Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 68

Search results for: Nwafia Walter Chukwuma

68 Factors Associated with Oral Cavity Colonization by Candida albicans

Authors: Nwafia Ifeyinwa Nkeiruka, Nwafia Walter Chukwuma

Abstract:

Since the early 1980’s fungi have emerged as major causes of human diseases, especially among immunocompromised. The most commonly isolated yeast is Candida albicans and constitutes the 4th most common nosocomial BSI in humans. It is progressive and cumulative and become more complex over time.It can even lead to leaky gut syndrome that causes food and environmental allergies. It is worthy of note that all the available data on oral Candida risk factors in humans were documented essentially using data from studies conducted in other areas, hence there is need for comparative and complementary information from the South eastern part of Nigeria. Method: 200 subjects of all age groups of both sexes were randomly examined,by swabbing their palatine mucosa and dorsal tongue with sterile cotton wool,then cultured into Sabouraud dextrose agar plates supplemented with antibiotics and incubated aerobically at 37 degree for 48 hrs. Identification of Candida albicans was done by germ tubes tests, chlamydospores production on cornmeal agar supplemented with 1% Tween 80.Sugar and nitrogen assimilation test using API 20C Auxanogram and potassium nitrate agar. Results: Out of 30 samples that were positive for candida, 15 (50%) were candida albicans. Using the anova test (P < 0.05) this variation is significant (P = 0016). followed by C. dublinensis 3 (13%), C. tropicalis 3 (10%), C. pseudotropicalis 3 (10%), C, glabrata 2 (7%), C. parapsilosis 2 (7%) and lastly C. krusei 1 (3%).However, 53% of the patients were female while 47% were male. Among the HIV positive isolates.67% were HIV isolates not on drugs while 33% positives isolates were on drugs and the percentages of candida species in these patients were as follows C. albicans were 45% followed by C. glabrata and C.tropicalis which were 17% each, C.parapsilosis, C.dubliensis and C.pseudotropicalis were all 8% each. Conclusion: Oral Candidiasis is a marker of systemic diseases and in some cases, it may be the first clinical presentation. There is need for more intensive clinical and laboratory monitoring and possible early intervention to prevent the reoccurrence and resistance to treatment.

Keywords: oral cavity, Candida species, oral Candidiasis, risk factors

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67 Insecurity, Instability and Lack of Benefits: Factors Reasonable for Poor Performance among “Contract Workers” in South Africa

Authors: Charmaine Devinee Pillay

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Employees in both public and private sectors are expected to contribute significantly to the growth and development of the organization that employs them. Good working conditions are directly linked to the optimum output emanating from the workforce’s excellent performance. Insecurity, instability and lack of benefits negatively impact on the employees’ commitment to their job. This is a qualitative case study that comprised 40 “Contract Employees” (Academic and Supporting staff) in the Faculty of Health Sciences, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha, Eastern Cape, South Africa. Questionnaire, as instrument of data collection, was used to obtain qualitative data. Data collected were categorized in themes and sub-themes for analyses and discussion. Findings showed that “contract Employees” are highly demoralized due to job insecurity and non-benefits, among other factors, which directly affect their overall output in discharging their duties. The case study at Walter Sisulu University typifies the generalized challenges faced by workers on contract basis in South Africa. It is therefore, recommended that employers hire their workforce on permanent basis or, where “Contract Employment “is inevitable, similar conditions that go with permanent employment should be incorporated in the contract terms of “Contract Employees”. This serves as impetus for optimum performance.

Keywords: contract employee, insecurity, instability, risk factors

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
66 The Perceptions of Students in Tourism and Hospitality in Relation to the Pursuit of Higher Degrees: A Case of Walter Sisulu University

Authors: Adelaide Rethabile Motshabi Pitso-Mbili

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Higher education institutions (HEIs) are under pressure in producing PhD graduates so that they can position themselves higher in terms of rankings. However, hospitality and tourism higher degree enrolment numbers are very low within South African universities. Furthermore, hospitality and tourism students choose these fields of study because they want to travel, be social, and have fun. Students in higher education are anxious about their future after studies as they are particularly worried about the job conditions in the hospitality and tourism sector, the remuneration, and the status perceptions of many jobs in the sector. Hence, there is a need for a continuous increase in the level of education with the formation of professional aptitudes and personnel quality. In order to understand the reasons for low enrolments, this study aims to explore the perceptions of the final year in tourism and hospitality diploma students towards enrolling for higher degree qualifications after their graduation. This paper utilised a quantitative research method, and data was gathered through questionnaires. In addition, the Linkert scale design was used for questionnaires. The questionnaires were distributed to 137 hospitality and tourism students who are on their exit level at Walter Sisulu University. SPSS was used to analyse data. The findings revealed that students do not wish to continue studying for higher degrees as they believe higher degrees are not important for the industry. Furthermore, families already have financial expectations as they think one qualification is enough. In addition, some students mentioned that they would love to study further, but lack of funding is a problem since NSFAS only funds the first qualification. Thus, it is recommended that students are made aware of the benefits and opportunities available after obtaining higher degrees.

Keywords: hospitality and tourism education, higher degrees, higher education, student’s perceptions, hospitality and tourism sector

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65 Constellating Images: Bilderatlases as a Tool to Develop Criticality towards Visual Culture

Authors: Quirijn Menken

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Menken, Q. Author  Constellating Images Abstract—We live in a predominantly visual era. Vastly expanded quantities of imagery influence us on a daily basis, in contrast to earlier days where the textual prevailed. The increasing producing and reproducing of images continuously compete for our attention. As such, how we perceive images and in what way images are framed or mediate our beliefs, has become of even greater importance than ever before. Especially in art education a critical awareness and approach of images as part of visual culture is of utmost importance. The Bilderatlas operates as a mediation, and offers new Ways of Seeing and knowing. It is mainly known as result of the ground-breaking work of the cultural theorist Aby Warburg, who intended to present an art history without words. His Mnemosyne Bilderatlas shows how the arrangement of images - and the interstices between them, offers new perspectives and ways of seeing. The Atlas as a medium to critically address Visual Culture is also practiced by the German artist Gerhard Richter, and it is in written form used in the Passagen Werk of Walter Benjamin. In order to examine the use of the Bilderatlas as a tool in art education, several experiments with art students have been conducted. These experiments have lead to an exploration of different Pedagogies, which help to offer new perspectives and trajectories of learning. To use the Bilderatlas as a tool to develop criticality towards Visual Culture, I developed and tested a new pedagogy; a Pedagogy of Difference and Repetition, based on the philosophy of Gilles Deleuze. Furthermore, in offering a new pedagogy - based on the rhizomatic work of Gilles Deleuze – the Bilderatlas as a tool to develop criticality has found a firm basis. Keywords—Art Education, Walter Benjamin, Bilderatlas, Gilles Deleuze, Difference and Repetition, Pedagogy, Rhizomes, Visual Culture,

Keywords: Art Education, Bilderatlas, Pedagogy, Aby Warburg

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64 Forms and Aesthetics In Our Community Buildings

Authors: Anya Chukwuma, Eme Mekwa

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The term ‘’FORM’’ in design could be referred to as the combination of various shapes of different sizes and assembling them in appropriate positions to achieve a unique figure of high aesthetic value. A deduction from this definition is that forms contribute immensely to the actualization of aesthetics in a building. When these various shapes and figures are properly assembled, it may give rise to a concept in design. However some architects and other designers either misuse or abuse the use of these shapes, hence resulting to a design imbalance, lack of uniformity, and expression. This academic work is designed to educate the public on the proper usage of some regular shapes like circles, rectangles, pentagons, hexagons, triangles, etc., to achieve a unique form in design. By the end of this work, one should be able to assemble different shapes to express different emotions of the mind, such as peace, love, confusion, war, and unity. Some elements of design such as balance, stability, functionality, and aesthetics will also be achieved even as the building maintains its unique form.

Keywords: forms, shapes, concept, aesthetics

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63 Forms and Aesthetics in Buildings

Authors: Anya Chukwuma, Iwuagwu Ben, Kingsley Chukwuemeka

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The term 'form' in design could be referred to as the combination of various shapes of different sizes and assembling them in appropriate positions to achieve a unique figure of high aesthetic value. A deduction from this definition is that forms contribute immensely to the actualization of aesthetics in a building. When these various shapes and figures are properly assembled, it may give rise to a concept in design. However some architects and other designers either misuse or abuse the use of these shapes, hence resulting to a design imbalance, lack of uniformity and expression. This academic work is designed to educate the public on the proper usage of some regular shapes like circles, rectangles, pentagons, hexagons, triangles etc., to achieve a unique form in design. By the end of this work, one should be able to assemble different shapes to express different emotions of the mind such as peace, love, confusion, war, and unity. Some elements of design such as balance, stability, functionality and aesthetics will also be achieved even as the building maintains its unique form.

Keywords: aesthetics, concept, form, shapes

Procedia PDF Downloads 423
62 Educating Farmers and Fishermen in Rural Areas in Nigeria on Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation for Global Sustainability

Authors: Benjamin Anabaraonye, Okafor Joachim Chukwuma, Olamire James

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The impacts of climate change are greatly felt on Nigeria’s agricultural sector which in turn affects the economy of the nation. There is an urgent need to educate farmers and fishermen in rural areas in Nigeria on climate change adaptation and mitigation for sustainable development. Through our literature and participant observation, it has been discovered that many farmers and fishermen in rural areas in Nigeria have little or no knowledge about climate change adaptation and mitigation. This paper seeks to draw the attention of policy makers in government, private sectors, non-governmental organizations and interested individuals to the need to seek for innovative ways of educating farmers and fishermen in rural areas about climate change adaptation and mitigation for global sustainability. This study also explores the effective methods of bridging the communication gaps through efficient information dissemination, intensive awareness outreach, use of climate change poems and blogs, innovative loan scheme to farmers and fishermen, etc. to help ensure that farmers and fishermen in rural areas in Nigeria are adequately educated about climate change adaptation and mitigation for global sustainability.

Keywords: agriculture, climate change, farmers, fishermen

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
61 Comparison of Instantaneous Short Circuit versus Step DC Voltage to Determine PMG Inductances

Authors: Walter Evaldo Kuchenbecker, Julio Carlos Teixeira

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Since efficiency became a challenge to reduce energy consumption of all electrical machines applications, the permanent magnet machine raises up as a better option, because its performance, robustness and simple control. Even though, the electrical machine was developed through analyses of magnetism effect, permanent magnet machines still not well dominated. As permanent magnet machines are becoming popular in most applications, the pressure to standardize this type of electrical machine increases. However, due limited domain, it is still nowadays without any standard to manufacture, test and application. In order to determine an inductance of the machine, a new method is proposed.

Keywords: permanent magnet generators (pmg), synchronous machine parameters, test procedures, inductances

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60 Skills Needed Amongst Secondary School Students for Artificial Intelligence Development in Southeast Nigeria

Authors: Chukwuma Mgboji

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Since the advent of Artificial Intelligence, robots have become a major stay in developing societies. Robots are deployed in Education, Health, Food and in other spheres of life. Nigeria a country in West Africa has a very low profile in the advancement of Artificial Intelligence especially in the grass roots. The benefits of Artificial intelligence are not fully maximised and harnessed. Advances in artificial intelligence are perceived as impossible or observed as irrelevant. This study seeks to ascertain the needed skills for the development of artificialintelligence amongst secondary schools in Nigeria. The study focused on South East Nigeria with Five states namely Imo, Abia, Ebonyi, Anambra and Enugu. The sample size is 1000 students drawn from Five Government owned Universities offering Computer Science, Computer Education, Electronics Engineering across the Five South East states. Survey method was used to solicit responses from respondents. The findings from the study identified mathematical skills, analytical skills, problem solving skills, computing skills, programming skills, algorithm skills amongst others. The result of this study to the best of the author’s knowledge will be highly beneficial to all stakeholders involved in the advancements and development of artificial intelligence.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, secondary school, robotics, skills

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59 Current Design Approach for Seismic Resistant Automated Rack Supported Warehouses: Strong Points and Critical Aspects

Authors: Agnese Natali, Francesco Morelli, Walter Salvatore

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Automated Rack Supported Warehouses (ARSWs) are structures currently designed as steel racks. Even if there are common characteristics, there are differences that don’t allow to adopt the same design approach. Aiming to highlight the factors influencing the design and the behavior of ARSWs, a set of 5 structures designed by 5 European companies specialized in this field is used to perform both a critical analysis of the design approaches and the assessment of the seismic performance, which is used to point out the criticalities and the necessity of new design philosophy.

Keywords: steel racks, automated rack supported warehouse, thin walled cold-formed elements, seismic assessment

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58 Innovative Dissipative Bracings for Seismic-Resistant Automated Rack Supported Warehouses

Authors: Agnese Natali, Francesco Morelli, Walter Salvatore

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Automated Rack Supported Warehouses (ARSWs) are storage buildings whose structure is made of the same racks where goods are placed. The possibility of designing dissipative seismic-resistant ARSWs is investigated. Diagonals are the dissipative elements, arranged as tense-only X bracings. Local optimization is numerically performed to satisfy the over-resistant connection request for the dissipative element, that is hard to be reached due the geometrical limits of the thin-walled diagonals and must be balanced with resistance, the limit of slenderness, and ductility requests.

Keywords: steel racks, thin-walled cold-formed elements, structural optimization, hierarchy rules, dog-bone philosophy

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57 Historical Analysis of Nigeria Politics, 1960–2010

Authors: Abdulsalami Muyideen Deji

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Nigeria as nation got independence in 1960 from British government which allowed indigenous people to form self-government and rule themselves base on the acceptable laws and orders provided by indigenes. All citizens saw it as a welcome development that gave them opportunity to develop at their own pace. Certainly, this occurred at the first instance up to the first republic of 1963. But things became worse for the country when the first military coup of January 15, 1966 sowed apple of discord between the three major tribes in Nigeria Hausa, Yoruba and Igbo as a result of miscarriage of well-conceived plan of master-minder of that coup Major Chukwuma Kaduna Nzeogwu. Although, the argument had emanated from different quarters that if Nigeria was given opportunity to develop at the pace it was going at that time probably the Nigeria would have been among developed nation today, but that ill-fated coup was a clog in the wheel of nation’s progress. The base of this argument is that Nigeria achievements after independence still depend on the work of leaders who secure independence and also directed the affairs of nation within that short period of time up till today. Since then Nigeria has been grasping with different system of government, yet, the nation is still far from the solution. This paper will analyze Nigeria politics from independence, offer suggestion on the way forward. The source is strictly base on secondary source from textbook, newspapers, internet and journals.

Keywords: politics, government, independence, development

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56 Transition Pathways of Commercial-Urban Fleet Electrification

Authors: Emily Gould, Walter Wehremeyer, David Greaves, Rodney Turtle

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This paper considers current thinking on the pathway for electric vehicles, identifying the development blocks of alternative innovation within the market and analyse technological lock-in. The relationship between transition pathways and technological lock-in is largely under-researched particularly in the field of e-mobility. This paper is based on a study with three commercial-urban fleets that examines strategic decisions in new technology adaption alongside vehicle procurement and driver perspective. The paper will analyse the fleet’s decision matrix upon electric vehicles and seek to understand the influence of company culture, strategy and technology applicability, within the context of transition pathways.

Keywords: electric vehicles, fleets, path dependencies, transition pathways

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55 Friction Estimation and Compensation for Steering Angle Control for Highly Automated Driving

Authors: Marcus Walter, Norbert Nitzsche, Dirk Odenthal, Steffen Müller

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This contribution presents a friction estimator for industrial purposes which identifies Coulomb friction in a steering system. The estimator only needs a few, usually known, steering system parameters. Friction occurs on almost every mechanical system and has a negative influence on high-precision position control. This is demonstrated on a steering angle controller for highly automated driving. In this steering system the friction induces limit cycles which cause oscillating vehicle movement when the vehicle follows a given reference trajectory. When compensating the friction with the introduced estimator, limit cycles can be suppressed. This is demonstrated by measurements in a series vehicle.

Keywords: friction estimation, friction compensation, steering system, lateral vehicle guidance

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54 Interface Designer as Cultural Producer: A Dialectic Materialist Approach to the Role of Visual Designer in the Present Digital Era

Authors: Cagri Baris Kasap

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In this study, how interface designers can be viewed as producers of culture in the current era will be interrogated from a critical theory perspective. Walter Benjamin was a German Jewish literary critical theorist who, during 1930s, was engaged in opposing and criticizing the Nazi use of art and media. ‘The Author as Producer’ is an essay that Benjamin has read at the Communist Institute for the Study of Fascism in Paris. In this article, Benjamin relates directly to the dialectics between base and superstructure and argues that authors, normally placed within the superstructure should consider how writing and publishing is production and directly related to the base. Through it, he discusses what it could mean to see author as producer of his own text, as a producer of writing, understood as an ideological construct that rests on the apparatus of production and distribution. So Benjamin concludes that the author must write in ways that relate to the conditions of production, he must do so in order to prepare his readers to become writers and even make this possible for them by engineering an ‘improved apparatus’ and must work toward turning consumers to producers and collaborators. In today’s world, it has become a leading business model within Web 2.0 services of multinational Internet technologies and culture industries like Amazon, Apple and Google, to transform readers, spectators, consumers or users into collaborators and co-producers through platforms such as Facebook, YouTube and Amazon’s CreateSpace Kindle Direct Publishing print-on-demand, e-book and publishing platforms. However, the way this transformation happens is tightly controlled and monitored by combinations of software and hardware. In these global-market monopolies, it has become increasingly difficult to get insight into how one’s writing and collaboration is used, captured, and capitalized as a user of Facebook or Google. In the lens of this study, it could be argued that this criticism could very well be considered by digital producers or even by the mass of collaborators in contemporary social networking software. How do software and design incorporate users and their collaboration? Are they truly empowered, are they put in a position where they are able to understand the apparatus and how their collaboration is part of it? Or has the apparatus become a means against the producers? Thus, when using corporate systems like Google and Facebook, iPhone and Kindle without any control over the means of production, which is closed off by opaque interfaces and licenses that limit our rights of use and ownership, we are already the collaborators that Benjamin calls for. For example, the iPhone and the Kindle combine a specific use of technology to distribute the relations between the ‘authors’ and the ‘prodUsers’ in ways that secure their monopolistic business models by limiting the potential of the technology.

Keywords: interface designer, cultural producer, Walter Benjamin, materialist aesthetics, dialectical thinking

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
53 Fermentable Bio-Ethanol Using Bakers and Palmwine Yeasts: Indices of Bioavailability of Carbohydrate and Sugar from Fungal Treated Rice Husk

Authors: Ezeonu, Chukwuma Stephen, Onwurah, Ikechukwu Noel Emmanuel

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Pure strains of Aspergillus fumigatus (AF), aspergillus niger (AN), aspergillus oryzae (AO), trichophyton mentagrophyte (TM), trichophyton rubrum (TR) and Trichophyton soudanense (TS) were isolated from decomposing rice husk. Freshly processed rice husk in Mandle’s medium were heat pre-treated using an autoclave at 121oC for 20 minutes. The isolated fungi as monoculture and di-culture combinations were inoculated into each of the pre-treated rice husk with the exception of two controls. Seven days hydrolysis was followed by estimation of carbohydrate, reducing sugar and non-reducing sugar. Fungal treated rice husks were left to ferment for 7 days with introduction of both baker’s and palm wine yeast. The result obtained in the work gave the highest carbohydrate (20.53 ± 2.73 %) from rice husks treated with TS + TR di-culture. The highest soluble reducing sugar (2.66 ± 0.14 %) was obtained from rice husk treated with TM. The highest soluble nonreducing sugar (18.08 ± 2.61 %) was from AF. The introduction of yeasts from palm wine gave the highest bio-ethanol (12.82 ± 0.39 %) from AO. The highest bio-ethanol (6.60 ± 0.10 %) from baker's yeast fermentation was in AO + TS treated rice husk. There was increased availability of sugar and moderate yield of bio-ethanol, especially from palm wine yeast.

Keywords: fungi, rice husk, carbohydrate, reducing sugar, non-reducing sugar, ethanol, fermentation

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52 Mechanical Behaviour of High Strength Steel Thin-Walled Profiles for Automated Rack Supported Warehouses

Authors: Agnese Natali, Francesco Morelli, Walter Salvatore, José Humberto Matias de Paula Filho, Patrick Pol

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In the framework of the evaluation of the applicability of high strength steel to produce thin-walled elements to be used in Automated Rack Supported Warehouses, an experimental campaign is carried outto evaluate the structural performance of typical profile shapes adopted for such purposes and made of high strength steel. Numerical models are developed to fit the observed failure modes, stresses, and deformation patterns, and proper directions are proposed to simplify the numerical simulations to be used in further applications and to evaluate the mechanical behavior and performance of profiles.

Keywords: Steel racks, Automated Rack Supported Warehouse, thin walled cold-formed elements, high strength steel.

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
51 Design and Simulation of a Double-Stator Linear Induction Machine with Short Squirrel-Cage Mover

Authors: David Rafetseder, Walter Bauer, Florian Poltschak, Wolfgang Amrhein

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A flat double-stator linear induction machine (DSLIM) with a short squirrel-cage mover is designed for high thrust force at moderate speed < 5m/s. The performance and motor parameters are determined on the basis of a 2D time-transient simulation with the finite element (FE) software Maxwell 2015. Design guidelines and transformation rules for space vector theory of the LIM are presented. Resulting thrust calculated by flux and current vectors is compared with the FE results showing good coherence and reduced noise. The parameters of the equivalent circuit model are obtained.

Keywords: equivalent circuit model, finite element model, linear induction motor, space vector theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 487
50 OPEN-EmoRec-II-A Multimodal Corpus of Human-Computer Interaction

Authors: Stefanie Rukavina, Sascha Gruss, Steffen Walter, Holger Hoffmann, Harald C. Traue

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OPEN-EmoRecII is an open multimodal corpus with experimentally induced emotions. In the first half of the experiment, emotions were induced with standardized picture material and in the second half during a human-computer interaction (HCI), realized with a wizard-of-oz design. The induced emotions are based on the dimensional theory of emotions (valence, arousal and dominance). These emotional sequences - recorded with multimodal data (mimic reactions, speech, audio and physiological reactions) during a naturalistic-like HCI-environment one can improve classification methods on a multimodal level. This database is the result of an HCI-experiment, for which 30 subjects in total agreed to a publication of their data including the video material for research purposes. The now available open corpus contains sensory signal of: video, audio, physiology (SCL, respiration, BVP, EMG Corrugator supercilii, EMG Zygomaticus Major) and mimic annotations.

Keywords: open multimodal emotion corpus, annotated labels, intelligent interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
49 Environmental Potentials within the Production of Asphalt Mixtures

Authors: Florian Gschösser, Walter Purrer

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The paper shows examples for the (environmental) optimization of production processes for asphalt mixtures applied for typical road pavements in Austria and Switzerland. The conducted “from-cradle-to-gate” LCA firstly analyzes the production one cubic meter of asphalt and secondly all material production processes for exemplary highway pavements applied in Austria and Switzerland. It is shown that environmental impacts can be reduced by the application of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and by the optimization of specific production characteristics, e.g. the reduction of the initial moisture of the mineral aggregate and the reduction of the mixing temperature by the application of low-viscosity and foam bitumen. The results of the LCA study demonstrate reduction potentials per cubic meter asphalt of up to 57 % (Global Warming Potential–GWP) and 77 % (Ozone depletion–ODP). The analysis per square meter of asphalt pavement determined environmental potentials of up to 40 % (GWP) and 56 % (ODP).

Keywords: asphalt mixtures, environmental potentials, life cycle assessment, material production

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48 Understanding Factors that May Affect Survival and Productivity of Pacific Salmonids

Authors: Julia B. Kischkat, Charlie D. Waters

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This research aims to understand the factors that may affect the survival and productivity of Pacific salmonids through two components. The first component is lab-based and aims to improve high-performance liquid chromatography to better quantify vitamin deficiencies such as thiamine. The lab work is conducted at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Ted Stevens Marine Research Institute in Juneau, Alaska. Deficiencies in thiamine have been shown to reduce the survival of salmonids at early life stages. The second component involves the analysis of a 22-year data set of migration timing of juvenile Coho Salmon, Dolly Varden, Steelhead, and returning adult Steelhead at Little Port Walter, Alaska. The statistical analysis quantifies their migration fluctuations and whether they correlate to various environmental conditions such as temperature, salinity, and precipitation.

Keywords: climate change, smolt timing, phenology, migration timing, salmon, time series analysis, ecology, chemistry, fisheries science

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47 Characterization of a Pure Diamond-Like Carbon Film Deposited by Nanosecond Pulsed Laser Deposition

Authors: Camilla G. Goncalves, Benedito Christ, Walter Miyakawa, Antonio J. Abdalla

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This work aims to investigate the properties and microstructure of diamond-like carbon film deposited by pulsed laser deposition by ablation of a graphite target in a vacuum chamber on a steel substrate. The equipment was mounted to provide one laser beam. The target of high purity graphite and the steel substrate were polished. The mechanical and tribological properties of the film were characterized using Raman spectroscopy, nanoindentation test, scratch test, roughness profile, tribometer, optical microscopy and SEM images. It was concluded that the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique associated with the low-pressure chamber and a graphite target provides a good fraction of sp3 bonding, that the process variable as surface polishing and laser parameter have great influence in tribological properties and in adherence tests performance. The optical microscopy images are efficient to identify the metallurgical bond.

Keywords: characterization, DLC, mechanical properties, pulsed laser deposition

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46 Environmental Sustainability: A Renewable Energy Prospect with a Biofuel Alternative

Authors: Abul Quasem Al-Amin, Md. Hasanuzzaman, Mohammad Nurul Azam, Walter Leal Filho

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With regard to the future energy strategy and vision, this study aimed to find the drawbacks of proposed energy diversification policy for 2020. To have a clear picture of the drawback and competitive alternative, this study has explored two scenarios, namely Scenario a and Scenario b. The Scenario a indicates that in the year 2020 the GHG emissions would be 823,498.00 million tons (Mt) with a 2020 final demand and proposed fuel mix such as by the Five-Fuel Diversification Strategy. In contrast, as an alternative, the Scenario b with biofuel potentials indicates that the substitution of coal energy by 5%, 10%, and 15%, respectively, with biofuel, would reduce the GHG emissions from 374,551.00, 405,118.00, and 823,498.00 million tons to 339,964.00, 329,834.00, and 305,288.00 million tons, respectively, by the present fuel mix, business-as-usual fuel mix, and proposed fuel mix up to the year 2020. Therefore, this study has explored a healthy alternative by introducing biofuel renewable energy option instead of conventional energy utilization in the power generation with environmental aspect in minds. This study effort would lessen the gap between GHG mitigation and future sustainable development and would useful to formulate effective renewable energy strategy in Malaysia.

Keywords: energy, environmental impacts, renewable energy, biofuel, energy policy

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45 Optimization of Biomass Components from Rice Husk Treated with Trichophyton Soudanense and Trichophyton Mentagrophyte and Effect of Yeast on the Bio-Ethanol Yield

Authors: Chukwuma S. Ezeonu, Ikechukwu N. E. Onwurah, Uchechukwu U. Nwodo, Chibuike S. Ubani, Chigozie M. Ejikeme

Abstract:

Trichophyton soudanense and Trichophyton mentagrophyte were isolated from the rice mill environment, cultured and used singly and as di-culture in the treatment of measure quantities of preheated rice husk. Optimized conditions studied showed that carboxymethylcellulase (CMCellulase) activity of 57.61 µg/ml/min was optimum for Trichophyton mentagrophyte heat pretreated rice husk crude enzymes at 50oC and 80oC respectively. Duration of 120 hours (5 days) gave the highest CMcellulase activity of 75.84 µg/ml/min for crude enzyme of Trichophyton mentagrophyte heat pretreated rice husk. However, 96 hours (4 days) duration gave maximum activity of 58.21 µg/ml/min for crude enzyme of Trichophyton soudanense heat pretreated rice husk. Highest CMCellulase activities of 67.02 µg/ml/min and 69.02 µg/ml/min at pH of 5 were recorded for crude enzymes of monocultures of Trichophyton soudanense (TS) and Trichophyton mentagrophyte (TM) heat pretreated rice husk respectively. Biomass components showed that rice husk cooled after heating followed by treatment with Trichophyton mentagrophyte gave 44.50 ± 10.90 (% ± Standard Error of Mean) cellulose as the highest yield. Maximum total lignin value of 28.90 ± 1.80 (% ± SEM) was obtained from pre-heated rice husk treated with di-culture of Trichophyton soudanense and Trichophyton mentagrophyte (TS+TM). The hemicellulose content of 30.50 ± 2.12 (% ± SEM) from pre-heated rice husk treated with Trichophyton soudanense (TS); lignin value of 28.90 ± 1.80 from pre-heated rice husk treated with di-culture of Trichophyton soudanense and Trichophyton mentagrophyte (TS+TM); also carbohydrate content of 16.79 ± 9.14 (% ± SEM) , reducing and non-reducing sugar values of 2.66 ± 0.45 and 14.13 ± 8.69 (% ± SEM) were all obtained from for pre- heated rice husk treated with Trichophyton mentagrophyte (TM). All the values listed above were the highest values obtained from each rice husk treatment. The pre-heated rice husk treated with Trichophyton mentagrophyte (TM) fermented with palmwine yeast gave bio-ethanol value of 11.11 ± 0.21 (% ± Standard Deviation) as the highest yield.

Keywords: Trichophyton soudanense, Trichophyton mentagrophyte, biomass, bioethanol, rice husk

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44 Carl Schmitt in the Age of Immanence: A Critical Reading

Authors: Manuel Iretzberger

Abstract:

This paper aims to uncover the ideological aspects in the political thought of Carl Schmitt, who is enjoying an ever-increasing popularity in various academic fields, following in the wake of rising interest in questions of sovereignty and legitimacy. Given Schmitt’s biography, i.e. his role as the ‘Crown Jurist of the Third Reich’ (Gurian), an extraordinarily thorough examination is necessary; however, instead of merely ‘deconstructing’ his works, certain ontological truths he might have attained, shall be taken seriously. To this end, his notions of politics and the state of exception are scrutinized, which are indeed considered intriguing, yet prove to be enigmatic and impalpable at the core when read closely. In order to explain this conjuncture, both Schmitt’s philosophy of history and his ‘secret discussion’ (Agamben) with Walter Benjamin are depicted. As it turns out – it is argued – his concept of the Political has to be conceived of as embedded in a much broader context: In a post-transcendental, immanent age, he regards traditional modes of representation as no longer feasible and clings to authoritarianism as a surrogate – his Catholicism plays a decisive role here, forcing him to inject normatively biased assumptions into his political writings. Seeing Schmitt perform ‘rearguard action’ not only serves to disarm his work of most of its menacing aura, it also allows drawing conclusions about ways of legitimatizing democratic rule in modern times, as the paper tries to outline in its last section.

Keywords: Benjamin, history, immanence, Schmitt, sovereignty

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43 Men's Relationships in D. H. Lawrence's 'Sons and Lovers'

Authors: Chaich Hamza Walid

Abstract:

The primary goal of this paper is to question the situation of men’s place in D.H Lawrence’s Sons and Lovers. Our question is what is the role of each man in the novel? And how a mother’s possessiveness had changed the life of all men in the family? David Herbert Lawrence was an important and controversial English writer of the 20th century. He wrote many great works, one of his most popular novels, Sons and Loves, is an autobiographical account of his youth. This novel is about the life of the Morels. The author develops the story by portraying the relationships between many characters, especially the male ones we focus on. ‘Sons and Lovers’ seems to be written especially to women, all what Lawrence wrote is about women but when we go deeper, we see that Lawrence was also interested in men. This work will approach the question in two ways. The first chapter will deal with men’s place in D.H Lawrence’s Sons and Lovers, more exactly with Paul and his father Walter Morel, and with Baxter Dawes. We will focus on each man’s behavior with one another. In the second chapter, we will analyze possessiveness, that is to say, the desire of holding or having someone as one’s own or under one’s control. We will try to prove this view from the spiritual and symbolic possession of different relationships. Our study will be through an intensive psychological analysis of a wife’s possessiveness to her husband, and a mother’s possessiveness to her son’s; William and Paul. The conclusion will review all the important aspects of this analysis. It is very important to know about men’s relationships in D.H Lawrence’s Sons and Lovers this will give us another vision of the novel, and where we can situate Paul’s true relationships, that is to say, his relationships with his father and the other men in the novel.

Keywords: language, literature, English, civilisation

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42 Solar Radiation Time Series Prediction

Authors: Cameron Hamilton, Walter Potter, Gerrit Hoogenboom, Ronald McClendon, Will Hobbs

Abstract:

A model was constructed to predict the amount of solar radiation that will make contact with the surface of the earth in a given location an hour into the future. This project was supported by the Southern Company to determine at what specific times during a given day of the year solar panels could be relied upon to produce energy in sufficient quantities. Due to their ability as universal function approximators, an artificial neural network was used to estimate the nonlinear pattern of solar radiation, which utilized measurements of weather conditions collected at the Griffin, Georgia weather station as inputs. A number of network configurations and training strategies were utilized, though a multilayer perceptron with a variety of hidden nodes trained with the resilient propagation algorithm consistently yielded the most accurate predictions. In addition, a modeled DNI field and adjacent weather station data were used to bolster prediction accuracy. In later trials, the solar radiation field was preprocessed with a discrete wavelet transform with the aim of removing noise from the measurements. The current model provides predictions of solar radiation with a mean square error of 0.0042, though ongoing efforts are being made to further improve the model’s accuracy.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, resilient propagation, solar radiation, time series forecasting

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41 Mediating Role of Psychological Capital in Relations Between Social Support and Subjective Wellbeing among Students with Learning Disabilities and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Authors: Ofra Walter Btel Liran Hazan

Abstract:

This study’s goal was to clarify whether psychological capital (PsyCap) mediated the relations between social support and subjective well-being among post-secondary students during the Covid-19 pandemic and to assess whether students diagnosed with a learning disability (LD) and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) differed from others in their reliance on social support and their level of PsyCap and subjective wellbeing. Participants were257 students, 152 diagnosed with LD/ADHD and the rest neurotypical. The study used four questionnaires: demographic and academic information; Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ); Subjective Well-Being Index; social support questionnaire. The results indicated PsyCapmediated relations between social support and subjective wellbeing. Students diagnosed with LD/ADHD differed from neurotypicals in their PsyCap and subjective wellbeing levels but not in their social support. In addition, the relations between PsyCap and social support were stronger among students diagnosed with LD/ADHD. PsyCap was an important resource for all participants and was related to social support and subjective wellbeing, making it especially valuable for LD/ADHD students facing new and threatening situations, such as the Covid-19 pandemic.

Keywords: LD/ADHD post-secondary students, subjective wellbeing, social support, PsyCap, covid-19

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40 The Folksongs of Jharkhand: An Intangible Cultural Heritage of Tribal India

Authors: Walter Beck

Abstract:

Jharkhand is newly constituted 28th State in the eastern part of India which is known for the oldest settlement of the indigenous people. In the State of Jharkhand in which broadly three language family are found namely, Austric, Dravidian, and Indo-European. Ex-Mundari, kharia, Ho Santali come from the Austric Language family. Kurukh, Malto under Dravidian language family and Nagpuri Khorta etc. under Indo-European language family. There are 32 Indigenous Communities identified as Scheduled Tribe in the State of Jharkhand. Santhal, Munda, Kahria, Ho and Oraons are some of the major Tribe of the Jharkhand state. Jharkhand has a Rich Cultural heritage which includes Folk art, folklore, Folk Dance, Folk Music, Folk Songs for which diversity can been seen from place to place, season to season and all traditional Culture and practices. The languages as well as the songs are vulnerable to dominant culture and hence needed to be protected. The collection and documentation of these songs in their natural setting adds significant contribution to the conservation and propagation of the cultural elements. This paper reflects to bring out the Originality of the Collected Songs from remote areas of the plateau of Sothern Jharkhand as a rich intangible Cultural heritage of the Country. The research was done through participatory observation. In this research project more than 100 songs which were never documented before.

Keywords: cultural heritage, India, indigenous people, songs, languages

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39 Occurrence of Antibiotics of Veterinary Use in Water of the Lake Titicaca: Its Environmental Implication and Human Health

Authors: Franz Zirena Vilca, Nestor Cahui Galarza, Walter Alejandro Zamalloa Cuba, Edith Tello Palma, Teofilo Donaires Flores, Valdemar Luiz Tornisielo

Abstract:

The production of rainbow trout in the Lake Titicaca represents an important economic activity for Peru. The city of Puno is responsible for 83% of this production, so the use of antibiotics within the aquaculture system is not alien to this reality. Meanwhile, the waters of Lake Titicaca represent an important source for the supply of drinking water for 80% of the population of the Puno city. In this paper, twelve antibiotics for veterinary use were monitored in water samples during two seasons: dry (July 2015) and rainy (February 2016), water samples from trout production systems, near the water catching point in the lake and drinking water in the city house of Puno were considered. The samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and solid online phase extraction (On-line SPE-LC-MS/MS), all samples analyzed showed concentrations of Ciprofloxacin up to 65.2 ng L⁻¹ at the rainy season. On the other hand, 63% of water samples from the dry season and 36 % from the rainy season showed Chlortetracycline up to 8.7 and 6.1 ng L⁻¹, respectively. The presence of residues of veterinary antibiotics in drinking water means a serious health risk for 80% of the population of Puno since all these people are supplied from this source.

Keywords: chromatography, DNA damage, environmental risk, water pollution

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