Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1053

Search results for: wall jet

1053 Wall Shear Stress Under an Impinging Planar Jet Using the Razor Blade Technique

Authors: A. Ritcey, J. R. Mcdermid, S. Ziada

Abstract:

Wall shear stress was experimentally measured under a planar impinging air jet as a function of jet Reynolds number (Rejet = 5000, 8000, 11000) and different normalized impingement distances (H/D = 4, 6, 8, 10, 12) using the razor blade technique to complete a parametric study. The wall pressure, wall pressure gradient, and wall shear stress information were obtained.

Keywords: experimental fluid mechanics, impinging planar jets, skin friction factor, wall shear stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
1052 The Effect of Opening on Mode Shapes and Frequencies of Composite Shear Wall

Authors: A. Arabzadeh, H. R. Kazemi Nia Korrani

Abstract:

Composite steel plate shear wall is a lateral loading resistance system, which is used especially in tall buildings. This wall is made of a thin steel plate with reinforced a concrete cover, which is attached to one or both sides of the steel plate. This system is similar to stiffened steel plate shear wall, in which reinforced concrete replaces the steel stiffeners. Composite shear wall have in-plane and out-plane significant strength. Also, they have appropriate ductility. The present numerical investigations were focused on the effects of opening on wall mode shapes. In addition, frequencies of composite shear wall with and without opening are compared. For analyzing composite shear wall, a new program will be developed using of finite element theory and the effects of shape, size and position openings on the behavior of composite shear wall will be studied. Results indicated that the existence of opening decreases wall frequency.

Keywords: composite shear wall, opening, finite element method, modal analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
1051 Dynamic Active Earth Pressure on Flexible Cantilever Retaining Wall

Authors: Snehal R. Pathak, Sachin S. Munnoli

Abstract:

Evaluation of dynamic earth pressure on retaining wall is a topic of primary importance. In present paper, dynamic active earth pressure and displacement of flexible cantilever retaining wall has been evaluated analytically using 2-DOF mass-spring-dashpot model by incorporating both wall and backfill properties. The effect of wall flexibility on dynamic active earth pressure and wall displacement are studied and presented in graphical form. The obtained results are then compared with the various conventional methods, experimental analysis and also with PLAXIS analysis. It is observed that the dynamic active earth pressure decreases with increase in the wall flexibility while wall displacement increases linearly with flexibility of the wall. The results obtained by proposed 2-DOF analytical model are found to be more realistic and economical.

Keywords: earth pressure, earthquake, 2-DOF model, Plaxis, retaining walls, wall movement

Procedia PDF Downloads 434
1050 Studying the Impact of Soil Characteristics in Displacement of Retaining Walls Using Finite Element

Authors: Mojtaba Ahmadabadi, Akbar Masoudi, Morteza Rezai

Abstract:

In this paper, using the finite element method, the effect of soil and wall characteristics was investigated. Thirty and two different models were studied by different parameters. These studies could calculate displacement at any height of the wall for frictional-cohesive soils. The main purpose of this research is to determine the most effective soil characteristics in reducing the wall displacement. Comparing different models showed that the overall increase in internal friction angle, angle of friction between soil and wall and modulus of elasticity reduce the replacement of the wall. In addition, increase in special weight of soil will increase the wall displacement. Based on results, it can be said that all wall displacements were overturning and in the backfill, soil was bulging. Results show that the highest impact is seen in reducing wall displacement, internal friction angle, and the angle friction between soil and wall. One of the advantages of this study is taking into account all the parameters of the soil and walls replacement distribution in wall and backfill soil. In this paper, using the finite element method and considering all parameters of the soil, we investigated the impact of soil parameter in wall displacement. The aim of this study is to provide the best conditions in reducing the wall displacement and displacement wall and soil distribution.

Keywords: retaining wall, fem, soil and wall interaction, angle of internal friction of the soil, wall displacement

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
1049 An Analytical Wall Function for 2-D Shock Wave/Turbulent Boundary Layer Interactions

Authors: X. Wang, T. J. Craft, H. Iacovides

Abstract:

When handling the near-wall regions of turbulent flows, it is necessary to account for the viscous effects which are important over the thin near-wall layers. Low-Reynolds- number turbulence models do this by including explicit viscous and also damping terms which become active in the near-wall regions, and using very fine near-wall grids to properly resolve the steep gradients present. In order to overcome the cost associated with the low-Re turbulence models, a more advanced wall function approach has been implemented within OpenFoam and tested together with a standard log-law based wall function in the prediction of flows which involve 2-D shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interactions (SWTBLIs). On the whole, from the calculation of the impinging shock interaction, the three turbulence modelling strategies, the Lauder-Sharma k-ε model with Yap correction (LS), the high-Re k-ε model with standard wall function (SWF) and analytical wall function (AWF), display good predictions of wall-pressure. However, the SWF approach tends to underestimate the tendency of the flow to separate as a result of the SWTBLI. The analytical wall function, on the other hand, is able to reproduce the shock-induced flow separation and returns predictions similar to those of the low-Re model, using a much coarser mesh.

Keywords: SWTBLIs, skin-friction, turbulence modeling, wall function

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
1048 Influence of Wall Stiffness and Embedment Depth on Excavations Supported by Cantilever Walls

Authors: Muhammad Naseem Baig, Abdul Qudoos Khan, Jamal Ali

Abstract:

Ground deformations in deep excavations are affected by wall stiffness and pile embedment ratio. This paper presents the findings of a parametric study of 64ft deep excavation in mixed stiff soil conditions supported by a cantilever pile wall. A series of finite element analyses have been carried out in Plaxis 2D by varying pile embedment ratio and wall stiffness. It has been observed that maximum wall deflections decrease by increasing the embedment ratio up to 1.50; however, any further increase in pile length does not improve the performance of wall. Similarly, increasing wall stiffness reduces the wall deformations and affects the deflection patterns of wall. The finite element analysis results are compared with field data of 25 case studies of cantilever walls. Analysis results fall within the range of normalized wall deflections of 25 case studies. It has been concluded that deep excavations can be supported by cantilever walls provided the system stiffness is increased significantly.

Keywords: excavations, support systems, wall stiffness, cantilever walls

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
1047 Comparative Study of Various Wall Finishes in Buildings in Ondo State, Nigeria

Authors: Ayodele Oluwole Alejo

Abstract:

Wall finishes are the term to describe an application over a wall surface to provide a suitable surface. Wall finishes are smelt, touched and seen by building occupiers even colour and design affects the user psychology and the atmosphere of our building. Building users/owners seem not to recognize the function of various wall finishes in building and factors to be considered in selecting them suitable for the type and purpose of proposed buildings. Therefore, defects such as deterioration, dampness, and stain may occur when comparisons of wall finishes are not made before the selection of appropriate materials at the design stage with knowledge of the various factors that may hinder the performance or maintenance culture of proposed building of a particular location. This research work investigates and compares various wall finishes in building. Buildings in Ondo state, Nigeria were used as the target area to conduct the research works. The factors bearing on various wall finishes were analyzed to find out their individual and collective impact using suitable analytical tools. The findings revealed that paint with high percentage score was the most preferred wall finishes, whereas wall paper was ranked the least by the respondent findings, Factors considered most in the selection of wall finishes was durability with the highest ranking percentage and least was the cost. The study recommends that skilled worker should carry out operations, quality product should be used and all of wall finishes and materials should be considered before selection.

Keywords: building, construction, design, finishes, wall

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
1046 Analysis of Wall Deformation of the Arterial Plaque Models: Effects of Viscoelasticity

Authors: Eun Kyung Kim, Kyehan Rhee

Abstract:

Viscoelastic wall properties of the arterial plaques change as the disease progresses, and estimation of wall viscoelasticity can provide a valuable assessment tool for plaque rupture prediction. Cross section of the stenotic coronary artery was modeled based on the IVUS image, and the finite element analysis was performed to get wall deformation under pulsatile pressure. The effects of viscoelastic parameters of the plaque on luminal diameter variations were explored. The result showed that decrease of viscous effect reduced the phase angle between the pressure and displacement waveforms, and phase angle was dependent on the viscoelastic properties of the wall. Because viscous effect of tissue components could be identified using the phase angle difference, wall deformation waveform analysis may be applied to predict plaque wall composition change and vascular wall disease progression.

Keywords: atherosclerotic plaque, diameter variation, finite element method, viscoelasticity

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
1045 Design of Rigid L-Shaped Retaining Walls

Authors: Ahmed Rouili

Abstract:

Cantilever L-shaped walls are known to be relatively economical as retaining solution. The design starts by proportioning the wall dimensions for which the stability is checked for. A ratio between the lengths of the base and the stem, falling between 0,5 to 0,7, ensure the stability requirements in most cases. However, the displacement pattern of the wall in terms of rotations and translations, and the lateral pressure profile, do not have the same figure for all wall’s proportioning, as it is usually assumed. In the present work, the results of a numerical analysis are presented, different wall geometries were considered. The results show that the proportioning governs the equilibrium between the instantaneous rotation and the translation of the wall-toe, also, the lateral pressure estimation based on the average value between the at-rest and the active pressure, recommended by most design standards, is found to be not applicable for all walls.

Keywords: cantilever wall, proportioning, numerical analysis, lateral pressure estimation

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
1044 Strength of the Basement Wall Combined with a Temporary Retaining Wall for Excavation

Authors: Soo-yeon Seo, Su-jin Jung

Abstract:

In recent years, the need for remodeling of many apartments built 30 years ago is increasing. Therefore, researches on the structural reinforcement technology of existing apartments have been conducted. On the other hand, there is a growing need for research on the existing underground space expansion technology to expand the parking space required for remodeling. When expanding an existing underground space, for earthworks, an earth retaining wall must be installed between the existing apartment building and it. In order to maximize the possible underground space, it is necessary to minimize the thickness of the portion of earth retaining wall and underground basement wall. In this manner, the calculation procedure is studied for the evaluation of shear strength of the composite basement wall corresponding to shear span-to-depth ratio in this study. As a result, it was shown that the proposed calculation procedure can be used to evaluate the shear strength of the composite basement wall as safe. On the other hand, when shear span-to-depth ratio is small, shear strength is very underestimated.

Keywords: underground space expansion, combined structure, temporary retaining wall, basement wall, shear connectors

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
1043 A Wall Law for Two-Phase Turbulent Boundary Layers

Authors: Dhahri Maher, Aouinet Hana

Abstract:

The presence of bubbles in the boundary layer introduces corrections into the log law, which must be taken into account. In this work, a logarithmic wall law was presented for bubbly two phase flows. The wall law presented in this work was based on the postulation of additional turbulent viscosity associated with bubble wakes in the boundary layer. The presented wall law contained empirical constant accounting both for shear induced turbulence interaction and for non-linearity of bubble. This constant was deduced from experimental data. The wall friction prediction achieved with the wall law was compared to the experimental data, in the case of a turbulent boundary layer developing on a vertical flat plate in the presence of millimetric bubbles. A very good agreement between experimental and numerical wall friction prediction was verified. The agreement was especially noticeable for the low void fraction when bubble induced turbulence plays a significant role.

Keywords: bubbly flows, log law, boundary layer, CFD

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
1042 Application of Flexi-Wall in Noise Barriers Renewal

Authors: B. Daee, H. M. El Naggar

Abstract:

This paper presents an experimental study on structural performance of an innovative noise barrier consisting of poly-block, light polyurethane foam (LPF) and polyurea. This wall system (flexi-wall) is intended to be employed as a vertical extension to existing sound barriers in an accelerated construction method. To aid in the wall design, several mechanical tests were conducted on LPF specimens and two full-scale walls were then fabricated employing the same LPF material. The full-scale walls were subjected to lateral loading in order to establish their lateral resistance. A cyclic fatigue test was also performed on a full-scale flexi-wall in order to evaluate the performance of the wall under a repetitive loading condition. The result of the experiments indicated the suitability of flexi-wall in accelerated construction and confirmed that the structural performance of the wall system under lateral loading is satisfactory for the sound barrier application. The experimental results were discussed and a preliminary design procedure for application of flexi-wall in sound barrier applications was also developed.

Keywords: noise barrier, polyurethane foam, accelerated construction, full-scale experiment

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
1041 Performance Investigation of Thermal Insulation Materials for Walls: A Case Study in Nicosia (Turkish Republic of North Cyprus)

Authors: L. Vafaei, McDominic Eze

Abstract:

The performance of thermal energy in homes and buildings is a significant factor in terms of energy efficiency of a building. In a large sense, the performance of thermal energy is dependent on many factors of which the amount of thermal insulation is at one end a considerable factor, as likewise the essence of mass and the wall thickness and also the thermal resistance of wall material. This study is aimed at illustrating the different wall system in Turkish Republic of North Cyprus (TRNC), acknowledge the problem and suggest a solution through comparing the effect of thermal radiation two model rooms- L1 (Ytong wall) and L2 (heat insulated wall using stone wool) set up for experimentation. The model room has four face walls. The study consists of two stage, the first test is to access the effect of solar radiation for south facing wall and the second stage is to test the thermal performance of Ytong and heat insulated wall, the effects of climatic condition during winter. The heat insulated wall contains material hollow brick, stone wool, and gypsum while the Ytong wall contains cement concrete, for the outer surface and the inner surface and Ytong stone. The total heat of the wall was determined, 7T-Type thermocouple was used with a data logger system to record the data, temperature change recorded at an interval of 10 minutes. The result obtained was that Ytong wall save more energy than the heat insulated wall at night while heat insulated wall saves energy during the day when intensity is at maximum.

Keywords: heat insulation, hollow bricks, south facing, Ytong bricks wall

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
1040 Understanding Seismic Behavior of Masonry Buildings in Earthquake

Authors: Alireza Mirzaee, Soosan Abdollahi, Mohammad Abdollahi

Abstract:

Unreinforced Masonry (URM) wall is vulnerable in resisting horizontal load such as wind and seismic loading. It is due to the low tensile strength of masonry, the mortar connection between the brick units. URM structures are still widely used in the world as an infill wall and commonly constructed with door and window openings. This research aimed to investigate the behavior of URM wall with openings when horizontal load acting on it and developed load-drift relationship of the wall. The finite element (FE) method was chosen to numerically simulate the behavior of URM with openings. In this research, ABAQUS, commercially available FE software with explicit solver was employed. In order to ensure the numerical model can accurately represent the behavior of an URM wall, the model was validated for URM wall without openings using available experimental results. Load-displacement relationship of numerical model is well agreed with experimental results. Evidence shows the same load displacement curve shape obtained from the FE model. After validating the model, parametric study conducted on URM wall with openings to investigate the influence of area of openings and pre-compressive load on the horizontal load capacity of the wall. The result showed that the increasing of area of openings decreases the capacity of the wall in resisting horizontal loading. It is also well observed from the result that capacity of the wall increased with the increasing of pre-compressive load applied on the top of the walls.

Keywords: masonry constructions, performance at earthquake, MSJC-08 (ASD), bearing wall, tie-column

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
1039 Effect of Sand Wall Stabilized with Different Percentages of Lime on Bearing Capacity of Foundation

Authors: Ahmed S. Abdulrasool

Abstract:

Recently sand wall started to gain more attention as the sand is easy to compact by using vibroflotation technique. An advantage of sand wall is the availability of different additives that can be mixed with sand to increase the stiffness of the sand wall and hence to increase its performance. In this paper, the bearing capacity of circular foundation surrounded by sand wall stabilized with lime is evaluated through laboratory testing. The studied parameters include different sand-lime walls depth (H/D) ratio (wall depth to foundation diameter) ranged between (0.0-3.0). Effect of lime percentages on the bearing capacity of skirted foundation models is investigated too. From the results, significant change is occurred in the behavior of shallow foundations due to confinement of the soil. It has been found that (H/D) ratio of 2 gives substantial improvement in bearing capacity, and beyond (H/D) ratio of 2, there is no significant improvement in bearing capacity. The results show that the optimum lime content is 11%, and the maximum increase in bearing capacity reaches approximately 52% at (H/D) ratio of 2.

Keywords: bearing capacity, circular foundation, clay soil, lime-sand wall

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
1038 Structural Optimization Method for 3D Reinforced Concrete Building Structure with Shear Wall

Authors: H. Nikzad, S. Yoshitomi

Abstract:

In this paper, an optimization procedure is applied for 3D Reinforced concrete building structure with shear wall.  In the optimization problem, cross sections of beams, columns and shear wall dimensions are considered as design variables and the optimal cross sections can be derived to minimize the total cost of the structure. As for final design application, the most suitable sections are selected to satisfy ACI 318-14 code provision based on static linear analysis. The validity of the method is examined through numerical example of 15 storied 3D RC building with shear wall.  This optimization method is expected to assist in providing a useful reference in design early stage, and to be an effective and powerful tool for structural design of RC shear wall structures.

Keywords: structural optimization, linear static analysis, ETABS, MATLAB, RC moment frame, RC shear wall structures

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
1037 Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation Study of Flow near Moving Wall of Various Surface Types Using Moving Mesh Method

Authors: Khizir Mohd Ismail, Yu Jun Lim, Tshun Howe Yong

Abstract:

The study of flow behavior in an enclosed volume using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been around for decades. However, due to the knowledge limitation of adaptive grid methods, the flow in an enclosed volume near the moving wall using CFD is less explored. A CFD simulation of flow in an enclosed volume near a moving wall was demonstrated and studied by introducing a moving mesh method and was modeled with Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) approach. A static enclosed volume with controlled opening size in the bottom was positioned against a moving, translational wall with sliding mesh features. Controlled variables such as smoothed, crevices and corrugated wall characteristics, the distance between the enclosed volume to the wall and the moving wall speed against the enclosed chamber were varied to understand how the flow behaves and reacts in between these two geometries. These model simulations were validated against experimental results and provided result confidence when the simulation had shown good agreement with the experimental data. This study had provided better insight into the flow behaving in an enclosed volume when various wall types in motion were introduced within the various distance between each other and create a potential opportunity of application which involves adaptive grid methods in CFD.

Keywords: moving wall, adaptive grid methods, CFD, moving mesh method

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
1036 A Numerical Study on the Connection of an SC Wall to an RC Foundation

Authors: Siamak Epackachi, Andrew S. Whittaker, Amit H. Varma

Abstract:

There are a large number of methods to connect SC walls to RC foundations. An experimental study of the cyclic nonlinear behavior of SC walls in the NEES laboratory at the University at Buffalo used a connection detail involving the post-tensioning of a steel baseplate to the SC wall to a RC foundation. This type of connection introduces flexibility that influenced substantially the global response of the SC walls. The assumption of a rigid base, which would be commonly made by practitioners, would lead to a substantial overestimation of initial stiffness. This paper presents an analytical approach to characterize the rotational flexibility and to predict the initial stiffness of flexure-critical SC wall piers with baseplate connection. The good agreement between the analytical and test results confirmed the utility of the proposed method for calculating the initial stiffness of an SC wall with baseplate connection.

Keywords: steel-plate composite shear wall, flexure-critical wall, cyclic loading, analytical model

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
1035 Investigation of Neutral Axis Shifting and Wall Thickness Distribution of Bent Tubes Produced by Rotary Draw Bending

Authors: Bernd Engel, Hassan Raheem Hassan

Abstract:

Rotary draw bending is a method used for tube forming. During the tube bending process, the neutral axis moves towards the inner arc and the wall thickness changes in the cross section of the tube. Wall thinning of the tube takes place at the extrados, whereas wall thickening of the tube occurs at the intrados. This paper investigates the tube bending with rotary draw bending process using thick-walled tubes and different material properties (16Mo3 and 10CrMo9-10). The experimental tests and finite element simulations are used to calculate the variable characteristics (wall thickness distribution, neutral axis shifting and longitudinal strain distribution). These results are compared with results of a plasto-mechanical model. Moreover, the cross section distortion is investigated in this study. This study helped to get bends with smaller wall factor for different material properties.

Keywords: rotary draw bending, thick wall tube, material properties, material influence

Procedia PDF Downloads 489
1034 A Study on Finite Element Modelling of Earth Retaining Wall Anchored by Deadman Anchor

Authors: K. S. Chai, S. H. Chan

Abstract:

In this paper, the earth retaining wall anchored by discrete deadman anchor to support excavations in sand is modelled and analysed by finite element analysis. A study is conducted to examine how deadman anchorage system helps in reducing the deflection of earth retaining wall. A simplified numerical model is suggested in order to reduce the simulation duration. A comparison between 3-D and 2-D finite element analyses is illustrated.

Keywords: finite element, earth retaining wall, deadman anchor, sand

Procedia PDF Downloads 380
1033 FEM Investigation of Inhomogeneous Wall Thickness Backward Extrusion for Aerosol Can Manufacturing

Authors: Jemal Ebrahim Dessie, Zsolt Lukacs

Abstract:

The wall of the aerosol can is extruded from the backward extrusion process. Necking is another forming process stage developed on the can shoulder after the backward extrusion process. Due to the thinner thickness of the wall, buckling is the critical challenge for current pure aluminum aerosol can industries. Design and investigation of extrusion with inhomogeneous wall thickness could be the best solution for reducing and optimization of neck retraction numbers. FEM simulation of inhomogeneous wall thickness has been simulated through this investigation. From axisymmetric Deform-2D backward extrusion, an aerosol can with a thickness of 0.4 mm at the top and 0.33 mm at the bottom of the aerosol can have been developed. As the result, it can optimize the number of retractions of the necking process and manufacture defect-free aerosol can shoulder due to the necking process.

Keywords: aerosol can, backward extrusion, Deform-2D, necking

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
1032 Wall Heat Flux Mapping in Liquid Rocket Combustion Chamber with Different Jet Impingement Angles

Authors: O. S. Pradeep, S. Vigneshwaran, K. Praveen Kumar, K. Jeyendran, V. R. Sanal Kumar

Abstract:

The influence of injector attitude on wall heat flux plays an important role in predicting the start-up transient and also determining the combustion chamber wall durability of liquid rockets. In this paper comprehensive numerical studies have been carried out on an idealized liquid rocket combustion chamber to examine the transient wall heat flux during its start-up transient at different injector attitude. Numerical simulations have been carried out with the help of a validated 2d axisymmetric, double precision, pressure-based, transient, species transport, SST k-omega model with laminar finite rate model for governing turbulent-chemistry interaction for four cases with different jet intersection angles, viz., 0o, 30o, 45o, and 60o. We concluded that the jets intersection angle is having a bearing on the time and location of the maximum wall-heat flux zone of the liquid rocket combustion chamber during the start-up transient. We also concluded that the wall heat flux mapping in liquid rocket combustion chamber during the start-up transient is a meaningful objective for the chamber wall material selection and the lucrative design optimization of the combustion chamber for improving the payload capability of the rocket.  

Keywords: combustion chamber, injector, liquid rocket, rocket engine wall heat flux

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
1031 Wind Fragility for Soundproof Wall with the Variation of Section Shape of Frame

Authors: Seong Do Kim, Woo Young Jung

Abstract:

Recently, damages due to typhoons and strong wind are on the rise. Considering this issue, we evaluated the performance of soundproofing walls based on the strong wind fragility by means of numerical analysis. Among the components of the soundproof wall, aluminum frame was the most vulnerable member, thus we have considered different section of aluminum frame in the determination of wind fragility. Wind load was randomly generated using Monte Carlo Simulation method. Moreover, limit state was based on the test standard of road construction soundproofing wall. In this study, the strong wind fragility was determined by considering the influence factors of wind exposure category, soundproof wall’s installation position, and shape of aluminum frame section. Results of this study could be used to determine the section shape of the frame that has high resistance to the wind during construction of the soundproofing wall.

Keywords: aluminum frame soundproofing wall, Monte Carlo simulation, numerical simulation, wind fragility

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
1030 Electrical and Thermal Characteristics of a Photovoltaic Solar Wall with Passive and Active Ventilation through a Room

Authors: Himanshu Dehra

Abstract:

An experimental study was conducted for ascertaining electrical and thermal characteristics of a pair of photovoltaic (PV) modules integrated with solar wall of an outdoor room. A pre-fabricated outdoor room was setup for conducting outdoor experiments on a PV solar wall with passive and active ventilation through the outdoor room. The selective operating conditions for glass coated PV modules were utilized for establishing their electrical and thermal characteristics. The PV solar wall was made up of glass coated PV modules, a ventilated air column, and an insulating layer of polystyrene filled plywood board. The measurements collected were currents, voltages, electric power, air velocities, temperatures, solar intensities, and thermal time constant. The results have demonstrated that: i) a PV solar wall installed on a wooden frame was of more heat generating capacity in comparison to a window glass or a standalone PV module; ii) generation of electric power was affected with operation of vertical PV solar wall; iii) electrical and thermal characteristics were not significantly affected by heat and thermal storage losses; and iv) combined heat and electricity generation were function of volume of thermal and electrical resistances developed across PV solar wall. Finally, a comparison of temperature plots of passive and active ventilation envisaged that fan pressure was necessary to avoid overheating of the PV solar wall. The active ventilation was necessary to avoid over-heating of the PV solar wall and to maintain adequate ventilation of room under mild climate conditions.

Keywords: photovoltaic solar wall, solar energy, passive ventilation, active ventilation

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
1029 Probabilistic and Stochastic Analysis of a Retaining Wall for C-Φ Soil Backfill

Authors: André Luís Brasil Cavalcante, Juan Felix Rodriguez Rebolledo, Lucas Parreira de Faria Borges

Abstract:

A methodology for the probabilistic analysis of active earth pressure on retaining wall for c-Φ soil backfill is described in this paper. The Rosenblueth point estimate method is used to measure the failure probability of a gravity retaining wall. The basic principle of this methodology is to use two point estimates, i.e., the standard deviation and the mean value, to examine a variable in the safety analysis. The simplicity of this framework assures to its wide application. For the calculation is required 2ⁿ repetitions during the analysis, since the system is governed by n variables. In this study, a probabilistic model based on the Rosenblueth approach for the computation of the overturning probability of failure of a retaining wall is presented. The obtained results have shown the advantages of this kind of models in comparison with the deterministic solution. In a relatively easy way, the uncertainty on the wall and fill parameters are taken into account, and some practical results can be obtained for the retaining structure design.

Keywords: retaining wall, active earth pressure, backfill, probabilistic analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
1028 Improvements in Double Q-Learning for Anomalous Radiation Source Searching

Authors: Bo-Bin Xiaoa, Chia-Yi Liua

Abstract:

In the task of searching for anomalous radiation sources, personnel holding radiation detectors to search for radiation sources may be exposed to unnecessary radiation risk, and automated search using machines becomes a required project. The research uses various sophisticated algorithms, which are double Q learning, dueling network, and NoisyNet, of deep reinforcement learning to search for radiation sources. The simulation environment, which is a 10*10 grid and one shielding wall setting in it, improves the development of the AI model by training 1 million episodes. In each episode of training, the radiation source position, the radiation source intensity, agent position, shielding wall position, and shielding wall length are all set randomly. The three algorithms are applied to run AI model training in four environments where the training shielding wall is a full-shielding wall, a lead wall, a concrete wall, and a lead wall or a concrete wall appearing randomly. The 12 best performance AI models are selected by observing the reward value during the training period and are evaluated by comparing these AI models with the gradient search algorithm. The results show that the performance of the AI model, no matter which one algorithm, is far better than the gradient search algorithm. In addition, the simulation environment becomes more complex, the AI model which applied Double DQN combined Dueling and NosiyNet algorithm performs better.

Keywords: double Q learning, dueling network, NoisyNet, source searching

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1027 Numerical Modeling of a Retaining Wall in Soil Reinforced by Layers of Geogrids

Authors: M. Mellas, S. Baaziz, A. Mabrouki, D. Benmeddour

Abstract:

The reinforcement of massifs of backfill with horizontal layers of geosynthetics is an interesting economic solution, which ensures the stability of retaining walls. The mechanical behavior of reinforced soil by geosynthetic is complex, and requires studies and research to understand the mechanisms of rupture. The behavior of reinforcements in the soil and the behavior of the main elements of the system: reinforcement-wall-soil. The present study is interested in numerical modeling of a retaining wall in soil reinforced by horizontal layers of geogrids. This modeling makes use of the software FLAC3D. This work aims to analyze the effect of the length of the geogrid "L" where the soil massif is supporting a uniformly distributed surcharge "Q", taking into account the fixing elements rather than the layers of geogrids to the wall.

Keywords: retaining wall, geogrid, reinforced soil, numerical modeling, FLAC3D

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
1026 Experimental Performance and Numerical Simulation of Double Glass Wall

Authors: Thana Ananacha

Abstract:

This paper reports the numerical and experimental performances of Double Glass Wall are investigated. Two configurations were considered namely, the Double Clear Glass Wall (DCGW) and the Double Translucent Glass Wall (DTGW). The coupled governing equations as well as boundary conditions are solved using the finite element method (FEM) via COMSOLTM Multiphysics. Temperature profiles and flow field of the DCGW and DTGW are reported and discussed. Different constant heat fluxes were considered namely 400 and 800 W.m-2 the corresponding initial condition temperatures were to 30.5 and 38.5 ºC respectively. The results show that the simulation results are in agreement with the experimental data. Conclusively, the model considered in this study could reasonable be used simulate the thermal and ventilation performance of the DCGW and DTGW configurations.

Keywords: thermal simulation, Double Glass Wall, velocity field, finite element method (FEM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
1025 Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Number of Waves on Heat Transfer in a Wavy Wall Enclosure

Authors: Ali Reza Tahavvor, Saeed Hosseini, Afshin Karimzadeh Fard

Abstract:

In this paper the effect of wall waviness of side walls in a two-dimensional wavy enclosure is numerically investigated. Two vertical wavy walls and straight top wall are kept isothermal and the bottom wall temperature is higher and spatially varying with cosinusoidal temperature distribution. A computational code based on Finite-volume approach is used to solve governing equations and SIMPLE method is used for pressure velocity coupling. Test is performed for several different numbers of undulations. The Prandtl number was kept constant and the Ra number denotes that the flow is laminar. Temperature and velocity fields are determined. Therefore, according to the obtained results a correlation is proposed for average Nusselt number as a function of number of side wall waves. The results indicate that the Nusselt number is highly affected by number of waves and increasing it decreases the wavy walls Nusselt number; although the Nusselt number is not highly affected by surface waviness when the number of undulations is below one.

Keywords: cavity, natural convection, Nusselt number, wavy wall

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
1024 The Control of Wall Thickness Tolerance during Pipe Purchase Stage Based on Reliability Approach

Authors: Weichao Yu, Kai Wen, Weihe Huang, Yang Yang, Jing Gong

Abstract:

Metal-loss corrosion is a major threat to the safety and integrity of gas pipelines as it may result in the burst failures which can cause severe consequences that may include enormous economic losses as well as the personnel casualties. Therefore, it is important to ensure the corroding pipeline integrity and efficiency, considering the value of wall thickness, which plays an important role in the failure probability of corroding pipeline. Actually, the wall thickness is controlled during pipe purchase stage. For example, the API_SPEC_5L standard regulates the allowable tolerance of the wall thickness from the specified value during the pipe purchase. The allowable wall thickness tolerance will be used to determine the wall thickness distribution characteristic such as the mean value, standard deviation and distribution. Taking the uncertainties of the input variables in the burst limit-state function into account, the reliability approach rather than the deterministic approach will be used to evaluate the failure probability. Moreover, the cost of pipe purchase will be influenced by the allowable wall thickness tolerance. More strict control of the wall thickness usually corresponds to a higher pipe purchase cost. Therefore changing the wall thickness tolerance will vary both the probability of a burst failure and the cost of the pipe. This paper describes an approach to optimize the wall thickness tolerance considering both the safety and economy of corroding pipelines. In this paper, the corrosion burst limit-state function in Annex O of CSAZ662-7 is employed to evaluate the failure probability using the Monte Carlo simulation technique. By changing the allowable wall thickness tolerance, the parameters of the wall thickness distribution in the limit-state function will be changed. Using the reliability approach, the corresponding variations in the burst failure probability will be shown. On the other hand, changing the wall thickness tolerance will lead to a change in cost in pipe purchase. Using the variation of the failure probability and pipe cost caused by changing wall thickness tolerance specification, the optimal allowable tolerance can be obtained, and used to define pipe purchase specifications.

Keywords: allowable tolerance, corroding pipeline segment, operation cost, production cost, reliability approach

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