Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 115

Search results for: Paris

115 Possibility of Making Ceramic Models from Condemned Plaster of Paris (Pop) Moulds for Ceramics Production in Edo State Nigeria

Authors: Osariyekemwen, Daniel Nosakhare


Some ceramic wastes, such as discarded (condemn) Plaster of Paris (POP) in Auchi Polytechnic, Edo State, constitute environmental hazards. This study, therefore, bridges the forgoing gaps by undertaking the use of these discarded (POP) moulds to produced ceramic models for making casting moulds for mass production. This is in line with the possibility of using this medium to properly manage the discarded (condemn) Plaster of Paris (POP) that littered our immediate environment. Presently these are major wastes disposal in the department. Hence, the study has been made to fabricate sanitary miniature models and contract fuse models, respectively. Findings arising from this study show that discarded (condemn) Plaster of Paris (POP) can be carved when to set it neither shrink nor expand; hence warping is quite unusual. Above all, it also gives good finishing with little deterioration with time when compared to clay models.

Keywords: plaster of Paris, condemn, moulds, models, production

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
114 Access to Climate Change Information Through the Implementation of the Paris Agreement

Authors: Ana Cristina A. P. Carvalho, Solange Teles Da Silva


In April, 174 countries signed the Paris Agreement, a multilateral agreement on climate change which deals with greenhouse gas emissions, mitigation, adaptation, finance, access to information, transparency, among other subjects related to the environment. Since then, Parties shall cooperate in taking measures, as appropriate, to enhance climate change education, training, public awareness, public participation and public access to information, recognizing the importance of these steps with respect to enhancing actions under this Agreement. This paper aims to analyze the consequences of this new rule in terms of the implementation of the Agreement, collecting data from Brazilian and Canadian legislations in order to identify if these countries have rules complying with the Treaty, the steps that have been already taken and if they could be used as examples for other countries. The analysis will take into consideration the different kinds of climate change information, means of transparency, reliability of the data and how to spread the information. The methodology comprehends a comparative legal research based on both the Paris Agreement and domestic laws of Brazil and Canada, as well as on doctrine and Court decisions. The findings can contribute to the implementation of the Paris Agreement through compliance with this Treaty at countries’ domestic and policy level.

Keywords: climate change information, domestic legislation, Paris Agreement, public policy

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
113 Investigating Cultural Identities in Contemporary Greek Art: the Case of Greek Artists in Paris in 1980s

Authors: Sapfo Mortaki


Over the years, Greeks were leaving their homeland looking for better luck, including artists - painters and sculptors. Until mid-1940's, few were the ones who lived, worked, studied and were distinguished abroad. After the end of the Second World War, the group exit towards the cultural centers of the West commences. Since the mid-1970s, and especially in the early 1980s, Modern Greek Diaspora has undergone a new period. The creation of the European Community affects both the character of the immigration of artists as well as the creation of their identity within cultural pluralism. Since 1980 the situation in Greece changed significantly, and the contacts of artists with their homeland became greatly enhanced. Based on the above, this paper examines the cultural identity of the Greek artists in Paris during the 1980s, in comparison to the creation of the identity of the artists of the previous migratory movements, since this decade constitutes a critical point. Their cultural presence in Paris, as reflected in French and Greek daily press and journals of the period, is also investigated. At the same time, their connection with Greece and their contribution to the development and evolution of Contemporary Greek Art is discussed.

Keywords: artistic migration in Paris, cultural identity, cultural interaction, greek artists, greek contemporary art

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
112 Hidden Populations and Women: New Political, Methodological and Ethical Challenges

Authors: Renée Fregosi


The contribution presently proposed will report on the beginnings of a Franco-Chilean study to be launched in 2015 by a multidisciplinary team of Renée Fregosi Political Science University Paris 3 / CECIEC, Norma Muñoz Public Policies University of Santiago of Chile, Jean-Daniel Lelievre, Medicine Paris 11 University, Marcelo WOLFF Medicine University of Chile, Cecilia Blatrix Political Science University Paris-Tech, Ernesto OTTONE, Political Science University of Chile, Paul DENY Medicine Paris 13 University, Rafael Bugueno Medicine Hospital Urgencia Pública of Santiago, Eduardo CARRASCO Political Science Paris 3 University. The problem of hidden populations challenges some criteria and concepts to re-examine: in particular the concept of target population, sampling methods to "snowball" and the cost-effectiveness criterion that shows the connection of political and scientific fields. Furthermore, if the pattern of homosexual transmission still makes up the highest percentage of the modes of infection with HIV, there is a continuous increase in the number of people infected through heterosexual sex, including women and persons aged 50 years and older. This group can be described as " unknown risk people." Access to these populations is a major challenge and raises methodological, ethical and political issues of prevention, particularly on the issue of screening. This paper proposes an inventory of these types of problems and their articulation, to define a new phase in the prevention against HIV refocused on women.

Keywords: HIV testing, hidden populations, difficult to reach PLWHA, women, unknown risk people

Procedia PDF Downloads 429
111 Presence and Absence: The Use of Photographs in Paris, Texas

Authors: Yi-Ting Wang, Wen-Shu Lai


The subject of this paper is the photography in the 1983 film Paris, Texas, directed by Wim Wenders. Wenders is well known as a film director as well as a photographer. We have found that photography is shown as a photographic element in many of his films. Some of these photographs serve as details within the films, while others play important roles that are relevant to the story. This paper aims to consider photographs in film as a specific type of text, which is the output of both still photography and the film itself. In the film Paris, Texas, three sets of important photographs appear whose symbolic meanings are as dialectical as their text types. The relationship between the existence of these photos and the storyline is both dependent and isolated. The film’s images fly by and progress into other images, while the photos in the film serve a unique narrative function by stopping the continuously flowing images thus provide the viewer a space for imagination and contemplation. They are more than just artistic forms; they also contained multiple meanings. The photographs in Paris, Texas play the role of both presence and absence according to their shifting meanings. There are references to their presence: photographs exist between film time and narrative time, so in terms of the interaction between the characters in the film, photographs are a common symbol of the beginning and end of the characters’ journeys. In terms of the audience, the film’s photographs are a link in the viewing frame structure, through which the creative motivation of the film director can be explored. Photographs also point to the absence of certain objects: the scenes in the photos represent an imaginary map of emotion. The town of Paris, Texas is therefore isolated from the physical presence of the photograph, and is far more abstract than the reality in the film. This paper embraces the ambiguous nature of photography and demonstrates its presence and absence in film with regard to the meaning of text. However, it is worth reflecting that the temporary nature of the interpretation of the film’s photographs is far greater than any other type of photographic text: the characteristics of the text cause the interpretation results to change along with the variations in the interpretation process, which makes their meaning a dynamic process. The photographs’ presence or absence in the context of Paris, Texas also demonstrates the presence and absence of the creator, time, the truth, and the imagination. The film becomes more complete as a result of the revelation of the photographs, while the intertextual connection between these two forms simultaneously provides multiple possibilities for the interpretation of the photographs in the film.

Keywords: film, Paris, Texas, photography, Wim Wenders

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
110 Meeting India's Energy Demand: U.S.-India Energy Cooperation under Trump

Authors: Merieleen Engtipi


India's total share of global population is nearly 18%; however, its per capita energy consumption is only one-third of global average. The demand and supply of electricity are uneven in the country; around 240 million of the population have no access to electricity. However, with India's trajectory for modernisation and economic growth, the demand for energy is only expected to increase. India is at a crossroad, on the one hand facing the increasing demand for energy and on the other hand meeting the Paris climate policy commitments, and further the struggle to provide efficient energy. This paper analyses the policies to meet India’s need for energy, as the per capita energy consumption is likely to be double in 6-7 years period. Simultaneously, India's Paris commitment requires curbing of carbon emission from fossil fuels. There is an increasing need for renewables to be cheaply and efficiently available in the market and for clean technology to extract fossil fuels to meet climate policy goals. Fossil fuels are the most significant generator of energy in India; with the Paris agreement, the demand for clean energy technology is increasing. Finally, the U.S. decided to withdraw from the Paris Agreement; however, the two countries plan to continue engaging bilaterally on energy issues. The U.S. energy cooperation under Trump administration is significantly vital for greater energy security, transfer of technology and efficiency in energy supply and demand.

Keywords: energy demand, energy cooperation, fossil fuels, technology transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
109 Four Decades of Greek Artistic Presence in Paris (1970-2010): Theory and Interpretation

Authors: Sapfo A. Mortaki


This article examines the presence of Greek immigrant artists (painters and sculptors) in Paris during 1970-2010. The aim is to highlight their presence in the French capital through archival research in the daily and periodical press as well as present the impact of their artistic activity on the French intellectual life and society. At the same time, their contribution to the development of cultural life in Greece becomes apparent. The integration of those migrant artists into an environment of cultural coexistence and the understanding of the social phenomenon of their migration, in the context of postmodernity, are being investigated. The cultural relations between the two countries are studied in the context of support mechanisms, such as the Greek community, cultural institutions, museums and galleries. The recognition of the Greek artists by the French society and the social dimension in the context of their activity in Paris, are discussed in terms of the assimilation theory. Since the 1970s, and especially since the fall of the dictatorship in Greece, in opposition to the prior situation, artists' contacts with their homeland have been significantly enhanced, with most of them now travelling to Paris, while others work in parallel in both countries. As a result, not only do the stages of the development of their work through their pursuits become visible, but, most importantly, the artistic world becomes informed about the multifaceted expression of art through the succession of various contemporary currents. Thus, the participation of Greek artists in the international cultural landscape is demonstrated.

Keywords: artistic migration, cultural impact, Greek artists, postmodernity, theory of assimilation

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
108 Transcendental Birth of the Column from the Full Jar Expressed at the Notre Dame of Paris and Saint Germain-des-Pres

Authors: Kang Woobang


The base of the column is not only a support but also the embodiment of profound symbolism full of cosmic energy. Finding the full jars from which various energy emanate at the Notre Dame of Paris and Saint-Germain-des-Pres in France, the author was so shocked. As the column is cosmic tree, from the Full Jar full with cosmic energy emerges the cosmic tree composed of shaft and capital.

Keywords: full picher or jar, transcendental or supernatural birth from yonggi, yonggimun, yonggissak

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
107 Grand Paris Residential Real Estate as an Effective Hedge against Inflation

Authors: Yasmine Essafi Zouari, Aya Nasreddine


Following a long inflationary period from the post-war era to the mid-1980s (+10.1% annually), France went through a moderate inflation period between 1986 and 2001 (+2.1% annually) and even lower inflation between 2002 and 2016 (+1.4% annually). In 2022, inflation in France increased rapidly and reached 4.5% over one year in March, according to INSEE estimates. Over a long period, even low inflation has an impact on portfolio value and households’ purchasing power. In such a context, inflation hedging should remain an important issue for investors. In particular, long-term investors, who are concerned with the protection of their wealth, seek to hold effective hedging assets. Considering a mixed-asset portfolio composed of housing assets (residential real estate in 150 Grand Paris communes) as well as financial assets, and using both correlation and regression analysis, results confirm the attribute of the direct housing investment as an inflation hedge especially particularly against its unexpected component. Further, cash and bonds were found to provide respectively a partial and an over hedge against unexpected inflation. Stocks act as a perverse hedge against unexpected inflation and provide no significant positive hedge against expected inflation.

Keywords: direct housing, inflation, hedging ability, optimal portfolio, Grand Paris metropolis

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106 Conservation Planning of Paris Polyphylla Smith, an Important Medicinal Herb of the Indian Himalayan Region Using Predictive Distribution Modelling

Authors: Mohd Tariq, Shyamal K. Nandi, Indra D. Bhatt


Paris polyphylla Smith (Family- Liliaceae; English name-Love apple: Local name- Satuwa) is an important folk medicinal herb of the Indian subcontinent, being a source of number of bioactive compounds for drug formulation. The rhizomes are widely used as antihelmintic, antispasmodic, digestive stomachic, expectorant and vermifuge, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, heart and vascular malady, anti-fertility and sedative. Keeping in view of this, the species is being constantly removed from nature for trade and various pharmaceuticals purpose, as a result, the availability of the species in its natural habitat is decreasing. In this context, it would be pertinent to conserve this species and reintroduce them in its natural habitat. Predictive distribution modelling of this species was performed in Western Himalayan Region. One such recent method is Ecological Niche Modelling, also popularly known as Species distribution modelling, which uses computer algorithms to generate predictive maps of species distributions in a geographic space by correlating the point distributional data with a set of environmental raster data. In case of P. polyphylla, and to understand its potential distribution zones and setting up of artificial introductions, or selecting conservation sites, and conservation and management of their native habitat. Among the different districts of Uttarakhand (28°05ˈ-31°25ˈ N and 77°45ˈ-81°45ˈ E) Uttarkashi, Rudraprayag, Chamoli, Pauri Garhwal and some parts of Bageshwar, 'Maximum Entropy' (Maxent) has predicted wider potential distribution of P. polyphylla Smith. Distribution of P. polyphylla is mainly governed by Precipitation of Driest Quarter and Mean Diurnal Range i.e., 27.08% and 18.99% respectively which indicates that humidity (27%) and average temperature (19°C) might be suitable for better growth of Paris polyphylla.

Keywords: biodiversity conservation, Indian Himalayan region, Paris polyphylla, predictive distribution modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
105 Challenge of Net-Zero Carbon Construction and Measurement of Energy Consumption and Carbon Emission Reduction to Climate Change, Economy and Job Growths in Hong Kong and Australia

Authors: Kwok Tak Kit


Under the Paris Agreement 2015, the countries committed to address and combat the climate change and its negative impacts and agree to the target of reducing the global greenhouse gas (GHG) emission substantially by limiting the global temperature to 20C above the pre-industrial level in this century. A internationally Submit named “ 26th United Nations Climate Conference” (COP26) was held in Glasgow in 2021 with all committed countries agreed to the finalize the outstanding element in Paris Agreement and Glasgow Climate Pact to keep 1.50C. In this paper, we will focus on the basic approach of waste strategy, recycling policy, circular economy strategy, net-zero strategy and sustainability strategy and the importance of the elements which affect the carbon emission, waste generation and energy conservation will be further reviewed with recommendation for future study.

Keywords: net-zero carbon, climate change, carbon emission, energy consumption

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
104 Art and Society: Greek Migrant Artists in Paris during 1970s

Authors: Sapfo A. Mortaki


From the early 1960s and until the middle of the next decade, the lack of favorable conditions for the development of art along with the imposition of the 1967 military dictatorship resulted in a great flow of Greek artists abroad. The fall of the dictatorship and the change of the political scene after 1974 constitute crucial milestones in the cultural life of the country. In the field of visual arts significant changes are attempted in the state's effort to formulate a national cultural policy. This article examines the presence of Greek migrant artists (painters and sculptors) in Paris during the 1970s. Since the mid-1970s, and particularly in the early 1980s, Modern Greek Diaspora undergoes a new transition phase, when the concept of immigration changes. The aim of this study is to record and give prominence to the presence of the Greek artists -through archival research in the daily and periodical press- as well as present the impact of their artistic activity on French intellectual life and on the country’s society during this period. Furthermore, the presence and work of these artists are discussed in an environment of cultural coexistence which, to a certain extent, can be regarded as the result of the social phenomenon of their migration in the era of postmodernity. Finally, their contribution to the development of the cultural life of Greece, inside and outside its borders, is also being examined.

Keywords: art and society, cultural policy, Greek artists, postmodernity

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
103 Impact of Global Warming on the Total Flood Duration and Flood Recession Time in the Meghna Basin Using Hydrodynamic Modelling

Authors: Karan Gupta


The floods cause huge loos each year, and their impact gets manifold with the increase of total duration of flood as well as recession time. Moreover, floods have increased in recent years due to climate change in floodplains. In the context of global climate change, the agreement in Paris convention (2015) stated to keep the increase in global average temperature well below 2°C and keep it at the limit of 1.5°C. Thus, this study investigates the impact of increasing temperature on the stage, discharge as well as total flood duration and recession time in the Meghna River basin in Bangladesh. This study considers the 100-year return period flood flows in the Meghna river under the specific warming levels (SWLs) of 1.5°C, 2°C, and 4°C. The results showed that the rate of increase of duration of flood is nearly 50% lesser at ∆T = 1.5°C as compared to ∆T = 2°C, whereas the rate of increase of duration of recession is 75% lower at ∆T = 1.5°C as compared to ∆T = 2°C. Understanding the change of total duration of flood as well as recession time of the flood gives a better insight to effectively plan for flood mitigation measures.

Keywords: flood, climate change, Paris convention, Bangladesh, inundation duration, recession duration

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
102 The Vocality of Sibyl Sanderson in Massenet’s Manon and Esclarmonde: Musical Training and Critical Response

Authors: Tamara Thompson


This presentation will address the vocality of American soprano Sibyl Sanderson (1865–1903) in Massenet’s Manon and Esclarmonde as discernible from documentary sources such as vocal treatises, annotated scores, and correspondence. These sources will then be compared and contrasted with Sanderson’s reception in French press. Sanderson sang Manon in 1888, which Massenet revised for her. She then created the role of Esclarmonde for the 1889 l'Exposition Universelle in Paris. The soprano appeared as the Byzantine Empress more than 100 times in the nine months following the premiere, which secured her fame and an international operatic career frought with controversy and criticism as well as adulation. Before her débuts as Manon and Esclarmonde, Sanderson received musical training in California and Paris from multiple teachers with varied and opposing methods. There will be an exploration of the ways in which the disparate pedagogic influences such as those taught by Giovanni Sbriglia and Jean de Reszké may have guided Sanderson’s vocal strategies, and possibly caused or promoted the severe vocal pathologies she battled in subsequent years. In addition, there is interrogation of the vocal writing and revisions made to the titular roles for Sanderson in order to assess how these factors may have affected her technique and vocal health.

Keywords: French, nineteenth-century, opera, pedagogy, vocality

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
101 An Appraisal of Mitigation and Adaptation Measures under Paris Agreement 2015: Developing Nations' Pie

Authors: Olubisi Friday Oluduro


The Paris Agreement 2015, the result of negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), after Kyoto Protocol expiration, sets a long-term goal of limiting the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels, and of pursuing efforts to limiting this temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius. An advancement on the erstwhile Kyoto Protocol which sets commitments to only a limited number of Parties to reduce their greenhouse gas (GHGs) emissions, it includes the goal to increase the ability to adapt to the adverse impacts of climate change and to make finance flows consistent with a pathway towards low GHGs emissions. For it achieve these goals, the Agreement requires all Parties to undertake efforts towards reaching global peaking of GHG emissions as soon as possible and towards achieving a balance between anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks in the second half of the twenty-first century. In addition to climate change mitigation, the Agreement aims at enhancing adaptive capacity, strengthening resilience and reducing the vulnerability to climate change in different parts of the world. It acknowledges the importance of addressing loss and damage associated with the adverse of climate change. The Agreement also contains comprehensive provisions on support to be provided to developing countries, which includes finance, technology transfer and capacity building. To ensure that such supports and actions are transparent, the Agreement contains a number reporting provisions, requiring parties to choose the efforts and measures that mostly suit them (Nationally Determined Contributions), providing for a mechanism of assessing progress and increasing global ambition over time by a regular global stocktake. Despite the somewhat global look of the Agreement, it has been fraught with manifold limitations threatening its very existential capability to produce any meaningful result. Considering these obvious limitations some of which were the very cause of the failure of its predecessor—the Kyoto Protocol—such as the non-participation of the United States, non-payment of funds into the various coffers for appropriate strategic purposes, among others. These have left the developing countries largely threatened eve the more, being more vulnerable than the developed countries, which are really responsible for the climate change scourge. The paper seeks to examine the mitigation and adaptation measures under the Paris Agreement 2015, appraise the present situation since the Agreement was concluded and ascertain whether the developing countries have been better or worse off since the Agreement was concluded, and examine why and how, while projecting a way forward in the present circumstance. It would conclude with recommendations towards ameliorating the situation.

Keywords: mitigation, adaptation, climate change, Paris agreement 2015, framework

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
100 Application of Artificial Ground-Freezing to Construct a Passenger Interchange Tunnel for the Subway Line 14 in Paris, France

Authors: G. Lancellotta, G. Di Salvo, A. Rigazio, A. Davout, V. Pastore, G. Tonoli, A. Martin, P. Jullien, R. Jagow-Klaff, R. Wernecke


Artificial ground freezing (AGF) technique is a well-proven soil improvement approach used worldwide to construct shafts, tunnels and many other civil structures in difficult subsoil or ambient conditions. As part of the extension of Line 14 of the Paris subway, a passenger interchange tunnel between the new station at Porte de CI ichy and the new Tribunal the Grand Instance has been successfully constructed using this technique. The paper presents the successful application of AGF by Liquid Nitrogen and Brine implemented to provide structural stability and groundwater cut-off around the passenger interchange tunnel. The working conditions were considered to be rather challenging, due to the proximity of a hundred-year-old existing service tunnel of the Line 13, and subsoil conditions on site. Laboratory tests were carried out to determine the relevant soil parameters for hydro-thermal-mechanical aspects and to implement numerical analyses. Monitoring data were used in order to check and control the development and the efficiency of the freezing process as well as to back analyze the parameters assumed for the design, both during the freezing and thawing phases.

Keywords: artificial ground freezing, brine method, case history, liquid nitrogen

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
99 Airbnb, Hotel Industry and Optimum Strategies: Evidence from European Cities, Barcelona, London and Paris

Authors: Juan Pedro Aznar Alarcon, Josep Maria Sayeras Maspera


Airbnb and other similar platforms are offering a near substitute to the traditional accommodation service supplied by the hotel sector. In this context, hotels can try to compete by offering higher quality and additional services, which imply the need for new investments or try to compete by reducing prices. The theoretical model presented in this paper analyzes the best response using a sequential game theory model. The main conclusion is that due to the financial constraints that small and medium hotels have these hotels have reduced prices whereas hotels that belong to international groups or have an easy access to financial resources have increased their investment to increase the quality of the service provided. To check the validity of the theoretical model financial data from Barcelona, London and Paris hotels have been used analyzing profitability, quality of the service provided, the investment propensity and the evolution of the gross profit. The model and the empirical data provide the base for some industrial policy in the hospitality industry. To address the extra cost that small hotels in Europe have to face compared by bigger firms would help to improve the level of quality provided and to some extent have positive externalities in terms of job creation and an increasing added value for the industry.

Keywords: Airbnb, profitability, hospitality industry, game theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
98 World’s Fair (EXPO) Induced Heritage

Authors: Işılay Tiarnagh Sheridan


World EXPO, short version for the “exposition”, is a large universal public exhibition held since 1851. Within the 164 years, it was organized 34 times in 22 cities and as a result it has given birth to its very own culture unlike most of other international events. It has an outstanding power in transforming the places, in which it is held, into trademarks via changes in their urban tissues. For that, it is widely remembered with its cities instead of its countries. Within the scope of this change, some constructions were planned to be temporary, some planned to be permanent and some were thought to be temporary but kept afterwards becoming important monuments such as the Crystal Palace of London (though it was destroyed later by a fire) and the Eiffel Tower of Paris. These examples are the most prominent names upon considering World EXPOs. Yet, there are so many other legacies of these events within modern city fabric today that we don’t usually associate with its Expo history. Some of them are leading figures not only for the housing city but for other cities also, such as the first Metro line of Paris during 1900 World EXPO; some of them are listed as monuments of the cities such as Saint Louis Art Museum of 1904 World EXPO; some of them, like Melbourne Royal Exhibition Building of 1880 World’s EXPO, are among UNESCO World Heritage Sites and some of them are the masterpieces of modern architecture such as the famous Barcelona Pavilion, German pavilion of the 1929 World’s EXPO, of Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. Thus, the aim of this paper is to analyze the history of World’s EXPO and its eventual results in the birth of its own cultural heritage. Upon organizing these results, the paper aims to create a brief list of EXPO heritage monuments and sites so as to form a database for their further conservation needs.

Keywords: expo, heritage, world's fair, legacy

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
97 Changes in Air Quality inside Vehicles and in Working Conditions of Professional Drivers during COVID-19 Pandemic in Paris Area

Authors: Melissa Hachem, Lynda Bensefa-Colas, Isabelle Momas


We evaluated the impact of the first lockdown restriction measures (March-May 2020) in the Paris area on (1) the variation of in-vehicle ultrafine particle (UFP) and black carbon (BC) concentrations between pre-and post-lockdown period and (2) the professional drivers working conditions and practices. The study was conducted on 33 Parisian taxi drivers. UFP and BC were measured inside their vehicles with DiSCmini® and microAeth®, respectively, on two typical working days before and after the first lockdown. The job-related characteristics were self-reported. Our results showed that after the first lockdown, the number of clients significantly decreased as well as the taxi driver's journey duration. Taxi drivers significantly opened their windows more and reduced the use of air recirculation. UFP decreased significantly by 32% and BC by 31% after the first lockdown, with a weaker positive correlation compared to before the lockdown. The reduction of in-vehicle UFP was explained mainly by the reduction of traffic flow and ventilation settings, though the latter probably varied according to the traffic condition. No predictor explained the variation of in-vehicle BC concentration between pre-and post-lockdown periods, suggesting different sources of UFP and BC. The road traffic was not anymore the dominant source of BC post-lockdown. We emphasize the role of traffic emissions on in-vehicle air pollution and that preventive measures such as ventilation settings will help to better manage air quality inside a vehicle in order to minimize exposure of professional drivers, as well as passengers, to air pollutants.

Keywords: black carbon, COVID-19, France, lockdown, taxis, ultrafine particles

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
96 Satellite Technology Usage for Greenhouse Gas Emissions Monitoring and Verification: Policy Considerations for an International System

Authors: Timiebi Aganaba-Jeanty


Accurate and transparent monitoring, reporting and verification of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions and removals is a requirement of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Several countries are obligated to prepare and submit an annual national greenhouse gas inventory covering anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks, subject to a review conducted by an international team of experts. However, the process is not without flaws. The self-reporting varies enormously in thoroughness, frequency and accuracy including inconsistency in the way such reporting occurs. The world’s space agencies are calling for a new generation of satellites that would be precise enough to map greenhouse gas emissions from individual nations. The plan is delicate politically because the global system could verify or cast doubt on emission reports from the member states of the UNFCCC. A level playing field is required and an idea that an international system should be perceived as an instrument to facilitate fairness and equality rather than to spy on or punish. This change of perspective is required to get buy in for an international verification system. The research proposes the viability of a satellite system that provides independent access to data regarding greenhouse gas emissions and the policy and governance implications of its potential use as a monitoring and verification system for the Paris Agreement. It assesses the foundations of the reporting monitoring and verification system as proposed in Paris and analyzes this in light of a proposed satellite system. The use of remote sensing technology has been debated for verification purposes and as evidence in courts but this is not without controversy. Lessons can be learned from its use in this context.

Keywords: greenhouse gas emissions, reporting, monitoring and verification, satellite, UNFCCC

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
95 Stochastic Modelling for Mixed Mode Fatigue Delamination Growth of Wind Turbine Composite Blades

Authors: Chi Zhang, Hua-Peng Chen


With the increasingly demanding resources in the word, renewable and clean energy has been considered as an alternative way to replace traditional ones. Thus, one of practical examples for using wind energy is wind turbine, which has gained more attentions in recent research. Like most offshore structures, the blades, which is the most critical components of the wind turbine, will be subjected to millions of loading cycles during service life. To operate safely in marine environments, the blades are typically made from fibre reinforced composite materials to resist fatigue delamination and harsh environment. The fatigue crack development of blades is uncertain because of indeterminate mechanical properties for composite and uncertainties under offshore environment like wave loads, wind loads, and humid environments. There are three main delamination failure modes for composite blades, and the most common failure type in practices is subjected to mixed mode loading, typically a range of opening (mode 1) and shear (mode 2). However, the fatigue crack development for mixed mode cannot be predicted as deterministic values because of various uncertainties in realistic practical situation. Therefore, selecting an effective stochastic model to evaluate the mixed mode behaviour of wind turbine blades is a critical issue. In previous studies, gamma process has been considered as an appropriate stochastic approach, which simulates the stochastic deterioration process to proceed in one direction such as realistic situation for fatigue damage failure of wind turbine blades. On the basis of existing studies, various Paris Law equations are discussed to simulate the propagation of the fatigue crack growth. This paper develops a Paris model with the stochastic deterioration modelling according to gamma process for predicting fatigue crack performance in design service life. A numerical example of wind turbine composite materials is investigated to predict the mixed mode crack depth by Paris law and the probability of fatigue failure by gamma process. The probability of failure curves under different situations are obtained from the stochastic deterioration model for comparisons. Compared with the results from experiments, the gamma process can take the uncertain values into consideration for crack propagation of mixed mode, and the stochastic deterioration process shows a better agree well with realistic crack process for composite blades. Finally, according to the predicted results from gamma stochastic model, assessment strategies for composite blades are developed to reduce total lifecycle costs and increase resistance for fatigue crack growth.

Keywords: Reinforced fibre composite, Wind turbine blades, Fatigue delamination, Mixed failure mode, Stochastic process.

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94 How Autonomous Vehicles Transform Urban Policies and Cities

Authors: Adrián P. Gómez Mañas


Autonomous vehicles have already transformed urban policies and cities. This is the main assumption of our research, which aims to understand how the representations of the possible arrival of autonomous vehicles already transform priorities or actions in transport and more largely, urban policies. This research is done within the framework of a Ph.D. doctorate directed by Professor Xavier Desjardins at the Sorbonne University of Paris. Our hypotheses are: (i) the perspectives, representations, and imaginaries on autonomous vehicles already affect the stakeholders of urban policies; (ii) the discourses on the opportunities or threats of autonomous vehicles reflect the current strategies of the stakeholders. Each stakeholder tries to integrate a discourse on autonomous vehicles that allows them to change as little as possible their current tactics and strategies. The objective is to eventually make a comparison between three different cases: Paris, United Arab Emirates, and Bogota. We chose those territories because their contexts are very different, but they all have important interests in mobility and innovation, and they all have started to reflect on the subject of self-driving mobility. The main methodology used is to interview actors of the metropolitan area (local officials, leading urban and transport planners, influent experts, and private companies). This work is supplemented with conferences, official documents, press articles, and websites. The objective is to understand: 1) What they know about autonomous vehicles and where does their knowledge come from; 2) What they expect from autonomous vehicles; 3) How their ideas about autonomous vehicles are transforming their action and strategy in managing daily mobility, investing in transport, designing public spaces and urban planning. We are going to present the research and some preliminary results; we will show that autonomous vehicles are often viewed by public authorities as a lever to reach something else. We will also present that speeches are very influenced by local context (political, geographical, economic, etc.), creating an interesting balance between global and local influences. We will analyze the differences and similarities between the three cases and will try to understand which are the causes.

Keywords: autonomous vehicles, self-driving mobility, urban planning, urban mobility, transport, public policies

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93 Identification and Understanding of Colloidal Destabilization Mechanisms in Geothermal Processes

Authors: Ines Raies, Eric Kohler, Marc Fleury, Béatrice Ledésert


In this work, the impact of clay minerals on the formation damage of sandstone reservoirs is studied to provide a better understanding of the problem of deep geothermal reservoir permeability reduction due to fine particle dispersion and migration. In some situations, despite the presence of filters in the geothermal loop at the surface, particles smaller than the filter size (<1 µm) may surprisingly generate significant permeability reduction affecting in the long term the overall performance of the geothermal system. Our study is carried out on cores from a Triassic reservoir in the Paris Basin (Feigneux, 60 km Northeast of Paris). Our goal is to first identify the clays responsible for clogging, a mineralogical characterization of these natural samples was carried out by coupling X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The results show that the studied stratigraphic interval contains mostly illite and chlorite particles. Moreover, the spatial arrangement of the clays in the rocks as well as the morphology and size of the particles, suggest that illite is more easily mobilized than chlorite by the flow in the pore network. Thus, based on these results, illite particles were prepared and used in core flooding in order to better understand the factors leading to the aggregation and deposition of this type of clay particles in geothermal reservoirs under various physicochemical and hydrodynamic conditions. First, the stability of illite suspensions under geothermal conditions has been investigated using different characterization techniques, including Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM). Various parameters such as the hydrodynamic radius (around 100 nm), the morphology and surface area of aggregates were measured. Then, core-flooding experiments were carried out using sand columns to mimic the permeability decline due to the injection of illite-containing fluids in sandstone reservoirs. In particular, the effects of ionic strength, temperature, particle concentration and flow rate of the injected fluid were investigated. When the ionic strength increases, a permeability decline of more than a factor of 2 could be observed for pore velocities representative of in-situ conditions. Further details of the retention of particles in the columns were obtained from Magnetic Resonance Imaging and X-ray Tomography techniques, showing that the particle deposition is nonuniform along the column. It is clearly shown that very fine particles as small as 100 nm can generate significant permeability reduction under specific conditions in high permeability porous media representative of the Triassic reservoirs of the Paris basin. These retention mechanisms are explained in the general framework of the DLVO theory

Keywords: geothermal energy, reinjection, clays, colloids, retention, porosity, permeability decline, clogging, characterization, XRD, SEM-EDS, STEM, DLS, NMR, core flooding experiments

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92 Simulation Approach for Analyzing Transportation Energy System in South Korea

Authors: Sungjun Hong, Youah Lee, Jongwook Kim


In the last COP21 held in Paris on 2015, Korean government announced that Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC) was 37% based on BAU by 2030. The GHG reduction rate of the transportation sector is the strongest among all sectors by 2020. In order to cope with Korean INDC, Korean government established that 3rd eco-friendly car deployment national plans at the end of 2015. In this study, we make the energy system model for estimating GHG emissions using LEAP model.

Keywords: INDC, greenhouse gas, LEAP, transportation

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91 Determination of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gas Emission in Electronics Industry

Authors: Bong Jae Lee, Jeong Il Lee, Hyo Su Kim


Both developed and developing countries have adopted the decision to join the Paris agreement to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at the Conference of the Parties (COP) 21 meeting in Paris. As a result, the developed and developing countries have to submit the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC) by 2020, and each country will be assessed for their performance in reducing GHG. After that, they shall propose a reduction target which is higher than the previous target every five years. Therefore, an accurate method for calculating greenhouse gas emissions is essential to be presented as a rational for implementing GHG reduction measures based on the reduction targets. Non-CO2 GHGs (CF4, NF3, N2O, SF6 and so on) are being widely used in fabrication process of semiconductor manufacturing, and etching/deposition process of display manufacturing process. The Global Warming Potential (GWP) value of Non-CO2 is much higher than CO2, which means it will have greater effect on a global warming than CO2. Therefore, GHG calculation methods of the electronics industry are provided by Intergovernmental Panel on climate change (IPCC) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and it will be discussed at ISO/TC 146 meeting. As discussed earlier, being precise and accurate in calculating Non-CO2 GHG is becoming more important. Thus this study aims to discuss the implications of the calculating methods through comparing the methods of IPCC and EPA. As a conclusion, after analyzing the methods of IPCC & EPA, the method of EPA is more detailed and it also provides the calculation for N2O. In case of the default emission factor (by IPCC & EPA), IPCC provides more conservative results compared to that of EPA; The factor of IPCC was developed for calculating a national GHG emission, while the factor of EPA was specifically developed for the U.S. which means it must have been developed to address the environmental issue of the US. The semiconductor factory ‘A’ measured F gas according to the EPA Destruction and Removal Efficiency (DRE) protocol and estimated their own DRE, and it was observed that their emission factor shows higher DRE compared to default DRE factor of IPCC and EPA Therefore, each country can improve their GHG emission calculation by developing its own emission factor (if possible) at the time of reporting Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC). Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Korea Evaluation Institute of Industrial Technology (No. 10053589).

Keywords: non-CO2 GHG, GHG emission, electronics industry, measuring method

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90 Computational Fluid Dynamicsfd Simulations of Air Pollutant Dispersion: Validation of Fire Dynamic Simulator Against the Cute Experiments of the Cost ES1006 Action

Authors: Virginie Hergault, Siham Chebbah, Bertrand Frere


Following in-house objectives, Central laboratory of Paris police Prefecture conducted a general review on models and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes used to simulate pollutant dispersion in the atmosphere. Starting from that review and considering main features of Large Eddy Simulation, Central Laboratory Of Paris Police Prefecture (LCPP) postulates that the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) model, from National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), should be well suited for air pollutant dispersion modeling. This paper focuses on the implementation and the evaluation of FDS in the frame of the European COST ES1006 Action. This action aimed at quantifying the performance of modeling approaches. In this paper, the CUTE dataset carried out in the city of Hamburg, and its mock-up has been used. We have performed a comparison of FDS results with wind tunnel measurements from CUTE trials on the one hand, and, on the other, with the models results involved in the COST Action. The most time-consuming part of creating input data for simulations is the transfer of obstacle geometry information to the format required by SDS. Thus, we have developed Python codes to convert automatically building and topographic data to the FDS input file. In order to evaluate the predictions of FDS with observations, statistical performance measures have been used. These metrics include the fractional bias (FB), the normalized mean square error (NMSE) and the fraction of predictions within a factor of two of observations (FAC2). As well as the CFD models tested in the COST Action, FDS results demonstrate a good agreement with measured concentrations. Furthermore, the metrics assessment indicate that FB and NMSE meet the tolerance acceptable.

Keywords: numerical simulations, atmospheric dispersion, cost ES1006 action, CFD model, cute experiments, wind tunnel data, numerical results

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89 A Parallel Implementation of k-Means in MATLAB

Authors: Dimitris Varsamis, Christos Talagkozis, Alkiviadis Tsimpiris, Paris Mastorocostas


The aim of this work is the parallel implementation of k-means in MATLAB, in order to reduce the execution time. Specifically, a new function in MATLAB for serial k-means algorithm is developed, which meets all the requirements for the conversion to a function in MATLAB with parallel computations. Additionally, two different variants for the definition of initial values are presented. In the sequel, the parallel approach is presented. Finally, the performance tests for the computation times respect to the numbers of features and classes are illustrated.

Keywords: K-means algorithm, clustering, parallel computations, Matlab

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88 At Home in This World: Nanyang Painter Georgette Chen

Authors: Christine C. Neal


A veritable world citizen, Nanyang painter Georgette Chen (1906-1993) melded artistic influences from both the East and West. Much has been written about her contribution to the art of Singapore, her role in the establishment of the Nanyang Style, the lasting influence that she exerted on younger artists, and her considerable artistic achievements. Never before examined is the development of her oeuvre that reflects this mixture, to the best of the author’s knowledge. The works selected for this investigation reveal her artistic development from student to teacher, the range of her thematic interests, and the stimuli that she absorbed from a life ensconced in eastern and western cultures where she felt, as she wrote, “at home in this world.”

Keywords: art, China, Georgette Chen, Nanyang, Paris, Singapore

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87 Microplastic Concentrations and Fluxes in Urban Compartments: A Systemic Approach at the Scale of the Paris Megacity

Authors: Rachid Dris, Robin Treilles, Max Beaurepaire, Minh Trang Nguyen, Sam Azimi, Vincent Rocher, Johnny Gasperi, Bruno Tassin


Microplastic sources and fluxes in urban catchments are only poorly studied. Most often, the approaches taken focus on a single source and only carry out a description of the contamination levels and type (shape, size, polymers). In order to gain an improved knowledge of microplastic inputs at urban scales, estimating and comparing various fluxes is necessary. The Laboratoire Eau, Environnement et Systèmes Urbains (LEESU), the Laboratoire Eau Environnement (LEE) and the SIAAP (Service public de l’assainissement francilien) initiated several projects to investigate different urban sources and flows of microplastics. A systemic approach is undertaken at the scale of Paris Megacity, and several compartments are considered, including atmospheric fallout, wastewater treatments plants, runoff and combined sewer overflows. These investigations are carried out within the Limnoplast and OPUR projects. Atmospheric fallout was sampled during consecutive periods ranging from 2 to 3 weeks with a stainless-steel funnel. Both wet and dry periods were considered. Different treatment steps were sampled in 2 wastewater treatment plants (Seine-Amont for activated sludge and Seine-Centre for biofiltration) of the SIAAP, including sludge samples. Microplastics were also investigated in combined sewer overflows as well as in stormwater at the outlet suburban catchment (Sucy-en-Brie, France) during four rain events. Samples are treated using hydroperoxide digestion (H₂O₂ 30 %) in order to reduce organic material. Microplastics are then extracted from the samples with a density separation step using NaI (d=1.6⁻³). Samples are filtered on metallic filters with a porosity of 14 µm between steps to separate them from the solutions (H₂O₂ and NaI). The last filtration was carried out on alumina filters. Infrared mapping analysis (using a micro-FTIR with an MCT detector) is performed on each alumina filter. The resulting maps are analyzed using a microplastic analysis software simple, developed by Aalborg University, Denmark and Alfred Wegener Institute, Germany. Blanks were systematically carried out to consider sample contamination. This presentation aims at synthesizing the data found in the various projects. In order to carry out a systemic approach and compare the various inputs, all the data were converted into annual microplastic fluxes (number of microplastics per year), and extrapolated to the Parisian agglomeration. PP, PE and alkyd are the most prevalent polymers found in storm water samples. Rain intensity and microplastic concentrations did not show any clear correlation. Considering the runoff volumes and the impervious surface area of the studied catchment, a flux of 4*107–9*107 MPs.yr⁻¹.ha⁻¹ was estimated. Samples of wastewater treatment plants and atmospheric fallout are currently being analyzed in order to finalize this assessment. The representativeness of such samplings and uncertainties related to the extrapolations will be discussed and gaps in knowledge will be identified. The data provided by such an approach will help to prioritize future research as well as policy efforts.

Keywords: microplastics, atmosphere, wastewater, urban runoff, Paris megacity, urban waters

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86 Komedya: St. Denis' Philippine Theater in the US

Authors: Nenita Pambid Domingo


The komedya otherwise known as moro-moro or pretending to be Moors, is a traditional Filipino play in the vernacular adapted from the Spanish comedia de capa y espada. It was used by Spanish colonizers in the Philippines, circa 1766 to evangelize and strengthen the faith of Indios or Filipino natives to Christianity. Unlike the Moros y Cristianos festival held all over Spain celebrating the Reconquista from the 8th to the 15th century, the Philippine Moro-Moro or Komedya is a romance between a Muslim and a Christian and the battles between Christians and Moros, where the Moros are always defeated and the Muslim prince is converted to the Christian faith and marries the Christian princess at the end of the play. For over 200 years, the komedya has been part of the Filipinos’ life and has been dubbed by some Philippine scholars as the Philippine’s national theater. Until now postings of performances in different parts of the Philippines in different Philippine languages are uploaded at youtube. In the US, “San Dionisio sa America (SDA),” an organization of natives from Barrio San Dionisio, Parañaque, Philippines has been performing the komedya for the past 16 years during their town’s fiesta, in honor of the barrio's patron saints St Denis of Paris, France and Saint Joseph whom the devotees fondly call "Tata Dune" and "Tata Hosep". The komedya performed in the US is infused with modern elements in the production and content, but retain the basic form in verse and the stylized war dance, marches, and singsong delivery of lines. Most of the Celebras or town fiestas and komedya performances are held at The Barnsdall Art Park and Gallery Theatre in Hollywood, Los Angeles. The presentation will focus on the linguistic and content analysis of the Tagalog verses in the 2010 komedya entitled Mga Prinsesa ng Cordova (The Princesses of Cordova) publicized as a modern komedya. The presentation will also touch on the healing function of the language and performance that is part of the town’s religious festivities. It will also look into the aesthetics of the production, audience reception, participation of the sponsors, producers called Hermana/Hermano Mayor, the performers who are a mix of Filipinos from the Philippines and Filipino-Americans who are starting to lose the Tagalog language and the non-Filipino participants, as well as the general audience who are from Parañaque and those not from Parañaque, who come to witness the event and enjoy the festivities.

Keywords: devotion, diaspora nationalism, komedya, st. denis of Paris, France, traditional Philippine theater

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