Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: Nwafia Ifeyinwa Nkeiruka

10 Factors Associated with Oral Cavity Colonization by Candida albicans

Authors: Nwafia Ifeyinwa Nkeiruka, Nwafia Walter Chukwuma


Since the early 1980’s fungi have emerged as major causes of human diseases, especially among immunocompromised. The most commonly isolated yeast is Candida albicans and constitutes the 4th most common nosocomial BSI in humans. It is progressive and cumulative and become more complex over time.It can even lead to leaky gut syndrome that causes food and environmental allergies. It is worthy of note that all the available data on oral Candida risk factors in humans were documented essentially using data from studies conducted in other areas, hence there is need for comparative and complementary information from the South eastern part of Nigeria. Method: 200 subjects of all age groups of both sexes were randomly examined,by swabbing their palatine mucosa and dorsal tongue with sterile cotton wool,then cultured into Sabouraud dextrose agar plates supplemented with antibiotics and incubated aerobically at 37 degree for 48 hrs. Identification of Candida albicans was done by germ tubes tests, chlamydospores production on cornmeal agar supplemented with 1% Tween 80.Sugar and nitrogen assimilation test using API 20C Auxanogram and potassium nitrate agar. Results: Out of 30 samples that were positive for candida, 15 (50%) were candida albicans. Using the anova test (P < 0.05) this variation is significant (P = 0016). followed by C. dublinensis 3 (13%), C. tropicalis 3 (10%), C. pseudotropicalis 3 (10%), C, glabrata 2 (7%), C. parapsilosis 2 (7%) and lastly C. krusei 1 (3%).However, 53% of the patients were female while 47% were male. Among the HIV positive isolates.67% were HIV isolates not on drugs while 33% positives isolates were on drugs and the percentages of candida species in these patients were as follows C. albicans were 45% followed by C. glabrata and C.tropicalis which were 17% each, C.parapsilosis, C.dubliensis and C.pseudotropicalis were all 8% each. Conclusion: Oral Candidiasis is a marker of systemic diseases and in some cases, it may be the first clinical presentation. There is need for more intensive clinical and laboratory monitoring and possible early intervention to prevent the reoccurrence and resistance to treatment.

Keywords: oral cavity, Candida species, oral Candidiasis, risk factors

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9 A Further Insight to Foaming in Anaerobic Digester

Authors: Ifeyinwa Rita Kanu, Thomas Aspray, Adebayo J. Adeloye


As a result of the ambiguity and complexity surrounding anaerobic digester foaming, efforts have been made by various researchers to understand the process of anaerobic digester foaming so as to proffer a solution that can be universally applied rather than site specific. All attempts ranging from experimental analysis to comparative review of other process has been futile at explaining explicitly the conditions and process of foaming in anaerobic digester. Studying the available knowledge on foam formation and relating it to anaerobic digester process and operating condition, this study presents a succinct and enhanced understanding of foaming in anaerobic digesters as well as introducing a simple and novel method to identify the onset of anaerobic digester foaming based on analysis of historical data from a field scale system.

Keywords: anaerobic digester, foaming, biogas, surfactant, wastewater

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8 Participation of Students and Lecturers in Social Networking for Teaching and Learning in Public Universities in Rivers State, Nigeria

Authors: Nkeiruka Queendarline Nwaizugbu


The use of social media and mobile devices has become acceptable in virtually all areas of today’s world. Hence, this study is a survey that was carried out to find out if students and lecturers in public universities in Rivers State use social networking for educational purposes. The sample of the study comprised of 240 students and 99 lecturers from the University of Port Harcourt and the Rivers State University of science and Technology. The study had five research questions, two hypotheses and the instrument for data collection was a 4-point Likert-type rating scale questionnaire. The data was analysed using mean, standard deviation and z-test. The findings gotten from the analysed data shows that students participate in social networking using different types of web applications but they hardly use them for educational purposes. Some recommendations were also made.

Keywords: internet access, mobile learning, participation, social media, social networking, technology

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7 Cryptography and Cryptosystem a Panacea to Security Risk in Wireless Networking

Authors: Modesta E. Ezema, Chikwendu V. Alabekee, Victoria N. Ishiwu, Ifeyinwa NwosuArize, Chinedu I. Nwoye


The advent of wireless networking in computing technology cannot be overemphasized, it opened up easy accessibility to information resources, networking made easier and brought internet accessibility to our doorsteps, but despite all these, some mishap came in with it that is causing mayhem in today ‘s overall information security. The cyber criminals will always compromise the integrity of a message that is not encrypted or that is encrypted with a weak algorithm.In other to correct the mayhem, this study focuses on cryptosystem and cryptography. This ensures end to end crypt messaging. The study of various cryptographic algorithms, as well as the techniques and applications of the cryptography for efficiency, were all considered in the work., present and future applications of cryptography were dealt with as well as Quantum Cryptography was exposed as the current and the future area in the development of cryptography. An empirical study was conducted to collect data from network users.

Keywords: algorithm, cryptography, cryptosystem, network

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6 Building Knowledge Society: The Imperative Role of Library and Information Centres (LICs) in Developing Countries

Authors: Desmond Chinedu Oparaku, Oyemike Victor Benson, Ifeyinwa A. Ariole


A critical examination of the emerging knowledge society reveals that library and information centres have a significant role to play in the building of knowledge society. The major highlights of this paper include: the conceptual analysis of knowledge society, overview of library and information centres in developing countries, role of libraries and information centre in building up of knowledge society, library and information professionals as factor in building knowledge, challenges faced by Library and Information Centres (LICs) in building knowledge society, strategies for building knowledge society. The position of this paper is that in spite of the influx of varied information and communication technologies in the information industry which is the driving force of knowledge society, there is a dire need for Libraries and Information Centres (LIC) to contribute positively to the migration and transition processes from the information society to knowledge-based society.

Keywords: information and communication technology (ICT), information centres, information industry, information society

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5 Comparative Analysis of Petroleum Ether and Aqueous Extraction Solvents on Different Stages of Anopheles Gambiae Using Neem Leaf and Neem Stem

Authors: Tochukwu Ezechi Ebe, Fechi Njoku-Tony, Ifeyinwa Mgbenena


Comparative analysis of petroleum ether and aqueous extraction solvents on different stages of Anopheles gambiae was carried out using neem leaf and neem stem. Soxhlet apparatus was used to extract each pulverized plant part. Each plant part extract from both solvents were separately used to test their effects on the developmental stages of Anopheles gambiae. The result showed that the mean mortality of extracts from petroleum ether extraction solvent was higher than that of aqueous extract. It was also observed that mean mortality decreases with increase in developmental stage. Furthermore, extracts from neem leaf was found to be more susceptible than extracts from neem stem using same extraction solvent.

Keywords: petroleum ether, aqueous, developmental, stages, extraction, Anopheles gambiae

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4 Morphological Characterization and Gas Permeation of Commercially Available Alumina Membrane

Authors: Ifeyinwa Orakwe, Ngozi Nwogu, Edward Gobina


This work presents experimental results relating to the structural characterization of a commercially available alumina membrane. A γ-alumina mesoporous tubular membrane has been used. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption, scanning electron microscopy and gas permeability test has been carried out on the alumina membrane to characterize its structural features. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to determine the pore size distribution of the membrane. Pore size, specific surface area and pore size distribution were also determined with the use of the Nitrogen adsorption-desorption instrument. Gas permeation tests were carried out on the membrane using a variety of single and mixed gases. The permeabilities at different pressure between 0.05-1 bar and temperature range of 25-200oC were used for the single and mixed gases: nitrogen (N2), helium (He), oxygen (O2), carbon dioxide (CO2), 14%CO₂/N₂, 60%CO₂/N₂, 30%CO₂/CH4 and 21%O₂/N₂. Plots of flow rate verses pressure were obtained. Results got showed the effect of temperature on the permeation rate of the various gases. At 0.5 bar for example, the flow rate for N2 was relatively constant before decreasing with an increase in temperature, while for O2, it continuously decreased with an increase in temperature. In the case of 30%CO₂/CH4 and 14%CO₂/N₂, the flow rate showed an increase then a decrease with increase in temperature. The effect of temperature on the membrane performance of the various gases is presented and the influence of the trans membrane pressure drop will be discussed in this paper.

Keywords: alumina membrane, Nitrogen adsorption-desorption, scanning electron microscopy, gas permeation, temperature

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3 Response of Grower Turkeys to Diets Containing Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal in a Tropical Environment

Authors: Augustine O. Ani, Ifeyinwa E. Ezemagu, Eunice A. Akuru


A seven-week study was conducted to evaluate the response of grower turkeys to varying dietary levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) in a humid tropical environment. A total of 90 twelve weeks old male and female grower turkeys were randomly divided into five groups of 18 birds each in a completely randomized design (CRD) and assigned to five caloric (2.57-2.60 Mcal/kg ME) and isonitrogenous (19.95% crude protein) diets containing five levels (0, 15, 20, 25 and 30%) of MOLM, respectively. Each treatment was replicated three times with 6 birds per replicate housed in a deep litter pen of fresh wood shavings measuring 1.50m x 1.50m. Feed and water were provided to the birds' ad libitum. Parameters measured were: final live weight (FLW) daily weight gain (DWG), daily feed intake (DFI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin concentration (Hb), red blood cell (RBC) count, white blood cell (WBC) count, mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH) and mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), feed cost / kg weight gain and apparent nutrient retention. Results showed that grower turkeys fed 20% MOLM diet had significantly (p < 0.05) higher FLW and DWG values (4410.30 g and 34.49 g, respectively) and higher DM and NFE retention values (67.28 and 58.12%, respectively) than turkeys fed other MOLM diets. Feed cost per kg gain decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with increasing levels of MOLM in the diets. The PCV, Hb, WBC, MCV, MCH and MCHC values of grower turkeys fed 20% MOLM diet were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those of grower turkeys fed other diets. It was concluded that a diet containing 20% MOLM is adequate for the normal growth of grower turkeys in the tropics.

Keywords: Diets, grower turkeys, Moringa oleifera leaf meal, response, tropical environment

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2 Molecular Detection and Antibiotics Resistance Pattern of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli in a Tertiary Hospital in Enugu, Nigeria

Authors: I. N. Nwafia, U. C. Ozumba, M. E. Ohanu, S. O. Ebede


Antibiotic resistance is increasing globally and has become a major health challenge. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase is clinically important because the ESBL gene are mostly plasmid encoded and these plasmids frequently carry genes encoding resistance to other classes of antimicrobials thereby limiting antibiotic options in the treatment of infections caused by these organisms. The specific objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of ESBLs production in Escherichia coli, to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of ESBLs producing Escherichia coli, to detect TEM, SHV and CTX-M genes and the risk factors to acquisition of ESBL producing Escherichia coli. The protocol of the study was approved by Health Research and Ethics committee of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Enugu. It was a descriptive cross-sectional study that involved all hospitalized patients in UNTH from whose specimens Escherichia coli was isolated during the period of the study. The samples analysed were urine, wound swabs, blood and cerebrospinal fluid. These samples were cultured in 5% sheep Blood agar and MacConkey agar (Oxoid Laboratories, Cambridge UK) and incubated at 35-370C for 24 hours. Escherichia coli was identified with standard biochemical tests and confirmed using API 20E auxanogram (bioMerieux, Marcy 1'Etoile, France). The antibiotic susceptibility testing was done by disc diffusion method and interpreted according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute guideline. ESBL production was confirmed using ESBL Epsilometer test strips (Liofilchem srl, Italy). The ESBL bla genes were detected with polymerase chain reaction, after extraction of DNA with plasmid mini-prep kit (Jena Bioscience, Jena, Germany). Data analysis was with appropriate descriptive and inferential statistics. One hundred and six isolates (53.00%) out of the 200 were from urine, followed by isolates from different swabs specimens 53(26.50%) and the least number of the isolates 4(2.00) were from blood (P value = 0.096). Seventy (35.00%) out of the 200 isolates, were confirmed positive for ESBL production. Forty-two (60.00%) of the isolates were from female patients while 28(40.00%) were from male patients (P value = 0.13). Sixty-eight (97.14%) of the isolates were susceptible to imipenem while all of the isolates were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. From the 70 positive isolates the ESBL genes detected with polymerase chain reaction were blaCTX-M (n=26; 37.14%), blaTEM (n=7; 10.00%), blaSHV (n=2; 2.86%), blaCTX-M/TEM (n=7; 10.0%), blaCTX-M/SHV (n=14; 20.0%) and blaCTX-M/TEM/SHV (n=10; 14.29%). There was no gene detected in 4(5.71%) of the isolates. The most associated risk factors to infections caused by ESBL producing Escherichia coli was previous antibiotics use for the past 3 months followed by admission in the intensive care unit, recent surgery, and urinary catheterization. In conclusion, ESBLs was detected in 4 of every 10 Escherichia coli with the predominant gene detected being CTX-M. This knowledge will enable appropriate measures towards improvement of patient health care, antibiotic stewardship, research and infection control in the hospital.

Keywords: antimicrobial, Escherichia coli, extended spectrum beta lactamase, resistance

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1 Clinicomycological Pattern of Superficial Fungal Infections among Primary School Children in Communities in Enugu, Nigeria

Authors: Nkeiruka Elsie Ezomike, Chinwe L. Onyekonwu, Anthony N. Ikefuna, Bede C. Ibe


Superficial fungal infections (SFIs) are one of the common cutaneous infections that affect children worldwide. They may lead to school absenteeism or school drop-out and hence setback in the education of the child. Community-based studies in any locality are good reflections of the health conditions within that area. There is a dearth of information in the literature about SFI among primary school children in Enugu. This study aimed to determine the clinicomycological pattern of SFIs among primary school children in rural and urban communities in Enugu. This was a comparative descriptive cross-sectional study among primary school children in Awgu (rural) and Enugu North (urban) Local Government Areas (LGAs). Subjects' selection was made over 6 months using a multi-stage sampling method. Information such as age, sex, parental education, and occupation were collected using questionnaires. Socioeconomic classes of the children were determined using the classification proposed by Oyedeji et al. The samples were collected from subjects with SFIs. Potassium hydroxide tests were done on the samples. The samples that tested positive were cultured for SFI by inoculating onto Sabouraud's dextrose chloramphenicol actidione agar. The characteristics of the isolates were identified according to their morphological features using Mycology Online, Atlas 2000, and Mycology Review 2003. Equal numbers of children were recruited from the two LGAs. A total of 1662 pupils were studied. The mean ages of the study subjects were 9.03 ± 2.10years in rural and 10.46 ± 2.33years in urban communities. The male to female ratio was 1.6:1 in rural and 1:1.1 in urban communities. The personal hygiene of the children was significantly related to the presence of SFIs. The overall prevalence of SFIs among the study participants was 45%. In the rural, the prevalence was 29.6%, and in the urban prevalence was 60.4%. The types of SFIs were tinea capitis (the commonest), tinea corporis, pityriasis Versicolor, tinea unguium, and tinea manuum with prevalence rates lower in rural than urban communities. The clinical patterns were gray patch and black dot type of non-inflammatory tinea capitis, kerion, tinea corporis with trunk and limb distributions, and pityriasis Versicolor with face, trunk and limb distributions. Gray patch was the most frequent pattern of SFI seen in rural and urban communities. Black dot type was more frequent in rural than urban communities. SFIs were frequent among children aged 5 to 8years in rural and 9 to 12 years in urban communities. SFIs were commoner in males in the rural, whereas female dominance was observed in the urban. SFIs were more in children from low social class and those with poor hygiene. Trichophyton tonsurans and Trichophyton soudanese were the common mycological isolates in rural and urban communities, respectively. In conclusion, SFIs were less prevalent in rural than in urban communities. Trichophyton species were the most common fungal isolates in the communities. Health education of mothers and their children on SFI and good personal hygiene will reduce the incidence of SFIs.

Keywords: clinicomycological pattern, communities, primary school children, superficial fungal infections

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