Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 101

Search results for: Ottoman empire

101 On the Path of the Ottoman Modernization Period Mesire: As a Women Place in 19th Century

Authors: Merve Kurt


How women should behave in public spaces and how they should be dressed was a loaded issues in the Ottoman Empire. They pointed to what kind of state the Ottoman State was. One of such public space was Mesires, promenades. Women's visibility and invisibility, their morals were reflected and linked to the society as a whole. How the public space and private space is defined, what were the lines that separates them, how much blurred these lines were discussed in this paper. Moreover, all these points were strengthened by the primary sources from archives dating to the end of the 19th century.

Keywords: Mesire, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman women, public spaces

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
100 Foreign Women Affecting the Social Life of the Ottoman Empire at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century: The Case of Lady Alice Lowther (1873-1939)

Authors: Meliha Nur Cercinli


In the last period of the Ottoman Empire, foreign officers played important role in the political area. Behind their political activities, their wives had a considerable influence on Ottoman social life. Despite the difficult conditions, these women involved in educating girls, encouraging Ottoman women to take part in the production area. For this purpose, they opened many schools and workplaces in various regions of the capital-Istanbul. One of these women was Lady Alice Lowther, who was known as the wife of British ambassador Gerard Agustus Lowther. She arranged various organizations in order to create necessary resources to help families of martyrs. Also, she chaired the Committee for Aid to Ottoman Military Families (Asker Ailelerine Yardım Komitesi), made an effort to establish the Society for Protection Animals in Istanbul (Istanbul Himaye-i Hayvanat Cemiyeti) with the supports of The Royal Society For Prevention Cruelty For Animals. Apart from these, she was also a good observer and writer as a traveller. She wrote and published her memories with the name of Down The Old Road (1921), When It Was June (1923) Land Of Gold Mohur (1932), Moments In Portugal Or Land Of The Laurel (1939). This paper aims to analyze Lady Alice Lowther’s activities in Istanbul based on Ottoman Archive documents. In addition, her books will also be examined as they will present a different perspective regarding her experiences.

Keywords: Lady Lowther, Ottoman Empire, women history, social life

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
99 Wasif Jawharriyeh and the Identity-Forming Spaces of Late Ottoman Jerusalem

Authors: Feyza Daloglu


This paper scrutinizes the Ottoman years of Wasif Jawharriyeh’s memoir, The Storyteller of Jerusalem, within the framework of citadinite, employed by the Open Jerusalem Project. Open Jerusalem Project uses the term citadinite to describe “the dynamic identity relationship city dwellers have with each other and their urban environment.” While Jerusalem and Jerusalemite identity have usually been analyzed within religious, national, or colonial frameworks, citadinite offers a fresh perspective by turning its lens to the urban identity of its citizens in the 19th and 20th centuries to overcome the shortcomings of usual frameworks. Wasif Jawharriyeh is a proud Jerusalemite and a Greek Orthodox Arab, who spent his childhood and teenage years under the Ottoman Empire. His memoir reveals a great deal of urbanity and a strong sense of Jerusalemite identity which appears to be favored over other forms of identities - Arab, Christian - in the late empire years. Through citadinite, this paper aims to discuss aspects of Jerusalemite identity and key points of urban life in the late Ottoman holy city with the guidance of a very lively and social Ottoman citizen and at that time a young musician, Wasif Jawharriyeh.

Keywords: arab memoir, cityscape, jerusalem identity, ottoman city, urban life

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
98 The Last National Anthem of the Ottoman Empire: Musical Code, Sociopolitical Control and Historical Realities

Authors: Nuray Ocakli


19th century was the era of changes and transformations for the Ottoman Empire. The first sultan of this century, Mahmud II (1808-1839), was the architect of Ottoman modernization and fundamental changes. The most radical of these was abolishing the Janissary corps and the traditional Ottoman military band, Mehteran. Mahmud II introduced modernized military corps as well as western style royal and military music. Mahmut II invited the Italian composer Giuseppe Donizetti to establish a modern military band for the new army and to compose the Sultan’s royal anthem. In 1828, Donizetti composed the first western-style Ottoman anthem, Mahmudiyye anthem. During the 19th and early 20th century, four other western style Ottoman anthems (Aziziyye, Mecidiyye, Hamidiyye, and Resadiyye) were composed but the last anthem adopted in the reign of Mehmet VI (r. 1918-1922) was again Mahmudiyye anthem. This paper aims to analyze the Mahmudiyye anthem composed as royal anthem in 1828 but adopted as national anthem in 1918. Research questions of this paper are as follows: What were the characteristics of the Mahmudiyye anthem making it the best choice of the last sultan for the last national anthem? Are there specific reasons of the last sultan to adopt Mahmudiyye anthem or not to adopt any of the other four anthems? The musical characteristics of the anthem are analyzed based on the Cerulo’s empirical research. Cerulo examined the musical structures of 124 western style anthems from 150 countries in the 1580-1976 period. Cerulo’s research categorizes musical codes of the anthems as basic and embellished related with the level of sociopolitical control. Musical analysis of the anthem indicates that the basic musical code of the anthem implies a high level of socio-political control during the reign of both Mahmut II and Mehmet VI. Historical analysis of each sultans’ reign shows that both sultans were autocratic. Mahmut II designed authoritarian government policies to suppress possible reactions against his reforms. On the other hand, authoritarian policies of Mehmet VI are related with the domestic and international political conditions following the World War I. Historical analysis of the research questions show that compared to the other western style Ottoman anthems, Mahmudiyye anthem remained the only neutral anthem symbolizing modernization and westernization of the empire. Other anthems were all the symbols of failed ideologies such as Ottomanism, pan-Islamism, and pan-Turkism. In the early 20th century, there were a few common things remained among the diverse communities of the Ottoman Empire: The land they shared as homeland and the idea of modernization to save the homeland. For this reason, the last sultan Mehmet VI adopted Mahmudiyye anthem as the memory of a unified empire under the rule of a powerful and modernist sultan. The last sultan’s reign lasted just for four years, and the Ottoman Empire disintegrated in 1922, but his adaptation of the Mahmudiyye anthem indicates his unifying policies, his attitudes to save the empire and the caliphate.

Keywords: Mahmudiyye anthem, musical code, national anthem, Ottoman Empire, royal anthem

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
97 Ottoman Marches Composed by European Musicians

Authors: Selcen Özyurt Ulutaş


March as a musical form in Ottoman Music has started after Sultan II. Mahmud. Owing to the modernization process on Ottoman Empire, marches had accepted and embraced by the sultanate in a short period of time. The reasons behind sultans favor against marches that is actually a European Music form is closely related to attribute meanings to marches. After Sultan II. Mahmud, marches became a symbol of westernization and became a symbol of sultanate. After that period besides sultans also princes started to compose marches. The presentation includes the demonstration of the marches classification in achieves to be able to give information on the composers of those marches. Through that process, this study aims to show attributed meanings to those marches and what those marches represent.

Keywords: Ottoman marches, music, Europe, European musicians

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
96 A Tomb Structure in Pursuit of Tradition in 2oth Century Turkey and Its Story; the Tomb of Haci Hâkim Kemal Onsun and His Wife

Authors: Yavuz Arat, Ugur Tuztasi, Mehmet Uysal


Anatolia has been the host of many civilizations and a site where architectural structures of many cultural layers were interpreted. Most significantly the Turks who settled in Central Asia brought their architectural dynamics and cultural accumulation to Anatolia after the 12th century. The tomb structures first observed in Central Asia under the influence of Islamic faith and Turkish cultural heritage has blossomed under Great Seljuk Empire and with the Anatolian Seljuk Empire these tombs changed both in size and form with rich and beautiful samples from Ahlat to Sivas to Kayseri and Konya. This tomb tradition which started during 13th century has continued during the Ottoman Empire period with some alterations of form and evolved into the rarely observed mausoleum type tombs. The Ottoman tradition of building tombs inside mosque gardens and their forms present the clues of an important burial tradition. However this understanding was abandoned in 20th century Turkey. This tradition was abandoned with regard to legal regulations and health conditions. This study investigates the vestiges of this tradition and its spatial reflections over a sample. The present sample is representative of a tradition that started in 1970s and the case of building tombs inside mosque gardens will be illustrated over the tomb of Hacı Kemal Onsun and his wife which is located in Konya, the capital of the Anatolian Seljuks. The building process of this tomb will be evaluated with regard to burial traditions and architectural stylization.

Keywords: tomb, language of architectural form, Anatolian Seljuk tombs, Ottoman tombs

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95 Modernizer'ness as Madness: A Comparative Historical Study of Emperor Tewodros II of Ethiopia and Sultan Selim III of Ottoman Turkey's Modernization Reforms

Authors: Seid Ahmed Mohammed, Nedim Yalansiz


Many historians hardly gave due attention for historical comparison as their methods of study. They were still stunt supporter of the use of their own historical research method in their studies. But this method lacks the way to analyze some worldwide dynamics of events in comparative perspectives. Some dynamics like revolution, modernization, societal change and transformation needs broader analysis for broadening our historical knowledge’s by comparing and contrasting of the causes, courses and consequences of such dynamics historical developments in the world at large. In this paper, our study focuses up on ‘the dynamics of modernization’ and the challenge of modernity of the old regimes. For instance, countries like Turkey, Ethiopia, China, Russia, Iran, Afghanistan and Thailand have almost the same dynamics in facing the challenge of modernity. In such countries, the old regimes tried to introduce modernization and ‘reform from the above’ in order to tackle the gradual decline of the empire that faced strong challenge from the outside world. The other similarity of them was that as the rulers attempted to introduce the modernization reforms the old traditional and the religious institutions strongly opposed the reforms as the reforms alienated the power and prestige of the traditional classes. Similarly, the rules introduced modernization for maintaining their own unique socio-cultural and religious dynamics not as borrowing and acculturation of the west by complete destruction of their own. Therefore, this paper attempted to give a comparative analysis of two modernizers Tewodros II (1855-1868) of Ethiopia and Sultan Selim III (1739-1808) of Ottoman Turkey who tried to modernize their empire unfortunately they paid their precious life as a result of modernization.

Keywords: comparative history, Ethiopia, modernization, Ottoman Turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
94 Restructurasation of the Concept of Empire in the Social Consciousness of Modern Americans

Authors: Maxim Kravchenko


The paper looks into the structure and contents of the concept of empire in the social consciousness of modern Americans. To construct the model of this socially and politically relevant concept we have conducted an experiment with respondents born and living in the USA. Empire is seen as a historic notion describing such entities as the British empire, the Russian empire, the Ottoman empire and others. It seems that the democratic regime adopted by most countries worldwide is incompatible with imperial status of a country. Yet there are countries which tend to dominate in the contemporary world and though they are not routinely referred to as empires, in many respects they are reminiscent of historical empires. Thus, the central hypothesis of the study is that the concept of empire is cultivated in some states through the intermediary of the mass media though it undergoes a certain transformation to meet the expectations of a democratic society. The transformation implies that certain components which were historically embedded in its structure are drawn to the margins of the hierarchical structure of the concept whereas other components tend to become central to the concept. This process can be referred to as restructuration of the concept of empire. To verify this hypothesis we have conducted a study which falls into two stages. First we looked into the definition of empire featured in dictionaries, the dominant conceptual components of empire are: importance, territory/lands, recognition, independence, authority/power, supreme/absolute. However, the analysis of 100 articles from American newspapers chosen at random revealed that authors rarely use the word «empire» in its basic meaning (7%). More often «empire» is used when speaking about countries, which no longer exist or when speaking about some corporations (like Apple or Google). At the second stage of the study we conducted an associative experiment with the citizens of the USA aged 19 to 45. The purpose of the experiment was to find out the dominant components of the concept of empire and to construct the model of the transformed concept. The experiment stipulated that respondents should give the first association, which crosses their mind, on reading such stimulus phrases as “strong military”, “strong economy” and others. The list of stimuli features various words and phrases associated with empire including the words representing the dominant components of the concept of empire. Then the associations provided by the respondents were classified into thematic clusters. For instance, the associations to the stimulus “strong military” were compartmentalized into three groups: 1) a country with strong military forces (North Korea, the USA, Russia, China); 2) negative impression of strong military (war, anarchy, conflict); 3) positive impression of strong military (peace, safety, responsibility). The experiment findings suggest that the concept of empire is currently undergoing a transformation which brings about a number of changes. Among them predominance of positively assessed components of the concept; emergence of two poles in the structure of the concept, that is “hero” vs. “enemy”; marginalization of any negatively assessed components.

Keywords: associative experiment, conceptual components, empire, restructurasation of the concept

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93 Ottoman Archaeology in Kostence (Constanta, Romania): A Locality on the Periphery of the Ottoman World

Authors: Margareta Simina Stanc, Aurel Mototolea, Tiberiu Potarniche


The city of Constanta (former Köstence) is located in the Dobrogea region, on the west shore of the Black Sea. Between 1420-1878, Dobrogea was a possession of the Ottoman Empire. Archaeological researches starting with the second half of the 20th century revealed various traces of the Ottoman period in this region. Between 2016-2018, preventive archaeological research conducted in the perimeter of the old Ottoman city of Köstence led to the discovery of structures of habitation as well as of numerous artifacts of the Ottoman period (pottery, coins, buckles, etc.). This study uses the analysis of these new discoveries to complete the picture of daily life in the Ottoman period. In 2017, in the peninsular area of Constanta, preventive archaeological research began at a point in the former Ottoman area. In the range between the current ironing level and the -1.5m depth, the Ottoman period materials appeared constantly. It is worth noting the structure of a large building that has been repaired at least once but could not be fully investigated. In parallel to this wall, there was arranged a transversally arranged brick-lined drainage channel. The drainage channel is poured into a tank (hazna), filled with various vintage materials, but mainly gilded ceramics and iron objects. This type of hazna is commonly found in Constanta for the pre-modern and modern period due to the lack of a sewage system in the peninsular area. A similar structure, probably fountain, was discovered in 2016 in another part of the old city. An interesting piece is that of a cup (probably) Persians and a bowl belonging to Kütahya style, both of the 17th century, proof of commercial routes passing through Constanta during that period and indirectly confirming the documentary testimonies of the time. Also, can be mentioned the discovery, in the year 2016, on the occasion of underwater research carried out by specialists of the department of the Constanta Museum, at a depth of 15 meters, a Turkish oil lamp (17th - the beginning of the 18th century), among other objects of a sunken ship. The archaeological pieces, in a fragmentary or integral state, found in research campaigns 2016-2018, are undergoing processing or restoration, leaving out all the available information, and establishing exact analogies. These discoveries bring new data to the knowledge of daily life during the Ottoman administration in the former Köstence, a locality on the periphery of the Islamic world.

Keywords: habitation, material culture, Ottoman administration, Ottoman archaeology, periphery

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92 Morphological Transformations and Variations in Architectural Language from Tombs to Mausoleums: From Ottoman Empire to the Turkish Republic

Authors: Uğur Tuztaşi, Mehmet Uysal, Yavuz Arat


The tomb (grave) structures that have influenced the architectural culture from the Seljuk times to the Ottoman throughout Anatolia are members of a continuing building tradition in terms of monumental expression and styles. This building typology which has religious and cultural permeability in view of spatial traces and structural formations follows the entire trajectory of the respect to death and the deceased from the Seljuks to the Ottomans and also the changing burial traditions epitomised in the form of mausoleums in the Turkish Republic. Although the cultural layers have the same contents with regards to the cult of monument this architectural tradition which evolved from tombs to mausoleums changed in both typological formation and structural size. In short, the tomb tradition with unique examples of architectural functions and typological formations has been encountered from 13th century onwards and continued during the Ottoman period with changes in form and has transformed to mausoleums during the 20th century. This study analyses the process of transformation from complex structures to simple structures and then to monumental graves in terms of architectural expression. Moreover, the study interrogates the architectural language of Anatolian Seljuk tombs to Ottoman tombs and monumental graves built during the republican period in terms of spatial and structural contexts.

Keywords: death and space in Turks, monumental graves, language of architectural style, morphological transformations

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91 The Divan Poets Whose Works Have Been Composed in the 17th Century

Authors: Mehmet Nuri Parmaksız


Ottoman poetry and Ottoman music have been inseparable art branches for centuries. The best examples of music and poems created in the same periods have been the most prominent proof of this. These periods without doubt have been 17th and 18th centuries. Since the poems written in these periods were better than those in the other periods, composers composed many of the poems of these periods and still keep composing. Music composers did not discriminate the poets of the poems they would compose, and composed the poems coherent with the meaning and form.

Keywords: music, 17th ottoman divan poetry, ottoman poets, poems

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
90 Formation of an Empire in the 21st Century: Theoretical Approach in International Relations and a Worldview of the New World Order

Authors: Rami Georg Johann


Against the background of the current geopolitical constellations, the author looks at various empire models, which are discussed and compared with each other with regard to their stability and functioning. The focus is on the fifth concept as a possible new world order in the 21st century. These will be discussed and compared to one another according to their stability and functioning. All empires to be designed will be conceptualised based on one, two, three, four, and five worlds. All worlds are made up of a different constellation of states and relating coalitions. All systems will be discussed in detail. The one-world-system, the“Western Empire,” will be presented as a possible solution to a new world order in the 21st century (fifth concept). The term “Western” in “Western Empire” describes the Western concept after World War II. This Western concept was the result of two horrible world wars in the 20th century.” With this in mind, the fifth concept forms a stable empire system, the “Western Empire,” by political measures tied to two issues. Thus, this world order provides a significantly higher long-term stability in contrast to all other empire models (comprising five, four, three, or two worlds). Confrontations and threats of war are reduced to a minimum. The two issues mentioned are “merger” and “competition.” These are the main differences in forming an empire compared to all empires and realms in the history of mankind. The fifth concept of this theory, the “Western Empire,” acts explicitly as a counter model. The Western Empire (fifth concept) is formed by the merger of world powers without war. Thus, a world order without competition is created. This merged entity secures long-term peace, stability, democratic values, freedom, human rights, equality, and justice in the new world order.

Keywords: empire formation, theory of international relations, Western Empire, world order

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89 Evaluating News in Press about Konya in Context of City Image

Authors: Nur Gorkemli, Basak Solmaz


With globalization, competition between cities increased and therefore cities started to give more importance to be a more differentiated one among thousands of their competitors. In order to become a more livable place and appeal more tourists, more investors, more students and more people cities give importance to marketing and branding activities. City image is very important concept for building a city brand. Cinemas, books, news or information about cities create 'city image' in peoples’ minds. Every city has their own peculiarities and changing their neutral or negative image to a positive way will bring advantages to them in national and even in international arena. Konya, which is a city in central Anatolia, has been an important city since very early times in human kind. It has the ruins of one of the first settlements existed approximately 9.000 years ago. Moreover, it was the capital of Selcuk Empire before Ottoman period and also a very important city during Ottoman Empire. With this historical richness, the city has important structures and works of art from those periods. Moreover, the city is also very well-known in the world with one of the greatest philosopher, poet, theologian, and Sufi mystic Mevlana Jelaleddin Rumi, who lived most of his life in Konya. Every year nearly two million people from various cities and countries visit Mevlana Museum. With all these potentials, Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism chose Konya to be a branded city in its 2023 action plan. For branding activities, understanding city image has a crucial role. Moreover, news about cities has a great potential on building a 'city image' in minds. This study is aimed at interpreting Konya’s image by categorizing Konya’s news existed in three national newspapers, which has the highest circulation in Turkey. Content analysis method will be used in this study.

Keywords: city branding, city image, newspaper analysis, Konya

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
88 A Social Identity Analysis of Ottoman and Safavid Architects in the Historical Documents of the 16th to 17th Centuries

Authors: Farzaneh Farrokhfar, Mohammad Khazaie


The 16th and 17th centuries coincide with the classical age of Ottoman art history. Simultaneously with this age and in the eastern neighborhood of the Ottoman state, the Safavid Shiite state emerged, which, despite political and religious differences with the Ottomans, played an important role in cultural and artistic exchanges with Anatolia. The harmony of arts, including architecture, is one of the most important manifestations of cultural exchange between the two regions, which shows the intellectual commonalities of the two regions. In parallel with the production of works of art, the registration of information and identities of Ottoman and Safavid artists and craftsmen has been done by many historians and biographers, some of whom, fortunately, are available to us today and can be evaluated. This research first intends to read historical documents and reports related to the architects of the two Ottoman states in Anatolia and Safavid states in Iran in the 16th and 17th centuries and then examines the status of architects' information records and their location in the two regions. The results reveal the names and identities of some Ottoman and Safavid architects in the 16th and 17th centuries and show the method of recording information in the documents of the two regions. This research is done in a comparative historical method, and the method of collecting its resources is a documentary library.

Keywords: classical era, Ottoman architecture, Safavid architecture, Central Asian historical documents

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87 Changes in Consumption Pattern of Western Consumers and Its Effect to the Ottoman Oriental Carpet-Making Industry

Authors: Emine Zeytinli


Ottoman carpets were depicted in Renaissance painting while they were exported commercially. The carpets were highly demanded and used by the middle and upper classes of Western European countries. The motifs, designs, patterns, and ornamentation of these carpets were decorative objects of luxury for Western European residences as well as paintings. Oriental carpets found their way into European market already from the medieval times to the present century. They were considered as luxury items first, however, demanded by middle classes in Europe and North America within the nineteenth century. This century brought unprecedented changes in production and consumption in the world. Expanding industries created quick urbanization, changed the city life and new types of goods dominated the entire century. Increases in income allowed Europeans to spend on luxury items, consumers taste changed in number of ways including furniture and decoration. Use of a carpet in the orient lifestyle often considered as an art object with Western aesthetic sensibility. A carpet with an oriental character, an essential part of home decoration, was highly appreciated for floor, table covering and wall hanging. Turkish carpets with distinctive classical style, patterns, and colours were changed for the tastes of European consumers. This paper attempts to analyse how the taste and preferences of European and American consumers increased their buying of oriental objects namely carpets. The production of local hand woven carpet industry developed, carpet factories were set up and special weaving schools were opened in some major waving centres, and carpet weaving became one of the main manufacturing and export commodity of the empire. All of these attempts increased the reputation and market share in international market. The industry flourished, commercially operated carpet looms, sales revenues and export increased unprecedentedly. British and Ottoman archival documents, parliamentary papers and travel notes were used to analysed above mention effect on how the foreign demand changed designs of carpets and the business itself, how the production in households moved to the commercial premises and a flourished the industry.

Keywords: consumption patterns, carpet weaving, ottoman oriental carpets, commercialisation

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86 The Usage of Adobe in Historical Structures of Van City

Authors: Mustafa Gülen, Eylem Güzel, Soner Guler


The studies concentrated on the historical background of Van show the fact that Van has had a significant position as a settlement since ancient times and that it has hosted many civilizations during history. With the dominance of Ottoman Empire in 16th century, the region had been re-constructed by building new walls at the southern side of Van Castle. These construction activities had mostly been fulfilled by the usage of adobe which had been a fundamental material for thousands of years. As a result of natural disasters, battles and the move at the threshold of 20th century to the new settlement which is 9 kilometers away from the Ancient City Van is an open-air museum with the ruins of churches, mosques and baths. In this study, the usage of adobe in historical structures of Van city is evaluated in detail.

Keywords: historical structures, adobe, Van city, adobe

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85 An Analysis of Methodological Approaches of Ahmed Cevdet and Fatma Aliye towards the Ottoman Historiography in a Comparative Context

Authors: Aysen Muderrisoglu Esiner


As an intellectual, scholar, bureaucrat, and statesman, Ahmed Cevdet Pasha (1822-1895) was the prominent figure of “Tanzimat” (reorganization) reforms of the Ottoman State while his daughter Fatma Aliye (1862-1936) was a novelist, columnist, essayist, and women’s rights activist. His father had numerous books on law, grammar, linguistics, logic, and astronomy, moreover, Aliye accepted as the first female novelist in the Turkish literature and the Islamic world. Even if she was better known as a novelist, she also published some works on philosophy, Islam, poetry. In addition, Aliye who was one of the pioneers of the Ottoman women’s movement, also wrote historical works. Her historical works which titled as Tarih-i Osmaninin Bir Devre-i Mühimmesi Kosova Zaferi-Ankara Hezimeti (An Important Era of the Ottoman History: Kosova Victory-Ankara Defeat), and Ahmed Cevdet Paşa ve Zamanı (Ahmed Cevdet Pasha and His Time) have been generally ignored in the literature. However, Aliye’s works in history field are worth being studied in terms of her methodological approach to the Ottoman historiography. On the other hand, written by Ahmed Cevdet Pasha, such as Tarih-i Cevdet (History of Cevdet), Tezâkir (Memoir), Mâruzat (Reports, the events that took place between 1839-1876, 1890), Kısas-ı Enbiya ve Tevârîh-i Hulefa (Retaliation of the Prophets and the History of Calips), Kırım ve Kafkas Tarihçesi (Crimean and Caucasian History) are the most important works in terms of historiography in the 19th century. In contrast to the traditional methodology, Cevdet Pasha brought a new understanding to the Ottoman historiography by making a synthesis between the traditional and modern methods. In this research, the historical works of these two prominent figures of the Ottoman State will be analyzed in terms of their approaches to the Ottoman historiography while evaluating the following questions: to what extent that their use of local and foreign historical sources and their handling of the historical events differ, or if it is possible to talk about a methodological similarities in terms of historiography.

Keywords: Ahmed Cevdet Pasha, Fatma Aliye, historiography, methodology

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84 A New Source on Ottoman Self-Narratives: Kulakzade Mahmud Pasha’s Dream Diary

Authors: Semra Çörekçi̇


In this study, a new source on Ottoman Self-narratives, Kulakzâde Mahmud Paşa’s Düşname (Dreambook), will be introduced to illustrate how dreams can provide a ground for historical analysis. The manuscript looks like a private notebook of an Ottoman official, Mahmud Pasha, who lived and operated in Rumelia in the early eighteenth century. It provides insight into the ordinary and daily concerns of a bureaucrat who had the knowledge and tools to record them in writing. On the one side of the notebook, Mahmud Pasha recorded his travels and appointments in 1730-1731. He wrote places that he reached and stayed every day. On the reverse side, the same author kept a record of his dreams and named that part of his notebook, Düşname. He recorded his dreams on a daily basis in writing and therefore they were well-preserved in a dream diary. This study aims at drawing the social, cultural and psychic life of an early modern Ottoman bureaucrat. It will uncover the ways and means whereby he interpreted his environment, as well as how he made meaning of his dreams considering the social milieu and historical context within which he lived. The first part will focus on 'official dreams' uncovering how his official life and ambitions coincide with his spiritual life. Related to this, connection between anxiety and dream narratives will be evaluated as dreams in which the mundane concerns of securing a post occupied the most central place in the construction of his narrative. A further point will be made by questioning Mahmud Pasha’s possible Sufi connections and his familiarity with the tradition of dream interpretation. Also, considering Mahmud Pasha’s inclusion of other’s dreams in his Düşnâme, the issue of dream-telling will be questioned in order to reveal how dreams were interconnected and how they created a space for social gathering.

Keywords: Ottoman self-narratives, dreams, diary, Ottoman cultural history

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83 The Usage of Mudbrick in Historical Structures of Van City

Authors: Mustafa Gulen, Eylem Guzel, Soner Guler


The studies concentrated on the historical background of Van city show the fact that Van city has had a significant position as a settlement since ancient times and that it has hosted many civilizations during history. With the dominance of Ottoman Empire in 16th century, the region had been re-constructed by building new walls at the southern side of Van Castle. These construction activities had mostly been fulfilled by the usage of mudbrick which had been a fundamental material for thousands of years. As a result of natural disasters, battles and the move at the threshold of 20th century to the new settlement which is 9 kilometers away from the Ancient City Van is an open-air museum with the ruins of churches, mosques and baths. In this study, the usage of mudbrick from past till today in historical structures of Van city is evaluated in detail.

Keywords: historical structures, history, mudbrick, Van city

Procedia PDF Downloads 446
82 The General Evolution of Today's Mosque Architecture in Turkey: The Case of Mekke Mosque

Authors: Hatice Derya Arslan


Religious buildings in terms of architectural features are known as the most repeated building types. Mosques representing Islam religion shows big differences in terms of architecture. In Turkey, every year many mosques are built all over the country and a majority of the mosques being built are inspired by the Ottoman and Seljuk architecture. Unfortunately, inspired by the architecture of the mosque made from traditional mosque architecture is often inadequate. In this study, first of all, the evolution of the mosque architecture in Turkey has been examined chronologically and shortly. After that, in the other part of the paper, Mekke Mosque which was built in Kutahya City Center of Turkey is discussed in terms of architectural properties. In this mosque, quasi-postmodern design was preferred. Generally preferred classical Ottoman architecture has been abandoned in this mosque. However, there exists a lot of issue in the interior and exterior design of the mosque was criticized in the conclusion part of the paper in a comparative manner.

Keywords: architectural criticism, mosque, ottoman and seljuk architecture, religious building

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81 Nationalist Approach to the Music Culture in Early Republic Period in Turkey

Authors: Hilmi Yazici


Just after Ottoman period, new more homogenic republic was struggling to form a national identity and dealing with the cultural and historical background of the nation. This new republic had an aim of modernization and westernization which started in the late ottoman period. In this process, the culture was an important basis to form a new nation and it clearly put forward that the new citizens of the new national republic are to have a modern and national culture. The result of this aimed change was to find the Turkish culture suppressed among the common people of the Anatolia and to take the western modernization and breed this with national culture. So in this context, we can say that this approach separated the people from ottoman culture and its roots to empower the national identity. Repeatedly, it may be said that Turkish folkloric music was an important basis for the new revolution, on the other hand classical Turkish music was alienated with the idea that it didn’t belong to Turkish culture. So the aim of this study is to determine how these efforts to nationalize a new identity and culture was successful and conscious intervention to folkloric Turkish music became efficient.

Keywords: opera, nationalism in music, Turkish music

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80 Structural Analysis and Evolution of 18th Century Ottoman Imperial Mosques (1750-1799) in Comparison with the Classical Period Examples

Authors: U. Demir


18th century which is the period of 'change' in the Ottoman Empire, affects the architecture as well, where the Classical period is left behind, architecture is differentiated in the form language. This change is especially noticeable in monumental buildings and thus manifested itself in the mosques. But, is it possible to talk about the structural context of the 'change' which has been occurred in decoration? The aim of this study is to investigate the changes and classical relations of the 18th century mosques through plan schedules and structure systems. This study focuses on the monumental mosques constructed during the reign of the three sultans who ruled in the second half of the century (Mustafa the 3rd 1757-1774, Abdülhamid the 1st 1774-1789 and Selim the 3rd). According to their construction years these are 'Ayazma, Laleli, Zeyneb Sultan, Fatih, Beylerbeyi, Şebsefa Kadın, Eyüb Sultan, Mihrişah Valide Sultan and Üsküdar-Selimiye' mosques. As a plan scheme, four mosques have a square or close to a rectangular square scheme, while the others have a rectangle scheme and showing the longitudinal development of the mihrab axis. This situation is widespread throughout the period. In addition to the longitudinal development plan, which is the general characteristic of the 18th century mosques, the use of the classical plan schemes continued in the same direction. Spatialization of the mihrab area was applied to the five mosques while other mosques were applied as niches on the wall surface. This situation is widespread in the period of the second half of the century. In the classical period, the lodges may be located at the back of the mosques interior, not interfering with the main worship area. In the period, the lodges were withdrawn from the main worship area. They are separated from the main interior with their own structural and covering systems. The plans seem to be formed as a result of the addition of lodge parts to the northern part of the Classical period mosques. The 18th century mosques are the constructions where the change of the architectural language and style can be observed easily. This change and the break from the classical period manifest themselves quickly in the structural elements, wall surface decorations, pencil work designs, small scale decor elements, motifs. The speed and intensity of change in the decor does not occur the same as in structural context. The mosque construction rules from the traditional and classical era still continues in the century. While some mosque structures have a plan which is inherited from the classical successor, some of were constructed with the same classical period rules. Nonetheless, the location and transformation of the lodges, which are affecting the interior design, are noteworthy. They provide a significant transition on the way to the new language of the mosque design that will be experienced in the next century. It is intended to draw attention to the structural evolution of the 18th century Ottoman architecture through the royal mosques within the scope of this conference.

Keywords: mosque structure, Ottoman architecture, structural evolution, 18th century architecture

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79 Expansion and Consolidation of Islam in Iran to the End of Qajar Period

Authors: Ashaq Hussain


Under Islam, for the first time since the Achaemenids, all Iranians including those of Central Asia and on the frontiers of India became united under one rule. Islam was rescued from a narrow Bedouin outlook and Bedouin mores primarily by the Iranians, who showed that Islam, both as a religion and, primarily, as a culture, need not be bound solely to the Arabic language and Arab norms of behavior. Instead Islam was to become a universal religion and culture open to all people. This was a fundamental contribution of the Iranians to Islam, although all Iranians had become Muslims by the time of the creation of Saljuq Empire. So, Iran in a sense provided the history, albeit an epic, of pre-Islamic times for Islam. After all, the Arabs conquered the entire Sasanian Empire, where they found full-scale, imperial models for the management of the new Caliphate, whereas only provinces of the Byzantine Empire were overrun by the Arabs. The present paper is an attempt to give reader a detailed introduction, emergence, expansion and spread of Islam in Iran to the end of Qajar period. It is in this context the present paper has been analyzed.

Keywords: Islam, Achaemenids, Bedouin, Central Asia, Iran

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78 Imperial/Royal Renewal in Byzantium and Medieval Georgia: Case of Alexios I Komnenos (r. 1081–1118) and Davit IV the Builder (r. 1089–1125)

Authors: Sandro Nikolaishvili


The end of the eleventh and the beginning of the twelfth century was a transitional period for the Byzantine empire as well as for the Caucasus. The empire was struggling for its survival under Alexios I Komnenos while Medieval Georgia was emerging as a dominant player in the Caucasus under Davit IV the Builder. The reigns of these two rulers were periods of renewal and transformation. I aim to compare the imperial image of Alexios I Komnenos with the renewed kingship ideology under Davit IV. I will hypothesize about the possible translation of the Byzantine political culture into the Medieval Georgia.

Keywords: Byzantium, Georgia, imperial, image

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77 Effects of Level Densities and Those of a-Parameter in the Framework of Preequilibrium Model for 63,65Cu(n,xp) Reactions in Neutrons at 9 to 15 MeV

Authors: L. Yettou


In this study, the calculations of proton emission spectra produced by 63Cu(n,xp) and 65Cu(n,xp) reactions are used in the framework of preequilibrium models using the EMPIRE code and TALYS code. Exciton Model predidtions combined with the Kalbach angular distribution systematics and the Hybrid Monte Carlo Simulation (HMS) were used. The effects of levels densities and those of a-parameter have been investigated for our calculations. The comparison with experimental data shows clear improvement over the Exciton Model and HMS calculations.

Keywords: Preequilibrium models , level density, level density a-parameter., Empire code, Talys code.

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76 Between Buddha and Tsar: Kalmyk Buddhist Sangha in Late Russian Empire

Authors: Elzyata Kuberlinova


This study explores how the Kalmyk Buddhist sangha responded to the Russian empire’s administrative integration and how the Buddhist clerical institutions were shaped in the process of interaction with representatives of the predominantly Orthodox state. The eighteenth-nineteenth century Russian imperial regime adhered to a religion-centred framework to govern its diverse subjects. Within this framework, any form of religious authority was considered a useful tool in the imperial quest for legibility. As such, rather than imposing religious homogeneity, the Russian administration engineered a framework of religious toleration and integrated the non-Orthodox clerical institutions in the empire’s administration. In its attempt to govern the large body of Kalmyk Buddhist sangha, the Russian government had to incorporate the sangha into the imperial institutional establishment. To this end, the Russian government founded the Lamaist Spiritual Governing Board in 1834, which became a part of the civil administration, where the Kalmyk Buddhist affairs were managed under the supervision of the Russian secular authorities. In 1847 the Lamaist Spiritual Board was abolished and Buddhist religious authority was transferred to the Lama of the Kalmyk people. From 1847 until the end of the empire in 1917 the Lama was the manager and intermediary figure between the Russian authorities and the Kalmyks where religious affairs were concerned. Substantial evidence collected in archives in Elista, Astrakhan, Stavropol and St.Petersburg show that despite being on the government’s payroll, first the Lamaist Spiritual Governing Board and later on the Lama did not always serve the interests of the state, and did not always comply with the Russian authorities’ orders. Although being incorporated into the state administrative system the Lama often found ways to manoeuvre the web of the Russian imperial bureaucracy in order to achieve his own goals. The Lama often used ‘every-day forms of resistance’ such as feigned misinterpretation, evasion, false compliance, feigned ignorance, and sabotage in order to resist without directly confronting or challenging the state orders.

Keywords: Buddhist Sangha, intermediary, Kalmyks, Lama, legibility, resistance, reform, Russian empire

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75 Production Radionuclide Therapy 161-Terbium Using by Talys1.6 and Empire 3.2 Codes in Reactions Cyclotron

Authors: Shohreh Rahimi Lascokalayeh, Hasan Yousefnia, Mojtaba Tajik, Samaneh Zolghadri, Bentehoda Abdolhosseini


In this study, the production of terbium-161 as new therapeutic radionuclide was investigated using TALYS1.6& EMPIRE 3.2 codes. For this purpose, cross section for the reactions reactor to produce 161Tb were extracted by mean of this code In the following step, stopping power of the reactions reactor was calculated by SRIM code. The best reaction in the production of 161Tb is160 Gd(d,n)161Tb Production yield of the 161Tb was obtained by utilization of MATLAB calculation code and based on the charged particle reaction formalism.The results showed that Production yield of the 161Tb was obtained 0.8 (mci/ A*h).

Keywords: terbium161, TALYS1.6, EMPIRE3.2, yield, cross-section

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74 Regulating the Ottomans on Turkish Television and the Making of Good Citizens

Authors: Chien Yang Erdem


This paper takes up the proliferating historical dramas and children’s programs featuring the Ottoman-Islamic legacy on Turkish television as a locus where the processes of subjectification take place. A critical analysis of this emergent cultural phenomenon reveals an alliance of neoliberal and neoconservative political rationalities based on which the Turkish media is restructured to transform society. The existing debates have focused on how the Ottoman historical dramas manifest the Justice and Development Party’s (Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi) neo-Ottomanist ideology and foreign policy. However, this approach tends to overlook the more complex relationship between the media, government, and society. Employing Michel Foucault’s notion of 'technologies of the self,' this paper aims to examine the governing practices that are deployed to regulate the media and to transform individual citizens into governable subjects in contemporary Turkey. First, through a brief discussion of recent development of the Turkish media towards an authoritarian model, the paper suggests that the relation between the Ottoman television drama and the political subject in question cannot be adequately examined without taking into account the force of the market. Second, by focusing on the managerial restructuring of the Turkish Television and Radio Corporation (Türkiye Radyo ve Televizyon Kurumu), the paper aims to illustrate the rationale and process through which the Turkish media sector is transformed into an integral part of the free market where the government becomes a key actor. The paper contends that this new sphere of free market is organized in a way that enables direct interference of the government and divides media practitioners and consumers into opposing categories through their own participation in the media market. On the one hand, a 'free subject' is constituted based on the premise that the market is a sphere where individuals are obliged to exercise their right to freedom (of choice, lifestyle, and expression). On the other hand, this 'free subject' is increasingly subjugated to such disciplinary practices as censorship for being on the wrong side of the government. Finally, the paper examines the relation between the restructured Turkish media market and the proliferation of Ottoman television drama in the 2010s. The study maintains that the reorganization of the media market has produced a condition where private sector is encouraged to take an active role in reviving Turkey’s Ottoman-Islamic cultural heritage and promulgating moral-religious values. Paying specific attention to the controversial case of Magnificent Century (Muhteşem Yüzyıl) in contrast with TRT’s Ottoman historical drama and children’s programs, the paper aims to identify the ways in which individual citizens are directed to conduct themselves as a virtuous citizenry. It is through the double movement between the governing practices associated with the media market and those concerning the making of a 'conservative generation' that a subject of citizenry of new Turkey is constituted.

Keywords: neoconservatism, neoliberalism, ottoman historical drama, technologies of the self, Turkish television

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73 Evaluation of the Cities Specific Characteristics in the Formation of the Safavid Period Mints

Authors: Mahmood Seyyed, Akram Salehi Heykoei, Hamidreza Safakish Kashani


Among the remaining resource of the past, coins considered as an authentic documents among the most important documentary sources. The coins were minted in a place that called mint. The number and position of the mints in each period reflects the amount of economic power, political security and business growth, which was always fluctuated its position with changing the political and economic condition. Considering that, trade has more growth during the Safavid period than previous ones, the mint also has been in greater importance. It seems the one hand, the growth of economic in Safavid period has a direct link with the number and places of the mints at that time and in the other hand, the mints have been formed in some places because of the specific characteristic of cities and regions. Increasing the number of mints in the north of the country due to the growth of silk trade and in the west and northwest due to the political and commercial relation with Ottoman Empire, also the characteristics such as existence of mines, located in the Silk Road and communication ways, all are the results of this investigation. Accordingly, in this article researcher tries to examine the characteristics that give priority to a city for having mint. With considering that in the various historical periods, the mints were based in the most important cities in terms of political and social, at that time, this article examines the cities specific characteristics in the formation of the mints in Safavid period.

Keywords: documentary sources, coins, mint, city, Safavid

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72 Analysis of Behavior and Determinants of Cost Stickiness in Manufacturing Companies in Indonesia

Authors: Farizy Yunaz, Catur Sasongko


This research aims to provide the empirical evidence regarding cost stickiness behavior and its determinants on listed manufacturing companies. Hypothesis testing is performed using pooled least square method. The result concludes that there is cost stickiness behavior in selling, general and administrative costs. In term of determinants, firm-specific adjustment costs measured by asset intensity and employee intensity have significant positive impact on the level of cost stickiness. Meanwhile, earnings target and leverage have significant negative impact on the level of cost stickiness. However, the management empire building incentives measured by free cash flow has no significant positive impact.

Keywords: adjustment cost, cost behavior, cost stickiness, earnings target, leverage, management empire building incentive

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