Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: antinutrients

4 Effect of Roasting Temperature on the Proximate, Mineral and Antinutrient Content of Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan) Ready-to-Eat Snack

Authors: Olaide Ruth Aderibigbe, Oluwatoyin Oluwole


Pigeon pea is one of the minor leguminous plants; though underutilised, it is used traditionally by farmers to alleviate hunger and malnutrition. Pigeon pea is cultivated in Nigeria by subsistence farmers. It is rich in protein and minerals, however, its utilisation as food is only common among the poor and rural populace who cannot afford expensive sources of protein. One of the factors contributing to its limited use is the high antinutrient content which makes it indigestible, especially when eaten by children. The development of value-added products that can reduce the antinutrient content and make the nutrients more bioavailable will increase the utilisation of the crop and contribute to reduction of malnutrition. This research, therefore, determined the effects of different roasting temperatures (130 0C, 140 0C, and 150 0C) on the proximate, mineral and antinutrient component of a pigeon pea snack. The brown variety of pigeon pea seeds were purchased from a local market- Otto in Lagos, Nigeria. The seeds were cleaned, washed, and soaked in 50 ml of water containing sugar and salt (4:1) for 15 minutes, and thereafter the seeds were roasted at 130 0C, 140 0C, and 150 0C in an electric oven for 10 minutes. Proximate, minerals, phytate, tannin and alkaloid content analyses were carried out in triplicates following standard procedures. The results of the three replicates were polled and expressed as mean±standard deviation; a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Least Significance Difference (LSD) were carried out. The roasting temperatures significantly (P<0.05) affected the protein, ash, fibre and carbohydrate content of the snack. Ready-to-eat snack prepared by roasting at 150 0C significantly had the highest protein (23.42±0.47%) compared the ones roasted at 130 0C and 140 0C (18.38±1.25% and 20.63±0.45%, respectively). The same trend was observed for the ash content (3.91±0.11 for 150 0C, 2.36±0.15 for 140 0C and 2.26±0.25 for 130 0C), while the fibre and carbohydrate contents were highest at roasting temperature of 130 0C. Iron, zinc, and calcium were not significantly (P<0.5) affected by the different roasting temperatures. Antinutrients decreased with increasing temperature. Phytate levels recorded were 0.02±0.00, 0.06±0.00, and 0.07±0.00 mg/g; tannin levels were 0.50±0.00, 0.57±0.00, and 0.68±0.00 mg/g, while alkaloids levels were 0.51±0.01, 0.78±0.01, and 0.82±0.01 mg/g for 150 0C, 140 0C, and 130 0C, respectively. These results show that roasting at high temperature (150 0C) can be utilised as a processing technique for increasing protein and decreasing antinutrient content of pigeon pea.

Keywords: antinutrients, pigeon pea, protein, roasting, underutilised species

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3 Solid State Fermentation: A Technological Alternative for Enriching Bioavailability of Underutilized Crops

Authors: Vipin Bhandari, Anupama Singh, Kopal Gupta


Solid state fermentation, an eminent bioconversion technique for converting many biological substrates into a value-added product, has proven its role in the biotransformation of crops by nutritionally enriching them. Hence, an effort was made for nutritional enhancement of underutilized crops viz. barnyard millet, amaranthus and horse gram based composite flour using SSF. The grains were given pre-treatments before fermentation and these pre-treatments proved quite effective in diminishing the level of antinutrients in grains and in improving their nutritional characteristics. The present study deals with the enhancement of nutritional characteristics of underutilized crops viz. barnyard millet, amaranthus and horsegram based composite flour using solid state fermentation (SSF) as the principle bioconversion technique to convert the composite flour substrate into a nutritionally enriched value added product. Response surface methodology was used to design the experiments. The variables selected for the fermentation experiments were substrate particle size, substrate blend ratio, fermentation time, fermentation temperature and moisture content having three levels of each. Seventeen designed experiments were conducted randomly to find the effect of these variables on microbial count, reducing sugar, pH, total sugar, phytic acid and water absorption index. The data from all experiments were analyzed using Design Expert 8.0.6 and the response functions were developed using multiple regression analysis and second order models were fitted for each response. Results revealed that pretreatments proved quite handful in diminishing the level of antinutrients and thus enhancing the nutritional value of the grains appreciably, for instance, there was about 23% reduction in phytic acid levels after decortication of barnyard millet. The carbohydrate content of the decorticated barnyard millet increased to 81.5% from initial value of 65.2%. Similarly popping and puffing of horsegram and amaranthus respectively greatly reduced the trypsin inhibitor activity. Puffing of amaranthus also reduced the tannin content appreciably. Bacillus subtilis was used as the inoculating specie since it is known to produce phytases in solid state fermentation systems. These phytases remarkably reduce the phytic acid content which acts as a major antinutritional factor in food grains. Results of solid state fermentation experiments revealed that phytic acid levels reduced appreciably when fermentation was allowed to continue for 72 hours at a temperature of 35°C. Particle size and substrate blend ratio also affected the responses positively. All the parameters viz. substrate particle size, substrate blend ratio, fermentation time, fermentation temperature and moisture content affected the responses namely microbial count, reducing sugar, pH, total sugar, phytic acid and water absorption index but the effect of fermentation time was found to be most significant on all the responses. Statistical analysis resulted in the optimum conditions (particle size 355µ, substrate blend ratio 50:20:30 of barnyard millet, amaranthus and horsegram respectively, fermentation time 68 hrs, fermentation temperature 35°C and moisture content 47%) for maximum reduction in phytic acid. The model F- value was found to be highly significant at 1% level of significance in case of all the responses. Hence, second order model could be fitted to predict all the dependent parameters. The effect of fermentation time was found to be most significant as compared to other variables.

Keywords: composite flour, solid state fermentation, underutilized crops, cereals, fermentation technology, food processing

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2 Improving the Utilization of Telfairia occidentalis Leaf Meal with Cellulase-Glucanase-Xylanase Combination and Selected Probiotic in Broiler Diets

Authors: Ayodeji Fasuyi


Telfairia occidentalis is a leafy vegetable commonly grown in the tropics for nutritional benefits. The use of enzymes and probiotics is becoming prominent due to the ban on antibiotics as growth promoters in many parts of the world. It is conceived that with enzymes and probiotics additives, fibrous leafy vegetables can be incorporated into poultry feeds as protein source. However, certain antinutrients were also found in the leaves of Telfairia occidentalis. Four broiler starter and finisher diets were formulated for the two phases of the broiler experiments. A mixture of fiber degrading enzymes, Roxazyme G2 (combination of cellulase, glucanase and xylanase) and probiotics (Turbotox), a growth promoter, were used in broiler diets at 1:1. The Roxazyme G2/Turbotox mixtures were used in diets containing four varying levels of Telfairia occidentalis leaf meal (TOLM) at 0, 10, 20 and 30%. Diets 1 were standard broiler diets without TOLM and Roxazyme G2 and Turbotox additives. Diets 2, 3 and 4 had enzymes and probiotics additives. Certain mineral elements such as Ca, P, K, Na, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn were found in notable quantities viz. 2.6 g/100 g, 1.2 g/100 g, 6.2 g/100 g, 5.1 g/100 g, 4.7 g/100 g, 5875 ppm, 182 ppm, 136 ppm and 1036 ppm, respectively. Phytin, phytin-P, oxalate, tannin and HCN were also found in ample quantities viz. 189.2 mg/100 g, 120.1 mg/100 g, 80.7 mg/100 g, 43.1 mg/100 g and 61.2 mg/100 g, respectively. The average weight gain was highest at 46.3 g/bird/day for birds on 10% TOLM diet but similar (P > 0.05) to 46.2 g/bird/day for birds on 20% TOLM. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) of 2.27 was the lowest and optimum for birds on 10% TOLM although similar (P > 0.05) to 2.29 obtained for birds on 20% TOLM. FCR of 2.61 was the highest at 2.61 for birds on 30% TOLM diet. The lowest FCR of 2.27 was obtained for birds on 10% TOLM diet although similar (P > 0.05) to 2.29 for birds on 20% TOLM diet. Most carcass characteristics and organ weights were similar (P > 0.05) for the experimental birds on the different diets except for kidney, gizzard and intestinal length. The values for kidney, gizzard and intestinal length were significantly higher (P < 0.05) for birds on the TOLM diets. The nitrogen retention had the highest value of 72.37 ± 0.10% for birds on 10% TOLM diet although similar (P > 0.05) to 71.54 ± 1.89 obtained for birds on the control diet without TOLM and enzymes/probiotics mixture. There was evidence of a better utilization of TOLM as a plant protein source. The carcass characteristics and organ weights all showed evidence of uniform tissue buildup and muscles development particularly in diets containing 10% of TOLM level. There was also better nitrogen utilization in birds on the 10% TOLM diet. Considering the cheap cost of TOLM, it is envisaged that its introduction into poultry feeds as a plant protein source will ultimately reduce the cost of poultry feeds.

Keywords: Telfairia occidentalis leaf meal, enzymes, probiotics, additives

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1 Chemical, Biochemical and Sensory Evaluation of a Quadrimix Complementary Food Developed from Sorghum, Groundnut, Crayfish and Pawpaw Blends

Authors: Ogechi Nzeagwu, Assumpta Osuagwu, Charlse Nkwoala


Malnutrition in infants due to poverty, poor feeding practices, and high cost of commercial complementary foods among others is a concern in developing countries. The study evaluated the proximate, vitamin and mineral compositions, antinutrients and functional properties, biochemical, haematological and sensory evaluation of complementary food made from sorghum, groundnut, crayfish and paw-paw flour blends using standard procedures. The blends were formulated on protein requirement of infants (18 g/day) using Nutrisurvey linear programming software in ratio of sorghum(S), groundnut(G), crayfish(C) and pawpaw(P) flours as 50:25:10:15(SGCP1), 60:20:10:10 (SGCP2), 60:15:15:10 (SGCP3) and 60:10:20:10 (SGCP4). Plain-pap (fermented maize flour)(TCF) and cerelac (commercial complementary food) served as basal and control diets. Thirty weanling male albino rats aged 28-35 days weighing 33-60 g were purchased and used for the study. The rats after acclimatization were fed with gruel produced with the experimental diets and the control with water ad libitum daily for 35days. Effect of the blends on lipid profile, blood glucose, haematological (RBC, HB, PCV, MCV), liver and kidney function and weight gain of the rats were assessed. Acceptability of the gruel was conducted at the end of rat feeding on forty mothers of infants’ ≥ 6 months who gave their informed consent to participate using a 9 point hedonic scale. Data was analyzed for means and standard deviation, analysis of variance and means were separated using Duncan multiple range test and significance judged at 0.05, all using SPSS version 22.0. The results indicated that crude protein, fibre, ash and carbohydrate of the formulated diets were either comparable or higher than values in cerelac. The formulated diets (SGCP1- SGCP4) were significantly (P>0.05) higher in vitamin A and thiamin compared to cerelac. The iron content of the formulated diets SGCP1- SGCP4 (4.23-6.36 mg/100) were within the recommended iron intake of infants (0.55 mg/day). Phytate (1.56-2.55 mg/100g) and oxalate (0.23-0.35 mg/100g) contents of the formulated diets were within the permissible limits of 0-5%. In functional properties, bulk density, swelling index, % dispersibility and water absorption capacity significantly (P<0.05) increased and compared favourably with cerelac. The essential amino acids of the formulated blends were within the amino acid profile of the FAO/WHO/UNU reference protein for children 0.5 -2 years of age. Urea concentration of rats fed with SGCP1-SGCP4 (19.48 mmol/L),(23.76 mmol/L),(24.07 mmol/L),(23.65 mmol/L) respectively was significantly higher than that of rat fed cerelac (16.98 mmol/L); however, plain pap had the least value (9.15 mmol/L). Rats fed with SGCP1-SGCP4 (116 mg/dl), (119 mg/dl), (115 mg/dl), (117 mg/dl) respectively had significantly higher glucose levels those fed with cerelac (108 mg/dl). Liver function parameters (AST, ALP and ALT), lipid profile (triglyceride, HDL, LDL, VLDL) and hematological parameters of rats fed with formulated diets were within normal range. Rats fed SGCP1 gained more weight (90.45 g) than other rats fed with SGCP2-SGCP4 (71.65 g, 79.76 g, 75.68 g), TCF (20.13 g) and cerelac (59.06 g). In all the sensory attributes, the control was preferred with respect to the formulated diets. The formulated diets were generally adequate and may likely have potentials to meet nutrient requirements of infants as complementary food.

Keywords: biochemical, chemical evaluation, complementary food, quadrimix

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