Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10898

Search results for: design complexity

10898 Development of the Ontology of Engineering Design Complexity

Authors: Victor E. Lopez, L. Dale Thomas

Abstract:

As engineered systems become more complex, the difficulty associated with predicting, developing, and operating engineered systems also increases, resulting in increased costs, failure rates, and unexpected consequences. Successfully managing the complexity of the system should reduce these negative consequences. The study of complexity in the context of engineering development has suffered due to the ambiguity of the nature of complexity, what makes a system complex and how complexity translates to real world engineering attributes and consequences. This paper argues that the use of an ontology of engineering design complexity would i) improve the clarity of the research being performed by allowing researchers to use a common conceptualization of complexity, with more precise terminology, and ii) elucidate the connections between certain types of complexity and their consequences for system development. The ontology comprises concepts of complexity found in the literature and the different relations that exists between them. The ontology maps different complexity concepts such as structural complexity, creation complexity, and information entropy, and then relates the to system aspects such as interfaces, development effort, and modularity. The ontology is represented using the Web Ontology Language (OWL). This paper presents the current status of the ontology of engineering design complexity, the main challenges encountered, and the future plans for the ontology.

Keywords: design complexity, ontology, design effort, complexity ontology

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10897 Identifying Chaotic Architecture: Origins of Nonlinear Design Theory

Authors: Mohammadsadegh Zanganehfar

Abstract:

Since the modernism, movement, and appearance of modern architecture, an aggressive desire for a general design theory in the theoretical works of architects in the form of books and essays emerges. Since Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown’s published complexity and contradiction in architecture in 1966, the discourse of complexity and volumetric composition has been an important and controversial issue in the discipline. Ever since various theories and essays were involved in this discourse, this paper attempt to identify chaos theory as a scientific model of complexity and its relation to architecture design theory by conducting a qualitative analysis and multidisciplinary critical approach through architecture and basic sciences resources. As a result, we identify chaotic architecture as the correlation of chaos theory and architecture as an independent nonlinear design theory with specific characteristics and properties.

Keywords: architecture complexity, chaos theory, fractals, nonlinear dynamic systems, nonlinear ontology

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10896 Uncovering the Complex Structure of Building Design Process Based on Royal Institute of British Architects Plan of Work

Authors: Fawaz A. Binsarra, Halim Boussabaine

Abstract:

The notion of complexity science has been attracting the interest of researchers and professionals due to the need of enhancing the efficiency of understanding complex systems dynamic and structure of interactions. In addition, complexity analysis has been used as an approach to investigate complex systems that contains a large number of components interacts with each other to accomplish specific outcomes and emerges specific behavior. The design process is considered as a complex action that involves large number interacted components, which are ranked as design tasks, design team, and the components of the design process. Those three main aspects of the building design process consist of several components that interact with each other as a dynamic system with complex information flow. In this paper, the goal is to uncover the complex structure of information interactions in building design process. The Investigating of Royal Institute of British Architects Plan Of Work 2013 information interactions as a case study to uncover the structure and building design process complexity using network analysis software to model the information interaction will significantly enhance the efficiency of the building design process outcomes.

Keywords: complexity, process, building desgin, Riba, design complexity, network, network analysis

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10895 Parametric Design as an Approach to Respond to Complexity

Authors: Sepideh Jabbari Behnam, Zahrasadat Saide Zarabadi

Abstract:

A city is an intertwined texture from the relationship of different components in a whole which is united in a one, so designing the whole complex and its planning is not an easy matter. By considering that a city is a complex system with infinite components and communications, providing flexible layouts that can respond to the unpredictable character of the city, which is a result of its complexity, is inevitable. Parametric design approach as a new approach can produce flexible and transformative layouts in any stage of design. This study aimed to introduce parametric design as a modern approach to respond to complex urban issues by using descriptive and analytical methods. This paper firstly introduces complex systems and then giving a brief characteristic of complex systems. The flexible design and layout flexibility is another matter in response and simulation of complex urban systems that should be considered in design, which is discussed in this study. In this regard, after describing the nature of the parametric approach as a flexible approach, as well as a tool and appropriate way to respond to features such as limited predictability, reciprocating nature, complex communications, and being sensitive to initial conditions and hierarchy, this paper introduces parametric design.

Keywords: complexity theory, complex system, flexibility, parametric design

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10894 Empirical Exploration of Correlations between Software Design Measures: A Replication Study

Authors: Jehad Al Dallal

Abstract:

Software engineers apply different measures to quantify the quality of software design. These measures consider artifacts developed at low or high level software design phases. The results are used to point to design weaknesses and to indicate design points that have to be restructured. Understanding the relationship among the quality measures and among the design quality aspects considered by these measures is important to interpreting the impact of a measure for a quality aspect on other potentially related aspects. In addition, exploring the relationship between quality measures helps to explain the impact of different quality measures on external quality aspects, such as reliability and maintainability. In this paper, we report a replication study that empirically explores the correlation between six well known and commonly applied design quality measures. These measures consider several quality aspects, including complexity, cohesion, coupling, and inheritance. The results indicate that inheritance measures are weakly correlated to other measures, whereas complexity, coupling, and cohesion measures are mostly strongly correlated.  

Keywords: quality attribute, quality measure, software design quality, Spearman correlation

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10893 Cognitive Weighted Polymorphism Factor: A New Cognitive Complexity Metric

Authors: T. Francis Thamburaj, A. Aloysius

Abstract:

Polymorphism is one of the main pillars of the object-oriented paradigm. It induces hidden forms of class dependencies which may impact software quality, resulting in higher cost factor for comprehending, debugging, testing, and maintaining the software. In this paper, a new cognitive complexity metric called Cognitive Weighted Polymorphism Factor (CWPF) is proposed. Apart from the software structural complexity, it includes the cognitive complexity on the basis of type. The cognitive weights are calibrated based on 27 empirical studies with 120 persons. A case study and experimentation of the new software metric shows positive results. Further, a comparative study is made and the correlation test has proved that CWPF complexity metric is a better, more comprehensive, and more realistic indicator of the software complexity than Abreu’s Polymorphism Factor (PF) complexity metric.

Keywords: cognitive complexity metric, object-oriented metrics, polymorphism factor, software metrics

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10892 Handling Complexity of a Complex System Design: Paradigm, Formalism and Transformations

Authors: Hycham Aboutaleb, Bruno Monsuez

Abstract:

Current systems' complexity has reached a degree that requires addressing conception and design issues while taking into account environmental, operational, social, legal, and financial aspects. Therefore, one of the main challenges is the way complex systems are specified and designed. The exponentially growing effort, cost, and time investment of complex systems in modeling phase emphasize the need for a paradigm, a framework, and an environment to handle the system model complexity. For that, it is necessary to understand the expectations of the human user of the model and his limits. This paper presents a generic framework for designing complex systems, highlights the requirements a system model needs to fulfill to meet human user expectations, and suggests a graph-based formalism for modeling complex systems. Finally, a set of transformations are defined to handle the model complexity.

Keywords: higraph-based, formalism, system engineering paradigm, modeling requirements, graph-based transformations

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10891 Conceptualising Project Complexity in Ghana’s Construction Industry: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Kwasi Dartey-Baah, Mias De Klerk

Abstract:

Project complexity has been cited as one of the essential areas of project management. It can be observed from environmental, social, technological, and organisational viewpoints, and its handling is critical to project success. Conceptualised in varied industries, this paper seeks to ascertain the meaning and understanding of project complexity within the Ghanaian construction industry based on the three dimensions of complexities (faith, fact, and interaction) using experts' opinions. Taking the form of a focus group discussion, the paper sought to gain an in-depth understanding of project complexity issues in Ghana’s construction industry. The method use obtained data from experts (a purposely selected group) comprising project leaders and project management academics. The findings indicated that the experts broadly agreed with the complexity items but offered varied reasons for their agreement. In the composite assessment of the complexity dimensions of (faith, fact, and interaction), it emerged that there was some agreement with the complexity dimensions of fact and interaction within Ghana’s construction industry. On the other hand, with the dimension for complexity by faith, it was noted that the experts in Ghana’s construction construed complexity by faith, not as the absence of evidence but the evidence that hinges on at least a member of the project team. It is expected that other researches on project complexity will focus on other industries to enhance the knowledge of the same within the field of project management.

Keywords: project complexity, complexity by faith, complexity by fact, complexity by interaction, construction industry, Ghana

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10890 Functional Decomposition Based Effort Estimation Model for Software-Intensive Systems

Authors: Nermin Sökmen

Abstract:

An effort estimation model is needed for software-intensive projects that consist of hardware, embedded software or some combination of the two, as well as high level software solutions. This paper first focuses on functional decomposition techniques to measure functional complexity of a computer system and investigates its impact on system development effort. Later, it examines effects of technical difficulty and design team capability factors in order to construct the best effort estimation model. With using traditional regression analysis technique, the study develops a system development effort estimation model which takes functional complexity, technical difficulty and design team capability factors as input parameters. Finally, the assumptions of the model are tested.

Keywords: functional complexity, functional decomposition, development effort, technical difficulty, design team capability, regression analysis

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10889 The Complexity of Testing Cryptographic Devices on Input Faults

Authors: Alisher Ikramov, Gayrat Juraev

Abstract:

The production of logic devices faces the occurrence of faults during manufacturing. This work analyses the complexity of testing a special type of logic device on inverse, adhesion, and constant input faults. The focus of this work is on devices that implement cryptographic functions. The complexity values for the general case faults and for some frequently occurring subsets were determined and proved in this work. For a special case, when the length of the text block is equal to the length of the key block, the complexity of testing is proven to be asymptotically half the complexity of testing all logic devices on the same types of input faults.

Keywords: complexity, cryptographic devices, input faults, testing

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10888 Reduced Complexity of ML Detection Combined with DFE

Authors: Jae-Hyun Ro, Yong-Jun Kim, Chang-Bin Ha, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

In multiple input multiple output-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) systems, many detection schemes have been developed to improve the error performance and to reduce the complexity. Maximum likelihood (ML) detection has optimal error performance but it has very high complexity. Thus, this paper proposes reduced complexity of ML detection combined with decision feedback equalizer (DFE). The error performance of the proposed detection scheme is higher than the conventional DFE. But the complexity of the proposed scheme is lower than the conventional ML detection.

Keywords: detection, DFE, MIMO-OFDM, ML

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10887 Software Engineering Revolution Driven by Complexity Science

Authors: Jay Xiong, Li Lin

Abstract:

This paper introduces a new software engineering paradigm based on complexity science, called NSE (Nonlinear Software Engineering paradigm). The purpose of establishing NSE is to help software development organizations double their productivity, half their cost, and increase the quality of their products in several orders of magnitude simultaneously. NSE complies with the essential principles of complexity science. NSE brings revolutionary changes to almost all aspects in software engineering. NSE has been fully implemented with its support platform Panorama++.

Keywords: complexity science, software development, software engineering, software maintenance

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10886 Examining the Development of Complexity, Accuracy and Fluency in L2 Learners' Writing after L2 Instruction

Authors: Khaled Barkaoui

Abstract:

Research on second-language (L2) learning tends to focus on comparing students with different levels of proficiency at one point in time. However, to understand L2 development, we need more longitudinal research. In this study, we adopt a longitudinal approach to examine changes in three indicators of L2 ability, complexity, accuracy, and fluency (CAF), as reflected in the writing of L2 learners when writing on different tasks before and after a period L2 instruction. Each of 85 Chinese learners of English at three levels of English language proficiency responded to two writing tasks (independent and integrated) before and after nine months of English-language study in China. Each essay (N= 276) was analyzed in terms of numerous CAF indices using both computer coding and human rating: number of words written, number of errors per 100 words, ratings of error severity, global syntactic complexity (MLS), complexity by coordination (T/S), complexity by subordination (C/T), clausal complexity (MLC), phrasal complexity (NP density), syntactic variety, lexical density, lexical variation, lexical sophistication, and lexical bundles. Results were then compared statistically across tasks, L2 proficiency levels, and time. Overall, task type had significant effects on fluency and some syntactic complexity indices (complexity by coordination, structural variety, clausal complexity, phrase complexity) and lexical density, sophistication, and bundles, but not accuracy. L2 proficiency had significant effects on fluency, accuracy, and lexical variation, but not syntactic complexity. Finally, fluency, frequency of errors, but not accuracy ratings, syntactic complexity indices (clausal complexity, global complexity, complexity by subordination, phrase complexity, structural variety) and lexical complexity (lexical density, variation, and sophistication) exhibited significant changes after instruction, particularly for the independent task. We discuss the findings and their implications for assessment, instruction, and research on CAF in the context of L2 writing.

Keywords: second language writing, Fluency, accuracy, complexity, longitudinal

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10885 The Relationship between Rhythmic Complexity and Listening Engagement as a Proxy for Perceptual Interest

Authors: Noah R. Fram

Abstract:

Although it has been confirmed by multiple studies, the inverted-U relationship between stimulus complexity and preference (liking) remains contentious. Research aimed at substantiating the model are largely reliant upon anecdotal self-assessments of subjects and basic measures of complexity, leaving potential confounds unresolved. This study attempts to address the topic by assessing listening time as a behavioral correlate of liking (with the assumption that engagement prolongs listening time) and by looking for latent factors underlying several measures of rhythmic complexity. Participants listened to groups of rhythms, stopping each one when they started to lose interest and were asked to rate each rhythm in each group in terms of interest, complexity, and preference. Subjects were not informed that the time spent listening to each rhythm was the primary measure of interest. The hypothesis that listening time does demonstrate the same inverted-U relationship with complexity as verbal reports of liking was confirmed using a variety of metrics for rhythmic complexity, including meter-dependent measures of syncopation and meter-independent measures of entropy.

Keywords: complexity, entropy, rhythm, syncopation

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10884 The Quality of Management: A Leadership Maturity Model to Leverage Complexity

Authors: Marlene Kuhn, Franziska Schäfer, Heiner Otten

Abstract:

Today´s production processes experience a constant increase in complexity paving new ways for progressive forms of leadership. In the customized production, individual customer requirements drive companies to adapt their manufacturing processes constantly while the pressure for smaller lot sizes, lower costs and faster lead times grows simultaneously. When production processes are becoming more dynamic and complex, the conventional quality management approaches show certain limitations. This paper gives an introduction to complexity science from a quality management perspective. By analyzing and evaluating different characteristics of complexity, the critical complexity parameters are identified and assessed. We found that the quality of leadership plays a crucial role when dealing with increasing complexity. Therefore, we developed a concept for qualitative leadership customized for the management within complex processes based on a maturity model. The maturity model was then applied in the industry to assess the leadership quality of several shop floor managers with a positive evaluation feedback. In result, the maturity model proved to be a sustainable approach to leverage the rising complexity in production processes more effectively.

Keywords: maturity model, process complexity, quality of leadership, quality management

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10883 An Approach to Capture, Evaluate and Handle Complexity of Engineering Change Occurrences in New Product Development

Authors: Mohammad Rostami Mehr, Seyed Arya Mir Rashed, Arndt Lueder, Magdalena Missler-Behr

Abstract:

This paper represents the conception that complex problems do not necessarily need a similar complex solution in order to cope with the complexity. Furthermore, a simple solution based on established methods can provide a sufficient way to deal with the complexity. To verify this conception, the presented paper focuses on the field of change management as a part of the new product development process in the automotive sector. In this field, dealing with increasing complexity is essential, while only non-flexible rigid processes that are not designed to handle complexity are available. The basic methodology of this paper can be divided into four main sections: 1) analyzing the complexity of the change management, 2) literature review in order to identify potential solutions and methods, 3) capturing and implementing expertise of experts from the change management field of an automobile manufacturing company and 4) systematical comparison of the identified methods from literature and connecting these with defined requirements of the complexity of the change management in order to develop a solution. As a practical outcome, this paper provides a method to capture the complexity of engineering changes (EC) and includes it within the EC evaluation process, following case-related process guidance to cope with the complexity. Furthermore, this approach supports the conception that dealing with complexity is possible while utilizing rather simple and established methods by combining them into a powerful tool.

Keywords: complexity management, new product development, engineering change management, flexibility

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10882 Linearization and Process Standardization of Construction Design Engineering Workflows

Authors: T.R. Sreeram, S.Natarajan, C Jena

Abstract:

Civil engineering construction is a network of tasks involving varying degree of complexity and streamlining, and standardization is the only way to establish a systemic approach to design. While there are off the shelf tools such as AutoCAD that play a role in the realization of design, the repeatable process in which these tools are deployed often is ignored. The present paper addresses this challenge through a sustainable design process and effective standardizations at all stages in the design workflow. The same is demonstrated through a case study in the context of construction, and further improvement points are highlighted.

Keywords: syste, lean, value stream, process improvement

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10881 The Latent Model of Linguistic Features in Korean College Students’ L2 Argumentative Writings: Syntactic Complexity, Lexical Complexity, and Fluency

Authors: Jiyoung Bae, Gyoomi Kim

Abstract:

This study explores a range of linguistic features used in Korean college students’ argumentative writings for the purpose of developing a model that identifies variables which predict writing proficiencies. This study investigated the latent variable structure of L2 linguistic features, including syntactic complexity, the lexical complexity, and fluency. One hundred forty-six university students in Korea participated in this study. The results of the study’s confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed that indicators of linguistic features from this study-provided a foundation for re-categorizing indicators found in extant research on L2 Korean writers depending on each latent variable of linguistic features. The CFA models indicated one measurement model of L2 syntactic complexity and L2 learners’ writing proficiency; these two latent factors were correlated with each other. Based on the overall findings of the study, integrated linguistic features of L2 writings suggested some pedagogical implications in L2 writing instructions.

Keywords: linguistic features, syntactic complexity, lexical complexity, fluency

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10880 Complexity Leadership and Knowledge Management in Higher Education

Authors: Prabhakar Venugopal G.

Abstract:

Complex environments triggered by globalization have necessitated new paradigms of leadership – complexity leadership that encompasses multiple roles that leaders need to take upon. The success of higher education institutions depends on how well leaders can provide adaptive, administrative and enabling leadership. Complexity leadership seems all the more relevant for institutions that are knowledge-driven and thrive on knowledge creation, knowledge storage and retrieval, knowledge sharing and knowledge applications. In this paper are the elements of globalization, the opportunities and challenges that are brought forth by globalization are discussed. The complexity leadership paradigm in a knowledge-based economy and the need for such a paradigm shift for higher education institutions is presented. Further, the paper also discusses the support the leader requires in a knowledge-driven economy through knowledge management initiatives.

Keywords: globalization, complexity leadership, knowledge management

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10879 Stochastic Control of Decentralized Singularly Perturbed Systems

Authors: Walid S. Alfuhaid, Saud A. Alghamdi, John M. Watkins, M. Edwin Sawan

Abstract:

Designing a controller for stochastic decentralized interconnected large scale systems usually involves a high degree of complexity and computation ability. Noise, observability, and controllability of all system states, connectivity, and channel bandwidth are other constraints to design procedures for distributed large scale systems. The quasi-steady state model investigated in this paper is a reduced order model of the original system using singular perturbation techniques. This paper results in an optimal control synthesis to design an observer based feedback controller by standard stochastic control theory techniques using Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) approach and Kalman filter design with less complexity and computation requirements. Numerical example is given at the end to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

Keywords: decentralized, optimal control, output, singular perturb

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10878 Low-Complexity Multiplication Using Complement and Signed-Digit Recoding Methods

Authors: Te-Jen Chang, I-Hui Pan, Ping-Sheng Huang, Shan-Jen Cheng

Abstract:

In this paper, a fast multiplication computing method utilizing the complement representation method and canonical recoding technique is proposed. By performing complements and canonical recoding technique, the number of partial products can be reduced. Based on these techniques, we propose an algorithm that provides an efficient multiplication method. On average, our proposed algorithm is to reduce the number of k-bit additions from (0.25k+logk/k+2.5) to (k/6 +logk/k+2.5), where k is the bit-length of the multiplicand A and multiplier B. We can therefore efficiently speed up the overall performance of the multiplication. Moreover, if we use the new proposes to compute common-multiplicand multiplication, the computational complexity can be reduced from (0.5 k+2 logk/k+5) to (k/3+2 logk/k+5) k-bit additions.

Keywords: algorithm design, complexity analysis, canonical recoding, public key cryptography, common-multiplicand multiplication

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10877 Production Line Layout Planning Based on Complexity Measurement

Authors: Guoliang Fan, Aiping Li, Nan Xie, Liyun Xu, Xuemei Liu

Abstract:

Mass customization production increases the difficulty of the production line layout planning. The material distribution process for variety of parts is very complex, which greatly increases the cost of material handling and logistics. In response to this problem, this paper presents an approach of production line layout planning based on complexity measurement. Firstly, by analyzing the influencing factors of equipment layout, the complexity model of production line is established by using information entropy theory. Then, the cost of the part logistics is derived considering different variety of parts. Furthermore, the function of optimization including two objectives of the lowest cost, and the least configuration complexity is built. Finally, the validity of the function is verified in a case study. The results show that the proposed approach may find the layout scheme with the lowest logistics cost and the least complexity. Optimized production line layout planning can effectively improve production efficiency and equipment utilization with lowest cost and complexity.

Keywords: production line, layout planning, complexity measurement, optimization, mass customization

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10876 Urban Networks as Model of Sustainable Design

Authors: Agryzkov Taras, Oliver Jose L., Tortosa Leandro, Vicent Jose

Abstract:

This paper aims to demonstrate how the consideration of cities as a special kind of complex network, called urban network, may lead to the use of design tools coming from network theories which, in fact, results in a quite sustainable approach. There is no doubt that the irruption in contemporary thought of Gaia as an essential political agent proposes a narrative that has been extended to the field of creative processes in which, of course, the activity of Urban Design is found. The rationalist paradigm is put in crisis, and from the so-called sciences of complexity, its way of describing reality and of intervening in it is questioned. Thus, a new way of understanding reality surges, which has to do with a redefinition of the human being's own place in what is now understood as a delicate and complex network. In this sense, we know that in these systems of connected and interdependent elements, the influences generated by them originate emergent properties and behaviors for the whole that, individually studied, would not make sense. We believe that the design of cities cannot remain oblivious to these principles, and therefore this research aims to demonstrate the potential that they have for decision-making in the urban environment. Thus, we will see an example of action in the field of public mobility, another example in the design of commercial areas, and a third example in the field of redensification of sprawl areas, in which different aspects of network theory have been applied to change the urban design. We think that even though these actions have been developed in European cities, and more specifically in the Mediterranean area in Spain, the reflections and tools could have a broader scope of action.

Keywords: graphs, complexity sciences, urban networks, urban design

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10875 The Design and Implementation of an Enhanced 2D Mesh Switch

Authors: Manel Langar, Riad Bourguiba, Jaouhar Mouine

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose the design and implementation of an enhanced wormhole virtual channel on chip router. It is a heart of a mesh NoC using the XY deterministic routing algorithm. It is characterized by its simple virtual channel allocation strategy which allows reducing area and complexity of connections without affecting the performance. We implemented our router on a Tezzaron process to validate its performances. This router is a basic element that will be used later to design a 3D mesh NoC.

Keywords: NoC, mesh, router, 3D NoC

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10874 Integration of Design Management in the Product Development Process in SME's

Authors: Vitor Carneiro, Augusto Barata Da Rocha, Barbara Rangel, Jorge Lino Alves

Abstract:

In the European Union countries, Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SME’s) have an important contribution to economic activity and to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The implementation of design practices in SME’s is often a difficult task due to resources limitations. Unlike large companies, their product development and innovation processes frequentlylack adequate planning and systematic procedures. Design management interest has grown exponentially in recent years, but as it is a recent topic there is an absence of systematic methodologies to implement design management in SME’s with little or no design experience. This work presents a contribution to improve and optimize the process of design integration and management in SME’s. A review analysis is presented to select relevant articles on the subject, review and classify the main published contributions. Based on the selected articles content it was possible to identify five main themes related to the subject under analysis: Design Function Organization, Design Management Integration, Design Management Capabilities, Managing Design Projects, and Tools and Methods. Design management is discussed from different perspectives depending on the focus on which it is placed, whether in a design or management perspective, leading to different visions and definitions: from a more upstream strand at the intersection of design and the organization's strategic management (strategic design management) to a more downstream strand related to project management and design process (design management operational). The review analysis of the selected articles allowed the identification of a high level of complexity of connections and parameters in the design management during the product development process in the context of SME’s. Within each group of the five main themes, several sub-themes, directly or indirectly related, should be considered.Sub-connections also occur between sub-themes of different themes creating a complex and intricate web of connections. This complexity of connections is often the main obstacle to conduct design management and product development efficiently. This work proposes a formulation of a systematic methodological approach to optimize the integrated project and the management and control of the product development process among SME's. The implementation of this formulation will improve the integration of design management in the product development and innovation process in SME’s.

Keywords: design management, product development, product innovation, SME’s.

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10873 Web-Based Paperless Campus: An Approach to Reduce the Cost and Complexity of Education Administration

Authors: Yekini N. Asafe, Haastrup A. Victor, Lawal N. Olawale, Okikiola F. Mercy

Abstract:

Recent increase in access to personal computer and networking systems have made it feasible to perform much of cumbersome and costly paper-based administration in all organization. Desktop computers, networking systems, high capacity storage devices and telecommunications system is currently allowing the transfer of various format of data to be processed, stored and dissemination for the purpose of decision making. Going paperless is more of benefits compare to full paper-based office. This paper proposed a model for design and implementation of e-administration system (paperless campus) for an institution of learning. If this model is design and implemented it will reduced cost and complexity of educational administration also eliminate menaces and environmental hazards attributed to paper-based administration within schools and colleges.

Keywords: e-administration, educational administration, paperless campus, paper-based administration

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10872 Rapid Algorithm for GPS Signal Acquisition

Authors: Fabricio Costa Silva, Samuel Xavier de Souza

Abstract:

A Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver is responsible to determine position, velocity and timing information by using satellite information. To get this information are necessary to combine an incoming and a locally generated signal. The procedure called acquisition need to found two information, the frequency and phase of the incoming signal. This is very time consuming, so there are several techniques to reduces the computational complexity, but each of then put projects issues in conflict. I this papers we present a method that can reduce the computational complexity by reducing the search space and paralleling the search.

Keywords: GPS, acquisition, complexity, parallelism

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10871 Rapid Parallel Algorithm for GPS Signal Acquisition

Authors: Fabricio Costa Silva, Samuel Xavier de Souza

Abstract:

A Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver is responsible to determine position, velocity and timing information by using satellite information. To get this information's are necessary to combine an incoming and a locally generated signal. The procedure called acquisition need to found two information, the frequency and phase of the incoming signal. This is very time consuming, so there are several techniques to reduces the computational complexity, but each of then put projects issues in conflict. I this papers we present a method that can reduce the computational complexity by reducing the search space and paralleling the search.

Keywords: GPS, acquisition, low complexity, parallelism

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10870 Contractual Complexity and Contract Parties' Opportunistic Behavior in Construction Projects: In a Contractual Function View

Authors: Mengxia Jin, Yongqiang Chen, Wenqian Wang, Yu Wang

Abstract:

The complexity and specificity of construction projects have made common opportunism phenomenon, and contractual governance for opportunism has been a topic of considerable ongoing research. Based on TCE, the research distinguishes control and coordination as different functions of the contract to investigate their complexity separately. And in a nuanced way, the dimensionality of contractual control is examined. Through the analysis of motivation and capability of strong or weak form opportunism, the framework focuses on the relationship between the complexity of above contractual dimensions and different types of opportunistic behavior and attempts to verify the possible explanatory mechanism. The explanatory power of the research model is evaluated in the light of empirical evidence from questionnaires. We collect data from Chinese companies in the construction industry, and the data collection is still in progress. The findings will speak to the debate surrounding the effects of contract complexity on opportunistic behavior. This nuanced research will derive implications for research on the role of contractual mechanisms in dealing with inter-organizational opportunism and offer suggestions for curbing contract parties’ opportunistic behavior in construction projects.

Keywords: contractual complexity, contractual control, contractual coordinatio, opportunistic behavior

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10869 Analysis of Supply Chain Complexity Sub-Dimensions for Garment Industry

Authors: Niyanta Mehra, Aakriti Khurania, Kshitij Rastogi, S. K. Garg

Abstract:

There is plenty of literature available that accounts for complexity management in a supply chain. A major fraction of this literature considers a large number of parameters in order to devise management techniques. However, multiple such parameters do not directly affect the result, and incorporating these can make the analyses overly complicated. Most of the causes of supply chain inefficiencies are due to the interconnectedness and interdependencies in the structure, processes, and environment of the supply chains. The level of complexity varies across industries in terms of intensity and ease of management. After a review of the literature related to complexities in supply chains, the paper attempts to build a framework to study the relative significance of these complexities. This paper aims to identify critical complexities for the garment industry. Understanding and controlling these complexities open avenues for better supply chain management and also assist decision-makers in the garment industry in formulating risk mitigation strategies.

Keywords: complexity dimensions, garment industry, supply chain complexity, supply chain management

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