Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12190

Search results for: Water treatment

12190 Review on Optimization of Drinking Water Treatment Process

Authors: M. Farhaoui, M. Derraz


In the drinking water treatment processes, the optimization of the treatment is an issue of particular concern. In general, the process consists of many units as settling, coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection. The optimization of the process consists of some measures to decrease the managing and monitoring expenses and improve the quality of the produced water. The objective of this study is to provide water treatment operators with methods and practices that enable to attain the most effective use of the facility and, in consequence, optimize the of the cubic meter price of the treated water. This paper proposes a review on optimization of drinking water treatment process by analyzing all of the water treatment units and gives some solutions in order to maximize the water treatment performances without compromising the water quality standards. Some solutions and methods are performed in the water treatment plant located in the middle of Morocco (Meknes).

Keywords: coagulation process, optimization, turbidity removal, water treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
12189 Ecological-Economics Evaluation of Water Treatment Systems

Authors: Hwasuk Jung, Seoi Lee, Dongchoon Ryou, Pyungjong Yoo, Seokmo Lee


The Nakdong River being used as drinking water sources for Pusan metropolitan city has the vulnerability of water management due to the fact that industrial areas are located in the upper Nakdong River. Most citizens of Busan think that the water quality of Nakdong River is not good, so they boil or use home filter to drink tap water, which causes unnecessary individual costs to Busan citizens. We need to diversify water intake to reduce the cost and to change the weak water source. Under this background, this study was carried out for the environmental accounting of Namgang dam water treatment system compared to Nakdong River water treatment system by using emergy analysis method to help making reasonable decision. Emergy analysis method evaluates quantitatively both natural environment and human economic activities as an equal unit of measure. The emergy transformity of Namgang dam’s water was 1.16 times larger than that of Nakdong River’s water. Namgang Dam’s water shows larger emergy transformity than that of Nakdong River’s water due to its good water quality. The emergy used in making 1 m3 tap water from Namgang dam water treatment system was 1.26 times larger than that of Nakdong River water treatment system. Namgang dam water treatment system shows larger emergy input than that of Nakdong river water treatment system due to its construction cost of new pipeline for intaking Namgang daw water. If the Won used in making 1 m3 tap water from Nakdong river water treatment system is 1, Namgang dam water treatment system used 1.66. If the Em-won used in making 1 m3 tap water from Nakdong river water treatment system is 1, Namgang dam water treatment system used 1.26. The cost-benefit ratio of Em-won was smaller than that of Won. When we use emergy analysis, which considers the benefit of a natural environment such as good water quality of Namgang dam, Namgang dam water treatment system could be a good alternative for diversifying intake source.

Keywords: emergy, emergy transformity, Em-won, water treatment system

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
12188 A Study on Energy Efficiency of Vertical Water Treatment System with DC Power Supply

Authors: Young-Kwan Choi, Gang-Wook Shin, Sung-Taek Hong


Water supply system consumes large amount of power load during water treatment and transportation of purified water. Many energy conserving high efficiency materials such as DC motor and LED light have recently been introduced to water supply system for energy conservation. This paper performed empirical analysis on BLDC, AC motors, and comparatively analyzed the change in power according to DC power supply ratio in order to conserve energy of a next-generation water treatment system called vertical water treatment system. In addition, a DC distribution system linked with photovoltaic generation was simulated to analyze the energy conserving effect of DC load.

Keywords: vertical water treatment system, DC power supply, energy efficiency, BLDC

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
12187 Application of Nonlinear Model to Optimize the Coagulant Dose in Drinking Water Treatment

Authors: M. Derraz, M.Farhaoui


In the water treatment processes, the determination of the optimal dose of the coagulant is an issue of particular concern. Coagulant dosing is correlated to raw water quality which depends on some parameters (turbidity, ph, temperature, conductivity…). The objective of this study is to provide water treatment operators with a tool that enables to predict and replace, sometimes, the manual method (jar testing) used in this plant to predict the optimum coagulant dose. The model is constructed using actual process data for a water treatment plant located in the middle of Morocco (Meknes).

Keywords: coagulation process, aluminum sulfate, model, coagulant dose

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
12186 Dehydration of Residues from WTP for Application in Building Materials and Reuse of Water from the Waste Treatment: A Feasible Solution to Complete Treatment Systems

Authors: Marco Correa, Flavio Araujo, Paulo Scalize, Antonio Albuquerque


The increasing reduction of the volumes of surface water sources which supply most municipalities, as well as the continued rise of demand for treated water, combined with the disposal of effluents from washing of decanters and filters of the water treatment plants, generates a continuous search for correct environmentally solutions to these problems. The effluents generated by the water treatment industry need to be suitably processed for return to the environment or re-use. This article shows an alternative for the dehydration of sludge from the water treatment plants (WTP) and eventual disposal of sludge drained. Using the simple design methodology, we present a case study for a drainage in tanks geotextile, full-scale, which involve five sludge drainage tanks from WTP of the Rio Verde City. Aiming to the reutilization the water drained from the sludge and enabling its reuse both at the beginning of the treatment process at the WTP and in less noble services as for watering the gardens of the local town hall. The sludge will be used to production of building materials.

Keywords: re-use, residue, sustainable, water treatment plants, sludge

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
12185 Preliminary Study on Using of Thermal Energy from Effluent Water for the SBR Process of RO

Authors: Gyeong-Sung Kim, In-soo Ahn, Yong Cho


SBR (Sequencing Batch Reactor) process is usually applied to membrane water treatment plants to treat its concentrated wastewater. The role of SBR process is to remove COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) and NH3 from wastewater before discharging it outside of the water treatment plant using microorganism. Microorganism’s nitrification capability is influenced by water temperature because the nitrification rate of the concentrated wastewater becomes ‘zero’ as water temperature approach 0℃. Heating system is necessary to operate SBR in winter season even though the operating cost increase sharply. The operating cost of SBR at ‘D’ RO water treatment plant in Korea was 51.8 times higher in winter (October to March) compare to summer (April to September) season in 2014. Otherwise the effluent water temperature maintained around 8℃ constantly in winter. This study focuses on application heat pump system to recover the thermal energy from the effluent water of ‘D’ RO plant so that the operating cost will be reduced.

Keywords: water treatment, water thermal energy, energy saving, RO, SBR

Procedia PDF Downloads 437
12184 Waste from Drinking Water Treatment: The Feasibility for Application in Building Materials

Authors: Marco Correa


The increasing reduction of the volumes of surface water sources supplying most municipalities, as well as the rising demand for treated water, combined with the disposal of effluents from washing of decanters and filters of water treatment plants generates a continuous search for correct environmentally solutions to these problems. The effluents generated by the water treatment industry need to be suitably processed for return to the environment or re-use. This article shows alternatives for sludge dehydration from the water treatment plants (WTP) and eventual disposal of sludge drained. Using the simple design methodology, it is presented a case study for drainage in tanks geotextile, full-scale, which involve five sledge drainage tanks from WTP of the city of Rio Verde. Aiming to the reutilization of drained water from the sledge and enabling its reuse both at the beginning of the treatment process at the WTP and in less noble services as for watering the gardens of the local town hall. The sludge will be used to in the production of building materials.

Keywords: dehydration, effluent discharges, re-use, sludge, WTP sludge

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
12183 Innovative Method for Treating Oil-Produced Water with Low Operating Cost

Authors: Maha Salman, Gada Al-Nuwaibit, Ahmed Al-Haji, Saleh Al-Haddad, Abbas Al-Mesri, Mansour Al-Rugeeb


The high salinity of oil-produced water and its complicated chemical composition, makes designing a suitable treatment system for oil-produced water is extremely difficult and costly. On the current study, a new innovative method was proposed to treat the complicated oil-produced water through a simple mixing with brine stream produced from waste water treatment plant. The proposal will investigate the scaling potential of oil-produce water, seawater and the selected brine water (BW) produced from Sulaibiya waste water treatment and reclamation plant (SWWTRP) before and after the mixing with oil-produced water, and will calculate the scaling potential of all expected precipitated salts using different conversion and different % of mixing to optimize the % of mixing between the oil-produced water and the selected stream. The result shows a great, feasible and economic solution to treat oil produced with a very low capital cost.

Keywords: brine water, oil-produced water, scaling potential, Sulaibiyah waste water and reclaminatin plant

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
12182 Solar Aided Vacuum Desalination of Sea-Water

Authors: Miraz Hafiz Rossy


As part of planning to address shortfalls in fresh water supply for the world, Sea water can be a huge source of fresh water. But Desalinating sea water to get fresh water could require a lots of fossil fuels. To save the fossil fuel in terms of save the green world but meet the up growing need for fresh water, a very useful but energy efficient method needs to be introduced. Vacuum desalination of sea water using only the Renewable energy can be an effective solution to this issue. Taking advantage of sensitivity of water's boiling point to air pressure a vacuum desalination water treatment plant can be designed which would only use sea water as feed water and solar energy as fuel to produce fresh drinking water. The study indicates that reducing the air pressure to a certain value water can be boiled at very low temperature. Using solar energy to provide the condensation and the vacuum creation would be very useful and efficient. Compared to existing resources, desalination is considered to be expensive, but using only renewable energy the cost can be reduced significantly. Despite its very few drawbacks, it can be considered a possible solution to the world's fresh water shortages.

Keywords: desalination, scarcity of fresh water, water purification, water treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
12181 Technology Identification, Evaluation and Selection Methodology for Industrial Process Water and Waste Water Treatment Plant of 3x150 MWe Tufanbeyli Lignite-Fired Power Plant

Authors: Cigdem Safak Saglam


Most thermal power plants use steam as working fluid in their power cycle. Therefore, in addition to fuel, water is the other main input for thermal plants. Water and steam must be highly pure in order to protect the systems from corrosion, scaling and biofouling. Pure process water is produced in water treatment plants having many several treatment methods. Treatment plant design is selected depending on raw water source and required water quality. Although working principle of fossil-fuel fired thermal power plants are same, there is no standard design and equipment arrangement valid for all thermal power plant utility systems. Besides that, there are many other technology evaluation and selection criteria for designing the most optimal water systems meeting the requirements such as local conditions, environmental restrictions, electricity and other consumables availability and transport, process water sources and scarcity, land use constraints etc. Aim of this study is explaining the adopted methodology for technology selection for process water preparation and industrial waste water treatment plant in a thermal power plant project located in Tufanbeyli, Adana Province in Turkey. Thermal power plant is fired with indigenous lignite coal extracted from adjacent lignite reserves. This paper addresses all above-mentioned factors affecting the thermal power plant water treatment facilities (demineralization + waste water treatment) design and describes the ultimate design of Tufanbeyli Thermal Power Plant Water Treatment Plant.

Keywords: thermal power plant, lignite coal, pretreatment, demineralization, electrodialysis, recycling, ash dampening

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
12180 Ceramic Membrane Filtration Technologies for Oilfield Produced Water Treatment

Authors: Mehrdad Ebrahimi, Oliver Schmitz, Axel Schmidt, Peter Czermak


“Produced water” (PW) is any fossil water that is brought to the surface along with crude oil or natural gas. By far, PW is the largest waste stream by volume associated with oil and gas production operations. Due to the increasing volume of waste all over the world in the current decade, the outcome and effect of discharging PW on the environment has lately become a significant issue of environmental concerns. Therefore, there is a need for new technologies for PW treatment due to increase focus on water conservation and environmental regulation. The use of membrane processes for treatment of PW has several advantages over many of the traditional separation techniques. In oilfield produced water treatment with ceramic membranes, process efficiency is characterized by the specific permeate flux and by the oil separation performance. Apart from the membrane properties, the permeate flux during filtration of oily wastewaters is known to be strongly dependent on the constituents of the feed solution, as well as on process conditions, e.g. trans-membrane pressure (TMP) and cross-flow velocity (CFV). The research project presented in these report describes the application of different ceramic membrane filtration technologies for the efficient treatment of oil-field produced water and different model oily solutions.

Keywords: ceramic membrane, membrane fouling, oil rejection, produced water treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
12179 Solar Photovoltaic Pumping and Water Treatment Tools: A Case Study in Ethiopian Village

Authors: Corinna Barraco, Ornella Salimbene


This research involves the Ethiopian locality of Jeldi (North Africa), an area particularly affected by water shortage and in which the pumping and treatment of drinking water are extremely sensitive issues. The study aims to develop and apply low-cost tools for the design of solar water pumping and water purification systems in a not developed country. Consequently, two technical tools have been implemented in Excel i) Solar photovoltaic Pumping (Spv-P) ii) Water treatment (Wt). The Spv-P tool was applied to the existing well (depth 110 [m], dynamic water level 90 [m], static water level 53 [m], well yield 0.1728 [m³h⁻¹]) in the Jeldi area, where estimated water demand is about 50 [m3d-1]. Through the application of the tool, it was designed the water extraction system of the well, obtaining the number of pumps and solar panels necessary for water pumping from the well of Jeldi. Instead, the second tool Wt has been applied in the subsequent phase of extracted water treatment. According to the chemical-physical parameters of the water, Wt returns as output the type of purification treatment(s) necessary to potable the extracted water. In the case of the well of Jeldi, the tool identified a high criticality regarding the turbidity parameter (12 [NTU] vs 5 [NTU]), and a medium criticality regarding the exceeding limits of sodium concentration (234 [mg/L Na⁺] vs 200 [mg/L Na⁺]) and ammonia (0.64 [mg/L NH³-N] vs 0.5 [mg/L NH³-N]). To complete these tools, two specific manuals are provided for the users. The joint use of the two tools would help reduce problems related to access to water resources compared to the current situation and represents a simplified solution for the design of pumping systems and analysis of purification treatments to be performed in undeveloped countries.

Keywords: drinking water, Ethiopia, treatments, water pumping

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
12178 Research Trends on Magnetic Graphene for Water Treatment: A Bibliometric Analysis

Authors: J. C. M. Santos, J. C. A. Sousa, A. J. Rubio, L. S. Soletti, F. Gasparotto, N. U. Yamaguchi


Magnetic graphene has received widespread attention for their capability of water and wastewater treatment, which has been attracted many researchers in this field. A bibliometric analysis based on the Web of Science database was employed to analyze the global scientific outputs of magnetic graphene for water treatment until the present time (2012 to 2017), to improve the understanding of the research trends. The publication year, place of publication, institutes, funding agencies, journals, most cited articles, distribution outputs in thematic categories and applications were analyzed. Three major aspects analyzed including type of pollutant, treatment process and composite composition have further contributed to revealing the research trends. The most relevant research aspects of the main technologies using magnetic graphene for water treatment were summarized in this paper. The results showed that research on magnetic graphene for water treatment goes through a period of decline that might be related to a saturated field and a lack of bibliometric studies. Thus, the result of the present work will lead researchers to establish future directions in further studies using magnetic graphene for water treatment.

Keywords: composite, graphene oxide, nanomaterials, scientometrics

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
12177 Synthesis of Iron Oxide Doped Zeolite: An Antimicrobial Nanomaterial for Drinking Water Purification Applications

Authors: Muhammad Zeeshan, Rabia Nazir, Lubna Tahir


Low cost filter based on iron doped zeolite (Fe-Z) and pottery clay was developed for an effective and efficient treatment of the drinking water contaminated with microbes. Fe-Z was characterized using powder XRD, SEM and EDX and shown to have average particle size of 49 nm with spongy appearance. The simulated samples of water self-contaminated with six microbes (S. typhi, B. subtilus, E. coli, S. aures, K. pneumoniae, and P. aeruginosa) after treatment with Fe-Z indicated effective removal of all the microbes in less than 30 min. Equally good results were obtained when actual drinking water samples, totally unfit for human consumption, were treated with Fe-Z.

Keywords: iron doped zeolite, biological and chemical treatment, drinking water

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
12176 Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Based Water Filter for Virus Pathogen Removal

Authors: K. Domagala, D. Kata, T. Graule


Diseases caused by contaminated drinking water are the worldwide problem, which leads to the death and severe illnesses for hundreds of millions million people each year. There is an urgent need for efficient water treatment techniques for virus pathogens removal. The aim of the research was to develop safe and economic solution, which help with the water treatment. In this study, the synthesis of copper-based multi-walled carbon nanotube composites is described. Proposed solution utilize combination of a low-cost material with a high active surface area and copper antiviral properties. Removal of viruses from water was possible by adsorption based on electrostatic interactions of negatively charged virus with a positively charged filter material.

Keywords: multi walled carbon nanotubes, water purification, virus removal, water treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
12175 Alternatives to the Disposal of Sludge from Water and Wastewater Treatment Plants

Authors: Lima Priscila, Gianotto Raiza, Arruda Leonan, Magalhães Filho Fernando


Industrialization and especially the accentuated population growth in developing countries and the lack of drainage, public cleaning, water and sanitation services has caused concern about the need for expansion of water treatment units and sewage. However, these units have been generating by-products, such as the sludge. This paper aims to investigate aspects of operation and maintenance of sludge from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP - 90 L.s-1) and two water treatment plants (WTPs; 1.4 m3.s-1 and 0.5 m3.s-1) for the purpose of proper disposal and reuse, evaluating their qualitative and quantitative characteristics, the Brazilian legislation and standards. It was concluded that the sludge from the water treatment plants is directly related to the quality of raw water collected, and it becomes feasible for use in construction materials, and to dispose it in the sewage system, improving the efficiency of the WWTP regarding precipitation of phosphorus (35% of removal). The WTP Lageado had 55,726 kg/month of sludge production, more than WTP Guariroba (29,336 kg/month), even though the flow of WTP Guariroba is 1,400 L.s-1 and the WTP Lagedo 500 L.s-1, being explained by the quality that influences more than the flow. The WWTP sludge have higher concentrations of organic materials due to their origin and could be used to improve the fertility of the soil, crop production and recovery of degraded areas. The volume of sludge generated at the WWTP was 1,760 ton/month, with 5.6% of solid content in the raw sludge and in the dewatered sludge it increased its content to 23%.

Keywords: disposal, sludge, water treatment, wastewater treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
12174 Waste Water Treatment and Emerging Waste Water Contaminants in Developing Countries

Authors: Opata Obinna Johnpaul


Wastewater is one of the day-to–day concerns of humans and the environment, in general, due to its importance to the environment. This is because of the presence of various contaminants that are involved in waste water. Wastewater treatment can be defined as the proportion of wastewater that is treated, in order to reduce pollutants before being discharged to the environment, by the level of treatment. This work discusses wastewater treatment, its contaminants, as well as the technologies, involved.The major focus is to analyze Okomu Oil Palm Company Plc, their effluent treatment facility. Okomu Oil Palm Company is based in Nigeria, which is one of the developing countries of the world. Okomu Oil Palm Company uses aquatic treatment technology for their effluent treatment and applies the physio-chemical level of advanced chemical treatment of wastewater treatment process. This work will discuss the outcome of the laboratory sample taken on the 30th January, 2015 and analyzed between 30th January- 4th February 2015.

Keywords: wastewater treatment, contaminants, physio-chemical process, Okomu oil palm

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
12173 Study on the Treatment of Waste Water Containing Nitrogen Heterocyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Phenol-Induced Microbial Communities

Authors: Zhichao Li


This project has treated the waste-water that contains the nitrogen heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, by using the phenol-induced microbial communities. The treatment of nitrogen heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is a difficult problem for coking waste-water treatment. Pyridine, quinoline and indole are three kinds of most common nitrogen heterocyclic compounds in the f, and treating these refractory organics biologically has always been a research focus. The phenol-degrading bacteria can be used in the enhanced biological treatment effectively, and has a good treatment effect. Therefore, using the phenol-induced microbial communities to treat the coking waste-water can remove multiple pollutants concurrently, and improve the treating efficiency of coking waste-water. Experiments have proved that the phenol-induced microbial communities can degrade the nitrogen heterocyclic ring aromatic hydrocarbon efficiently.

Keywords: phenol, nitrogen heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenol-degrading bacteria, microbial communities, biological treatment technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
12172 Environmental Engineering Case Study of Waste Water Treatement

Authors: Harold Jideofor


Wastewater treatment consists of applying known technology to improve or upgrade the quality of a wastewater. Usually wastewater treatment will involve collecting the wastewater in a central, segregated location (the Wastewater Treatment Plant) and subjecting the wastewater to various treatment processes. Most often, since large volumes of wastewater are involved, treatment processes are carried out on continuously flowing wastewaters (continuous flow or "open" systems) rather than as "batch" or a series of periodic treatment processes in which treatment is carried out on parcels or "batches" of wastewaters. While most wastewater treatment processes are continuous flow, certain operations, such as vacuum filtration, involving storage of sludge, the addition of chemicals, filtration and removal or disposal of the treated sludge, are routinely handled as periodic batch operations.

Keywords: wastewater treatment, environmental engineering, waste water

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
12171 Application of Nanofiltration Membrane for River Nile Water Treatment in Egypt

Authors: Tarek S. Jamil, Ahmed M. Shaban, Eman S. Mansor, Ahmed A. Karim, Azza M. Abdel Aty


In this manuscript, 35 m³/d NF unit was designed and applied for surface water treatment of river Nile water. Intake of Embaba drinking water treatment plant was selected to install that unit at since; it has the lowest water quality index value through the examined 6 sites in greater Cairo area. The optimized operating conditions were feed and permeate flow, 40 and 7 m³/d, feed pressure 2.68 bar and flux rate 37.7 l/m2.h. The permeate water was drinkable according to Egyptian Ministerial decree 458/2007 for the tested parameters (physic-chemical, heavy metals, organic, algal, bacteriological and parasitological). Single and double sand filters were used as pretreatment for NF membranes, but continuous clogging for sand filters moved us to use UF membrane as pretreatment for NF membrane.

Keywords: River Nile, NF membrane, pretreatment, UF membrane, water quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 373
12170 Absorption Capability Examination of Heavy Metals by Spirogyra Alga in Ahvaz Water Treatment Plant

Authors: F. Fakheri Raof, F. Zobeidizadeh


The present study examined the potential capability of Spirogyra algae remove heavy metals Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cr from the water. For this purpose, the water treatment No. 3 of Ahvaz County in Khuzestan Province of Iran was selected as a case study. From 8 sampling stations, 4 stations were dedicated to the water samples and 4 stations to the algae samples. According to the obtained results, the concentration of the heavy metals Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn in water samples were within the ranges of 1.98-19.53, 0.67-13.45, 1-23.18, and 2.12-83.04 µg/L. Besides, the concentration of heavy metal Cr, Pb, Cu, and Zn in spirogyra algae samples varied between the ranges 2.30-3.61, 2.06-3.43, 2.29-2.56, and 9.88-10.84 µg/L. The highest amount of metal absorption in spirogyra algae samples was related to the zinc. The obtained results also indicated that the last spirogyra algae sample which was at the inlet of Tank 4 absorbed the lowest concentration of metals. This would be due to the treatment process along the course of ponds resulted in completely pure water at the outlet without the existence of algae on the sides. The paper also provides some useful recommendations on this issue.

Keywords: absorption, Ahvaz, heavy metal, spirogyra algae, water treatment plants

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
12169 Water Absorption Studies on Natural Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites

Authors: G. L. Devnani, Shishir Sinha


In the recent years, researchers have drawn their focus on natural fibers reinforced composite materials because of their excellent properties like low cost, lower weight, better tensile and flexural strengths, biodegradability etc. There is little concern however that when these materials are put in moist conditions for long duration, their mechanical properties degrade. Therefore, in order to take maximum advantage of these novel materials, one should have a complete understanding of their moisture or water absorption phenomena. Various fiber surface treatment methods like alkaline treatment, acetylation etc. have also been suggested for reduction in water absorption of these composites. In the present study, a detailed review is done for water absorption behavior of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites, and experiments also have been performed on these composites with varying the parameters like fiber loading etc. for understanding the water absorption kinetics. Various surface treatment methods also performed to reduce the water absorption behavior of these materials and effort is made to develop a proper understanding of water absorption mechanism mathematically and experimentally for full potential utilization of natural fiber reinforced polymer composite materials.

Keywords: alkaline treatment, composites, natural fiber, water absorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
12168 Constructed Wetlands: A Sustainable Approach for Waste Water Treatment

Authors: S. Sehar, S. Khan, N. Ali, S. Ahmed


In the last decade, the hunt for cost-effective, eco-friendly and energy sustainable technologies for waste water treatment are gaining much attention due to emerging water crisis and rapidly depleting existing water reservoirs all over the world. In this scenario, constructed wetland being a “green technology” could be a reliable mean for waste water treatment especially in small communities due to cost-effectiveness, ease in management, less energy consumption and sludge production. Therefore, a low cost, lab-scale sub-surface flow hybrid constructed wetland (SS-HCW) was established for domestic waste water treatment.It was observed that not only the presence but also choice of suitable vegetation along with hydraulic retention time (HRT) are key intervening ingredients which directly influence pollutant removals in constructed wetlands. Another important aspect of vegetation is that it may facilitate microbial attachment in rhizosphere, thus promote biofilm formation via microbial interactions. The major factors that influence initial aggregation and subsequent biofilm formation i.e. divalent cations (Ca2+) and extra cellular DNA (eDNA) were also studied in detail. The presence of Ca2+ in constructed wetland demonstrate superior performances in terms of effluent quality, i.e BOD5, COD, TDS, TSS, and PO4- than in absence of Ca2+. Finally, light and scanning electron microscopies coupled with EDS were carried out to get more insights into the mechanics of biofilm formation with or without Ca addition. Therefore, the same strategy can be implemented in other waste water treatment technologies.

Keywords: hybrid constructed wetland, biofilm formation, waste water treatment, waste water

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
12167 Assessment of Heavy Metals and Radionuclide Concentrations in Mafikeng Waste Water Treatment Plant

Authors: M. Mathuthu, N. N. Gaxela, R. Y. Olobatoke


A study was carried out to assess the heavy metal and radionuclide concentrations of water from the waste water treatment plant in Mafikeng Local Municipality to evaluate treatment efficiency. Ten water samples were collected from various stages of water treatment which included sewage delivered to the plant, the two treatment stages and the effluent and also the community. The samples were analyzed for heavy metal content using Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer. Gross α/β activity concentration in water samples was evaluated by Liquid Scintillation Counting whereas the concentration of individual radionuclides was measured by gamma spectroscopy. The results showed marked reduction in the levels of heavy metal concentration from 3 µg/L (As)–670 µg/L (Na) in sewage into the plant to 2 µg/L (As)–170 µg/L (Fe) in the effluent. Beta activity was not detected in water samples except in the in-coming sewage, the concentration of which was within reference limits. However, the gross α activity in all the water samples (7.7-8.02 Bq/L) exceeded the 0.1 Bq/L limit set by World Health Organization (WHO). Gamma spectroscopy analysis revealed very high concentrations of 235U and 226Ra in water samples, with the lowest concentrations (9.35 and 5.44 Bq/L respectively) in the in-coming sewage and highest concentrations (73.8 and 47 Bq/L respectively) in the community water suggesting contamination along water processing line. All the values were considerably higher than the limits of South Africa Target Water Quality Range and WHO. However, the estimated total doses of the two radionuclides for the analyzed water samples (10.62 - 45.40 µSv yr-1) were all well below the reference level of the committed effective dose of 100 µSv yr-1 recommended by WHO.

Keywords: gross α/β activity, heavy metals, radionuclides, 235U, 226Ra, water sample

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
12166 Soil-Cement Floor Produced with Alum Water Treatment Residues

Authors: Flavio Araujo, Paulo Scalize, Julio Lima, Natalia Vieira, Antonio Albuquerque, Isabela Santos


From a concern regarding the environmental impacts caused by the disposal of residues generated in Water Treatment Plants (WTP's), alternatives ways have been studied to use these residues as raw material for manufacture of building materials, avoiding their discharge on water streams, disposal on sanitary landfills or incineration. This paper aims to present the results of a research work, which is using WTR for replacing the soil content in the manufacturing of soil-cement floor with proportions of 0, 5, 10 and 15%. The samples tests showed a reduction mechanical strength in so far as has increased the amount of waste. The water absorption was below the maximum of 6% required by the standard. The application of WTR contributes to the reduction of the environmental damage in the water treatment industry.

Keywords: residue, soil-cement floor, sustainable, WTP

Procedia PDF Downloads 469
12165 An Innovative Use of Flow Columns in Electrocoagulation Reactor to Control Water Temperature

Authors: Khalid S. Hashim, Andy Shaw, Rafid Alkhaddar, David Phipps, Ortoneda Pedrola


Temperature is an essential parameter in the electrocoagulation process (EC) as it governs the solubility of electrodes and the precipitates and the collision rate of particles in water being treated. Although it has been about 100 years since the EC technology was invented and applied in water and wastewater treatment, the effects of temperature on the its performance were insufficiently investigated. Thus, the present project aims to fill this gap by an innovative use of perforated flow columns in the designing of a new EC reactor (ECR1). The new reactor (ECR1) consisted of a Perspex made cylinder container supplied with a flow column consisted of perorated discoid electrodes that made from aluminium. The flow column has been installed vertically, half submerged in the water being treated, inside a plastic cylinder. The unsubmerged part of the flow column works as a radiator for the water being treated. In order to investigate the performance of ECR1; water samples with different initial temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 °C) to the ECR1 for 20 min. Temperature of effluent water samples were measured using Hanna meter (Model: HI 98130). The obtained results demonstrated that the ECR1 reduced water temperature from 35, 30, and 25 °C to 24.6, 23.8, and 21.8 °C respectively. While low water temperature, 15 °C, increased slowly to reach 19.1 °C after 15 minutes and kept the same level till the end of the treatment period. At the same time, water sample with initial temperature of 20 °C showed almost a steady level of temperature along the treatment process, where the temperature increased negligibly from 20 to 20.1 °C after 20 minutes of treatment. In conclusion, ECR1 is able to control the temperature of water being treated around the room temperature even when the initial temperature was high (35 °C) or low (15 °C).

Keywords: electrocoagulation, flow column, treatment, water temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
12164 Effect of Polymer Residues for Wastewater Treatment from Petroleum Production

Authors: Chayonnat Thanamun, Kreangkrai Maneeintr


For petroleum industry, polymer flooding is the one of the main methods in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) that is used water-soluble polymer such as partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) to increase oil production. It is added to the flooding water to improve the mobility ratio in the flooding process. During the polymer flooding process, water is produced as a by-product along with oil and gas production. This produced water is a mixture of inorganic and organic compound. Moreover, produced water is more difficult to treat than that from water flooding. In this work, the effect of HPAM residue on the wastewater treatment from polymer flooding is studied. Polyaluminium chloride (PAC) is selected to use as a flocculant. Therefore, the objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of polymer residues in produced water on the wastewater treatment by using PAC. The operating parameters of this study are flocculant dosage ranging from 300,400 and 500 mg/L temperature from 30-50 Celsius degree and HPAM concentrations from 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/L. Furthermore, the turbidity, as well as total suspended solids (TSS), are also studied. The results indicated that with an increase in HPAM concentration, the TSS and turbidity increase gradually with the increasing of coagulant dosage under the same temperature. Also, the coagulation-flocculation performance is improved with the increasing temperature. This can be applied to use in the wastewater treatment from oil production before this water can be injected back to the reservoir.

Keywords: wastewater treatment, petroleum production, polyaluminium chloride, polyacrylamide

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
12163 Phytoremediation Rates of Water Hyacinth in an Aquaculture Effluent Hydroponic System

Authors: E. A. Kiridi, A. O. Ogunlela


Conventional wastewater treatment plants of activated carbon, electrodialysis, ion exchange, reverse osmosis etc. are expensive to install, operate and maintain especially in developing countries; therefore, the use of aquatic macrophytes for wastewater purification is a viable alternative. On the first day of experimentation, approximately 100g of water hyacinth was introduced into the hydroponic units in four replicates. The water quality parameters measured were total suspended solids (TSS), pH and electrical conductivity (EC). Others were concentration of ammonium–nitrogen (NH4+-N), nitrite-nitrogen (NO2--N), nitrate-nitrogen (NO3--N), phosphate–phosphorus (PO43--P), and biomass value. At phytoremediation intervals of 7, 14, 21 and 28 days, the biomass recorded were 438.2 g, 600.7 g, 688.2 g and 725.7 g. Water hyacinth was able to reduce the pollutant concentration of all the selected parameter. The percentage reduction of pH ranged from 1.9% to 14.7%, EC from 49.8% to 97.0%, TDS from 50.4% to 97.6%, TSS from 34.0% to 78.3%, NH4+-N from 38.9% to 85.2%, NO2--N from 0% to 84.6%, NO3--N from 63.2% to 98.8% and PO43--P from 10% to 88.0%. Paired sample t-test shows that at 95% confidence level, it can be concluded statistically that the inequality between the pre-treatment and post-treatment values are significant. This suggests that the use of water hyacinth is valuable in the design and operation of aquaculture effluent treatment and should therefore be adopted by environmental and wastewater managers.

Keywords: aquaculture effluent, phytoremediation, pollutant, water hyacinth

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
12162 Optimization of the Drinking Water Treatment Process Improvement of the Treated Water Quality by Using the Sludge Produced by the Water Treatment Plant

Authors: M. Derraz, M. Farhaoui


Problem statement: In the water treatment processes, the coagulation and flocculation processes produce sludge according to the level of the water turbidity. The aluminum sulfate is the most common coagulant used in water treatment plants of Morocco as well as many countries. It is difficult to manage Sludge produced by the treatment plant. However, it can be used in the process to improve the quality of the treated water and reduce the aluminum sulfate dose. Approach: In this study, the effectiveness of sludge was evaluated at different turbidity levels (low, medium, and high turbidity) and coagulant dosage to find optimal operational conditions. The influence of settling time was also studied. A set of jar test experiments was conducted to find the sludge and aluminum sulfate dosages in order to improve the produced water quality for different turbidity levels. Results: Results demonstrated that using sludge produced by the treatment plant can improve the quality of the produced water and reduce the aluminum sulfate using. The aluminum sulfate dosage can be reduced from 40 to 50% according to the turbidity level (10, 20, and 40 NTU). Conclusions/Recommendations: Results show that sludge can be used in order to reduce the aluminum sulfate dosage and improve the quality of treated water. The highest turbidity removal efficiency is observed within 6 mg/l of aluminum sulfate and 35 mg/l of sludge in low turbidity, 20 mg/l of aluminum sulfate and 50 mg/l of sludge in medium turbidity and 20 mg/l of aluminum sulfate and 60 mg/l of sludge in high turbidity. The turbidity removal efficiency is 97.56%, 98.96%, and 99.47% respectively for low, medium and high turbidity levels.

Keywords: coagulation process, coagulant dose, sludge reuse, turbidity removal

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
12161 Ballast Water Management Triad: Administration, Ship Owner and the Seafarer

Authors: Rajoo Balaji, Omar Yaakob


The Ballast Water Convention requires less than 5% of the world tonnage for ratification. Consequently, ships will have to comply with the requirements. Compliance evaluation and enforcement will become mandatory. Ship owners have to invest in treatment systems and shipboard personnel have to operate them and ensure compliance. The monitoring and enforcement will be the responsibilities of the Administrations. Herein, a review of the current status of the Ballast Water Management and the issues faced by these are projected. Issues range from efficacy and economics of the treatment systems to sampling and testing. Health issues of chemical systems, paucity of data for decision support etc., are other issues. It is emphasized that management of ballast water must be extended to ashore and sustainable solutions must be researched upon. An exemplar treatment system based on ship’s waste heat is also suggested.

Keywords: Ballast Water Management, compliance evaluation, compliance enforcement, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 352