evidences support the anxiety-headache-depression syndrome as a distinct disorder, and the association of co-morbid psychiatric illness with headache intractability. This study highlights the importance of prospective research for studying the developmental course and consequences of headache syndromes. Also, various psychotherapies should be applied to the headache patients so as to treat them, at the onset level of anxiety and depression, with the help of medication.

Keywords: anxiety, chronic headaches, depression, HAM-A, HAM

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21 Comparing Skill, Employment, and Productivity of Industrial City Case Study: Bekasi Industrial Area and Special Economic Zone Sei Mangkei

Authors: Auliya Adzillatin Uzhma, M. Adrian Rizky, Puri Diah Santyarini

Abstract:

Bekasi Industrial Area in Kab. Bekasi and SEZ (Special Economic Zone) Sei Mangkei in Kab. Simalungun are two areas whose have the same main economic activity that are manufacturing industrial. Manufacturing industry in Bekasi Industrial Area contributes more than 70% of Kab. Bekasi’s GDP, while manufacturing industry in SEZ Sei Mangkei contributes less than 20% of Kab. Simalungun’s GDP. The dependent variable in the research is labor productivity, while the independent variable is the amount of labor, the level of labor education, the length of work and salary. This research used linear regression method to find the model for represent actual condition of productivity in two industrial area, then the equalization using dummy variable on labor education level variable. The initial hypothesis (Ho) in this research is that labor productivity in Bekasi Industrial Area will be higher than the productivity of labor in SEZ Sei Mangkei. The variable that supporting the accepted hypothesis are more labor, higher education, longer work and higher salary in Bekasi Industrial Area.

Keywords: labor, industrial city, linear regression, productivity

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20 Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeasts and Acetic Acid Bacteria in Alcoholic and Acetous Fermentations: Effect on Phenolic Acids of Kei-Apple (Dovyalis caffra L.) Vinegar

Authors: Phillip Minnaar, Neil Jolly, Louisa Beukes, Santiago Benito-Saez

Abstract:

Dovyalis caffra is a tree found on the African continent. Limited information exists on the effect of acetous fermentation on the phytochemicals of Kei-apple fruit. The phytochemical content of vinegars is derived from compounds present in the fruit the vinegar is made of. Kei-apple fruit juice was co-inoculated with Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae to induce alcoholic fermentation (AF). Acetous fermentation followed AF, using an acetic acid bacteria consortium as an inoculant. Juice had the lowest pH and highest total acidity (TA). The wine had the highest pH and vinegars lowest TA. Total soluble solids and L-malic acid decreased during AF and acetous fermentation. Volatile acidity concentration was not different among vinegars. Gallic, syringic, caffeic, p-coumaric, and chlorogenic acids increased during acetous fermentation, whereas ferulic, sinapic, and protocatechuic acids decreased. Chlorogenic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid in both wines and vinegars. It is evident from this investigation that Kei-apple vinegar is a source of plant-derived phenolics, which evolved through fermentation. However, the AAB selection showed minimal performance with respect to VA production. Acetic acid bacteria selection for acetous fermentation should be reconsidered, and the reasons for the decrease of certain phenolic acids during acetous fermentation needs to be investigated.

Keywords: acetic acid bacteria, acetous fermentation, liquid chromatography, phenolic acids

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19 Drying Kinetics of Okara (Soy Pulp) Using the Multi-Commodity Heat Pump Dryer (MCHPD)

Authors: Lorcelie B. Taclan, Jolly S. Balila, Maribel Balagtas, Eunice M. Aclan, Myrtle C. Orbon, Emson Y. Taclan, Irenea A. Centeno

Abstract:

Okara (soy pulp), a by-product and waste from the production of soymilk, tufo and tokwa and soybean-based vegan food products is readily available in the university thrice a week. The Food Factory owned and managed by AUP produces these food products weekly. Generally the study was conducted to determine the drying kinetics of soya pulp using the MCHPD. Specifically, it aimed to establish the time of drying; moisture loss per hour and percent moisture content of soya pulp and to establish the dried okara as an ingredient to other foods. The MCHPD is drying equipment that has an ideal drying condition of 50.00C and 10.0% relative humidity. Fresh and wet soya pulp were weighed at 1.0 kg per tray (21 drying trays), laid on the trays lined with cheese cloth. The MCHPD was set to desired drying conditions. Weight loss was monitored every hour and calculated using standard formulas. Research results indicated that the drying time for soya pulp was 19.0 hours; the % moisture content was reduced from 87.6.0% to 9.7.0% at an average moisture loss of 3.0 g/hr. The nutritional values of okara were favorably maintained with enhanced color. The dried okara was added as an ingredient to other healthy bakery products produced by the AUP Food Factory. Making use of okara would add nutritional values to other food products and would also help waste management concerns inside the university.

Keywords: okara, MCHPD, drying kinetics, nutritional values, waste management

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18 Tofu Flour as a Protein Sources

Authors: Dicky Eka Putra, S. P. Nadia Chairunissa, Lidia Paramita, Roza Hartati, Ice Yolanda Puri

Abstract:

Background: Soy bean and the products such as tofu, tempeh and soy milk are famous in the community. Moreover, another product is tofu flour which is not familiar in Indonesia yet and it is well known as Okara. There are massive differences of energy, protein and carbohydrate between them which is know as good for protein sources as well. Unfortunately, it is seldom used as food variety. Basically, it can be benefit in order to create many products for example cakes, snacks and some desserts. Aim: the study was in order to promote the benefit of tofu flour as school feeding of elementary school and baby porridge and also to compare the nutrient. Method: Soy pulp was filtered and steamed approximately 30 minutes. Then, it was put at a plate under sunrise or barked on the oven for 10 hours at 800C. When it have dried and milling and tofu flour is ready to be used. Result: Tofu flour could be used as substitute of flour and rice flour when people want to cook some foods. In addition, some references said that soy bean is good for a specific remedy for the proper functioning of the heart, liver, kidneys, stomach, and bowels, constipation, as a stimulant for the lungs, for eradication of poison from the system, improving the complexion by cleaning the skin of impurities, and stimulating the growth and appearance of the hair. Discussion: Comparing between soy bean, tofu and tofu flour which has difference amount of nutrients. For example energy 382 kcal, 79 kcal and 393 kcal respectively and also protein 30.2 kcal, 7.8 kcal, and 17.4 kcal. In addition, carbohydrate of soy pulp was high than soy bean and tofu (30.1 kcal). Finally, local should replace flour, rice and gelatin rice flour with tofu flour.

Keywords: tofu flour, protein, soy bean, school feeding

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17 Erythrophagocytic Role of Mast Cells in vitro and in vivo during Oxidative Stress

Authors: Priyanka Sharma, Niti Puri

Abstract:

Anemia develops when blood lacks enough healthy erythrocytes. Past studies indicated that anemia, inflammatory process, and oxidative stress are interconnected. Erythrocytes are continuously exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS) during circulation, due to normal aerobic cellular metabolism and also pathology of inflammatory diseases. Systemic mastocytosis and genetic depletion of mast cells have been shown to affect anaemia. In the present study, we attempted to reveal whether mast cells have a direct role in clearance or erythrophagocytosis of normal or oxidatively damaged erythrocytes. Murine erythrocytes were treated with tert-butyl hydroperoxidase (t-BHP), an agent that induces oxidative damage and mimics in vivo oxidative stress. Normal and oxidatively damaged erythrocytes were labeled with carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) to track erythrophagocytosis. We show, for the first time, direct erythrophagocytosis of oxidatively damaged erythrocytes in vitro by RBL-2H3 mast cells as well as in vivo by murine peritoneal mast cells. Also, activated mast cells, as may be present in inflammatory conditions, showed a significant increase in the uptake of oxidatively damaged erythrocytes than resting mast cells. This suggests the involvement of mast cells in erythrocyte clearance during oxidative stress or inflammatory disorders. Partial inhibition of phagocytosis by various inhibitors indicated that this process may be controlled by several pathways. Hence, our study provides important evidence for involvement of mast cells in severe anemia due to inflammation and oxidative stress and might be helpful to circumvent the adverse anemic disorders.

Keywords: mast cells, anemia, erythrophagocytosis, oxidatively damaged erythrocytes

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16 Folding Pathway and Thermodynamic Stability of Monomeric GroEL

Authors: Sarita Puri, Tapan K. Chaudhuri

Abstract:

Chaperonin GroEL is a tetradecameric Escherichia coli protein having identical subunits of 57 kDa. The elucidation of thermodynamic parameters related to stability for the native GroEL is not feasible as it undergoes irreversible unfolding because of its large size (800kDa) and multimeric nature. Nevertheless, it is important to determine the thermodynamic stability parameters for the highly stable GroEL protein as it helps in folding and holding of many substrate proteins during many cellular stresses. Properly folded monomers work as building-block for the formation of native tetradecameric GroEL. Spontaneous refolding behavior of monomeric GroEL makes it suitable for protein-denaturant interactions and thermodynamic stability based studies. The urea mediated unfolding is a three state process which means there is the formation of one intermediate state along with native and unfolded states. The heat mediated denaturation is a two-state process. The unfolding process is reversible as observed by the spontaneous refolding of denatured protein in both urea and head mediated refolding processes. Analysis of folding/unfolding data provides a measure of various thermodynamic stability parameters for the monomeric GroEL. The proposed mechanism of unfolding of monomeric GroEL is a three state process which involves formation of one stable intermediate having folded apical domain and unfolded equatorial, intermediate domains. Research in progress is to demonstrate the importance of specific residues in stability and oligomerization of GroEL protein. Several mutant versions of GroEL are under investigation to resolve the above mentioned issue.

Keywords: equilibrium unfolding, monomeric GroEl, spontaneous refolding, thermodynamic stability

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15 Effect of Alcoholic and Acetous Fermentations on Phenolic Acids of Kei-Apple (Dovyalis Caffra L.) Fruit

Authors: Neil Jolly, Louisa Beukes, Santiago Benito-SaEz

Abstract:

Kei-apple is a tree found on the African continent. Limited information exists on the effect of alcoholic and acetous fermentation on the phytochemicals. The fruit has increased L-malic, ascorbic, and phenolic acids. Juice was co-inoculated with Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae to induce alcoholic fermentation and acetous fermentation using acetic acid bacteria. Saccharomyces cerevisiae+S. pombe wines and vinegars had highest pH. Total acidity, soluble solids and L-malic acid decreased during alcoholic and acetous fermentation with highest in S. cerevisiae wines and vinegars. Volatile acidity was highest in S. pombe vinegars but not different from S. cerevisiae and S. cerevisiae+S. pombe. Gallic acid was highest in S. pombe wines and vinegars. Syringic acid was highest in S. cerevisiae wines and vinegars. S. cerevisiae+S. pombe wines were highest in caffeic, p-coumaric and protocatechuic acids. Schizosaccharomyces pombe vinegars were highest in caffeic and p-coumaric acids. Ferulic and sinapic acids were highest in S. pombe and S. cerevisiae wines, respectively. Chlorogenic acid was most abundant in both wines and vinegars. Saccharomyces cerevisiae+S. pombe and S. cerevisiae had a positive effect on most phenolic acids. Saccharomyces cerevisiae +acetic acid bacteria had an increased effect on syringic and chlorogenic acids. Schizosaccharomyces pombe+acetic acid bacteria resulted in an increase in gallic, caffeic and p-coumaric acids. Acetic acid bacteria had minimal performance with respect to volatile acidity production in comparison to commercial vinegars. Acetic acid bacteria selection should therefore be reconsidered and the decrease of certain phenolic acids during acetous fermentation needs to be investigated.

Keywords: acetic acid bacteria, liquid chromatography, phenolics, saccharomyces cerevisiae, schizosaccharomyces pombe

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14 Flexural Behavior of Eco-Friendly Prefabricated Low Cost Bamboo Reinforced Wall Panels

Authors: Vishal Puri, Pradipta Chakrabortty, Swapan Majumdar

Abstract:

Precast concrete construction is the most commonly used technique for a rapid construction. This technique is very frequently used in the developed countries. Different guidelines required to utilize the potential of prefabricated construction are still not available in the developing countries. This causes over dependence on in-situ construction procedure which further affects the quality, scheduling, and duration of construction. Also with the ever increasing costs of building materials and their negative impact on the environment it has become imperative to look out for alternate construction materials which are cheap and sustainable. Bamboo and fly ash are alternate construction materials having great potential in the construction industry. Thus there is a great need to develop prefabricated components by utilizing the potential of these materials. Bamboo reinforced beams, bamboo reinforced columns and bamboo arches as researched previously have shown great prospects for prefabricated construction industry. But, many other prefabricated components still need to be studied and widely tested before their utilization in the prefabricated construction industry. In the present study, authors have showcased prefabricated bamboo reinforced wall panel for the prefabricated construction industry. It presents a detailed methodology for the development of such prefabricated panels. It also presents the flexural behavior of such panels as tested under flexural loads following ASTM guidelines. It was observed that these wall panels are much flexible and do not show brittle failure as observed in traditional brick walls. It was observed that prefabricated walls are about 42% cheaper as compared to conventional brick walls. It was also observed that prefabricated walls are considerably lighter in weight and are environment friendly. It was thus concluded that this type of wall panels are an excellent alternative for partition brick walls.

Keywords: bamboo, prefabricated walls, reinforced structure, sustainable infrastructure

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13 Estimation of Source Parameters and Moment Tensor Solution through Waveform Modeling of 2013 Kishtwar Earthquake

Authors: Shveta Puri, Shiv Jyoti Pandey, G. M. Bhat, Neha Raina

Abstract:

TheJammu and Kashmir region of the Northwest Himalaya had witnessed many devastating earthquakes in the recent past and has remained unexplored for any kind of seismic investigations except scanty records of the earthquakes that occurred in this region in the past. In this study, we have used local seismic data of year 2013 that was recorded by the network of Broadband Seismographs in J&K. During this period, our seismic stations recorded about 207 earthquakes including two moderate events of Mw 5.7 on 1st May, 2013 and Mw 5.1 of 2nd August, 2013.We analyzed the events of Mw 3-4.6 and the main events only (for minimizing the error) for source parameters, b value and sense of movement through waveform modeling for understanding seismotectonic and seismic hazard of the region. It has been observed that most of the events are bounded between 32.9° N – 33.3° N latitude and 75.4° E – 76.1° E longitudes, Moment Magnitude (Mw) ranges from Mw 3 to 5.7, Source radius (r), from 0.21 to 3.5 km, stress drop, from 1.90 bars to 71.1 bars and Corner frequency, from 0.39 – 6.06 Hz. The b-value for this region was found to be 0.83±0 from these events which are lower than the normal value (b=1), indicating the area is under high stress. The travel time inversion and waveform inversion method suggest focal depth up to 10 km probably above the detachment depth of the Himalayan region. Moment tensor solution of the (Mw 5.1, 02:32:47 UTC) main event of 2ndAugust suggested that the source fault is striking at 295° with dip of 33° and rake value of 85°. It was found that these events form intense clustering of small to moderate events within a narrow zone between Panjal Thrust and Kishtwar Window. Moment tensor solution of the main events and their aftershocks indicating thrust type of movement is occurring in this region.

Keywords: b-value, moment tensor, seismotectonics, source parameters

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12 Health Literacy and Knowledge Related to Tuberculosis among Outpatients at a Referral Hospital in Lima, Peru

Authors: Rosalina Penaloza, Joanna Navarro, Pauline Jolly, Anna Junkins, Carlos Seas, Larissa Otero

Abstract:

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) case detection in Peru relies on passive case finding. This strategy relies on the assumption that the community is aware that a persistent cough is a possible symptom of TB and that formal health care needs to be sought. Despite its importance, health knowledge specific to TB is underexplored in Peru. This study aimed to assess health literacy and level of TB knowledge among outpatients attending a referral hospital in Lima, Peru. The goal was to ascertain knowledge gaps in key areas relating to TB, to identify and prioritize subgroups for intervention, and to provide insight for policy and community interventions considering health literacy. Methods: An observational cross-sectional study was conducted using a survey to measure sociodemographic factors, tuberculosis knowledge, and health literacy. Bivariate and Multivariate logistic regression was performed to study the associations between variables and to account for potential confounders. The study was conducted at Hospital Cayetano Heredia in Lima, Peru from June – August 2017. Results: 272 participants were included in the analysis. 57.7% knew someone who had had TB before, 9% had had TB in the past. Two weeks a cough was correctly identified as a symptom that could be TB by 69.1%. High TB knowledge was found among 149 (54.8%) participants. High health literacy was found among 193 (71.0%) participants. Health literacy and TB knowledge were not significantly associated (OR 0.9 (95%CI 0.5-1.5)). After controlling for sex, age, district, education, health insurance, frequency of hospital visits and previous TB diagnosis: High TB knowledge was associated with knowing someone with TB (aOR 2.7 (95%CI 1.6-4.7)) and being a public transport driver, (aOR 0.2 (95%CI 0.05-0.9)). Not being poor was the single factor associated with high health literacy (aOR 3.8 (95%CI 1.6-8.9)). Conclusions: TB knowledge was fair, though 30% did not know the most important symptom of TB. Tailoring educational strategies to risk groups may enhance passive case detection especially amongst transport workers in Lima, Peru.

Keywords: health literacy, Peru, tuberculosis, tuberculosis knowledge

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11 Intervening into the World of a Cyber-Bully

Authors: Aanshika Puri, Sakshi Mehrotra

Abstract:

Technology has always been a double edged sword. The constant rut of updating oneself to a better and newer version is the new norm. ‘Being Online’ is the latest addition to one’s everyday routine. Availability of various social online platforms being served on a platter topped with easy and cheap access to the internet makes it simple and doable for people of all social backgrounds. Interestingly, in India, a recent development is the line of demarcation between people from varied backgrounds, doing the vanishing act. One finds everybody on at least one, if not more, social platforms in a desire to stay connected. For instance, this ranges from sending a ‘WhatsApp’ message to a vegetable vendor for ordering your daily needs to vendors and small entrepreneurs. Even a rickshaw puller now has access to a mobile phone, an internet connection and apps/ platforms to stay connected. Recent observations show the extent to which everyone is hooked on to their mobile phones/ tabs/ laptops/ etc. Young mothers use them to distract their children and keep them busy while they finish the task at hand. Exposure to this part of the technology at such a tender age requires responsible and careful handling. Talking of adolescents, their self- image depends on their online social image to a large extent. There is a desire to be liked and accepted by the peer group at all times. Cyber-bullying is a by-product of the 24/7 availability of these resources. There is enough research-based evidence to prove the psychosocial and emotional impact on the development and well-being of the victim. The present paper attempts to understand the dynamics of cyber bullying vis-à-vis the developmental and mental health issues faced by the bully.

Keywords: Developmental Psychology, Empathy & Resilience Based Interventions, Mental Well-Being of Cyber Bully, Positive Psychology

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10 Regulating Transnational Corporations and Protecting Human Rights: Analyzing the Efficiency of International Legal Framework

Authors: Stellina Jolly

Abstract:

July 18th to August 19th 2013 has gone down in the history of India for undertaking the country’s first environment referendum. The Supreme Court had ruled that the Vedanta Group's bauxite mining project in the Niyamgiri Hills of Orissa will have to get clearance from the gram sabha, which will consider the cultural and religious rights of the tribals and forest dwellers living in Rayagada and Kalahandi districts. In the Niyamgiri hills, people of small tribal hamlets were asked to voice their opinion on bauxite mining in their habitat. The ministry has reiterated its stand that mining cannot be allowed on the Niyamgiri hills because it will affect the rights of the Dongria Kondhs. The tribal person who occupies the Niyamgiri Hills in Eastern India accomplished their first success in 2010 in their struggle to protect and preserve their existence, culture and land against Vedanta a London-based mining giant. In August, 2010 Government of India revoked permission for Vedanta Resources to mine bauxite from hills in Orissa State where the Dongria Kondh live as forest dwellers. This came after various protests and reports including amnesty report wherein it highlighted that an alumina refinery in eastern India operated by a subsidiary of mining company. Vedanta was accused of causing air and water pollution that threatens the health of local people and their access to water. The abuse of human rights by corporate is not a new issue it has occurred in Africa, Asia and other parts of the world. Paper focuses on the instances and extent of human right especially in terms of environment violations by corporations. Further Paper details on corporations and sustainable development. Paper finally comes up with certain recommendation including call for a declaration by United Nations on Corporate environment Human Rights Liability.

Keywords: environment, corporate, human rights, sustainable development

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9 Determination of Crustal Structure and Moho Depth within the Jammu and Kashmir Region, Northwest Himalaya through Receiver Function

Authors: Shiv Jyoti Pandey, Shveta Puri, G. M. Bhat, Neha Raina

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The Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) region of Northwest Himalaya has a long history of earthquake activity which falls within Seismic Zones IV and V. To know the crustal structure beneath this region, we utilized teleseismic receiver function method. This paper presents the results of the analyses of the teleseismic earthquake waves recorded by 10 seismic observatories installed in the vicinity of major thrusts and faults. The teleseismic waves at epicentral distance between 30o and 90o with moment magnitudes greater than or equal to 5.5 that contains large amount of information about the crust and upper mantle structure directly beneath a receiver has been used. The receiver function (RF) technique has been widely applied to investigate crustal structures using P-to-S converted (Ps) phases from velocity discontinuities. The arrival time of the Ps, PpPs and PpSs+ PsPs converted and reverberated phases from the Moho can be combined to constrain the mean crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio. Over 500 receiver functions from 10 broadband stations located in the Jammu & Kashmir region of Northwest Himalaya were analyzed. With the help of H-K stacking method, we determined the crustal thickness (H) and average crustal Vp/Vs ratio (K) in this region. We also used Neighbourhood algorithm technique to verify our results. The receiver function results for these stations show that the crustal thickness under Jammu & Kashmir ranges from 45.0 to 53.6 km with an average value of 50.01 km. The Vp/Vs ratio varies from 1.63 to 1.99 with an average value of 1.784 which corresponds to an average Poisson’s ratio of 0.266 with a range from 0.198 to 0.331. High Poisson’s ratios under some stations may be related to partial melting in the crust near the uppermost mantle. The crustal structure model developed from this study can be used to refine the velocity model used in the precise epicenter location in the region, thereby increasing the knowledge to understand current seismicity in the region.

Keywords: H-K stacking, Poisson’s ratios, receiver function, teleseismic

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8 Hydrological Analysis for Urban Water Management

Authors: Ranjit Kumar Sahu, Ramakar Jha

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Urban Water Management is the practice of managing freshwater, waste water, and storm water as components of a basin-wide management plan. It builds on existing water supply and sanitation considerations within an urban settlement by incorporating urban water management within the scope of the entire river basin. The pervasive problems generated by urban development have prompted, in the present work, to study the spatial extent of urbanization in Golden Triangle of Odisha connecting the cities Bhubaneswar (20.2700° N, 85.8400° E), Puri (19.8106° N, 85.8314° E) and Konark (19.9000° N, 86.1200° E)., and patterns of periodic changes in urban development (systematic/random) in order to develop future plans for (i) urbanization promotion areas, and (ii) urbanization control areas. Remote Sensing, using USGS (U.S. Geological Survey) Landsat8 maps, supervised classification of the Urban Sprawl has been done for during 1980 - 2014, specifically after 2000. This Work presents the following: (i) Time series analysis of Hydrological data (ground water and rainfall), (ii) Application of SWMM (Storm Water Management Model) and other soft computing techniques for Urban Water Management, and (iii) Uncertainty analysis of model parameters (Urban Sprawl and correlation analysis). The outcome of the study shows drastic growth results in urbanization and depletion of ground water levels in the area that has been discussed briefly. Other relative outcomes like declining trend of rainfall and rise of sand mining in local vicinity has been also discussed. Research on this kind of work will (i) improve water supply and consumption efficiency (ii) Upgrade drinking water quality and waste water treatment (iii) Increase economic efficiency of services to sustain operations and investments for water, waste water, and storm water management, and (iv) engage communities to reflect their needs and knowledge for water management.

Keywords: Storm Water Management Model (SWMM), uncertainty analysis, urban sprawl, land use change

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7 Clostridium thermocellum DBT-IOC-C19, A Potential CBP Isolate for Ethanol Production

Authors: Nisha Singh, Munish Puri, Collin Barrow, Deepak Tuli, Anshu S. Mathur

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The biological conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol is a promising strategy to solve the present global crisis of exhausting fossil fuels. The existing bioethanol production technologies have cost constraints due to the involvement of mandate pretreatment and extensive enzyme production steps. A unique process configuration known as consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) is believed to be a potential cost-effective process due to its efficient integration of enzyme production, saccharification, and fermentation into one step. Due to several favorable reasons like single step conversion, no need of adding exogenous enzymes and facilitated product recovery, CBP has gained the attention of researchers worldwide. However, there are several technical and economic barriers which need to be overcome for making consolidated bioprocessing a commercially viable process. Finding a natural candidate CBP organism is critically important and thermophilic anaerobes are preferred microorganisms. The thermophilic anaerobes that can represent CBP mainly belong to genus Clostridium, Caldicellulosiruptor, Thermoanaerobacter, Thermoanaero bacterium, and Geobacillus etc. Amongst them, Clostridium thermocellum has received increased attention as a high utility CBP candidate due to its highest growth rate on crystalline cellulose, the presence of highly efficient cellulosome system and ability to produce ethanol directly from cellulose. Recently with the availability of genetic and molecular tools aiding the metabolic engineering of Clostridium thermocellum have further facilitated the viability of commercial CBP process. With this view, we have specifically screened cellulolytic and xylanolytic thermophilic anaerobic ethanol producing bacteria, from unexplored hot spring/s in India. One of the isolates is a potential CBP organism identified as a new strain of Clostridium thermocellum. This strain has shown superior avicel and xylan degradation under unoptimized conditions compared to reported wild type strains of Clostridium thermocellum and produced more than 50 mM ethanol in 72 hours from 1 % avicel at 60°C. Besides, this strain shows good ethanol tolerance and growth on both hexose and pentose sugars. Hence, with further optimization this new strain could be developed as a potential CBP microbe.

Keywords: Clostridium thermocellum, consolidated bioprocessing, ethanol, thermophilic anaerobes

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6 Molecular Characterization of Arginine Sensing Response in Unravelling Host-Pathogen Interactions in Leishmania

Authors: Evanka Madan, Madhu Puri, Dan Zilberstein, Rohini Muthuswami, Rentala Madhubala

Abstract:

The extensive interaction between the host and pathogen metabolic networks decidedly shapes the outcome of infection. Utilization of arginine by the host and pathogen is critical for determining the outcome of pathogenic infection. Infections with L. donovani, an intracellular parasite, will lead to an extensive competition of arginine between the host and the parasite donovani infection. One of the major amino acid (AA) sensing signaling pathways in mammalian cells are the mammalian target of rapamycin complex I (mTORC1) pathway. mTORC1, as a sensor of nutrient, controls numerous metabolic pathways. Arginine is critical for mTORC1 activation. SLC38A9 is the arginine sensor for the mTORC1, being activated during arginine sufficiency. L. donovani transport arginine via a high-affinity transporter (LdAAP3) that is rapidly up-regulated by arginine deficiency response (ADR) in intracellular amastigotes. This study, to author’s best knowledge, investigates the interaction between two arginine sensing systems that act in the same compartment, the lysosome. One is important for macrophage defense, and the other is essential for pathogen virulence. We hypothesize that the latter modulates lysosome arginine to prevent host defense response. The work presented here identifies an upstream regulatory role of LdAAP3 in regulating the expression of SLC38A9-mTORC1 pathway, and consequently, their function in L. donovani infected THP-1 cells cultured in 0.1 mM and 1.5 mM arginine. It was found that in physiological levels of arginine (0.1 mM), infecting THP-1 with Leishmania leads to increased levels of SLC38A9 and mTORC1 via an increase in the expression of RagA. However, the reversal was observed with LdAAP3 mutants, reflecting the positive regulatory role of LdAAP3 on the host SLC38A9. At the molecular level, upon infection, mTORC1 and RagA were found to be activated at the surface of phagolysosomes which was found to form a complex with phagolysosomal localized SLC38A9. To reveal the relevance of SLC38A9 under physiological levels of arginine, endogenous SLC38A9 was depleted and a substantial reduction in the expression of host mTORC1, its downstream active substrate, p-P70S6K1 and parasite LdAAP3, was observed, thereby showing that silencing SLC38A9 suppresses ADR. In brief, to author’s best knowledge, these results reveal an upstream regulatory role of LdAAP3 in manipulating SLC38A9 arginine sensing in host macrophages. Our study indicates that intra-macrophage survival of L. donovani depends on the availability and transport of extracellular arginine. An understanding of the sensing pathway of both parasite and host will open a new perspective on the molecular mechanism of host-parasite interaction and consequently, as a treatment for Leishmaniasis.

Keywords: arginine sensing, LdAAP3, L. donovani, mTORC1, SLC38A9, THP-1

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5 Nutritional Status of Children in a Rural Food Environment, Haryana: A Paradox for the Policy Action

Authors: Neha Gupta, Sonika Verma, Seema Puri, Nikhil Tandon, Narendra K. Arora

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The concurrent increasing prevalence of underweight and overweight/obesity among children with changing lifestyle and the rapid transitioning society has necessitated the need for a unifying/multi-level approach to understand the determinants of the problem. The present community-based cross-sectional research study was conducted to assess the associations between lifestyle behavior and food environment of the child at household, neighborhood, and school with the BMI of children (6-12 year old) (n=612) residing in three rural clusters of Palwal district, Haryana. The study used innovative and robust methods for assessing the lifestyle and various components of food environment in the study. The three rural clusters selected for the study were located at three different locations according to their access to highways in the SOMAARTH surveillance site. These clusters were significantly different from each other in terms of their socio-demographic and socio-economic profile, living conditions, environmental hygiene, health seeking behavior and retail density. Despite of being different, the quality of living conditions and environmental hygiene was poor across three clusters. The children had higher intakes of dietary energy and sugars; one-fifth share of the energy being derived from unhealthy foods, engagement in high levels of physical activity and significantly different food environment at home, neighborhood and school level. However, despite having a high energy intake, 22.5% of the recruited children were thin/severe thin, and 3% were overweight/obese as per their BMI-for-age categories. The analysis was done using multi-variate logistic regression at three-tier hierarchy including individual, household and community level. The factors significantly explained the variability in governing the risk of getting thin/severe thin among children in rural area (p-value: 0.0001; Adjusted R2: 0.156) included age (>10years) (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.0-4.4), the interaction between minority category and poor SES of the household (OR: 4.4; 95% CI: 1.6-12.1), availability of sweets (OR: 0.9; 95% CI: 0.8-0.99) and cereals (OR: 0.9; 95% CI: 0.8-1.0) in the household and poor street condition (proxy indicator of the hygiene and cleanliness in the neighborhood) (OR: 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1-1.1). The homogeneity of other factors at neighborhood and school level food environment diluted the heterogeneity in the lifestyles and home environment of the recruited children and their households. However, it is evident that when various individual factors interplay at multiple levels amplifies the risk of undernutrition in a rural community. Conclusion: These rural areas in Haryana are undergoing developmental, economic and societal transition. In correspondence, no improvements in the nutritional status of children have happened. Easy access to the unhealthy foods has become a paradox.

Keywords: transition, food environment, lifestyle, undernutrition, overnutrition

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