Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2213

Search results for: Organic pollutant

2213 Short-Term Exposing Effects of 4,4'-DDT on Mitochondrial Electron Transport Complexes in Eyes of Zebrafish

Authors: Eun Ko, Moonsung Choi, Sooim Shin


4,4’-Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (4,4’-DDT) is colorless, odorless organochlorine and known as persistent toxic organic pollutant accumulated in organs. In this study, effects of 4,4’-DDT on activities of mitochondrial electron transport chain system was analyzed. 4,4’-DDT is directly treated to isolated mitochondria from eyes of zebrafish and then activities of mitochondrial complex I, II, III, IV were measured spectrophotometrically. The reaction was proceeded immediately after adding 4,4’-DDT to examine the short-term exposing effects of persistent organic pollutant. As a result, high concentration of 4,4’-DDT treated mitochondria exhibited slightly enhanced activity in all complexes than non-treated one except complex III in male. Particularly, 4,4’-DDT was more effective on enzymatic activity in mitochondria isolated from eyes of male zebrafish. These results represented that 4,4’-DDT might temporarily induce to open up ion channel on isolated mitochondria resulting in increasing the functional activity of mitochondrial electron transport chain system.

Keywords: electron transport chain, mitochondrial function, persistent organic pollutant, spectrophotometric assay, zebrafish

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2212 Pollutant Dispersion in Coastal Waters

Authors: Sonia Ben Hamza, Sabra Habli, Nejla Mahjoub Saïd, Hervé Bournot, Georges Le Palec


This paper spots light on the effect of a point source pollution on streams, stemming out from intentional release caused by unconscious facts. The consequences of such contamination on ecosystems are very serious. Accordingly, effective tools are highly demanded in this respect, which enable us to come across an accurate progress of pollutant and anticipate different measures to be applied in order to limit the degradation of the environmental surrounding. In this context, we are eager to model a pollutant dispersion of a free surface flow which is ejected by an outfall sewer of an urban sewerage network in coastal water taking into account the influence of climatic parameters on the spread of pollutant. Numerical results showed that pollutant dispersion is merely due to the presence of vortices and turbulence. Hence, it was realized that the pollutant spread in seawater is strongly correlated with climatic conditions in this region.

Keywords: coastal waters, numerical simulation, pollutant dispersion, turbulent flows

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2211 CFD Modeling of Pollutant Dispersion in a Free Surface Flow

Authors: Sonia Ben Hamza, Sabra Habli, Nejla Mahjoub Said, Hervé Bournot, Georges Le Palec


In this work, we determine the turbulent dynamic structure of pollutant dispersion in two-phase free surface flow. The numerical simulation was performed using ANSYS Fluent. The flow study is three-dimensional, unsteady and isothermal. The study area has been endowed with a rectangular obstacle to analyze its influence on the hydrodynamic variables and progression of the pollutant. The numerical results show that the hydrodynamic model provides prediction of the dispersion of a pollutant in an open channel flow and reproduces the recirculation and trapping the pollutant downstream near the obstacle.

Keywords: CFD, free surface, polluant dispersion, turbulent flows

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2210 Effective Photodegradation of Tetracycline by a Heteropoly Acid/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite Based on Uio-66

Authors: Anasheh Maridiroosi, Ali Reza Mahjoub, Hanieh Fakhri


Heteropoly acid nanoparticles anchored on graphene oxide based on UiO-66 were synthesized via in-situ growth hydrothermal method and tested for photodegradation of a tetracycline as critical pollutant. Results showed that presence of graphene oxide and UiO-66 with high specific surface area, great electron mobility and various functional groups make an excellent support for heteropoly acid and improve photocatalytic efficiency up to 95% for tetracycline. Furthermore, total organic carbon (TOC) analysis verified 79% mineralization of this pollutant under optimum condition.

Keywords: heteropoly acid, graphene oxide, MOF, tetracycline

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
2209 Magnetic Biomaterials for Removing Organic Pollutants from Wastewater

Authors: L. Obeid, A. Bee, D. Talbot, S. Abramson, M. Welschbillig


The adsorption process is one of the most efficient methods to remove pollutants from wastewater provided that suitable adsorbents are used. In order to produce environmentally safe adsorbents, natural polymers have received increasing attention in recent years. Thus, alginate and chitosane are extensively used as inexpensive, non-toxic and efficient biosorbents. Alginate is an anionic polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweeds. Chitosan is an amino-polysaccharide; this cationic polymer is obtained by deacetylation of chitin the major constituent of crustaceans. Furthermore, it has been shown that the encapsulation of magnetic materials in alginate and chitosan beads facilitates their recovery from wastewater after the adsorption step, by the use of an external magnetic field gradient, obtained with a magnet or an electromagnet. In the present work, we have studied the adsorption affinity of magnetic alginate beads and magnetic chitosan beads (called magsorbents) for methyl orange (MO) (an anionic dye), methylene blue (MB) (a cationic dye) and p-nitrophenol (PNP) (a hydrophobic pollutant). The effect of different parameters (pH solution, contact time, pollutant initial concentration…) on the adsorption of pollutant on the magnetic beads was investigated. The adsorption of anionic and cationic pollutants is mainly due to electrostatic interactions. Consequently methyl orange is highly adsorbed by chitosan beads in acidic medium and methylene blue by alginate beads in basic medium. In the case of a hydrophobic pollutant, which is weakly adsorbed, we have shown that the adsorption is enhanced by adding a surfactant. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), a cationic surfactant, was used to increase the adsorption of PNP by magnetic alginate beads. Adsorption of CPC by alginate beads occurs through two mechanisms: (i) electrostatic attractions between cationic head groups of CPC and negative carboxylate functions of alginate; (ii) interaction between the hydrocarbon chains of CPC. The hydrophobic pollutant is adsolubilized within the surface aggregated structures of surfactant. Figure c shows that PNP can reach up to 95% of adsorption in presence of CPC. At highest CPC concentrations, desorption occurs due to the formation of micelles in the solution. Our magsorbents appear to efficiently remove ionic and hydrophobic pollutants and we hope that this fundamental research will be helpful for the future development of magnetically assisted processes in water treatment plants.

Keywords: adsorption, alginate, chitosan, magsorbent, magnetic, organic pollutant

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2208 Adsorption of Dyes and Iodine: Reaching Outstanding Kinetics with CuII-Based Metal–Organic Nanoballs

Authors: Eder Amayuelas, Begoña Bazán, M. Karmele Urtiaga, Gotzone Barandika, María I. Arriortua


Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) have attracted great interest in recent years, taking a lead role in the field of catalysis, drug delivery, sensors and absorption. In the past decade, promising results have been reported specifically in the field of adsorption, based on the topology and chemical features of this type of porous material. Thus, its application in industry and environment for the adsorption of pollutants is presented as a response to an increasingly important need. In this area, organic dyes are nowadays widely used in many industries including medicine, textile, leather, printing and plastics. The consequence of this fact is that dyes are present as emerging pollutants in soils and water where they remain for long periods of time due to their high stability, with a potential risk of toxicity in wildlife and in humans. On the other hand, the presence of iodine in soils, water and gas as a nuclear activity pollutant product or its extended use as a germicide is still a problem in many countries, which indicates the imperative need for its removal. In this context, this work presents the characterization as an adsorbent of the activated compound α[email protected] obtained from the already reported [Cu₂₄(m-BDC)₂₄(DMF)₂₀(H₂O)₄]•24DMF•40H₂O ([email protected]), where m-BDC is the 1,3-benzenedicarboxylic ligand and DMF is N,N′-dimethylformamide. The structure of [email protected] consists of Cu24 clusters arranged in such a way that 12 paddle-wheels are connected through m-BDC ligands. The clusters exhibit an internal cavity where crystallization molecules of DMF and water are located. Adsorption of dyes and iodine as pollutant examples has been carried out, focusing attention on the kinetics of the rapid process.

Keywords: adsorption, organic dyes, iodine, metal organic frameworks

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2207 The Influence of the Discharge Point Position on the Pollutant Dispersion

Authors: Sonia Ben Hamza, Sabra Habli, Nejla Mahjoub Said, Hervé Bournot, Georges Le Palec


The distribution characteristics of pollutants released at different vertical inlet positions of an open channel are investigated with a three-dimensional numerical model. Pollutants are injected from time-dependent sources in a turbulent free surface flow. Numerical computations were carried out using ANSYS Fluent which is based on the finite volume approach. The air/water interface was modeled with the volume of the fluid method (VOF). By focusing on investigating the influences of flow on pollutants, it is found that pollutant released from the bottom position of the channel takes more time to disperse in the longitudinal direction of the flow in comparison with the case of pollutant released near the free surface. On the other hand, the pollutant released from the bottom position generates a vertical dispersion with decreased amplitude. These findings may assist in cost-effective scientific countermeasures to be taken for accident or planned pollutant discharged into a river.

Keywords: numerical simulation, pollutant release, turbulent free surface flow, VOF model

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2206 Photocatalytic Degradation of Aqueous Organic Pollutant under UV Light Irradiation

Authors: D. Tassalit, N. Chekir, O. Benhabiles, N. A. Laoufi, F. Bentahar


In the setting of the waters purification, some molecules appear recalcitrant to the traditional treatments. The exploitation of the properties of some catalysts permits to amplify the oxidization performances with ultraviolet radiance and to remove this pollution by a non biological way. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of a photocatalysis oxidation system for organic pollutants treatment using a new reactor design and ZnO/TiO2 as a catalyst under UV light. Oxidative degradation of tylosin by hydroxyl radicals (OH°) was studied in aqueous medium using suspended forms of ZnO and TiO2. The results improve that the treatment was affected by many factors such as flow-rate of solution, initial pollutant concentration and catalyst concentration. The rate equation for the tylosin degradation followed first order kinetics and the rate-constants were determined. The reaction rate fitted well with Langmuir–Hinshelwood model and the removed ratio of tylosin was 97 % in less than 60 minutes. To determine the optimum catalyst loading, a series of experiments were carried out by varying the amount of catalyst from 0.05 to 0.5 g/L. The results demonstrate that the rate of photodegradation is optimum with catalyst loading of 0.1 g/L, reaction flow rate of 3.79 mL/s and solution natural pH. The rate was found to increase with the decrease in tylosin concentration from 30 to 5 mg/L. Therefore, this simple photoreactor design for the removal of organic pollutants has the potential to be used in wastewater treatment.

Keywords: advanced oxidation, photocatalysis, TiO2, ZnO, UV light, pharmaceuticals pollutants, Spiramycin, tylosin, wastewater treatment

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2205 Contribution of Soluble Microbial Products on Dissolved Organic Nitrogen in Wastewater Effluent from Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor

Authors: Boonsiri Dandumrongsin, Halis Simsek, Chaiwat Rongsayamanont


Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is known as one of the persistence nitrogenous pollutant being originated from secondary treated effluent of municipal sewage treatment plant. However, effect of key system operating condition on the fate and behavior of residual DON in the treated effluent is still not known. This study aims to investigate effect of organic loading rate (OLR) on the residual level of DON in the biofilm reactor effluent. Synthetic municipal wastewater was fed into moving bed biofilm reactors at OLR of 1.6x10-3 and 3.2x10-3 kg SCOD/m3-d. The results showed higher organic removal efficiency was found in the reactor operating at higher OLR. However, DON was observed at higher value in the effluent of the higher OLR reactor than that of the lower OLR reactor evidencing a clear influence of OLR on the residual DON level in the treated effluent of the biofilm reactors. It is possible that the lower DON being observed in the reactor at lower OLR is likely to be a result of providing the microbe with the additional period for utilizing the refractory DON molecules during operation at lower organic loading. All the experiments were repeated using raw wastewaters and similar trend was obtained.

Keywords: dissolved organic nitrogen, hydraulic retention time, moving bed biofilm reactor, soluble microbial products

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2204 The Batch Method Approach for Adsorption Mechanism Processes of Some Selected Heavy Metal Ions and Methylene Blue by Using Chemically Modified Luffa Cylindrica

Authors: Akanimo Emene, Mark D. Ogden, Robert Edyvean


Adsorption is a low cost, efficient and economically viable wastewater treatment process. Utilization of this treatment process has not been fully applied due to the complex and not fully understood nature of the adsorption system. To optimize its process is to choose a sufficient adsorbent and to study further the experimental parameters that influence the adsorption design system. Chemically modified adsorbent, Luffa cylindrica, was used to adsorb heavy metal ions and an organic pollutant, methylene blue, from aqueous environmental solution at varying experimental conditions. Experimental factors, adsorption time, initial metal ion or organic pollutant concentration, ionic strength, and pH of solution were studied. The experimental data were analyzed with kinetic and isotherm models. The antagonistic effect of the methylene and some heavy metal ions were recorded. An understanding of the use of this treated Luffa cylindrica for the removal of these toxic substances will establish and improve the commercial application of the adsorption process in treatment of contaminated waters.

Keywords: adsorption, heavy metal ions, Luffa cylindrica, wastewater treatment

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2203 Relationship between Structure of Some Nitroaromatic Pollutants and Their Degradation Kinetic Parameters in UV-VIS/TIO2 System

Authors: I. Nitoi, P. Oancea, M. Raileanu, M. Crisan, L. Constantin, I. Cristea


Hazardous organic compounds like nitroaromatics are frequently found in chemical and petroleum industries discharged effluents. Due to their bio-refractory character and high chemical stability cannot be efficiently removed by classical biological or physical-chemical treatment processes. In the past decades, semiconductor photocatalysis has been frequently applied for the advanced degradation of toxic pollutants. Among various semiconductors titania was a widely studied photocatalyst, due to its chemical inertness, low cost, photostability and nontoxicity. In order to improve optical absorption and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 many attempts have been made, one feasible approach consists of doping oxide semiconductor with metal. The degradation of dinitrobenzene (DNB) and dinitrotoluene (DNT) from aqueous solution under UVA-VIS irradiation using heavy metal (0.5% Fe, 1%Co, 1%Ni ) doped titania was investigated. The photodegradation experiments were carried out using a Heraeus laboratory scale UV-VIS reactor equipped with a medium-pressure mercury lamp which emits in the range: 320-500 nm. Solutions with (0.34-3.14) x 10-4 M pollutant content were photo-oxidized in the following working conditions: pH = 5-9; photocatalyst dose = 200 mg/L; irradiation time = 30 – 240 minutes. Prior to irradiation, the photocatalyst powder was added to the samples, and solutions were bubbled with air (50 L/hour), in the dark, for 30 min. Dopant type, pH, structure and initial pollutant concentration influence on the degradation efficiency were evaluated in order to set up the optimal working conditions which assure substrate advanced degradation. The kinetics of nitroaromatics degradation and organic nitrogen mineralization was assessed and pseudo-first order rate constants were calculated. Fe doped photocatalyst with lowest metal content (0.5 wt.%) showed a considerable better behaviour in respect to pollutant degradation than Co and Ni (1wt.%) doped titania catalysts. For the same working conditions, degradation efficiency was higher for DNT than DNB in accordance with their calculated adsobance constants (Kad), taking into account that degradation process occurs on catalyst surface following a Langmuir-Hinshalwood model. The presence of methyl group in the structure of DNT allows its degradation by oxidative and reductive pathways, while DNB is converted only by reductive route, which also explain the highest DNT degradation efficiency. For highest pollutant concentration tested (3 x 10-4 M), optimum working conditions (0.5 wt.% Fe doped –TiO2 loading of 200 mg/L, pH=7 and 240 min. irradiation time) assures advanced nitroaromatics degradation (ηDNB=89%, ηDNT=94%) and organic nitrogen mineralization (ηDNB=44%, ηDNT=47%).

Keywords: hazardous organic compounds, irradiation, nitroaromatics, photocatalysis

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2202 Role of Organic Wastewater Constituents in Iron Redox Cycling for Ferric Sludge Reuse in the Fenton-Based Treatment

Authors: J. Bolobajev, M. Trapido, A. Goi


The practical application of the Fenton-based treatment method for organic compounds-contaminated water purification is limited mainly because of the large amount of ferric sludge formed during the treatment, where ferrous iron (Fe(II)) is used as the activator of the hydrogen peroxide oxidation processes. Reuse of ferric sludge collected from clarifiers to substitute Fe(II) salts allows reducing the total cost of Fenton-type treatment technologies and minimizing the accumulation of hazardous ferric waste. Dissolution of ferric iron (Fe(III)) from the sludge to liquid phase at acidic pH and autocatalytic transformation of Fe(III) to Fe(II) by phenolic compounds (tannic acid, lignin, phenol, catechol, pyrogallol and hydroquinone) added or present as water/wastewater constituents were found to be essentially involved in the Fenton-based oxidation mechanism. Observed enhanced formation of highly reactive species, hydroxyl radicals, resulted in a substantial organic contaminant degradation increase. Sludge reuse at acidic pH and in the presence of ferric iron reductants is a novel strategy in the Fenton-based treatment application for organic compounds-contaminated water purification.

Keywords: ferric sludge recycling, ferric iron reductant, water treatment, organic pollutant

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2201 Biodegradation Study of Diethyl Phthalate Using Bacteria Isolated from Plastic Industry Wastewater Discharge Site

Authors: Sangram Shamrao Patil, Hara Mohan Jena


Phthalates are among the most common organic pollutant since they have become widespread in the environment and found in sediments, natural waters, soils, plants, landfill leachates, biota including human tissue and aquatic organisms. Diethyl phthalate (DEP) is a low molecular weight phthalate which has wide applications as plasticizer and become a major cause of environmental pollution. Environmental protection agency (EPA) listed DEP as priority pollutant because of its toxicity and they recommended human health ambient water quality criterion for diethyl phthalate (DEP) as 4 mg/l. Therefore, wastes containing phthalates require proper treatment before being discharged into the environment. Biodegradation is attractive and efficient treatment method as it is cost effective and produces non-toxic end products. In the present study, a DEP degrading aerobic bacterium was isolated from soil contaminated with plastic industry wastewater. Morphological and biochemical characteristics of isolate were performed. 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of isolate was carried out and it was identified as Empedobacter brevis. Isolate has been found to tolerate up to 1650 mg/l of DEP. This study will be significant for exploring an application of microbes for remediation of phthalates and development of a suitable bioreactor.

Keywords: diethyl phthalate, plasticizer, pollutant, biodegradation

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2200 Studies on the Effect of Bio-Methanated Distillery Spentwash on Soil Properties and Crop Yields

Authors: S. K. Gali


Spentwash, An effluent of distillery is an environmental pollutant because of its high load of pollutants (pH: 2-4; BOD>40,000 mg/l, COD>100,000mg/l and TDS >70,000mg/l). But However, after subjecting it to primary treatment (bio-methanation), Its pollutant load gets drastically reduced (pH: 7.5-8.5, BOD<10,000 mg/l) and could be disposed off safely as a source of organic matter and plant nutrients for crop production. With the consent of State Pollution Control Board, the distilleries in Karnataka are taking up ‘one time controlled land application’ of bio-methanated spentwash in farmers’ fields. A monitoring study was undertaken in Belgaum district of Karnataka State with an objective of studying the effect of land application of bio-methanated spent wash of a distillery on soil properties and crop growth. The treated spentwash was applied uniformly to the fallow dry lands in different farmers’ fields during summer, 2012 at recommended rate (based on nitrogen requirement of crops). The application was made at least a fortnight before sowing/planting operations. The analysis of soils collected before land application of spentwash and after harvest of crops revealed that there was no adverse effect of applied spentwash on soil characteristics. A slight build up in soluble salts was observed but, however all the soils recorded EC of less than 2.0 dSm-1. An increase in soil organic carbon (SOC) and available nitrogen (N) by about 10 to 30 % was observed in the spentwash applied soils. The presence of good amount of biodegradable organics in the treated spentwash (BOD of 6550 mg/l) contributed for increase in SOC and N. A substantial build up in available potassium (K) status (50 to 200%) was observed due to spentwash application. This was attributed to the high K content in spentwash (6950 mg/l). The growth of crops in the spentwash applied fields was higher and farmers could get nearly 10 to 20 per cent higher yields, especially in sugarcane and corn. The analysis of ground water samples showed that the quality of water was not affected due to land application of treated spentwash. Apart from realizing higher crop yields, the farmers were able to save money on N and K fertilisers as the applied spentwash met the crop requirement. Hence, it could be concluded that the bio-methanated distillery spentwash can be gainfully utilized in crop production without polluting the environment.

Keywords: bio-methanation, pollutant, potassium status, soil organic carbon

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2199 4-Chlorophenol Degradation in Water Using TIO₂-X%ZnS Synthesized by One-Step Sol-Gel Method

Authors: M. E. Velásquez Torres, F. Tzompantzi, J. C. Castillo-Rodríguez, A. G. Romero Villegas, S. Mendéz-Salazar, C. E. Santolalla-Vargas, J. Cardoso-Martínez


Photocatalytic degradation, as an advanced oxidation technology, is a promising method in organic pollutant degradation. In this sense, chlorophenols should be removed from the water because they are highly toxic. The TiO₂ - X% ZnS photocatalysts, where X represents the molar percentage of ZnS (3%, 5%, 10%, and 15%), were synthesized using the one-step sol-gel method to use them as photocatalysts to degrade 4-chlorophenol. The photocatalysts were synthesized by a one-step sol-gel method. They were refluxed for 36 hours, dried at 80°C, and calcined at 400°C. They were labeled TiO₂ - X%ZnS, where X represents the molar percentage of ZnS (3%, 5%, 10%, and 15%). The band gap was calculated using a Cary 100 UV-Visible Spectrometer with an integrating sphere accessory. Ban gap value of each photocatalyst was: 2.7 eV of TiO₂, 2.8 eV of TiO₂ - 3%ZnS and TiO₂ - 5%ZnS, 2.9 eV of TiO₂ - 10%ZnS and 2.6 eV of TiO2 - 15%ZnS. In a batch type reactor, under the irradiation of a mercury lamp (λ = 254 nm, Pen-Ray), degradations of 55 ppm 4-chlorophenol were obtained at 360 minutes with the synthesized photocatalysts: 60% (3% ZnS), 66% (5% ZnS), 74% (10% ZnS) and 58% (15% ZnS). In this sense, the best material as a photocatalyst was TiO₂ -10%ZnS with a degradation percentage of 74%.

Keywords: 4-chlorophenol, photocatalysis, water pollutant, sol-gel

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2198 Preparation of Sorbent Materials for the Removal of Hardness and Organic Pollutants from Water and Wastewater

Authors: Thanaa Abdel Moghny, Mohamed Keshawy, Mahmoud Fathy, Abdul-Raheim M. Abdul-Raheim, Khalid I. Kabel, Ahmed F. El-Kafrawy, Mahmoud Ahmed Mousa, Ahmed E. Awadallah


Ecological pollution is of great concern for human health and the environment. Numerous organic and inorganic pollutants usually discharged into the water caused carcinogenic or toxic effect for human and different life form. In this respect, this work aims to treat water contaminated by organic and inorganic waste using sorbent based on polystyrene. Therefore, two different series of adsorbent material were prepared; the first one included the preparation of polymeric sorbent from the reaction of styrene acrylate ester and alkyl acrylate. The second series involved syntheses of composite ion exchange resins of waste polystyrene and   amorphous carbon thin film (WPS/ACTF) by solvent evaporation using micro emulsion polymerization. The produced ACTF/WPS nanocomposite was sulfonated to produce cation exchange resins ACTF/WPSS nanocomposite. The sorbents of the first series were characterized using FTIR, 1H NMR, and gel permeation chromatography. The thermal properties of the cross-linked sorbents were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis, and the morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The removal of organic pollutant was determined through absorption tests in a various organic solvent. The chemical and crystalline structure of nanocomposite of second series has been proven by studies of FTIR spectrum, X-rays, thermal analysis, SEM and TEM analysis to study morphology of resins and ACTF that assembled with polystyrene chain. It is found that the composite resins ACTF/WPSS are thermally stable and show higher chemical stability than ion exchange WPSS resins. The composite resin was evaluated for calcium hardness removal. The result is evident that the ACTF/WPSS composite has more prominent inorganic pollutant removal than WPSS resin. So, we recommend the using of nanocomposite resin as new potential applications for water treatment process.

Keywords: nanocomposite, sorbent materials, waste water, waste polystyrene

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2197 A Three-Dimensional (3D) Numerical Study of Roofs Shape Impact on Air Quality in Urban Street Canyons with Tree Planting

Authors: Bouabdellah Abed, Mohamed Bouzit, Lakhdar Bouarbi


The objective of this study is to investigate numerically the effect of roof shaped on wind flow and pollutant dispersion in a street canyon with one row of trees of pore volume, Pvol = 96%. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for evaluating air flow and pollutant dispersion within an urban street canyon using Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations and the k-Epsilon EARSM turbulence model as close of the equation system. The numerical model is performed with ANSYS-CFX code. Vehicle emissions were simulated as double line sources along the street. The numerical model was validated against the wind tunnel experiment. Having established this, the wind flow and pollutant dispersion in urban street canyons of six roof shapes are simulated. The numerical simulation agrees reasonably with the wind tunnel data. The results obtained in this work, indicate that the flow in 3D domain is more complicated, this complexity is increased with presence of tree and variability of the roof shapes. The results also indicated that the largest pollutant concentration level for two walls (leeward and windward wall) is observed with the upwind wedge-shaped roof. But the smallest pollutant concentration level is observed with the dome roof-shaped. The results also indicated that the corners eddies provide additional ventilation and lead to lower traffic pollutant concentrations at the street canyon ends.

Keywords: street canyon, pollutant dispersion, trees, building configuration, numerical simulation, k-Epsilon EARSM

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2196 A Study of Anoxic - Oxic Microbiological Technology for Treatment of Heavy Oily Refinery Wastewater

Authors: Di Wang, Li Fang, Shengyu Fang, Jianhua Li, Honghong Dong, Zhongzhi Zhang


Heavy oily refinery wastewater with the characteristics of high concentration of toxic organic pollutant, poor biodegradability and complicated dissolved recalcitrant compounds is intractable to be degraded. In order to reduce the concentrations of COD and total nitrogen pollutants which are the major pollutants in heavy oily refinery wastewater, the Anoxic - Oxic microbiological technology relies mainly on anaerobic microbial reactor which works with methanogenic archaea mainly that can convert organic pollutants to methane gas, and supplemented by aerobic treatment. The results of continuous operation for 2 months with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 60h showed that, the COD concentration from influent water of anaerobic reactor and effluent water from aerobic reactor were 547.8mg/L and 93.85mg/L, respectively. The total removal rate of COD was up to 84.9%. Compared with the 46.71mg/L of total nitrogen pollutants in influent water of anaerobic reactor, the concentration of effluent water of aerobic reactor decreased to 14.11mg/L. In addition, the average removal rate of total nitrogen pollutants reached as high as 69.8%. Based on the data displayed, Anoxic - Oxic microbial technology shows a great potential to dispose heavy oil sewage in energy saving and high-efficiency of biodegradation.

Keywords: anoxic - oxic microbiological technology, COD, heavy oily refinery wastewater, total nitrogen pollutant

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2195 Global Emission Inventories of Air Pollutants from Combustion Sources

Authors: Shu Tao


Based on a global fuel consumption data product (PKU-FUEL-2007) compiled recently and a series of databases for emission factors of various sources, global emission inventories of a number of greenhouse gases and air pollutants, including CO2, CO, SO2, NOx, primary particulate matter (total, PM 10, and PM 2.5), black carbon, organic carbon, mercury, volatile organic carbons, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, from combustion sources have been developed. The inventories feather high spatial and sectorial resolutions. The spatial resolution of the inventories are 0.1 by 0.1 degree, based on a sub-national disaggregation approach to reduce spatial bias due to uneven distribution of per person fuel consumption within countries. The finely resolved inventories provide critical information for chemical transport modeling and exposure modeling. Emissions from more than 60 sources in energy, industry, agriculture, residential, transportation, and wildfire sectors were quantified in this study. With the detailed sectorial information, the inventories become an important tool for policy makers. For residential sector, a set of models were developed to simulate temporal variation of fuel consumption, consequently pollutant emissions. The models can be used to characterize seasonal as well as inter-annual variations in the emissions in history and to predict future changes. The models can even be used to quantify net change of fuel consumption and pollutant emissions due to climate change. The inventories has been used for model ambient air quality, population exposure, and even health effects. A few examples of the applications are discussed.

Keywords: air pollutants, combustion, emission inventory, sectorial information

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2194 Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation as a Pretreatment Option for Biodegradability Enhancement of Industrial Effluent

Authors: Sushma Yadav, Anil K. Saroha


Complex industrial effluent generated from chemical industry is contaminated with toxic and hazardous organic compounds and not amenable to direct biological treatment. To effectively remove many toxic organic pollutants has made it evident that new, compact and more efficient systems are needed. Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation (CWAO) is a promising treatment technology for the abatement of organic pollutants in wastewater. A lot of information is available on using CWAO for the treatment of synthetic solution containing single organic pollutant. But the real industrial effluents containing multi-component mixture of organic compounds were less studied. The main objective of this study is to use the CWAO process for converting the organics into compounds more amenable to biological treatment; complete oxidation may be too expensive. Therefore efforts were made in the present study to explore the potential of alumina based Platinum (Pt) catalyst for the treatment of industrial organic raffinate containing toxic constituents like ammoniacal nitrogen, pyridine etc. The catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and BET (Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller) surface area. CWAO experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure and (30 °C - 70 °C) temperature conditions and the results were evaluated in terms of COD removal efficiency. The biodegradability test was performed by BOD/COD ratio for checking the toxicity of the industrial wastewater as well as for the treated water. The BOD/COD ratio of treated water was significantly increased and signified that the toxicity of the organics was decreased while the biodegradability was increased, indicating the more amenability towards biological treatment.

Keywords: alumina based pt catalyst, BOD/COD ratio, catalytic wet air oxidation, COD removal efficiency, industrial organic raffinate

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2193 Factors Influencing the Resistance of the Purchase of Organic Food and Market Education Process in Indonesia

Authors: Fety Nurlia Muzayanah, Arif Imam Suroso, Mukhamad Najib


The market share of organic food in Indonesia just reaches 0.5-2 percents from the entire of agricultural products. The aim of this research is to analyze the relation of gender, work, age and final education toward the buying interest of organic food, to identify the factors influencing the resistance of the purchase of organic food, and to identify the market education process. The analysis result of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) shows the factors causing the resistance of the purchase of organic food are the negative attitude toward organic food, the lack of affordable in range for organic food product and the lack of awareness toward organic food, while the subjective norms have no significant effect toward the buying interest. The market education process which can be done is the education about the use of the health of organic food, the organic certification and the economic value.

Keywords: market education, organic food, consumer behavior, structural equation modeling

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2192 Consumer Attitude and Purchase Intention towards Organic Food: Insights from Pakistan

Authors: Muneshia Maheshwar, Kanwal Gul, Shakira Fareed, Ume-Amama Areeb Gul


Organic food is commonly known for its healthier content without the use of pesticides, herbicides, inorganic fertilizers, antibiotics and growth hormones. The aim of this research is to examine the effect of health consciousness, environmental concern and organic food knowledge on both the intention to buy organic foods and the attitude towards organic foods and the effect of attitude towards organic foods on the intention to buy organic foods in Pakistan. Primary data was used which was collected through adopted questionnaire from previous research. Non- probability convenience sampling was used to select sample size of 200 consumers based on Karachi. The data was analyzed through Descriptive statistics and Multi regression method. The findings of the study showed that the attitude and the intention to buy organic food were affected by health consciousness, environmental concern, and organic food knowledge. The results also revealed that attitude also affects the intention to buy organic food.

Keywords: health consciousness, attitude, intention to purchase, environmental concern, organic food knowledge

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2191 Silver-Doped Magnetite Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles for Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Pollutants

Authors: Hanna Abbo, Siyasanga Noganta, Salam Titinchi


The global lack of clean water for human sanitation and other purposes has become an emerging dilemma for human beings. The presence of organic pollutants in wastewater produced by textile industries, leather manufacturing and chemical industries is an alarming matter for a safe environment and human health. For the last decades, conventional methods have been applied for the purification of water but due to industrialization these methods fall short. Advanced oxidation processes and their reliable application in degradation of many contaminants have been reported as a potential method to reduce and/or alleviate this problem. Lately it has been assumed that incorporation of some metal nanoparticles such as magnetite nanoparticles as photocatalyst for Fenton reaction which could improve the degradation efficiency of contaminants. Core/shell nanoparticles, are extensively studied because of their wide applications in the biomedical, drug delivery, electronics fields and water treatment. The current study is centred on the synthesis of silver-doped Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 photocatalyst. Magnetically separable [email protected]@TiO2 composite with core–shell structure were synthesized by the deposition of uniform anatase TiO2 NPs on [email protected] by using titanium butoxide (TBOT) as titanium source. Then, the silver is doped on SiO2 layer by hydrothermal method. Integration of magnetic nanoparticles was suggested to avoid the post separation difficulties associated with the powder form of the TiO2 catalyst, increase of the surface area and adsorption properties. The morphology, structure, composition, and magnetism of the resulting composites were characterized and their photocatalytic activities were also evaluated. The results demonstrate that TiO2 NPs were uniformly deposited on the [email protected] surface. The silver nanoparticles were also uniformly distributed on the surface of TiO2 nanoparticles. The aim of this work is to study the suitability of photocatalysis for the treatment of aqueous streams containing organic pollutants such as methylene blue which is selected as a model compound to represent one of the pollutants existing in wastewaters. Various factors such as initial pollutant concentration, photocatalyst dose and wastewater matrix were studied for their effect on the photocatalytic degradation of the organic model pollutants using the as synthesized catalysts and compared with the commercial titanium dioxide (Aeroxide P25). Photocatalysis was found to be a potential purification method for the studied pollutant also in an industrial wastewater matrix with the removal percentages of over 81 % within 15 minutes. Methylene blue was removed most efficiently and its removal consumed the least of energy in terms of the specific applied energy. The magnetic Ag/SiO2/TiO2 composites show high photocatalytic performance and can be recycled three times by magnetic separation without major loss of activity, which meant that they can be used as efficient and conveniently renewable photocatalyst.

Keywords: Magnetite nanoparticles, Titanium, Photocatalyst, Organic pollutant, Water treatment

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2190 Pollutant Loads of Urban Runoff from a Mixed Residential-Commercial Catchment

Authors: Carrie Ho, Tan Yee Yong


Urban runoff quality for a mixed residential-commercial land use catchment in Miri, Sarawak was investigated for three storm events in 2011. Samples from the three storm events were tested for five water quality parameters, Namely, TSS, COD, BOD5, TP, and Pb. Concentration of the pollutants were found to vary significantly between storms, but were generally influenced by the length of antecedent dry period and the strength of rainfall intensities. Runoff from the study site showed a significant level of pollution for all the parameters investigated. Based on the National Water Quality Standards for Malaysia (NWQS), stormwater quality from the study site was polluted and exceeded class III water for TSS and BOD5 with maximum EMCs of 177 and 24 mg/L, respectively. Design pollutant load based on a design storm of 3-month average recurrence interval (ARI) for TSS, COD, BOD5, TP, and Pb were estimated to be 40, 9.4, 5.4, 1.7, and 0.06 kg/ha, respectively. The design pollutant load for the pollutants can be used to estimate loadings from similar catchments within Miri City.

Keywords: mixed land-use, urban runoff, pollutant load, national water quality

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2189 Consumer Behavior and Knowledge on Organic Products in Thailand

Authors: Warunpun Kongsom, Chaiwat Kongsom


The objective of this study was to investigate the awareness, knowledge and consumer behavior towards organic products in Thailand. For this study, a purposive sampling technique was used to identify a sample group of 2,575 consumers over the age of 20 years who intended or made purchases from 1) green shops; 2) supermarkets with branches; and, 3) green markets. A questionnaire was used for data collection across the country. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. The results showed that more than 92% of consumers were aware of organic agriculture, but had less knowledge about it. More than 60% of consumers knew that organic agriculture production and processing did not allow the use of chemicals. And about 40% of consumers were confused between the food safety logo and the certified organic logo, and whether GMO was allowed in organic agriculture practice or not. In addition, most consumers perceived that organic agricultural products, good agricultural practice (GAP) products, agricultural chemicals free products, and hydroponic vegetable products had the same standard. In the view of organic consumers, the organic Thailand label was the most seen and reliable among various organic labels. Less than 3% of consumers thought that the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) Global Organic Mark (GOM) was the most seen and reliable. For the behaviors of organic consumers, they purchased organic products mainly at the supermarket and green shop (55.4%), one to two times per month, and with a total expenditure of about 200 to 400 baht each time. The main reason for buying organic products was safety and free from agricultural chemicals. The considered factors in organic product selection were price (29.5%), convenience (22.4%), and a reliable certification system (21.3%). The demands for organic products were mainly rice, vegetables and fruits. Processed organic products were relatively small in quantity.

Keywords: consumer behavior, consumer knowledge, organic products, Thailand

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2188 Persistent Organic Pollutant Level in Challawa River Basin of Kano State, Nigeria

Authors: Abdulkadir Sarauta


Almost every type of industrial process involves the release of trace quantity of toxic organic and inorganic compound that up in receiving water bodies, this study was aimed at assessing the Persistent Organic Pollutant Level in Challawa River Basin of Kano State, Nigeria. And the research formed the basis of identifying the presence of PCBs and PAHs in receiving water bodies in the study area, assessing the PCBs and PAHs concentration in receiving water body of Challawa system, evaluate the concentration level of PCBs and PAHs in fishes in the study area, determine the concentration level of PCBs and PAHs in crops irrigated in the study area as well as compare the concentration of PCBs and PAHs with the acceptable limit set by Nigerian, EU, U.S and WHO standard. Data were collected using reconnaissance survey, site inspection, field survey, laboratory experiment as well as secondary data source. A total of 78 samples were collected through stratified systematic random sampling (i.e., 26 samples for each of water, crops and fish) three sampling points were chosen and designated A, B and C along the stretch of the river (i.e. up, middle, and downstream) from Yan Danko Bridge to Tambirawa bridge. The result shows that the Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was not detected while, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was detected in the whole samples analysed at the trench of Challawa River basin in order to assess the contribution of human activities to global environmental pollution. The total concentrations of ΣPAH and ΣPCB ranges between 0.001 to 0.087mg/l and 0.00 to 0.00mg/l of water samples While, crops samples ranges between 2.0ppb to 8.1ppb and fish samples ranges from 2.0 to 6.7ppb.The whole samples are polluted because most of the parameters analyzed exceed the threshold limits set by WHO, Nigerian, U.S and EU standard. The analytical results revealed that some chemicals are present in water, crops and fishes are significantly very high at Zamawa village which is very close to Challawa industrial estate and also is main effluent discharge point and drinking water around study area is not potable for consumption. Analysis of Variance was obtained by Bartlett’s test performance. There is only significant difference in water because the P < 0.05 level of significant, But there is no difference in crops concentration they have the same performance, likes wise in the fishes. It is said to be of concern to health hazard which will increase incidence of tumor related diseases such as skin, lungs, bladder, gastrointestinal cancer, this show there is high failure of pollution abatement measures in the area. In conclusion, it can be said that industrial activities and effluent has impact on Challawa River basin and its environs especially those that are living in the immediate surroundings. Arising from the findings of this research some recommendations were made the industries should treat their liquid properly by installing modern treatment plants.

Keywords: Challawa River Basin, organic, persistent, pollutant

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2187 An Organic Dye-Based Staining for Plant DNA

Authors: Begüm Terzi, Özlem Ateş Sönmezoğlu, Kerime Özkay, Ahmet Yıldırım


In plant biotechnology, electrophoresis is used to detect nucleic acids. Ethidium bromide (EtBr) is used as an intercalator dye to stain DNA in agarose gel electrophoresis, but this dye is mutagenic and carcinogenic. In this study, a visible, reliable and organic Ruthenium-based dye (N-719) for staining plant DNA in comparison to EtBr. When prestaining and post-staining for gel electrophoresis, N-719 stained both DNA and PCR product bands with the same clarity as EtBr. The organic dye N-719 stained DNA bands as sensitively and as clearly as EtBr. The organic dye was found to have staining activity suitable for the identification of DNA.Consequently, N-719 organic dye can be used to stain and visualize DNA during gel electrophoresis as alternatives to EtBr in plant biotechnology studies.

Keywords: agarose gel, DNA staining, organic dye, N-719

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2186 An Evaluation of Air Pollutant Concentrations in Gyor, Hungary

Authors: Andrea Szabo Nagy, Zsofia Csanadi


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the concentration levels of common inorganic gases, benzene and particulate matter (PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅) in ambient air of Győr (Hungary) based on the latest published monitoring data. The concentrations of PM10-bound heavy metals (Pb, Cd, As and Ni) and some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were also assessed. The levels of pollutants were compared with the Hungarian and EU limit or target values defined for health protection and the WHO air quality guidelines (AQGs) or estimated reference levels. Based on the Hungarian or the EU air quality standards and using the Hungarian Air Quality Index it was found that mainly an excellent (SO₂, CO, C₆H₆, heavy metals) or good (NO₂, O₃, PM₁₀, PM₂.₅, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP)) air quality was observed in the urban area of Győr for the year 2016. The annual mean pollutant concentrations (excluding BaP) were not exceeded or just reached the WHO AQGs or reference levels.

Keywords: aerosols, air pollutant, air quality, health protection

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2185 Adsorption and Desorption of Emerging Water Contaminants on Activated Carbon Fabrics

Authors: S. Delpeux-Ouldriane, M. Gineys, S. Masson, N. Cohaut, L. Reinert, L. Duclaux, F. Béguin


Nowadays, a wide variety of organic contaminants are present at trace concentrations in wastewater effluents. In order to face these pollution problems, the implementation of the REACH European regulation has defined lists of targeted pollutants to be eliminated selectively in water. It therefore implies the development of innovative and more efficient remediation techniques. In this sense, adsorption processes can be successfully used to achieve the removal of organic compounds in waste water treatment processes, especially at low pollutant concentration. Especially, activated carbons possessing a highly developed porosity demonstrate high adsorption capacities. More specifically, carbon cloths show high adsorption rates, an easily handling, a good mechanical integrity and regeneration potentialities. When loaded with pollutants, these materials can be indeed regenerated using an electrochemical polarization.

Keywords: nanoporous carbons, activated carbon cloths, adsorption, micropollutants, emerging contaminants, regeneration, electrochemistry

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2184 Relationship among the Air Pollution and Atopic Dermatitis Using Meta-Analysis

Authors: Chaebong Kim, Yongmin Cho, Minkyung Han, Mooyoung Kim, KooSang Kim


Background: Air pollution from global warming has a considerable influence on respiratory disease and atopic dermatitis (AD). Present studies base on a hypothesis about correlation between air pollutant and AD, and the results are analyzed from various points of view. Objectives: This study aimed to integrate the relevant researches for air pollutant and AD, and to perform the systematic literature review and meta-analysis to provide the basis of air pollutant control. Methods: Research materials were collected from original articles published in English academic journals including medicine, nursing and health science from August 1 to 31, 2016. We collected the materials from Pubmed, Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central database with Prisma (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) based on the Cochrane Systematic Review Manual, and performed the evaluation and analysis for selected materials. We got the research results for risk of bias using Rev-Man ver. 5.2, and meta analyses using STATA. Results: The prevalence of infantile atopic dermatitis were 1.05 times higher than other groups who were exposed to air pollution, and exposure to NO2 (1.08, 95% CI: 1.02 – 1.14), O3 (1.09, 95% CI: 1.04 – 1.15), SO2 (1.07, 95% CI: 1.02 – 1.12) in subgroup air pollutant was considerably associated with infantile atopic dermatitis. The prevalence of infantile atopic dermatitis was 1.03 times higher than other groups who were exposed to PM2.5, but the results were not statistically similar. Conclusion: Health effect from environmental pollution risen people’s interest in environmental diseases. Air pollutant was associated with AD in this study, but selected literature was based on non-RCT (Randomized Controlled Trial) study. Therefore, there was a limit in study method including control, matching, and correction of confounding variables. For clear conclusion, it is necessary to develop the appropriate tool for object of study and clear standard to measure of air pollutant.

Keywords: air pollution, atopic dermatitis, children, meta-analysis

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