Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Search results for: Oluwatoyin Oluwole

24 Effect of Roasting Temperature on the Proximate, Mineral and Antinutrient Content of Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan) Ready-to-Eat Snack

Authors: Olaide Ruth Aderibigbe, Oluwatoyin Oluwole

Abstract:

Pigeon pea is one of the minor leguminous plants; though underutilised, it is used traditionally by farmers to alleviate hunger and malnutrition. Pigeon pea is cultivated in Nigeria by subsistence farmers. It is rich in protein and minerals, however, its utilisation as food is only common among the poor and rural populace who cannot afford expensive sources of protein. One of the factors contributing to its limited use is the high antinutrient content which makes it indigestible, especially when eaten by children. The development of value-added products that can reduce the antinutrient content and make the nutrients more bioavailable will increase the utilisation of the crop and contribute to reduction of malnutrition. This research, therefore, determined the effects of different roasting temperatures (130 0C, 140 0C, and 150 0C) on the proximate, mineral and antinutrient component of a pigeon pea snack. The brown variety of pigeon pea seeds were purchased from a local market- Otto in Lagos, Nigeria. The seeds were cleaned, washed, and soaked in 50 ml of water containing sugar and salt (4:1) for 15 minutes, and thereafter the seeds were roasted at 130 0C, 140 0C, and 150 0C in an electric oven for 10 minutes. Proximate, minerals, phytate, tannin and alkaloid content analyses were carried out in triplicates following standard procedures. The results of the three replicates were polled and expressed as mean±standard deviation; a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Least Significance Difference (LSD) were carried out. The roasting temperatures significantly (P<0.05) affected the protein, ash, fibre and carbohydrate content of the snack. Ready-to-eat snack prepared by roasting at 150 0C significantly had the highest protein (23.42±0.47%) compared the ones roasted at 130 0C and 140 0C (18.38±1.25% and 20.63±0.45%, respectively). The same trend was observed for the ash content (3.91±0.11 for 150 0C, 2.36±0.15 for 140 0C and 2.26±0.25 for 130 0C), while the fibre and carbohydrate contents were highest at roasting temperature of 130 0C. Iron, zinc, and calcium were not significantly (P<0.5) affected by the different roasting temperatures. Antinutrients decreased with increasing temperature. Phytate levels recorded were 0.02±0.00, 0.06±0.00, and 0.07±0.00 mg/g; tannin levels were 0.50±0.00, 0.57±0.00, and 0.68±0.00 mg/g, while alkaloids levels were 0.51±0.01, 0.78±0.01, and 0.82±0.01 mg/g for 150 0C, 140 0C, and 130 0C, respectively. These results show that roasting at high temperature (150 0C) can be utilised as a processing technique for increasing protein and decreasing antinutrient content of pigeon pea.

Keywords: antinutrients, pigeon pea, protein, roasting, underutilised species

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23 Measures for Conflict Management in Nigerian Higher Institutions

Authors: Oyelade Oluwatoyin

Abstract:

The phenomenon of crises in educational sector in Nigeria has reached its peak in the 21st century. Thus, this paper examines the strategies that can be used in managing the conflict situation in Nigeria Higher Institution of learning. The causes of conflicts such as inadequate funding, insufficient school facilities, poor working condition, poor enrolment, proliferation of higher institutions and unfavourable administrative decision are the major detriment of law and order i.e. strike action, destruction of property and programmes coupled with the student unrest. This write-up will make use of the available information and with the aim of adding value to existing knowledge. It was recommend that steps should be taken by policy maker to prevent scourge of conflicts in tertiary institutions in Nigeria

Keywords: conflicts, higher institutions, management, measures

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22 Detection of Epinephrine in Chicken Serum at Iron Oxide Screen Print Modified Electrode

Authors: Oluwole Opeyemi Dina, Saheed E. Elugoke, Peter Olutope Fayemi, Omolola E. Fayemi

Abstract:

This study presents the detection of epinephrine (EP) at Fe₃O₄ modified screen printed silver electrode (SPSE). The iron oxide (Fe₃O₄) nanoparticles were characterized with UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier-Transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) prior to the modification of the SPSE. The EP oxidation peak current (Iap) increased with an increase in the concentration of EP as well as the scan rate (from 25 - 400 mVs⁻¹). Using cyclic voltammetry (CV), the relationship between Iap and EP concentration was linear over a range of 3.8 -118.9 µM and 118.9-175 µM with a detection limit of 41.99 µM and 83.16 µM, respectively. Selective detection of EP in the presence of ascorbic acid was also achieved at this electrode.

Keywords: screenprint electrode, iron oxide nanoparticle, epinephrine, serum, cyclic voltametry

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21 Information and Communication Technology in Architectural Education: The Challenges

Authors: Oluropo Stephen Ilesanmi, Oluwole Ayodele Alejo

Abstract:

Architectural education, beyond training the students to become architects, impacts in them the appreciation of the responsibilities relating to public health, safety, and welfare. Architecture is no longer a personal philosophical or aesthetic pursuit by individuals, rather, it has to consider everyday needs of the people and use technology to give a liveable environment. In the present age, architectural education must have to grapple with the recent integration of technology, in particular, facilities offered by information and communication technology. Electronic technologies have moved architecture from the drawing board to cyberspace. The world is now a global village in which new information and methods are easily and quickly available to people at different poles of the globe. It is the position of this paper that in order to remain relevant in the ever-competing forces within the building industry, architectural education must show the impetus to continue to draw from technological advancements associated with the use of computers.

Keywords: architecture, education, communication, information, technology

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20 Arabic as a Foreign Language in the Curriculum of Higher Education in Nigeria: Problems, Solutions, and Prospects

Authors: Kazeem Oluwatoyin Ajape

Abstract:

The study is concerned with the problem of how to improve the teaching of Arabic as a foreign language in Nigerian Higher Education System. The paper traces the historical background of Arabic education in Nigeria and also outlines the problems facing the language in Nigerian Institutions. It lays down some of the essential foundation work necessary for bringing about systematic and constructive improvements in the Teaching of Arabic as a Foreign Language (TAFL) by giving answers to the following research questions: what is the appropriate medium of instruction in teaching a foreign or second language? What is the position of English language in the teaching and learning of Arabic/Islamic education? What is the relevance of the present curriculum of Arabic /Islamic education in Nigerian institutions to the contemporary society? A survey of the literature indicates that a revolution is currently taking place in FL teaching and that a new approach known as the Communicative Approach (CA), has begun to emerge and influence the teaching of FLs in general, over the last decade or so. Since the CA is currently being adapted to the teaching of most major FLs and since this revolution has not yet had much impact on TAPL, the study explores the possibility of the application of the CA to the teaching of Arabic as a living language and also makes recommendations towards the development of the language in Nigerian Institutions of Higher Learning.

Keywords: Arabic Language, foreign language, Nigerian institutions, curriculum, communicative approach

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19 Electrical Properties of Roystonea regia Fruit Extract as Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

Authors: Adenike Boyo Olasunkanmi Kesinro, Henry Boyo, Surukite Oluwole

Abstract:

Utilizing solar energy in producing electricity can minimize environmental pollution generated by fossil fuel in producing electricity. Our research was base on the extraction of dye from Roystonea regia fruit by using methanol as solvent. The dye extracts were used as sensitizers in Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSCs). Study was done on the electrical properties from the extracts of Roystonea regia fruit as Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSCs). The absorptions of the extracts and extracts with dye were determined at different wavelengths (350-1000nm). Absorption peak was observed at 1.339 at wavelength 400nm. The obtained values for methanol extract Roystonea regia extract are, Imp = 0.015mA, Vmp = 12.0mV, fill factor = 0.763, Isc= 0.018 mA and Voc = 13.1 mV and efficiency of 0.32%. .The phytochemical screening was taken and it was observed that Roystonea regia extract contained less of anthocyanin compared to flavonoids. The nanostructured dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) will provide economically credible alternative to present day silicon p–n junction photovoltaic.

Keywords: methanol, ethanol, titanium dioxide, roystonea regia fruit, dye-sensitized solar cell

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18 Modeling and Optimal Control of Pneumonia Disease with Cost Effective Strategies

Authors: Getachew Tilahun, Oluwole Makinde, David Malonza

Abstract:

We propose and analyze a non-linear mathematical model for the transmission dynamics of pneumonia disease in a population of varying size. The deterministic compartmental model is studied using stability theory of differential equations. The effective reproduction number is obtained and also the local and global asymptotically stability conditions for the disease free and as well as for the endemic equilibria are established. The model exhibit a backward bifurcation and the sensitivity indices of the basic reproduction number to the key parameters are determined. Using Pontryagin’s maximum principle, the optimal control problem is formulated with three control strategies; namely disease prevention through education, treatment and screening. The cost effectiveness analysis of the adopted control strategies revealed that the combination of prevention and treatment is the most cost effective intervention strategies to combat the pneumonia pandemic. Numerical simulation is performed and pertinent results are displayed graphically.

Keywords: cost effectiveness analysis, optimal control, pneumonia dynamics, stability analysis, numerical simulation

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17 The Need for the Development of Entrepreneurial Skill in Benue State University Students, Makurdi

Authors: Philomena Ibuh Adzongo, Margaret U. Oluwole, Justina Nguveren Jor.

Abstract:

This paper investigated the need for the development of entrepreneurial skills for Benue State University students. The population consisted of all 1,500 final year students in Benue State University. A sample of 100 students was selected using simple random sampling. A 12-item self-constructed and content validated questionnaire by research experts titled, the Need for the Development of Entrepreneurial Skills in Benue State University Students (NDECBSUS) was used to collect the data. The questionnaire items were rated using a 4-point modified rating scale of Strongly Agree, Agree, Disagree and Strongly Disagree, assigned the following scores of 4,3,2 and 1, respectively. The questionnaire was administered by the researcher with the help of two research assistants through the primary source. Simple percentages and chi-square were used to answer the research questions and test the hypotheses, respectively. The findings revealed that in business management, business management skills, personal skills, and technical skills need to be developed in students for them to become effective and efficient entrepreneurs and concluded that the acquisition of these skills will reduce the challenge of unemployment. The study recommended that funds should be made available by all education stakeholders for such programmes to remain functional.

Keywords: entrepreneurial skill, entrepreneurship, need for development, university students

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16 Effect of 17α-Methyltestosterone Hormone on Haematological Profiles of the Sex Reversed, Sarotherodon Melanotheron

Authors: Ayoola, Simeon Oluwatoyin, Omogoriola Hannah Omoloye

Abstract:

The effects of 17α-Methyltestosterone Hormone on blood composition of the Sex Reversed Sarotherodon melanotheron were investigated. S. melanotheron fry were reared in six (6) plastic tanks for three (3) months, of which three (3) tanks served as treatment tanks while the other three (3) served as the control. The fry were fed with 17α-methyl testosterone enzyme, which functions as a sex reversal hormone. The fry were administered this hormone for 30 days, to ensure complete sex reversal. All the S. melanotheron fry were reared to table size for duration of three (3) months, after which, blood samples were taken from both the control and treatment fishes. The blood parameters showed no significant differences with the same values of White Blood Cell count (WBC) and Total plasma protein for the control and experimental fishes. A total protein value for sex reversed specimens was 3.99g/dL, while urea and creatinine values were 0.2g/dL. Alkaline Phosphatase, Aspartate transaminase and Alanine transaminase for the treatment specimen were 183nm/mg protein/min, 98nm/mg protein/min and 105nm/mg protein/min respectively. A total protein value for control specimens was 2.81g/dL, while urea and creatinine values were 0.2g/dL. Alkaline Phosphatase, Aspartate transaminase and Alanine transaminase for the control species were 174nm/mg protein/min, 93nm/mg protein/min and 106nm/mg protein/min respectively. The safety of MT on S. melanotheron is therefore proved since there is no adverse effect on the fish.

Keywords: 17α-Methyltestosterone, haematology, sex reversal, sarotherodon melanotheron

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15 Internal Generation of Revenues in Higher Education: Comparative Case Study of Polytechnic Institutions in Nigeria

Authors: Oluwole A. Solanke

Abstract:

This article explores internal generation of revenues in higher education institutions. The research focuses on how polytechnic institutions in Nigeria generate other sources of revenues to augment government subventions and tuition fees. The study provides a qualitative case study and triangulation data on three polytechnics representing tertiary institution structure of federal, state and private ownership in Nigeria. The article argues that dependence on government subventions by the public polytechnics and tuition fees by private polytechnic would not provide funding adequacy for the activities of the institutions under study. Findings revealed that there are basically seven themes; guest houses; poly consult; part-time courses; tuition fees; capitation fees; ownership contribution; and printing and business centre by which the polytechnics generate additional sources of revenues in the management of the institutions. The research concludes that for the polytechnics to gain financial adequacy, entrepreneurial activities must be embarked upon vigorously by stakeholders of the polytechnics as this is the only way by which financial self-reliance can be achieved.

Keywords: entrepreneurial, government subventions, internal generation, polytechnics, revenues

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14 The Historical Perspectives of Peace Education as a Vehicle of Unity and Technological Developments in Nigeria

Authors: Oluwole Enoch Adeniran

Abstract:

Peace studies and conflict resolution; though a relatively new discipline had attracted scholars from far and near. It had enhanced a purposeful training of mind of young adult among other categories of learners. It provides a platform through which university under-graduates and post-graduates students are exposed to the rudiments of peace building, peacemaking and peace keeping towards a successful conflict resolution. The paper historicizes peace education as most desirable in any human society that desired development. It aims at educating children and young adults in the dynamics of peaceful conflicts resolution at home, in school and communities (states) throughout the world for a purposeful technological development. It also aims at exposing students to the nature of conflict and how to manage and resolve conflicts in order to promote national unity for meaningful development. The paper argues that, for a state to record any meaningful socio-economic, political and technological development; a conducive and peaceful atmosphere must be put in place. This theoretical paper emerged in the context of historical specificities of conflict resolution from a general conceptual framework. It then concludes with suggestions on the modes of conflict prevention, conflict management and conflict resolution for an ideal technologically advanced society.

Keywords: history, education, peace, unity, technology and development

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13 Comparative Study of Various Wall Finishes in Buildings in Ondo State, Nigeria

Authors: Ayodele Oluwole Alejo

Abstract:

Wall finishes are the term to describe an application over a wall surface to provide a suitable surface. Wall finishes are smelt, touched and seen by building occupiers even colour and design affects the user psychology and the atmosphere of our building. Building users/owners seem not to recognize the function of various wall finishes in building and factors to be considered in selecting them suitable for the type and purpose of proposed buildings. Therefore, defects such as deterioration, dampness, and stain may occur when comparisons of wall finishes are not made before the selection of appropriate materials at the design stage with knowledge of the various factors that may hinder the performance or maintenance culture of proposed building of a particular location. This research work investigates and compares various wall finishes in building. Buildings in Ondo state, Nigeria were used as the target area to conduct the research works. The factors bearing on various wall finishes were analyzed to find out their individual and collective impact using suitable analytical tools. The findings revealed that paint with high percentage score was the most preferred wall finishes, whereas wall paper was ranked the least by the respondent findings, Factors considered most in the selection of wall finishes was durability with the highest ranking percentage and least was the cost. The study recommends that skilled worker should carry out operations, quality product should be used and all of wall finishes and materials should be considered before selection.

Keywords: building, construction, design, finishes, wall

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12 Influence of Some Psychological Factors on the Learning Gains of Distance Learners in Mathematics in Ibadan, Nigeria

Authors: Adeola Adejumo, Oluwole David Adebayo, Muraina Kamilu Olanrewaju

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of some psychological factors (i.e, school climate, parental involvement and classroom interaction) on the learning gains of university undergraduates in Mathematics in Ibadan, Nigeria. Three hundred undergraduates who are on open distance learning education programme in the University of Ibadan and thirty mathematics lecturers constituted the study’s sample. Both the independent and dependent variables were measured with relevant standardized instruments and the data obtained was analyzed using multiple regression statistical method. The instruments used were school climate scale, parental involvement scale and classroom interaction scale. Three research questions were answered in the study. The result showed that there was significant relationship between the three independent variables (school climate, parental involvement and classroom interaction) on the students’ learning gain in mathematics and that the independent variables both jointly and relatively contributed significantly to the prediction of students’ learning gain in mathematics. On the strength of these findings, the need to enhance the school climate, improve the parents’ involvement in the student’s education and encourage students’ classroom interaction were stressed and advocated.

Keywords: school climate, parental involvement, ODL, learning gains, mathematics

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11 Histological Evaluation of the Neuroprotective Roles of Trans Cinnamaldehyde against High Fat Diet and Streptozotozin Induced Neurodegeneration in Wistar Rats

Authors: Samson Ehindero, Oluwole Akinola

Abstract:

Substantial evidence has shown an association between type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cognitive decline, Trans Cinnamaldehyde (TCA) has been shown to have many potent pharmacological properties. In this present study, we are currently investigating the effects of TCA on type II diabetes-induced neurodegeneration. Neurodegeneration was induced in forty (40) adult wistar rats using high fat diet (HFD) for 4 months followed by low dose of streptozotocin (STZ) (40 mg/kg, i.p.) administration. TCA was administered orally for 30 days at the doses of 40mg/kg and 60mg/kg body weight. Animals were randomized and divided into following groups; A- control group, B- diabetic group, C- TCA (high dose), D- diabetic + TCA (high dose), E- diabetic + TCA (high dose) with high fat diet, F- TCA Low dose, G- diabetic + TCA (low dose) and H- diabetic + TCA (low dose) with high fat diet. Animals were subjected to behavioral tests followed by histological studies of the hippocampus. Demented rats showed impaired behavior in Y- Maze test compared to treated and control groups. Trans Cinnamaldehyde restores the histo architecture of the hippocampus of demented rats. This present study demonstrates that treatment with trans- cinnamaldehyde improves behavioral deficits, restores cellular histo architecture in rat models of neurodegeneration.

Keywords: neurodegeneration, trans cinnamaldehyde, high fat diet, streptozotocin

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10 Relative Influence of Self-Regulation, Emotional Intelligence, Self-Efficacy, and Goal Orientation on School Engagement among Public Secondary School Students in Ibadan, Nigeria

Authors: Ogunremi Beatrice, Oluwole David Adebayo

Abstract:

Public secondary school students are face with some challenges from the parents, government and teachers in school. Some of the challenges that arises from the parents are lack of attention and adequate communication. From the government are unavailability of useful instructional materials, competent and professionally trained teachers for each subject the students do in school. The challenges that arise from the teachers most often are mismanagement of time, inability to understand the capacity of the student and lack class management and follow up. This study investigated self-regulation, emotional intelligence, self-efficacy and goal orientation as predictors of school engagement among public secondary school students in Ibadan. A structured questionnaire was administered on 258 students from six mixed secondary schools in Ibadan. Pearson Product Moment Correlation method was used for data analysis. Four hypothesis were raised and answered, the results showed there is positive and significant relationships between school engagement among public secondary school students and each of the independent variable: Self-regulation, Emotional intelligence, Self-efficacy, Goal orientation. On the basis of these findings, it was recommended that the parents have to encourage their children on how to be goal oriented ,build their self-efficacy skill, to be self-regulated and emotionally intelligent in order to be effective in school and be able to increase their intellectual ability.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, self-efficacy, goal orientation, school engagement, self-regulation

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9 Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Leaf Extract of Tithonia diversifolia and Its Antimicrobial Properties

Authors: Babatunde Oluwole Ogunsile, Omosola Monisola Fasoranti

Abstract:

High costs and toxicological hazards associated with the physicochemical methods of producing nanoparticles have limited their widespread use in clinical and biomedical applications. An ethically sound alternative is the utilization of plant bioresources as a low cost and eco–friendly biological approach. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized from aqueous leaf extract of Tithonia diversifolia plant. The UV-Vis Spectrophotometer was used to monitor the formation of the AgNPs at different time intervals and different ratios of plant extract to the AgNO₃ solution. The biosynthesized AgNPs were characterized by FTIR, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Antimicrobial activities of the AgNPs were investigated against ten human pathogens using agar well diffusion method. The AgNPs yields were modeled using a second-order factorial design. The result showed that the rate of formation of the AgNPs increased with respect to time while the optimum ratio of plant extract to the AgNO₃ solution was 1:1. The hydroxyl group was strongly involved in the bioreduction of the silver salt as indicated by the FTIR spectra. The synthesized AgNPs were crystalline in nature, with a uniformly distributed network of the web-like structure. The factorial model predicted the nanoparticles yields with minimal errors. The nanoparticles were active against all the tested pathogens and thus have great potentials as antimicrobial agents.

Keywords: antimicrobial activities, green synthesis, silver nanoparticles, Tithonia diversifolia

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8 Diversification of Sweet Potato Blends and Utilization for Malnutrition and Poverty Alleviation

Authors: Ladele Ademola A., Nkiru T. Meludu, Olufunke Ezekiel, Olaoye Taye F., Okanlowan Oluwatoyin M.

Abstract:

Value addition to agricultural produce is of possible potential in reducing poverty, improving food security and malnutrition, therefore the need to develop small and micro-enterprises of sweet potato production. The study was carried out in Nigeria to determine the acceptability of blends sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) and commodities yellow maize (Zea mays), millet (Pennisetum glaucum), soybean (Glycine max), bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean), guinea corn (Sorghum vulgare), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) through sensory evaluation. Sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) roots were processed using two methods. The first method involved the use of a fabricated gas powered cabinet dryer to dry sulphited chips and the second method was the use of traditional sun drying method without the addition of the chemical. The blends were also assessed in terms of functional, chemical and color properties. Most acceptable blends include BAW (80:20 of sweet potato/wheat), BBC (80:20 of sweet potato/guinea corn), AAB (60:40 of sweet potato/guinea corn), YTE (100% soybean), TYG (100% sweet potato), KTN (100% wheat flour), XGP (80:20 of sweet potato/soybean), XAX (60:40 of sweet potato/wheat), LSS (100% Roselle), CHK (100% Guinea corn), and ABC (60:40% of sweet potato/ yellow maize). In addition, chemical analysis carried out revealed that sweet potato has high percentage of vitamins A and C, potassium (K), manganese (Mn), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and iron (Fe) and fibre content. There is also an increase of vitamin A and Iron in the blended products.

Keywords: blends, diversification, sensory evaluation, sweet potato, utilization

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7 MHD Chemically Reacting Viscous Fluid Flow towards a Vertical Surface with Slip and Convective Boundary Conditions

Authors: Ibrahim Yakubu Seini, Oluwole Daniel Makinde

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MHD chemically reacting viscous fluid flow towards a vertical surface with slip and convective boundary conditions has been conducted. The temperature and the chemical species concentration of the surface and the velocity of the external flow are assumed to vary linearly with the distance from the vertical surface. The governing differential equations are modeled and transformed into systems of ordinary differential equations, which are then solved numerically by a shooting method. The effects of various parameters on the heat and mass transfer characteristics are discussed. Graphical results are presented for the velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles whilst the skin-friction coefficient and the rate of heat and mass transfers near the surface are presented in tables and discussed. The results revealed that increasing the strength of the magnetic field increases the skin-friction coefficient and the rate of heat and mass transfers toward the surface. The velocity profiles are increased towards the surface due to the presence of the Lorenz force, which attracts the fluid particles near the surface. The rate of chemical reaction is seen to decrease the concentration boundary layer near the surface due to the destructive chemical reaction occurring near the surface.

Keywords: boundary layer, surface slip, MHD flow, chemical reaction, heat transfer, mass transfer

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6 Reflections of Nocturnal Librarian: Attaining a Work-Life Balance in a Mega-City of Lagos State Nigeria

Authors: Oluwole Durodolu

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The rationale for this study is to explore the adaptive strategy that librarians adopt in performing night shifts in a mega-city like Lagos state. Maslach Burnout Theory would be used to measure the three proportions of burnout in understanding emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation, and individual accomplishment to scrutinise job-related burnout syndrome allied with longstanding, unsolved stress. The qualitative methodology guided by a phenomenological research paradigm, which is an approach that focuses on the commonality of real-life experience in a particular group, would be used, focus group discussion adopted as a method of data collection from library staff who are involved in night-shift. The participant for the focus group discussion would be selected using a convenience sampling technique in which staff at the cataloguing unit would be included in the sample because of the representative characteristics of the unit. This would be done to enable readers to understand phenomena as it is reasonable than from a remote perspective. The exploratory interviews which will be in focus group method to shed light on issues relating to security, housing, transportation, budgeting, energy supply, employee duties, time management, information access, and sustaining professional levels of service and how all these variables affect the productivity of all the 149 library staff and their work-life balance.

Keywords: nightshift, work-life balance, mega-city, academic library, Maslach Burnout Theory, Lagos State, University of Lagos

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5 Effect of Pretreatment and Drying Method on Selected Quality Parameters of Dried Bell Pepper

Authors: Toyosi Yewande Tunde-Akintunde, Grace Oluwatoyin Ogunlakin, Bosede Folake Olanipekun

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Peppers are excellent sources of nutrients but its high moisture content makes it susceptible to spoilage. Drying, a common processing method, results in a reduction of these nutrients in the final product. Pre-treatment of pepper before drying can be used to reduce the level of degradation of nutrients. Thus this study investigated the effect of pre-treatment (hot water blanching and soaking in brine-sodium chloride) and drying methods (oven, microwave and sun) on selected quality parameters (proximate composition, capsaicin, reducing sugar and phenolic content, pH, total solid (TS), Titratable acidity (TA), water absorption capacity (WAC) and colour) of pepper. The protein and moisture content value ranged from 9.09 to 10.23% and 5.63 to 8.48% respectively. Sun dried samples had the highest value while oven dried samples had the lowest. Brine treated samples had higher protein but lower moisture content than blanched samples. Capsaicin, reducing sugar and phenolic content values ranged from 0.68 to 0.87 mg/dm3; 3.18 to 3.79 µg/ml; and 40.67 to 84.01 mg GAE/100 g d.m respectively. The sun dried samples had higher values while the lowest values were from microwave dried samples. The brine treated samples had higher values in capsaicin while the blanched samples had higher reducing sugar and phenolic contents. The values of L, a* and b* for the dried pepper varied from 58.76 to 63.13; 7.09 to 7.34; and 11.79 to 12.36 respectively. Oven dried samples had the lowest values for a*, while its L values were the highest. The L and a* values for brine treated samples were higher than blanched samples. The pre-treatment and drying method considered resulted in different values of the quality parameters considered which indicates that drying and pre-treatment has an effect on the quality of the final dried pepper samples.

Keywords: Bell pepper, microwave drying, oven drying, quality, sun drying

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4 Optimization of Sodium Lauryl Surfactant Concentration for Nanoparticle Production

Authors: Oluwatoyin Joseph Gbadeyan, Sarp Adali, Bright Glen, Bruce Sithole

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Sodium lauryl surfactant concentration optimization, for nanoparticle production, provided the platform for advanced research studies. Different concentrations (0.05 %, 0.1 %, and 0.2 %) of sodium lauryl surfactant was added to snail shells powder during milling processes for producing CaCO3 at smaller particle size. Epoxy nanocomposites prepared at filler content 2 wt.% synthesized with different volumes of sodium lauryl surfactant were fabricated using a conventional resin casting method. Mechanical properties such as tensile strength, stiffness, and hardness of prepared nanocomposites was investigated to determine the effect of sodium lauryl surfactant concentration on nanocomposite properties. It was observed that the loading of the synthesized nano-calcium carbonate improved the mechanical properties of neat epoxy at lower concentrations of sodium lauryl surfactant 0.05 %. Meaningfully, loading of achatina fulica snail shell nanoparticles manufactures, with small concentrations of sodium lauryl surfactant 0.05 %, increased the neat epoxy tensile strength by 26%, stiffness by 55%, and hardness by 38%. Homogeneous dispersion facilitated, by the addition of sodium lauryl surfactant during milling processes, improved mechanical properties. Research evidence suggests that nano-CaCO3, synthesized from achatina fulica snail shell, possesses suitable reinforcement properties that can be used for nanocomposite fabrication. The evidence showed that adding small concentrations of sodium lauryl surfactant 0.05 %, improved dispersion of nanoparticles in polymetrix material that provided mechanical properties improvement.

Keywords: sodium lauryl surfactant, mechanical properties , achatina fulica snail shel, calcium carbonate nanopowder

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3 Involvement of Nrf2 in Kolaviron-Mediated Attenuation of Behavioural Incompetence and Neurodegeneration in a Murine Model of Parkinson's Disease

Authors: Yusuf E. Mustapha, Inioluwa A Akindoyeni, Oluwatoyin G. Ezekiel, Ifeoluwa O. Awogbindin, Ebenezer O. Farombi

Abstract:

Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most prevalent motor disorder. Available therapies are palliative with no effect on disease progression. Kolaviron (KV), a natural anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent, has been reported to possess neuroprotective effects in Parkinsonian flies and rats. Objective: The present study investigates the neuroprotective effect of KV, focusing on the DJ1/Nrf2 signaling pathway. Methodology: All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA, 10 mg/kg, i.p.) was used to inhibit Nrf2. Murine model of PD was established with four doses of MPTP (20 mg/kg i.p.) at 2 hours interval. MPTP mice were pre-treated with either KV (200 mg/kg/day p.o), ATRA, or both conditions for seven days before PD induction. Motor behaviour was evaluated, and markers of oxidative stress/damage and its regulators were assessed with immunofluorescence and ELISA techniques. Results: MPTP-treated mice covered less distance with reduced numbers of anticlockwise rotations, heightened freezing, and prolonged immobility when compared to control. However, KV significantly attenuated these deficits. Pretreatment of MPTP mice with KV upregulated Nrf2 expression beyond MPTP level with a remarkable reduction in Keap1 expression and marked elevation of DJ-1 level, whereas co-administration with ATRA abrogated these effects. KV treatment restored MPTP-mediated depletion of endogenous antioxidant, striatal oxidative stress, oxidative damage, and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity. However, ATRA treatment potentiated acetylcholinesterase inhibition and attenuated the protective effect of KV on the level of nitric oxide and activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase. Conclusion: Kolaviron protects Parkinsonian mice by stabilizing and activating the Nrf2 signaling pathway. Thus, kolaviron can be explored as a pharmacological lead in PD management.

Keywords: Garcinia kola, Kolaviron, Parkinson Disease, Nrf2, behavioral incompetence, neurodegeneration

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2 Growth Performance and Intestinal Morphology of Isa Brown Pullet Chicks Fed Diets Containing Turmeric and Clove

Authors: Ayoola Doris Ayodele, Grace Oluwatoyin Tayo, Martha Dupe Olumide, Opeyemi Arinola Ajayi, Ayodeji Taofeek Ayo-Bello

Abstract:

Antibiotics have been widely used in animal nutrition to improve growth performance and health worldwide for many decades. However, there are rising concerns on the negative impact of dependence on antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) to improve animal performance despite its tremendous use. The need to improve performance in poultry production creates demand for natural alternative sources. Phytogenic feed additives (PFA) are plant-derived natural bioactive compounds that could be incorporated into animal feed to enhance livestock productivity. The effect of Turmeric, clove and turmeric + clove as feed additive was evaluated on performance and intestinal morphology of egg type chickens. 504- fifteen day old Isa brown chicks were weighed and randomly distributed to nine dietary treatments by a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement (test ingredient x inclusion level) in a completely randomized design, with four replicates of 14 birds each. The birds were fed Chick starter diet containing (2800 kcal/kg ME; 20.8% CP). Dietary treatments were Group 1 (T1- basal diet with 0% Turmeric inclusion), (T2- basal diet with 1% Turmeric inclusion), (T3- basal diet with 2% Turmeric inclusion). Group 2 (T4- basal diet with 0% clove inclusion), (T5- basal diet with 1% clove inclusion), (T6- basal diet with 2% clove inclusion). Group 3, turmeric + clove combination on 1:1 ratio weight for weight (T7- basal diet with 0% turmeric + 0% clove inclusion), (T8- basal diet with 0.5% turmeric + 0.5 clove% inclusion), (T9- basal diet with 1% turmeric + 1% clove inclusion). Performance parameters were evaluated throughout the experiment. The experiment spanned from day 15 to 56. Data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test with significance of P≤ 0.05. Significant differences (P>0.05) were not observed in final body weight, weight gain, feed intake and FCR among birds fed with diets containing across the treatments. However, birds fed with test ingredients showed higher numerical values in final body weight and weight gain when compared to the birds without additive. Birds on T8 had the highest final body weight value of 617.33 g and low values in all the control treatments (T1 -588 g, T4- 572 g and T7 -584 g). At day 56, intestinal samples were taken from the jejunum and ileum to evaluate the villus height, crypt depth and villus: crypt depth ratio. Addition of turmeric, clove and turmeric + clove in the diet produced significant (P< 0.05) effect on Jejunum and ileum of birds. Therefore, Turmeric and clove can be used as feed additives for pullet birds because they have a positive effect on growth performance and intestinal morphology of pullet chicks.

Keywords: clove, intestinal morphology, isa brown chicks, performance, turmeric

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1 Sublethal Effects of Industrial Effluents on Fish Fingerlings (Clarias gariepinus) from Ologe Lagoon Environs, Lagos, Nigeria

Authors: Akintade O. Adeboyejo, Edwin O. Clarke, Oluwatoyin Aderinola

Abstract:

The present study is on the sub-lethal toxicity of industrial effluents (IE) from the environment of Ologe Lagoon, Lagos, Nigeria on the African catfish fingerlings Clarias gariepinus. The fish were cultured in varying concentrations of industrial effluents: 0% (control), 5%, 15%, 25%, and 35%. Trials were carried out in triplicates for twelve (12) weeks. The culture system was a static renewable bioassay and was carried out in the fisheries laboratory of the Lagos State University, Ojo-Lagos. Weekly physico-chemical parameters: Temperature (0C), pH, Conductivity (ppm) and Dissolved Oxygen (DO in mg/l) were measured in each treatment tank. Length (cm) and weight (g) data were obtained weekly and used to calculate various growth parameters: mean weight gain (MWG), percentage weight gain (PWG), daily weight gain (DWG), specific growth rate (SGR) and survival. Haematological (Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Red blood cells (RBC), White Blood Cell (WBC), Neutrophil and Lymphocytes etc) and histological alterations were measured after 12 weeks. The physico-chemical parameters showed that the pH ranged from 7.82±0.25–8.07±0.02. DO range from 1.92±0.66-4.43±1.24 mg/l. The conductivity values increased with increase in concentration of I.E. While the temperature remained stable with mean value range between 26.08±2.14–26.38±2.28. The DO showed significant differences at P<0.05. There was progressive increase in length and weight of fish during the culture period. The fish placed in the control had highest increase in both weight and length while fish in 35% had the least. MWG ranged from 16.59–35.96, DWG is from 0.3–0.48, SGR varied from 1.0–1.86 and survival was 100%. Haematological results showed that C. gariepinus had PCV ranging from 13.0±1.7-27.7±0.6, RBC ranged from 4.7±0.6–9.1±0.1, and Neutrophil ranged from 26.7±4.6–61.0±1.0 amongst others. The highest values of these parameters were obtained in the control and lowest at 35%. While the reverse effects were observed for WBC and lymphocytes. This study has shown that effluents may affect the health status of the test organism and impair vital processes if exposure continues for a long period of time. The histological examination revealed several lesions as expressed by the gills and livers. The histopathology of the gills in the control tanks had normal tissues with no visible lesion, but at higher concentrations, there were: lifting of epithelium, swollen lamellae and gill arch infiltration, necrosis and gill arch destruction. While in the liver: control (0%) show normal liver cells, at higher toxic level, there were: vacoulation, destruction of the hepatic parenchyma, tissue becoming eosinophilic (i.e. tending towards Carcinogenicity) and severe disruption of the hepatic cord architecture. The study has shown that industrial effluents from the study area may affect fish health status and impair vital processes if exposure continues for a long period of time even at lower concentrations (Sublethal).

Keywords: sublethal toxicity, industrial effluents, clarias gariepinus, ologe lagoon

Procedia PDF Downloads 496