Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2556

Search results for: Saudi Arabian economy

2556 Saudi Arabian Science and Mathematics Teachers’ Attitudes toward Integrating STEM in Teaching before and after Participating in a Professional Development Workshop

Authors: Abdulwali H. Aldahmash, Naem M. Alamri

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to analyze Saudi Arabian science and mathematics teachers’ attitudes toward integrating STEM in teaching before and after they participated in a professional development workshop focused on STEM integration in a specific middle school science and mathematics unit. The participants were 48 Saudi Arabian science and mathematics teachers who participated in a three-day workshop held in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The research method was a pretest-posttest group design. The primary data source was the instrument for teachers' attitudes toward teaching integrated STEM. The results indicate that Saudi Arabian science and mathematics teachers’ perceptions of difficulties decreased due to their participation in the professional development workshop on integrated STEM. Meanwhile, the teachers' self-efficacy improved following their participation in the STEM professional development (PD) workshop. However, no perceived effect was found for the teachers' perceptions of the relevance of or their anxiety about or enjoyment of integrated STEM teaching due to their participation in the three-day PD workshop.

Keywords: STEM integration, attitude toward STEM, STEM workshop, professional development

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2555 Relationship between Leadership and Emotional Intelligence in Educational Supervision in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Jawaher Bakheet Almudarra

Abstract:

The Saudi Arabian educational system shared the philosophical principles, in its foundation, which concentrated on the achievement of goals, thereby taking up authoritative styles of leadership. However, organisations are beginning to be more liberal in today’s environment than in the 1940s and 1950s, and appealing to emotional intelligence as a tool and skill are needed for effective leadership. In the Saudi Arabian case, such developments are characterised by changes such as that of the educational supervisor having the role redefined to that of a director. This review tracks several parts: the first section helps western reader to understand the subtleties, complexities, and intricacies of the Saudi Arabia education system and its approach to leadership system of education, history, culture and political contribution. This can lead to the larger extent understand if emotional intelligence is a provocation for better leadership of Saudi Arabian education sector or not. The second part is the growth of educational supervision in Saudi Arabia, focusing on the education system, and evaluates the impact of emotional intelligence as a necessary skill in leadership. The third section looks at emotions and emotional intelligence, gender roles, and contributions by emotional intelligence in the education system. The education system of Saudi Arabia has undergone significant transformation. To fully understand the current climate of Saudi Arabia, it is essential to review this process of transformation in terms of the historical, cultural, political and social positions and transformations. Over the years, the education system in Saudi Arabia has undergone significant metamorphosis. The Saudi government has instituted a wide range of reforms in an attempt to improve education standards and outcomes, facilitate improvements and ensure that high standards of education standards are upheld to keep pace with the global environment and knowledge economy. Leadership itself has become an increasingly prominent aspect of educational reform worldwide. Emotional intelligence is often considered a significant aspect of leadership, but it is in its early stages in Saudi Arabia. Its recognition and adoption may improve leadership practices, particularly among educational supervisors and contribute to national and international understandings of leadership in Saudi Arabia. Studying leadership in the Saudi Arabian context is imperative as the new generation of leaders need to cultivate pertinent skills that will allow them to become fundamentally and positively involved in the regions’ decision making processes in order to impact the progression of the Saudi Arabian education system. Understanding leadership in the education context will allow for suitable inculcation of leadership skills. These skills include goal-setting, sound decision-making as well as problem-solving within the education system of Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: educational supervision, educational administration, emotional intelligence, educational leadership

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2554 Banking Control Law 1966 in Saudi Arabia, Shortcomings and Development: A Comparative Study in Banking Supervision between the Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency and the Bank of England

Authors: Khalid Huwaydi Alshammari

Abstract:

The paper examined the extent to which it was necessary for the Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency (SAMA), as a central bank, to update the Banking Control Law 1966 (BCL) in order to gain full independence, while ensuring that SAMA would have enough flexibility to develop the banking industry yet make sound decisions with regard to the issuance of new regulations related to banking supervision.Using a comparative study approach, the paper looked to find the best practices around these issues. The Bank of England, which was recently granted full independence, presented a good opportunity for a case study. The perspectives of the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and commercial banks in Saudi Arabia are examined, including an analysis of their recommendations regarding SAMA regulations on banking supervision. This paper found several issues are important for SAMA as the central bank in a country which is a member of the G20, and which has recently faced unstable oil prices. The paper also discusses conflicts of interest which arose when the Saudi government became a shareholder in commercial banks while simultaneously regulating SAMA through the Ministry of Finance, resulting in a monopoly which disabled free competition in the banking market. The paper recommends further steps for SAMA to develop the banking industry, which is an important arm of Saudi’s economy, and examines the challenges SAMA faces in updating regulations such as the BCL under Sharia law. The author also suggests practical solutions to the difficulties. The paper found these difficulties could be avoiding them if SAMA focuses on Islamic banking product, and fixed the lacks of regulations of the related laws.

Keywords: Saudi Arabian monetary agency, comparative study, banking control law 1966, the bank of England

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2553 A Review and Classification of Maritime Disasters: The Case of Saudi Arabia's Coastline

Authors: Arif Almutairi, Monjur Mourshed

Abstract:

Due to varying geographical and tectonic factors, the region of Saudi Arabia has been subjected to numerous natural and man-made maritime disasters during the last two decades. Natural maritime disasters, such as cyclones and tsunamis, have been recorded in coastal areas of the Indian Ocean (including the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Aden). Therefore, the Indian Ocean is widely recognised as the potential source of future destructive natural disasters that could affect Saudi Arabia’s coastline. Meanwhile, man-made maritime disasters, such as those arising from piracy and oil pollution, are located in the Red Sea and the Arabian Gulf, which are key locations for oil export and transportation between Asia and Europe. This paper provides a brief overview of maritime disasters surrounding Saudi Arabia’s coastline in order to classify them by frequency of occurrence and location, and discuss their future impact the region. Results show that the Arabian Gulf will be more vulnerable to natural maritime disasters because of its location, whereas the Red Sea is more vulnerable to man-made maritime disasters, as it is the key location for transportation between Asia and Europe. The results also show that with the aid of proper classification, effective disaster management can reduce the consequences of maritime disasters.

Keywords: disaster classification, maritime disaster, natural disasters, man-made disasters

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2552 Investigating the Challenges and Opportunities for M-Government Implementation in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Anan Alssbaiheen, Steve Love

Abstract:

Given the lack of research into potential opportunities and challenges which are likely to be associated with the implementation of mobile services in developing countries including Saudi Arabia, the research reported here investigated the challenges and opportunities which are associated with the implementation of mobile government services in Saudi Arabia. By collecting data through surveys from 103 Saudi citizens and 46 employees working at the Ministry of Communication and Information Technology Saudi Arabia, this study indicates that the high level of mobile penetration in the country offers an opportunity for Saudi Arabian government to offer mobile government services in the country. The results also suggest that though a large percentage of populations do not have access to mobile technologies, there is still a strong desire among users for the provision of mobile government services. Moreover, the results suggest that effective implementation of mobile government services would help to increase the technological development of Saudi Arabia. However, there are certain challenges which may prevent the effective implementation of such services. First, there does not appear to be a sufficient level of understanding among the Saudi Arabian population about the benefits which are associated with mobile government services. Secondly, the results suggest that the implementation of the services needs to be closely tailored and personalised to the individual needs of target users. Finally, the lack of access to mobile technologies would be a challenge to the successful introduction of these services.

Keywords: challenges, e-government, mobile government, opportunities

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2551 Coastal Water Characteristics along the Saudi Arabian Coastline

Authors: Yasser O. Abualnaja1, Alexandra Pavlidou2, Taha Boksmati3, Ahmad Alharbi3, Hammad Alsulmi3, Saleh Omar Maghrabi3, Hassan Mowalad3, Rayan Mutwalli3, James H. Churchill4, Afroditi Androni2, Dionysios Ballas2, Ioannis Hatzianestis2, Harilaos Kontoyiannis2, Angeliki Konstantinopoulou2, Georgios Krokkos1, 5, Georgios Pappas2, Vassilis P. Papadopoulos2, Konstantinos Parinos2, Elvira Plakidi2, Eleni Rousselaki2, Dimitris Velaoras2, Panagiota Zachioti2, Theodore Zoulias2, Ibrahim Hoteit5.

Abstract:

The coastal areas along the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia on both the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf have been witnessing in the past decades an unprecedented economic growth and a rapid increase in anthropogenic activities. Therefore, the Saudi Arabian government has decided to frame a strategy for sustainable development of the coastal and marine environments, which comes in the context of the Vision 2030, aimed at providing the first comprehensive ‘Status Quo Assessment’ of the Kingdom’s coastal and marine environments. This strategy will serve as a baseline assessment for future monitoring activities; this baseline is relied on scientific evidence of the drivers, pressures, and their impact on the environments of the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf. A key element of the assessment was the cumulative pressures of the hotspots analysis, which was developed following the principles of the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework and using the cumulative pressure and impact assessment methodology. Ten hotspot sites were identified, eight in the Red Sea and two in the Arabian Gulf. Thus, multidisciplinary research cruises were conducted throughout the Red Sea and the Arabian Gulf coastal and marine environments in June/July 2021 and September 2021, respectively, in order to understand the relative impact of hydrography and the various pressures on the quality of seawater and sediments. The main objective was to record the physical and biogeochemical parameters along the coastal waters of the Kingdom, tracing the dispersion of contaminants related to specific pressures. The assessment revealed the effect of hydrography on the trophic status of the southern marine coastal areas of the Red Sea. Jeddah Lagoon system seems to face significant eutrophication and pollution challenges, whereas sediments are enriched in some heavy metals in many areas of the Red Sea and the Arabian Gulf. This multidisciplinary research in the Red Sea and the Arabian Gulf coastal waters will pave the way for future detailed environmental monitoring strategies for the Saudi Arabian marine environment.

Keywords: arabian gulf, contaminants, hotspot, red sea

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2550 Engineering in Saudi Arabia: Importance of Communications and Power Engineering

Authors: Hamed D. Alsharari

Abstract:

This paper first analyses the current status regarding electrical engineering higher education in Saudi Arabian public universities. The paper focuses on the two EE sub-specialties most commonly present in Saudi Arabia, power and communications and discusses recruitment in this field, showing various market and employment demand for EE.

Keywords: communications, electrical engineering, higher education, Saudi Arabia, power

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2549 Impacts of E-Learning on Educational Policy: Policy of Sensitization and Training in E-Learning in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Layla Albdr

Abstract:

Saudi Arabia instituted the policy of Sensitizing and Training Stakeholders for E-learning and witnessed wide adoption in many institutions. However, it is at the infancy stage and needs time to develop to mirror the US and UK. The majority of the higher education institutions in Saudi Arabia have adopted E-learning as an alternative to traditional methods to advance education. Conversely, effective implementation of the policy of sensitization and training of stakeholders for E-learning implementation has not been attained because of various challenges. The objectives included determining the challenges and opportunities of the E-learning policy of sensitization and training of stakeholders in Saudi Arabia's higher education and examining if sensitization and training of stakeholder's policy will help promote the implementation of E-learning in institutions. The study employed a descriptive research design based on qualitative analysis. The researcher recruited 295 students and 60 academic staff from four Saudi Arabian universities to participate in the study. An online questionnaire was used to collect the data. The data was then analyzed and reported both quantitatively and qualitatively. The analysis provided an in-depth understanding of the opportunities and challenges of E-learning policy in Saudi Arabian universities. The main challenges identified as internal challenges were the lack of educators’ interest in adopting the policy, and external challenges entailed lack of ICT infrastructure and Internet connectivity. The study recommends encouraging, sensitizing, and training all stakeholders to address these challenges and adopt the policy.

Keywords: e-learning, educational policy, Saudi Arabia, policy of sensitization and training

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2548 Evaluation of JCI Accreditation for Medical Technology in Saudi Arabian Hospitals: A Study Case of PSMMC

Authors: Hamad Albadr

Abstract:

Joint Commission International (JCI) accreditation process intent to improve the safety and quality of care in the international community through the provision of education, publications, consultation, and evaluation services. These standards apply to the entire organization as well as to each department, unit, or service within the organization. Medical Technology that contains both medical equipment and devices, is an essential part of health care. Appropriate management of equipment maintenance for ensuring medical technology safe, the equipment life is maximized, and the total costs are minimized. JCI medical technology evaluation and accreditation use standards, intents, and measurable elements. The paper focuses on evaluation of JCI standards for medical technology in Saudi Arabian hospitals: a Study Case of PSMMC that define the performance expectation, structures, or functions that must be in place for a hospital to be accredited by JCI through measurable elements that indicate a score during the survey process that identify the requirements for full compliance with the standard specially through Facility Management and Safety (FMS) section that require the hospital establishes and implements a program for inspecting, testing, and maintaining medical technology and documenting the results, to ensure that medical technology is available for use and functioning properly, the hospital performs and documents; an inventory of medical technology; regular inspections of medical technology; testing of medical technology according to its use and manufacturers’ requirements; and performance of preventive maintenance.

Keywords: joint commission international (JCI) accreditation, medical technology, Saudi Arabia, Saudi Arabian hospitals

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2547 The Effect of Culture on User Interface Design of Social Media- A Case Study on Preferences of Saudi Arabian on the Arabic User Interface of Facebook

Authors: Hana Almakky, Reza Sahandi, Jacqui Taylor

Abstract:

Social media continue to grow, and user interfaces may become more appealing if cultural characteristics are incorporated into their design. Facebook was designed in the west, and the original language was English. Subsequently, the words in the user interface were translated to other languages, including Arabic. Arabic words are written from right to left, and English is written from left to right. The translated version may misrepresent the original design and users preferences may influence their culture, which should be considered in the user interface design. Previous research indicates that users are more comfortable when interacting with a user interface, which relates to their own culture. Therefore, this paper, using a survey investigates the preferences of Saudi Arabian on the Arabic version of user interface of Facebook.

Keywords: culture, social media, user interface design, Facebook, Saudi Arabia

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2546 Ants of the Genus Trichomyrmex Mayr, 1865 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Arabian Peninsula, with Description of Two New Species

Authors: Mostafa R. Sharaf, Shehzad Salman, Hathal M. Al Dhafer, Shahid A. Akbar, Abdulrahman S. Aldawood

Abstract:

The ant genus Trichomyrmex Mayr is revised for the Arabian Peninsula based on the worker caste. Nine species are recognized and descriptions of two new species, T. almosayari sp. n. and T. shakeri sp. n. from Riyadh Province, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) are given. A key to species and diagnostic characters of the treated species are presented. New country records are presented, T. abyssinicus (Forel) for the KSA and T. destructor (Jerdon) and T. mayri (Forel) for the State of Qatar. New distribution records for T. destructor (Jerdon) and T. mayri (Forel) in the KSA are provided. Regional and world distributions, and distribution maps for the treated species are included. Ecological and biological data are given where known.

Keywords: ants, Trichomyrmex, Arabian Peninsula, T. almosayari, T. shakeri

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2545 Mobile Phones in Saudi Arabian EFL Classrooms

Authors: Srinivasa Rao Idapalapati, Manssour Habbash

Abstract:

As mobile connectedness continues to sweep across the landscape, the value of deploying mobile technology to the service of learning and teaching appears to be both self-evident and unavoidable. To this end, this study explores the reasons for the reluctance of teachers in Saudi Arabia to use mobiles in EFL (English as a Foreign Language) classes for teaching and learning purposes. The main objective of this study is a qualitative analysis of the responses of the views of the teachers at a university in Saudi Arabia about the use of mobile phones in classrooms for educational purposes. Driven by the hypothesis that the teachers in Saudi Arabian universities aren’t prepared well enough to use mobile phones in classrooms for educational purposes, this study examines the data obtained through a questionnaire provided to about hundred teachers working at a university in Saudi Arabia through convenient sampling method. The responses are analyzed by qualitative interpretive method and found that teachers and the students are in confusion whether to use mobiles, and need some training sessions on the use of mobile phones in classrooms for educational purposes. The outcome of the analysis is discussed in light of the concerns bases adoption model and the inferences are provided in a descriptive mode.

Keywords: mobile assisted language learning, technology adoption, classroom instruction, concerns based adoption model

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2544 The Influence of Oil Price Fluctuations on Macroeconomics Variables of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Khalid Mujaljal, Hassan Alhajhoj

Abstract:

This paper empirically investigates the influence of oil price fluctuations on the key macroeconomic variables of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia using unrestricted VAR methodology. Two analytical tools- Granger-causality and variance decomposition are used. The Granger-causality test reveals that almost all specifications of oil price shocks significantly Granger-cause GDP and demonstrates evidence of causality between oil price changes and money supply (M3) and consumer price index percent (CPIPC) in the case of positive oil price shocks. Surprisingly, almost all specifications of oil price shocks do not Granger-cause government expenditure. The outcomes from variance decomposition analysis suggest that positive oil shocks contribute about 25 percent in causing inflation in the country. Also, contribution of symmetric linear oil price shocks and asymmetric positive oil price shocks is significant and persistent with 25 percent explaining variation in world consumer price index till end of the period.

Keywords: Granger causality, oil prices changes, Saudi Arabian economy, variance decomposition

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2543 Cumulative Pressure Hotspot Assessment in the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf

Authors: Schröde C., Rodriguez D., Sánchez A., Abdul Malak, Churchill J., Boksmati T., Alharbi, Alsulmi H., Maghrabi S., Mowalad, Mutwalli R., Abualnaja Y.

Abstract:

Formulating a strategy for sustainable development of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia’s coastal and marine environment is at the core of the “Marine and Coastal Protection Assessment Study for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Coastline (MCEP)”; that was set up in the context of the Vision 2030 by the Saudi Arabian government and aimed at providing a first comprehensive ‘Status Quo Assessment’ of the Kingdom’s marine environment to inform a sustainable development strategy and serve as a baseline assessment for future monitoring activities. This baseline assessment relied on scientific evidence of the drivers, pressures and their impact on the environments of the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf. A key element of the assessment was the cumulative pressure hotspot analysis developed for both national waters of the Kingdom following the principles of the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework and using the cumulative pressure and impact assessment methodology. The ultimate goals of the analysis were to map and assess the main hotspots of environmental pressures, and identify priority areas for further field surveillance and for urgent management actions. The study identified maritime transport, fisheries, aquaculture, oil, gas, energy, coastal industry, coastal and maritime tourism, and urban development as the main drivers of pollution in the Saudi Arabian marine waters. For each of these drivers, pressure indicators were defined to spatially assess the potential influence of the drivers on the coastal and marine environment. A list of hotspots of 90 locations could be identified based on the assessment. Spatially grouped the list could be reduced to come up with of 10 hotspot areas, two in the Arabian Gulf, 8 in the Red Sea. The hotspot mapping revealed clear spatial patterns of drivers, pressures and hotspots within the marine environment of waters under KSA’s maritime jurisdiction in the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf. The cascading assessment approach based on the DPSIR framework ensured that the root causes of the hotspot patterns, i.e. the human activities and other drivers, can be identified. The adapted CPIA methodology allowed for the combination of the available data to spatially assess the cumulative pressure in a consistent manner, and to identify the most critical hotspots by determining the overlap of cumulative pressure with areas of sensitive biodiversity. Further improvements are expected by enhancing the data sources of drivers and pressure indicators, fine-tuning the decay factors and distances of the pressure indicators, as well as including trans-boundary pressures across the regional seas.

Keywords: Arabian Gulf, DPSIR, hotspot, red sea

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2542 Industrial Engineering Higher Education in Saudi Arabia: Assessing the Current Status

Authors: Mohammed Alkahtani, Ahmed El-Sherbeeny

Abstract:

Industrial engineering is among engineering disciplines that have been introduced relatively recently to higher education in Saudi Arabian engineering colleges. The objective of this paper is to shed light on the history and status of IE higher education in different Saudi universities, including statistics comparing student enrollment and graduation in different Saudi public and private universities. This paper then proposes how industrial engineering programs could participate successfully in the Saudi Vision 2030. Finally, the authors show the results of a survey conducted on a number of IE students evaluating various academic and administrative aspects of the IE program at King Saud University.

Keywords: higher education, history, industrial engineering, Vision 2030

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2541 The Opportunities and Challenges of Adopting International Financial Reporting Standards in Saudi Capital Market

Authors: Abdullah Almulhim

Abstract:

The International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) was established in 2001 to develop International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) that bring transparency, accountability, and efficiency to financial markets around the world. In addition, the IFRS provide a unified accounting language, which is especially important in the era of globalization. However, the establishment of a single set of high-quality international accounting standards is a matter of growing importance, as participants in the increasingly integrated world capital market demand comparability and transparency of financial reporting worldwide. Saudi Arabia became the 149th member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) on 11 December 2005, which has increased the need to convert to IFRS. Currently, the Saudi Arabian Monetary Authority (SAMA) requires banks and insurance companies in Saudi Arabia to report under IFRS Standards. However, until the end of 2016, SOCPA standards were applied to all other companies, listed and unlisted. From 2017, listed Saudi companies would be required to report under IFRS Standards as adopted by SOCPA effective 2017. This paper is to investigate the expected benefits gained and highlight the challenges faced by adopting IFRS by the listed companies in the Saudi Stock Exchange. Questionnaires were used as the main method of data collection. They were distributed to listed companies in the Saudi Capital Market. Data obtained through the questionnaires have been imported into SPSS statistical software for analysis. The expected results of this study will show the benefits of adopting IFRS by Saudi Listed Companies. However, this study will investigate the challenges faced by adopting IFRS by the listed companies in the Saudi Arabian Stock Market. Findings will be discussed later upon completion of initial analysis.

Keywords: challenges, IAS, IFRS, opportunities, Saudi, SOCPA

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2540 Capital Market Reaction to Governance and Disclosure Violations: Evidence from the Saudi Arabian Capital Market

Authors: Nasser Alsadoun

Abstract:

Today's companies in Saudi Arabian capital market must comply with strict criteria and adhere to rigid corporate governance rules and continuous disclosure requirements. Unlike other regulators in the region, decision makers of the Capital Market Authority (hereafter CMA) of Saudi Arabia believes that the announcements of economic sanctions and penalties for non-compliance firms will foster more effective regulatory compliance and hence improve the quality of financial reporting. An implied argument put forward by the opponents, however, states that such penalties are unnecessary and stated to be onerous for non-compliance firms. Over that last years, the CMA has publicly announced several economic fines levied on some listed companies for their failing to comply with corporate governance and continuous disclosure regulation clauses, with the amount of fine levied ranges between 50,000 SR to 100,000 SR for each failing. Economic theory suggests that rational investors make decisions based on a cost-benefit principal. The regulatory intervention made by CMA on the announcement of economic sanctions has been costly to the society (economy) hoping that it improves the transparency of financial statements. It is argued, therefore, that threat of regulators and economic sanctions will provide incentives for firms’ managers to report more relevant and reliable accounting information, and the benefit of such announcements is likely to be reflected in the context of the quality of the financial reports. Yet, the economic consequences of the revealed fines announcement for non-compliance firms in Saudi Arabian market have not been examined. Thus, this study attempts to empirically examine whether market participants are pricing the supposed benefits of rigid governance and disclosure rules in the Saudi market. The study employs an event study methodology to assess the impact of CMA economic sanctions announcements on the market price of non-compliance firms. The study also estimates and examines bid–ask spread behavior of violated firms around the CMA announcements. The findings indicate that the CMA fines announcements for failing to comply with governance and disclosure rules do not appear to play any significant role in securities pricing. In addition, tests of bid-ask behavior does not indicate any significant increases in information asymmetry surrounding these announcements. While the CMA has developed many goals to increase the awareness of listed companies with the best governance and disclosure practices, it seems they have to develop more goals to improve market efficiency and increase investors and public awareness.

Keywords: governance and disclosure violations, financial reporting quality, regulatory intervention, market efficiency

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2539 Isolation and Molecular Identification of Two Fungal Strains Capable of Degrading hydrocarbon Contaminants on Saudi Arabian Environment

Authors: Amr A. EL Hanafy, Yasir Anwar, Saleh A. Mohamed, Saleh Mohamed Saleh Al-Garni, Jamal S. M. Sabir , Osama A. H. Abu Zinadah, Mohamed Morsi Ahmed

Abstract:

In the vicinity of the red sea about 15 fungi species were isolated from oil contaminated sites. On the basis of aptitude to degrade the crude oil and DCPIP assay, two fungal isolates were selected amongst 15 oil degrading strains. Analysis of ITS-1, ITS-2 and amplicon pyrosequencing studies of fungal diversity revealed that these strains belong to Penicillium and Aspergillus species. Two strains that proved to be the most efficient in degrading crude oil was Aspergillus niger (54 %) and Penicillium commune (48 %) Subsequent to two weeks of cultivation in BHS medium the degradation rate were recorded by using spectrophotometer and GC-MS. Hence, it is cleared that these fungal strains has the capability of degradation and can be utilized for cleaning the Saudi Arabian environment.

Keywords: fungal strains, hydrocarbon contaminants, molecular identification, biodegradation, GC-MS

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2538 Challenging Barriers to the Evolution of the Saudi Animation Industry Life-Cycle

Authors: Ohud Alharbi, Emily Baines

Abstract:

The animation industry is one of the creative industries that have attracted recent historiographical attention. However, there has been very limited research on Saudi Arabian and wider Arabian animation industries, while there are a large number of studies that have covered this issue for North America, Europe and East Asia. The existing studies show that developed countries such as USA, Japan and the UK have reached the Maturity stage in their animation industry life-cycle. On the other hand, developing countries that are still in the Introduction phase of the industry life-cycle face challenges to improve their industry. Saudi Arabia is one of the countries whose animation industry is still in its infancy. Thus, the aim of this paper is to address the main barriers that hinder the evolution of the industry life-cycle for Saudi animation – challenges that are also relevant to many other early stage industries in developing countries. These barriers have been analysed using the early mobility barriers defined by Porter, to provide a conceptual structure for defining recommendations to enable the transition to a strong Growth phase industry. This study utilized qualitative methods to collect data, which involved in-depth interviews, document analysis and observations. It also undertook a comparative case study approach to investigate the animation industry life-cycle, with three selected case studies that have a more developed industry than Saudi animation. Case studies include: the United Kingdom, which represents a Mature animation industry; Egypt, which represents an established Growth stage industry; and the United Arab of Emirates, which is an early Growth stage industry. This study suggests adopting appropriate strategies that arise as findings from the comparative case studies, to overcome barriers and facilitate the growth of the Saudi animation industry.

Keywords: barriers, industry life-cycle, Saudi animation, industry

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2537 A Traditional Settlement in a Modernized City: Yanbu, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Hisham Mortada

Abstract:

Transition in the urban configuration of Arab cities has never been as radical and visible as it has been since the turn of the last century. The emergence of new cities near historical settlements of Arabia has spawned a series of developments in and around the old city precincts. New developments are based on advanced technology and conform to globally prevalent standards of city planning, superseding the vernacular arrangements based on traditional norms that guided so-called ‘city planning’. Evidence to this fact are the extant Arab buildings present at the urban core of modern cities, which inform us about intricate spatial organization. Organization that subscribed to multiple norms such as, satisfying gender segregation and socialization, economic sustainability, and ensuring security and environmental coherence etc., within settlement compounds. Several participating factors achieved harmony in such an inclusive city—an organization that was challenged and apparently replaced by the new planning order in the face of growing needs of globalized, economy-centric and high-tech models of development. Communities found it difficult to acclimatize with the new western planning models that were implemented at a very large scale throughout the Kingdom, which later experienced spatial re-structuring to suit users’ needs. A closer look the ancient city of Yanbu, now flanked with such new developments, allows us to differentiate and track the beginnings of this unprecedented transition in settlement formations. This paper aims to elaborate the Arabian context offered to both the ‘traditional’ and ‘modern’ planning approaches, in order to understand challenges and solutions offered by both at different times. In the process it will also establish the inconsistencies and conflicts that arose with the shift in planning paradigm, from traditional-'cultural norms’, to modern-'physical planning', in the Arabian context. Thus, by distinguishing the two divergent planning philosophies, their impact of the Arabian morphology, relevance to lifestyle and suitability to the biophysical environment, it concludes with a perspective on sustainability particularly for in case of Yanbu.

Keywords: Yanbu, traditional architecture, Hijaz, coral building, Saudi Arabia

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2536 Cost Overrun in Delivery of Public Projects in the Saudi Construction Industry: A Review

Authors: A. Aljohani, D. Moore, D. D. Ahiaga-Dagbui

Abstract:

Cost overruns are endemic in the delivery of construction projects. The problem is global. It occurs irrespective of type and size of the project, its location, procurement method or client. The size of overruns can be as high as 200% in some cases. Projects thus unfortunately often make the news headlines, not for their immense socio-economic contribution to society, but for being poorly procured. In Saudi Arabia, two-thirds of construction projects are publicly procured by the Saudi government, which has been invested Billions of dollars in infrastructure projects each year as part of an ambitious strategic development agenda to shift from mainly oil dependency to multi-source dependency. However, reports show that about 3,000 public projects face diverse issues related to time and cost overrun. As part of an on-going study to develop a framework for effective public procurement for the Saudi Arabian construction industry, this paper reports the initial findings of the causes of cost overruns in the context of the Gulf State. It also evaluates the interface between some of the front-end loading issues in public procurement in Saudi and their effects on project performance. A systematic review of the existing literature on construction cost overruns, with focus on the Saudi Arabian construction industry has been used. One of the initial findings is that a fixed-price contract is usually used by the client in an attempt to transfer all financial risks to the contractors. This has the unintended consequence of creating a turbulent environment for the delivery of the project which leads to project abandonment by contractors, poor quality of work and substantial rework. Further work is being undertaken to empirically verify the initial findings reported in this paper and their generalizability for the construction industry as a whole.

Keywords: cost overrun, public procurement, Saudi Arabia, construction projects

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2535 Endangered Languages in Arabia: Documentation Challenges

Authors: Munira Al-Azraqi

Abstract:

Modern South Arabian Languages (MSAL) belong to the Semitic language family and are believed to be either a southern member of the west Semitic branch (Rubin 2010; Moscati et al 1969) or an eastern member of the south Semitic branch (Faber 1997), (Watson 2012). They are six languages which are still spoken in southern Arabia. They are used in Oman, Yemen, Saudi Arabia and in some of the Gulf states. Mehri is one of them however it has the highest number of speakers comparing to the other members of MSAL. It is used in Yemen, Oman, in parts of southern and eastern Saudi Arabia and in some of the Gulf states. The number of Mehri speakers is estimated at between 100,000 and 180,000. The problem that this language might face is that its speakers live in different places which are belonging to different countries. This might cause the language to change rapidly due to education and communication. There are some studies on Omani and Yemeni Mehri but not in Saudi Mehri. In the nineteenth century, travelers, western scholars and explorers played their parts in the discovery of these peoples and their languages. The historical turning point for the knowledge of the MSAL is 1898, when the Südarabische Expedition of the Imperial Academy of Vienna started. The three scholars, Müller, Jahn and Hein began their systematic collection of texts, which were later studied grammatically and lexically by Bittner (1908-1917), Jahn (1915), Leslau (1938) and Wagner (1953). Saudi Mehri has not been studied. This might be caused by the lack of information or the difficulty in collecting the data which this paper aims to shed light on.

Keywords: Modern South Arabian, Mehri, Saudi Arabia, endangered languages

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2534 Genomic Diversity and Relationship among Arabian Peninsula Dromedary Camels Using Full Genome Sequencing Approach

Authors: H. Bahbahani, H. Musa, F. Al Mathen

Abstract:

The dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) are single-humped even-toed ungulates populating the African Sahara, Arabian Peninsula, and Southwest Asia. The genome of this desert-adapted species has been minimally investigated using autosomal microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA markers. In this study, the genomes of 33 dromedary camel samples from different parts of the Arabian Peninsula were sequenced using Illumina Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) platform. These data were combined with Genotyping-by-Sequencing (GBS) data from African (Sudanese) dromedaries to investigate the genomic relationship between African and Arabian Peninsula dromedary camels. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and average genome-wide admixture analysis were be conducted on these data to tackle the objectives of these studies. Both of the two analyses conducted revealed phylogeographic distinction between these two camel populations. However, no breed-wise genetic classification has been revealed among the African (Sudanese) camel breeds. The Arabian Peninsula camel populations also show higher heterozygosity than the Sudanese camels. The results of this study explain the evolutionary history and migration of African dromedary camels from their center of domestication in the southern Arabian Peninsula. These outputs help scientists to further understand the evolutionary history of dromedary camels, which might impact in conserving the favorable genetic of this species.

Keywords: dromedary, genotyping-by-sequencing, Arabian Peninsula, Sudan

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2533 Inter-Annual Variations of Sea Surface Temperature in the Arabian Sea

Authors: K. S. Sreejith, C. Shaji

Abstract:

Though both Arabian Sea and its counterpart Bay of Bengal is forced primarily by the semi-annually reversing monsoons, the spatio-temporal variations of surface waters is very strong in the Arabian Sea as compared to the Bay of Bengal. This study focuses on the inter-annual variability of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) in the Arabian Sea by analysing ERSST dataset which covers 152 years of SST (January 1854 to December 2002) based on the ICOADS in situ observations. To capture the dominant SST oscillations and to understand the inter-annual SST variations at various local regions of the Arabian Sea, wavelet analysis was performed on this long time-series SST dataset. This tool is advantageous over other signal analysing tools like Fourier analysis, based on the fact that it unfolds a time-series data (signal) both in frequency and time domain. This technique makes it easier to determine dominant modes of variability and explain how those modes vary in time. The analysis revealed that pentadal SST oscillations predominate at most of the analysed local regions in the Arabian Sea. From the time information of wavelet analysis, it was interpreted that these cold and warm events of large amplitude occurred during the periods 1870-1890, 1890-1910, 1930-1950, 1980-1990 and 1990-2005. SST oscillations with peaks having period of ~ 2-4 years was found to be significant in the central and eastern regions of Arabian Sea. This indicates that the inter-annual SST variation in the Indian Ocean is affected by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) events.

Keywords: Arabian Sea, ICOADS, inter-annual variation, pentadal oscillation, SST, wavelet analysis

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2532 The Arabian Camel (Camelus dromedarius) as a Major Reservoir of Q Fever in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Mansour F. Hussein, Mohammed A. Alshaikh, Riyadh S. Al-Jumaah, A. GarelNabi, I. Al-Khalifa, Osama B. Mohammed

Abstract:

Serum samples from 489 male and female camels were tested for antibodies against C. burnetii using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Antibodies to C. burnetii were recorded in sera of 252 (51.64%) camels. Significant differences in prevalence were found between male and female camels, juvenile and adult camels, different ecotypes and different sampling locations. 307 camels were simultaneously tested for C. burnetii antibodies by ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence (IFA). Close agreement was found between the results of the two tests. A high prevalence of C. burnetii antibodies was also recorded in milk samples tested by ELISA. Clinical samples from serologically positive camels were subjected to PCR analysis using primers which amplify the repetitive transposon-like and transposase gene regions of C. burnetii. Positive DNA amplification was obtained from both regions, with highest shedding of C. burnetii in faecal samples (27.59%) followed, in descending order, by urine (23.81%), blood (15.85%) and milk (6.5%). The present results indicate that camels are a major reservoir of C. burnetii in Saudi Arabia. The high prevalence of infection in camels, the poor sanitary standards under which the animals are kept and the consumption of raw camel milk indicate that camels could also be a major source of transmission of Q fever to humans in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: Arabian camel, Camelus dromedarius, Coxiella brunetii, ELISA, immunofluoresence, PCR

Procedia PDF Downloads 573
2531 EFL Saudi Students' Use of Vocabulary via Twitter

Authors: A. Alshabeb

Abstract:

Vocabulary is one of the elements that links the four skills of reading, writing, speaking, and listening and is very critical in learning a foreign language. This study aims to determine how Saudi Arabian EFL students learn English vocabulary via Twitter. The study adopts a mixed sequential research design in collecting and analysing data. The results of the study provide several recommendations for vocabulary learning. Moreover, the study can help teachers to consider the possibilities of using Twitter further, and perhaps to develop new approaches to vocabulary teaching and to support students in their use of social media.

Keywords: social media, twitter, vocabulary, web 2

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
2530 A Case Study of the Saudi Arabian Investment Regime

Authors: Atif Alenezi

Abstract:

The low global oil price poses economic challenges for Saudi Arabia, as oil revenues still make up a great percentage of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP). At the end of 2014, the Consultative Assembly considered a report from the Committee on Economic Affairs and Energy which highlights that the economy had not been successfully diversified. There thus exist ample reasons for modernising the Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) regime, primarily to achieve and maintain prosperity and facilitate peace in the region. Therefore, this paper aims at identifying specific problems with the existing FDI regime in Saudi Arabia and subsequently some solutions to those problems. Saudi Arabia adopted its first specific legislation in 1956, which imposed significant restrictions on foreign ownership. Since then, Saudi Arabia has modernised its FDI framework with the passing of the Foreign Capital Investment Act 1979 and the Foreign Investment Law2000 and the accompanying Executive Rules 2000 and the recently adopted Implementing Regulations 2014.Nonetheless, the legislative provisions contain various gaps and the failure to address these gaps creates risks and uncertainty for investors. For instance, the important topic of mergers and acquisitions has not been addressed in the Foreign Investment Law 2000. The circumstances in which expropriation can be considered to be in the public interest have not been defined. Moreover, Saudi Arabia has not entered into many bilateral investment treaties (BITs). This has an effect on the investment climate, as foreign investors are not afforded typical rights. An analysis of the BITs which have been entered into reveals that the national treatment standard and stabilisation, umbrella or renegotiation provisions have not been included. This is problematic since the 2000 Act does not spell out the applicable standard in accordance with which foreign investors should be treated. Moreover, the most-favoured-nation (MFN) or fair and equitable treatment (FET) standards have not been put on a statutory footing. Whilst the Arbitration Act 2012 permits that investment disputes can be internationalised, restrictions have been retained. The effectiveness of international arbitration is further undermined because Saudi Arabia does not enforce non-domestic arbitral awards which contravene public policy. Furthermore, the reservation to the Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes allows Saudi Arabia to exclude petroleum and sovereign disputes. Interviews with foreign investors, who operate in Saudi Arabia highlight additional issues. Saudi Arabia ought not to procrastinate far-reaching structural reforms.

Keywords: FDI, Saudi, BITs, law

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
2529 Nutritional Quality of Partially Processed Chicken Meat Products from Egyptian and Saudi Arabia Markets

Authors: Ali Meawad Ahmad, Hosny A. Abdelrahman

Abstract:

Chicken meat is a good source of protein of high biological value which contains most of essential amino-acids with high proportion of unsaturated fatty acids and low cholesterol level. Besides, it contain many vitamins as well as minerals which are important for the human body. Therefore, a total of 150 frozen chicken meat product samples, 800g each within their shelf-life, were randomly collected from commercial markets from Egypt (75 samples) and Saudi Arabian (75 samples) for chemical evaluation. The mean values of fat% in the examined samples of Egyptian and Saudi markets were 16.0% and 4.6% for chicken burger; 15.0% and 11% for nuggets and 11% and 11% for strips respectively. The mean values of moisture % in the examined samples of Egyptian and Saudi markets were 67.0% and 81% for chicken burger; 66.0% and 78% for nuggets and 71.0% and 72% for strips respectively. The mean values of protein % in the examined samples of Egyptian and Saudi markets were 15% and 17% for chicken burger; 16% and 16% for nuggets and 16% and 17% for strips respectively. The obtained results were compared with the Egyptian slandered and suggestions for improving the chemical quality of chicken products were given.

Keywords: chicken meat, nutrition, Egypt, markets

Procedia PDF Downloads 497
2528 Examining the Influence of Organisational Culture on Middle Leadership in Primary Schools in Saudi Arabia and United Kingdom

Authors: Saeed Musaid Alzahrani

Abstract:

Shared values, beliefs, norms and assumptions within the organisation can affect personal and team effectiveness. Organisational culture can also affect the performance of organisational members. The nature of middle leadership in a primary school is largely influenced by organizational culture. The effectiveness of middle leadership in primary schools and their performance is strongly determined by the circumstances in which they work and can be political or institutional. This study aims to examine the influence of organisational culture and government policy on the performance and effectiveness of middle managers, using the English and Saudi education systems as case studies. To examine how education policy conditions educational discourse, and answer the research questions, there is a need to collect qualitative data on middle manager’s perceptions and experiences in the English and Saudi Arabian contexts. The study involved a qualitative and interpretative approach. In-depth interviews with 6 middle managers and school supervisors in 3 English primary schools and 6 middle managers in 3 Saudi Arabian primary schools were conducted to answer the research questions. The study also included ethnographic tools such as observations of a sample of three primary schools in both England and Saudi Arabia where the researcher observed middle managers’ interactions with their peers. The sample of three enabled the study to identify trends and make comparisons between leadership approaches in both systems based on observations without the bias of prescriptions. The use of ethnographic tools not only makes the study empirical but also increases the reliability and validity of the findings by reducing prescriptive bias. The observations will be triangulated with the results of the interviews to draw comparisons and conclusions on whether middle managers act as leaders or as followers in their respective political contexts.

Keywords: education management, government education policies, middle managers, organisational culture

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2527 Food Safety Management in Riyadh’s Ministry of Health Hospitals

Authors: A. Alrasheed, I. Connerton

Abstract:

Providing patients with safe meals on a daily basis is one of the challenges in the healthcare sector. In Saudi Arabia matters related to food safety and hygiene have been the heart of the Ministry of Health (MOH) and Saudi Food and Drugs Authority (SFDA). The aim of this study is to examine the causes of inadequate implementation of food safety management systems such as HACCP in Riyadh’s MOH hospitals. By the law, food safety must be managed using a documented, HACCP based approach, and food handlers must be appropriately trained in food safety. Food handlers in Saudi Arabia are not required to provide a certificate or attend a food handling training course even in healthcare sectors. Since food safety and hygiene issues are of increasing importance for Saudi Arabian health decision makers, the SFDA has been established to apply food hygiene requirements in all food operations. It should be pointed out that the implications of food outbreaks on the whole society may potentially go beyond individual health impacts but also impact on the Nation’s health and bring about economic repercussions.

Keywords: food safety, patient, hospital, HACCP

Procedia PDF Downloads 317