Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2233

Search results for: face segmentation

2233 A Supervised Face Parts Labeling Framework

Authors: Khalil Khan, Ikram Syed, Muhammad Ehsan Mazhar, Iran Uddin, Nasir Ahmad

Abstract:

Face parts labeling is the process of assigning class labels to each face part. A face parts labeling method (FPL) which divides a given image into its constitutes parts is proposed in this paper. A database FaceD consisting of 564 images is labeled with hand and make publically available. A supervised learning model is built through extraction of features from the training data. The testing phase is performed with two semantic segmentation methods, i.e., pixel and super-pixel based segmentation. In pixel-based segmentation class label is provided to each pixel individually. In super-pixel based method class label is assigned to super-pixel only – as a result, the same class label is given to all pixels inside a super-pixel. Pixel labeling accuracy reported with pixel and super-pixel based methods is 97.68 % and 93.45% respectively.

Keywords: face labeling, semantic segmentation, classification, face segmentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
2232 A Product-Specific/Unobservable Approach to Segmentation for a Value Expressive Credit Card Service

Authors: Manfred F. Maute, Olga Naumenko, Raymond T. Kong

Abstract:

Using data from a nationally representative financial panel of Canadian households, this study develops a psychographic segmentation of the customers of a value-expressive credit card service and tests for effects on relational response differences. The variety of segments elicited by agglomerative and k means clustering and the familiar profiles of individual clusters suggest that the face validity of the psychographic segmentation was quite high. Segmentation had a significant effect on customer satisfaction and relationship depth. However, when socio-demographic characteristics like household size and income were accounted for in the psychographic segmentation, the effect on relational response differences was magnified threefold. Implications for the segmentation of financial services markets are considered.

Keywords: customer satisfaction, financial services, psychographics, response differences, segmentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
2231 Automatic Facial Skin Segmentation Using Possibilistic C-Means Algorithm for Evaluation of Facial Surgeries

Authors: Elham Alaee, Mousa Shamsi, Hossein Ahmadi, Soroosh Nazem, Mohammad Hossein Sedaaghi

Abstract:

Human face has a fundamental role in the appearance of individuals. So the importance of facial surgeries is undeniable. Thus, there is a need for the appropriate and accurate facial skin segmentation in order to extract different features. Since Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) clustering algorithm doesn’t work appropriately for noisy images and outliers, in this paper we exploit Possibilistic C-Means (PCM) algorithm in order to segment the facial skin. For this purpose, first, we convert facial images from RGB to YCbCr color space. To evaluate performance of the proposed algorithm, the database of Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz, Iran was used. In order to have a better understanding from the proposed algorithm; FCM and Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithms are also used for facial skin segmentation. The proposed method shows better results than the other segmentation methods. Results include misclassification error (0.032) and the region’s area error (0.045) for the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: facial image, segmentation, PCM, FCM, skin error, facial surgery

Procedia PDF Downloads 461
2230 A Comparative Study of Medical Image Segmentation Methods for Tumor Detection

Authors: Mayssa Bensalah, Atef Boujelben, Mouna Baklouti, Mohamed Abid

Abstract:

Image segmentation has a fundamental role in analysis and interpretation for many applications. The automated segmentation of organs and tissues throughout the body using computed imaging has been rapidly increasing. Indeed, it represents one of the most important parts of clinical diagnostic tools. In this paper, we discuss a thorough literature review of recent methods of tumour segmentation from medical images which are briefly explained with the recent contribution of various researchers. This study was followed by comparing these methods in order to define new directions to develop and improve the performance of the segmentation of the tumour area from medical images.

Keywords: features extraction, image segmentation, medical images, tumor detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
2229 A Comparison between Different Segmentation Techniques Used in Medical Imaging

Authors: Ibtihal D. Mustafa, Mawia A. Hassan

Abstract:

Tumor segmentation from MRI image is important part of medical images experts. This is particularly a challenging task because of the high assorting appearance of tumor tissue among different patients. MRI images are advance of medical imaging because it is give richer information about human soft tissue. There are different segmentation techniques to detect MRI brain tumor. In this paper, different procedure segmentation methods are used to segment brain tumors and compare the result of segmentations by using correlation and structural similarity index (SSIM) to analysis and see the best technique that could be applied to MRI image.

Keywords: MRI, segmentation, correlation, structural similarity

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
2228 Multidimensional Sports Spectators Segmentation and Social Media Marketing

Authors: B. Schmid, C. Kexel, E. Djafarova

Abstract:

Understanding consumers is elementary for practitioners in marketing. Consumers of sports events, the sports spectators, are a particularly complex consumer crowd. In order to identify and define their profiles different segmentation approaches can be found in literature, one of them being multidimensional segmentation. Multidimensional segmentation models correspond to the broad range of attitudes, behaviours, motivations and beliefs of sports spectators, other than earlier models. Moreover, in sports there are some well-researched disciplines (e.g. football or North American sports) where consumer profiles and marketing strategies are elaborate and others where no research at all can be found. For example, there is almost no research on athletics spectators. This paper explores the current state of research on sports spectators segmentation. An in-depth literature review provides the framework for a spectators segmentation in athletics. On this basis, additional potential consumer groups and implications for social media marketing will be explored. The findings are the basis for further research.

Keywords: multidimensional segmentation, social media, sports marketing, sports spectators segmentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
2227 Image Segmentation Using 2-D Histogram in RGB Color Space in Digital Libraries

Authors: El Asnaoui Khalid, Aksasse Brahim, Ouanan Mohammed

Abstract:

This paper presents an unsupervised color image segmentation method. It is based on a hierarchical analysis of 2-D histogram in RGB color space. This histogram minimizes storage space of images and thus facilitates the operations between them. The improved segmentation approach shows a better identification of objects in a color image and, at the same time, the system is fast.

Keywords: image segmentation, hierarchical analysis, 2-D histogram, classification

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
2226 Imp_hist-Si: Improved Hybrid Image Segmentation Technique for Satellite Imagery to Decrease the Segmentation Error Rate

Authors: Neetu Manocha

Abstract:

Image segmentation is a technique where a picture is parted into distinct parts having similar features which have a place with similar items. Various segmentation strategies have been proposed as of late by prominent analysts. But, after ultimate thorough research, the novelists have analyzed that generally, the old methods do not decrease the segmentation error rate. Then author finds the technique HIST-SI to decrease the segmentation error rates. In this technique, cluster-based and threshold-based segmentation techniques are merged together. After then, to improve the result of HIST-SI, the authors added the method of filtering and linking in this technique named Imp_HIST-SI to decrease the segmentation error rates. The goal of this research is to find a new technique to decrease the segmentation error rates and produce much better results than the HIST-SI technique. For testing the proposed technique, a dataset of Bhuvan – a National Geoportal developed and hosted by ISRO (Indian Space Research Organisation) is used. Experiments are conducted using Scikit-image & OpenCV tools of Python, and performance is evaluated and compared over various existing image segmentation techniques for several matrices, i.e., Mean Square Error (MSE) and Peak Signal Noise Ratio (PSNR).

Keywords: satellite image, image segmentation, edge detection, error rate, MSE, PSNR, HIST-SI, linking, filtering, imp_HIST-SI

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2225 Performance Evaluation of Various Segmentation Techniques on MRI of Brain Tissue

Authors: U.V. Suryawanshi, S.S. Chowhan, U.V Kulkarni

Abstract:

Accuracy of segmentation methods is of great importance in brain image analysis. Tissue classification in Magnetic Resonance brain images (MRI) is an important issue in the analysis of several brain dementias. This paper portraits performance of segmentation techniques that are used on Brain MRI. A large variety of algorithms for segmentation of Brain MRI has been developed. The objective of this paper is to perform a segmentation process on MR images of the human brain, using Fuzzy c-means (FCM), Kernel based Fuzzy c-means clustering (KFCM), Spatial Fuzzy c-means (SFCM) and Improved Fuzzy c-means (IFCM). The review covers imaging modalities, MRI and methods for noise reduction and segmentation approaches. All methods are applied on MRI brain images which are degraded by salt-pepper noise demonstrate that the IFCM algorithm performs more robust to noise than the standard FCM algorithm. We conclude with a discussion on the trend of future research in brain segmentation and changing norms in IFCM for better results.

Keywords: image segmentation, preprocessing, MRI, FCM, KFCM, SFCM, IFCM

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
2224 Sea-Land Segmentation Method Based on the Transformer with Enhanced Edge Supervision

Authors: Lianzhong Zhang, Chao Huang

Abstract:

Sea-land segmentation is a basic step in many tasks such as sea surface monitoring and ship detection. The existing sea-land segmentation algorithms have poor segmentation accuracy, and the parameter adjustments are cumbersome and difficult to meet actual needs. Also, the current sea-land segmentation adopts traditional deep learning models that use Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN). At present, the transformer architecture has achieved great success in the field of natural images, but its application in the field of radar images is less studied. Therefore, this paper proposes a sea-land segmentation method based on the transformer architecture to strengthen edge supervision. It uses a self-attention mechanism with a gating strategy to better learn relative position bias. Meanwhile, an additional edge supervision branch is introduced. The decoder stage allows the feature information of the two branches to interact, thereby improving the edge precision of the sea-land segmentation. Based on the Gaofen-3 satellite image dataset, the experimental results show that the method proposed in this paper can effectively improve the accuracy of sea-land segmentation, especially the accuracy of sea-land edges. The mean IoU (Intersection over Union), edge precision, overall precision, and F1 scores respectively reach 96.36%, 84.54%, 99.74%, and 98.05%, which are superior to those of the mainstream segmentation models and have high practical application values.

Keywords: SAR, sea-land segmentation, deep learning, transformer

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2223 Digital Retinal Images: Background and Damaged Areas Segmentation

Authors: Eman A. Gani, Loay E. George, Faisel G. Mohammed, Kamal H. Sager

Abstract:

Digital retinal images are more appropriate for automatic screening of diabetic retinopathy systems. Unfortunately, a significant percentage of these images are poor quality that hinders further analysis due to many factors (such as patient movement, inadequate or non-uniform illumination, acquisition angle and retinal pigmentation). The retinal images of poor quality need to be enhanced before the extraction of features and abnormalities. So, the segmentation of retinal image is essential for this purpose, the segmentation is employed to smooth and strengthen image by separating the background and damaged areas from the overall image thus resulting in retinal image enhancement and less processing time. In this paper, methods for segmenting colored retinal image are proposed to improve the quality of retinal image diagnosis. The methods generate two segmentation masks; i.e., background segmentation mask for extracting the background area and poor quality mask for removing the noisy areas from the retinal image. The standard retinal image databases DIARETDB0, DIARETDB1, STARE, DRIVE and some images obtained from ophthalmologists have been used to test the validation of the proposed segmentation technique. Experimental results indicate the introduced methods are effective and can lead to high segmentation accuracy.

Keywords: retinal images, fundus images, diabetic retinopathy, background segmentation, damaged areas segmentation

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2222 An Image Segmentation Algorithm for Gradient Target Based on Mean-Shift and Dictionary Learning

Authors: Yanwen Li, Shuguo Xie

Abstract:

In electromagnetic imaging, because of the diffraction limited system, the pixel values could change slowly near the edge of the image targets and they also change with the location in the same target. Using traditional digital image segmentation methods to segment electromagnetic gradient images could result in lots of errors because of this change in pixel values. To address this issue, this paper proposes a novel image segmentation and extraction algorithm based on Mean-Shift and dictionary learning. Firstly, the preliminary segmentation results from adaptive bandwidth Mean-Shift algorithm are expanded, merged and extracted. Then the overlap rate of the extracted image block is detected before determining a segmentation region with a single complete target. Last, the gradient edge of the extracted targets is recovered and reconstructed by using a dictionary-learning algorithm, while the final segmentation results are obtained which are very close to the gradient target in the original image. Both the experimental results and the simulated results show that the segmentation results are very accurate. The Dice coefficients are improved by 70% to 80% compared with the Mean-Shift only method.

Keywords: gradient image, segmentation and extract, mean-shift algorithm, dictionary iearning

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
2221 Effective Texture Features for Segmented Mammogram Images Based on Multi-Region of Interest Segmentation Method

Authors: Ramayanam Suresh, A. Nagaraja Rao, B. Eswara Reddy

Abstract:

Texture features of mammogram images are useful for finding masses or cancer cases in mammography, which have been used by radiologists. Textures are greatly succeeded for segmented images rather than normal images. It is necessary to perform segmentation for exclusive specification of cancer and non-cancer regions separately. Region of interest (ROI) is most commonly used technique for mammogram segmentation. Limitation of this method is that it is unable to explore segmentation for large collection of mammogram images. Therefore, this paper is proposed multi-ROI segmentation for addressing the above limitation. It supports greatly in finding the best texture features of mammogram images. Experimental study demonstrates the effectiveness of proposed work using benchmarked images.

Keywords: texture features, region of interest, multi-ROI segmentation, benchmarked images

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2220 Review of the Software Used for 3D Volumetric Reconstruction of the Liver

Authors: P. Strakos, M. Jaros, T. Karasek, T. Kozubek, P. Vavra, T. Jonszta

Abstract:

In medical imaging, segmentation of different areas of human body like bones, organs, tissues, etc. is an important issue. Image segmentation allows isolating the object of interest for further processing that can lead for example to 3D model reconstruction of whole organs. Difficulty of this procedure varies from trivial for bones to quite difficult for organs like liver. The liver is being considered as one of the most difficult human body organ to segment. It is mainly for its complexity, shape versatility and proximity of other organs and tissues. Due to this facts usually substantial user effort has to be applied to obtain satisfactory results of the image segmentation. Process of image segmentation then deteriorates from automatic or semi-automatic to fairly manual one. In this paper, overview of selected available software applications that can handle semi-automatic image segmentation with further 3D volume reconstruction of human liver is presented. The applications are being evaluated based on the segmentation results of several consecutive DICOM images covering the abdominal area of the human body.

Keywords: image segmentation, semi-automatic, software, 3D volumetric reconstruction

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2219 Vision-Based Hand Segmentation Techniques for Human-Computer Interaction

Authors: M. Jebali, M. Jemni

Abstract:

This work is the part of vision based hand gesture recognition system for Natural Human Computer Interface. Hand tracking and segmentation are the primary steps for any hand gesture recognition system. The aim of this paper is to develop robust and efficient hand segmentation algorithm such as an input to another system which attempt to bring the HCI performance nearby the human-human interaction, by modeling an intelligent sign language recognition system based on prediction in the context of dialogue between the system (avatar) and the interlocutor. For the purpose of hand segmentation, an overcoming occlusion approach has been proposed for superior results for detection of hand from an image.

Keywords: HCI, sign language recognition, object tracking, hand segmentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
2218 Abdominal Organ Segmentation in CT Images Based On Watershed Transform and Mosaic Image

Authors: Belgherbi Aicha, Hadjidj Ismahen, Bessaid Abdelhafid

Abstract:

Accurate Liver, spleen and kidneys segmentation in abdominal CT images is one of the most important steps for computer aided abdominal organs pathology diagnosis. In this paper, we have proposed a new semi-automatic algorithm for Liver, spleen and kidneys area extraction in abdominal CT images. Our proposed method is based on hierarchical segmentation and watershed algorithm. In our approach, a powerful technique has been designed to suppress over-segmentation based on mosaic image and on the computation of the watershed transform. The algorithm is currency in two parts. In the first, we seek to improve the quality of the gradient-mosaic image. In this step, we propose a method for improving the gradient-mosaic image by applying the anisotropic diffusion filter followed by the morphological filters. Thereafter we proceed to the hierarchical segmentation of the liver, spleen and kidney. To validate the segmentation technique proposed, we have tested it on several images. Our segmentation approach is evaluated by comparing our results with the manual segmentation performed by an expert. The experimental results are described in the last part of this work.

Keywords: anisotropic diffusion filter, CT images, morphological filter, mosaic image, multi-abdominal organ segmentation, mosaic image, the watershed algorithm

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2217 Morphology Operation and Discrete Wavelet Transform for Blood Vessels Segmentation in Retina Fundus

Authors: Rita Magdalena, N. K. Caecar Pratiwi, Yunendah Nur Fuadah, Sofia Saidah, Bima Sakti

Abstract:

Vessel segmentation of retinal fundus is important for biomedical sciences in diagnosing ailments related to the eye. Segmentation can simplify medical experts in diagnosing retinal fundus image state. Therefore, in this study, we designed a software using MATLAB which enables the segmentation of the retinal blood vessels on retinal fundus images. There are two main steps in the process of segmentation. The first step is image preprocessing that aims to improve the quality of the image to be optimum segmented. The second step is the image segmentation in order to perform the extraction process to retrieve the retina’s blood vessel from the eye fundus image. The image segmentation methods that will be analyzed in this study are Morphology Operation, Discrete Wavelet Transform and combination of both. The amount of data that used in this project is 40 for the retinal image and 40 for manually segmentation image. After doing some testing scenarios, the average accuracy for Morphology Operation method is 88.46 % while for Discrete Wavelet Transform is 89.28 %. By combining the two methods mentioned in later, the average accuracy was increased to 89.53 %. The result of this study is an image processing system that can segment the blood vessels in retinal fundus with high accuracy and low computation time.

Keywords: discrete wavelet transform, fundus retina, morphology operation, segmentation, vessel

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
2216 Computer-Aided Detection of Liver and Spleen from CT Scans using Watershed Algorithm

Authors: Belgherbi Aicha, Bessaid Abdelhafid

Abstract:

In the recent years a great deal of research work has been devoted to the development of semi-automatic and automatic techniques for the analysis of abdominal CT images. The first and fundamental step in all these studies is the semi-automatic liver and spleen segmentation that is still an open problem. In this paper, a semi-automatic liver and spleen segmentation method by the mathematical morphology based on watershed algorithm has been proposed. Our algorithm is currency in two parts. In the first, we seek to determine the region of interest by applying the morphological to extract the liver and spleen. The second step consists to improve the quality of the image gradient. In this step, we propose a method for improving the image gradient to reduce the over-segmentation problem by applying the spatial filters followed by the morphological filters. Thereafter we proceed to the segmentation of the liver, spleen. The aim of this work is to develop a method for semi-automatic segmentation liver and spleen based on watershed algorithm, improve the accuracy and the robustness of the liver and spleen segmentation and evaluate a new semi-automatic approach with the manual for liver segmentation. To validate the segmentation technique proposed, we have tested it on several images. Our segmentation approach is evaluated by comparing our results with the manual segmentation performed by an expert. The experimental results are described in the last part of this work. The system has been evaluated by computing the sensitivity and specificity between the semi-automatically segmented (liver and spleen) contour and the manually contour traced by radiological experts. Liver segmentation has achieved the sensitivity and specificity; sens Liver=96% and specif Liver=99% respectively. Spleen segmentation achieves similar, promising results sens Spleen=95% and specif Spleen=99%.

Keywords: CT images, liver and spleen segmentation, anisotropic diffusion filter, morphological filters, watershed algorithm

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2215 A Neural Approach for Color-Textured Images Segmentation

Authors: Khalid Salhi, El Miloud Jaara, Mohammed Talibi Alaoui

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a neural approach for unsupervised natural color-texture image segmentation, which is based on both Kohonen maps and mathematical morphology, using a combination of the texture and the image color information of the image, namely, the fractal features based on fractal dimension are selected to present the information texture, and the color features presented in RGB color space. These features are then used to train the network Kohonen, which will be represented by the underlying probability density function, the segmentation of this map is made by morphological watershed transformation. The performance of our color-texture segmentation approach is compared first, to color-based methods or texture-based methods only, and then to k-means method.

Keywords: segmentation, color-texture, neural networks, fractal, watershed

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2214 Defect Detection for Nanofibrous Images with Deep Learning-Based Approaches

Authors: Gaokai Liu

Abstract:

Automatic defect detection for nanomaterial images is widely required in industrial scenarios. Deep learning approaches are considered as the most effective solutions for the great majority of image-based tasks. In this paper, an edge guidance network for defect segmentation is proposed. First, the encoder path with multiple convolution and downsampling operations is applied to the acquisition of shared features. Then two decoder paths both are connected to the last convolution layer of the encoder and supervised by the edge and segmentation labels, respectively, to guide the whole training process. Meanwhile, the edge and encoder outputs from the same stage are concatenated to the segmentation corresponding part to further tune the segmentation result. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified via the experiments on open nanofibrous datasets.

Keywords: deep learning, defect detection, image segmentation, nanomaterials

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2213 Best-Performing Color Space for Land-Sea Segmentation Using Wavelet Transform Color-Texture Features and Fusion of over Segmentation

Authors: Seynabou Toure, Oumar Diop, Kidiyo Kpalma, Amadou S. Maiga

Abstract:

Color and texture are the two most determinant elements for perception and recognition of the objects in an image. For this reason, color and texture analysis find a large field of application, for example in image classification and segmentation. But, the pioneering work in texture analysis was conducted on grayscale images, thus discarding color information. Many grey-level texture descriptors have been proposed and successfully used in numerous domains for image classification: face recognition, industrial inspections, food science medical imaging among others. Taking into account color in the definition of these descriptors makes it possible to better characterize images. Color texture is thus the subject of recent work, and the analysis of color texture images is increasingly attracting interest in the scientific community. In optical remote sensing systems, sensors measure separately different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum; the visible ones and even those that are invisible to the human eye. The amounts of light reflected by the earth in spectral bands are then transformed into grayscale images. The primary natural colors Red (R) Green (G) and Blue (B) are then used in mixtures of different spectral bands in order to produce RGB images. Thus, good color texture discrimination can be achieved using RGB under controlled illumination conditions. Some previous works investigate the effect of using different color space for color texture classification. However, the selection of the best performing color space in land-sea segmentation is an open question. Its resolution may bring considerable improvements in certain applications like coastline detection, where the detection result is strongly dependent on the performance of the land-sea segmentation. The aim of this paper is to present the results of a study conducted on different color spaces in order to show the best-performing color space for land-sea segmentation. In this sense, an experimental analysis is carried out using five different color spaces (RGB, XYZ, Lab, HSV, YCbCr). For each color space, the Haar wavelet decomposition is used to extract different color texture features. These color texture features are then used for Fusion of Over Segmentation (FOOS) based classification; this allows segmentation of the land part from the sea one. By analyzing the different results of this study, the HSV color space is found as the best classification performance while using color and texture features; which is perfectly coherent with the results presented in the literature.

Keywords: classification, coastline, color, sea-land segmentation

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2212 Design of a Graphical User Interface for Data Preprocessing and Image Segmentation Process in 2D MRI Images

Authors: Enver Kucukkulahli, Pakize Erdogmus, Kemal Polat

Abstract:

The 2D image segmentation is a significant process in finding a suitable region in medical images such as MRI, PET, CT etc. In this study, we have focused on 2D MRI images for image segmentation process. We have designed a GUI (graphical user interface) written in MATLABTM for 2D MRI images. In this program, there are two different interfaces including data pre-processing and image clustering or segmentation. In the data pre-processing section, there are median filter, average filter, unsharp mask filter, Wiener filter, and custom filter (a filter that is designed by user in MATLAB). As for the image clustering, there are seven different image segmentations for 2D MR images. These image segmentation algorithms are as follows: PSO (particle swarm optimization), GA (genetic algorithm), Lloyds algorithm, k-means, the combination of Lloyds and k-means, mean shift clustering, and finally BBO (Biogeography Based Optimization). To find the suitable cluster number in 2D MRI, we have designed the histogram based cluster estimation method and then applied to these numbers to image segmentation algorithms to cluster an image automatically. Also, we have selected the best hybrid method for each 2D MR images thanks to this GUI software.

Keywords: image segmentation, clustering, GUI, 2D MRI

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2211 Meta Mask Correction for Nuclei Segmentation in Histopathological Image

Authors: Jiangbo Shi, Zeyu Gao, Chen Li

Abstract:

Nuclei segmentation is a fundamental task in digital pathology analysis and can be automated by deep learning-based methods. However, the development of such an automated method requires a large amount of data with precisely annotated masks which is hard to obtain. Training with weakly labeled data is a popular solution for reducing the workload of annotation. In this paper, we propose a novel meta-learning-based nuclei segmentation method which follows the label correction paradigm to leverage data with noisy masks. Specifically, we design a fully conventional meta-model that can correct noisy masks by using a small amount of clean meta-data. Then the corrected masks are used to supervise the training of the segmentation model. Meanwhile, a bi-level optimization method is adopted to alternately update the parameters of the main segmentation model and the meta-model. Extensive experimental results on two nuclear segmentation datasets show that our method achieves the state-of-the-art result. In particular, in some noise scenarios, it even exceeds the performance of training on supervised data.

Keywords: deep learning, histopathological image, meta-learning, nuclei segmentation, weak annotations

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2210 Segmentation of the Liver and Spleen From Abdominal CT Images Using Watershed Approach

Authors: Belgherbi Aicha, Hadjidj Ismahen, Bessaid Abdelhafid

Abstract:

The phase of segmentation is an important step in the processing and interpretation of medical images. In this paper, we focus on the segmentation of liver and spleen from the abdomen computed tomography (CT) images. The importance of our study comes from the fact that the segmentation of ROI from CT images is usually a difficult task. This difficulty is the gray’s level of which is similar to the other organ also the ROI are connected to the ribs, heart, kidneys, etc. Our proposed method is based on the anatomical information and mathematical morphology tools used in the image processing field. At first, we try to remove the surrounding and connected organs and tissues by applying morphological filters. This first step makes the extraction of interest regions easier. The second step consists of improving the quality of the image gradient. In this step, we propose a method for improving the image gradient to reduce these deficiencies by applying the spatial filters followed by the morphological filters. Thereafter we proceed to the segmentation of the liver, spleen. To validate the segmentation technique proposed, we have tested it on several images. Our segmentation approach is evaluated by comparing our results with the manual segmentation performed by an expert. The experimental results are described in the last part of this work.The system has been evaluated by computing the sensitivity and specificity between the semi-automatically segmented (liver and spleen) contour and the manually contour traced by radiological experts.

Keywords: CT images, liver and spleen segmentation, anisotropic diffusion filter, morphological filters, watershed algorithm

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2209 Tumor Boundary Extraction Using Intensity and Texture-Based on Gradient Vector

Authors: Namita Mittal, Himakshi Shekhawat, Ankit Vidyarthi

Abstract:

In medical research study, doctors and radiologists face lot of complexities in analysing the brain tumors in Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. Brain tumor detection is difficult due to amorphous tumor shape and overlapping of similar tissues in nearby region. So, radiologists require one such clinically viable solution which helps in automatic segmentation of tumor inside brain MR image. Initially, segmentation methods were used to detect tumor, by dividing the image into segments but causes loss of information. In this paper, a hybrid method is proposed which detect Region of Interest (ROI) on the basis of difference in intensity values and texture values of tumor region using nearby tissues with Gradient Vector Flow (GVF) technique in the identification of ROI. Proposed approach uses both intensity and texture values for identification of abnormal section of the brain MR images. Experimental results show that proposed method outperforms GVF method without any loss of information.

Keywords: brain tumor, GVF, intensity, MR images, segmentation, texture

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2208 Contrastive Learning for Unsupervised Object Segmentation in Sequential Images

Authors: Tian Zhang

Abstract:

Unsupervised object segmentation aims at segmenting objects in sequential images and obtaining the mask of each object without any manual intervention. Unsupervised segmentation remains a challenging task due to the lack of prior knowledge about these objects. Previous methods often require manually specifying the action of each object, which is often difficult to obtain. Instead, this paper does not need action information of objects and automatically learns the actions and relations among objects from the structured environment. To obtain the object segmentation of sequential images, the relationships between objects and images are extracted to infer the action and interaction of objects based on the multi-head attention mechanism. Three types of objects’ relationships in the object segmentation task are proposed: the relationship between objects in the same frame, the relationship between objects in two frames, and the relationship between objects and historical information. Based on these relationships, the proposed model (1) is effective in multiple objects segmentation tasks, (2) just needs images as input, and (3) produces better segmentation results as more relationships are considered. The experimental results on multiple datasets show that this paper’s method achieves state-of-art performance. The quantitative and qualitative analyses of the result are conducted. The proposed method could be easily extended to other similar applications.

Keywords: unsupervised object segmentation, attention mechanism, contrastive learning, structured environment

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2207 The Influence of Audio on Perceived Quality of Segmentation

Authors: Silvio Ricardo Rodrigues Sanches, Bianca Cogo Barbosa, Beatriz Regina Brum, Cléber Gimenez Corrêa

Abstract:

To evaluate the quality of a segmentation algorithm the authors use subjective or objective metrics. Although subjective metrics are more accurate, objective metrics do not require user feedback to test an algorithm. Objective metrics require subjective experiments only during their development. Subjective experiments typically display to users some videos (generated from frames with segmentation errors) that simulate the environment of an application domain. This user feedback is the key information for metric definition. In the subjective experiments applied to develop some state-of-the-art metrics used to test segmentation algorithms, the videos displayed during the experiments did not contain audio. In applications such as videoconference and augmented reality, audio is an important component. If the audio influences the user’s perception, using only videos without audio in subjective experiments can compromise the efficiency of an objective metric generated using data from these experiments. The aim of this work is to identify if the audio influences the user’s perception of segmentation quality in background substitution applications with audio. For this, a subjective method based on formal methods of video quality assessment was applied. The results showed audio influences the quality of segmentation perceived by user.

Keywords: background substitution, influence of audio, segmentation evaluation, segmentation quality

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2206 The Influence of Noise on Aerial Image Semantic Segmentation

Authors: Pengchao Wei, Xiangzhong Fang

Abstract:

Noise is ubiquitous in this world. Denoising is an essential technology, especially in image semantic segmentation, where noises are generally categorized into two main types i.e. feature noise and label noise. The main focus of this paper is aiming at modeling label noise, investigating the behaviors of different types of label noise on image semantic segmentation tasks using K-Nearest-Neighbor and Convolutional Neural Network classifier. The performance without label noise and with is evaluated and illustrated in this paper. In addition to that, the influence of feature noise on the image semantic segmentation task is researched as well and a feature noise reduction method is applied to mitigate its influence in the learning procedure.

Keywords: convolutional neural network, denoising, feature noise, image semantic segmentation, k-nearest-neighbor, label noise

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2205 Maximum Entropy Based Image Segmentation of Human Skin Lesion

Authors: Sheema Shuja Khattak, Gule Saman, Imran Khan, Abdus Salam

Abstract:

Image segmentation plays an important role in medical imaging applications. Therefore, accurate methods are needed for the successful segmentation of medical images for diagnosis and detection of various diseases. In this paper, we have used maximum entropy to achieve image segmentation. Maximum entropy has been calculated using Shannon, Renyi, and Tsallis entropies. This work has novelty based on the detection of skin lesion caused by the bite of a parasite called Sand Fly causing the disease is called Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

Keywords: shannon, maximum entropy, Renyi, Tsallis entropy

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2204 Multi-Atlas Segmentation Based on Dynamic Energy Model: Application to Brain MR Images

Authors: Jie Huo, Jonathan Wu

Abstract:

Segmentation of anatomical structures in medical images is essential for scientific inquiry into the complex relationships between biological structure and clinical diagnosis, treatment and assessment. As a method of incorporating the prior knowledge and the anatomical structure similarity between a target image and atlases, multi-atlas segmentation has been successfully applied in segmenting a variety of medical images, including the brain, cardiac, and abdominal images. The basic idea of multi-atlas segmentation is to transfer the labels in atlases to the coordinate of the target image by matching the target patch to the atlas patch in the neighborhood. However, this technique is limited by the pairwise registration between target image and atlases. In this paper, a novel multi-atlas segmentation approach is proposed by introducing a dynamic energy model. First, the target is mapped to each atlas image by minimizing the dynamic energy function, then the segmentation of target image is generated by weighted fusion based on the energy. The method is tested on MICCAI 2012 Multi-Atlas Labeling Challenge dataset which includes 20 target images and 15 atlases images. The paper also analyzes the influence of different parameters of the dynamic energy model on the segmentation accuracy and measures the dice coefficient by using different feature terms with the energy model. The highest mean dice coefficient obtained with the proposed method is 0.861, which is competitive compared with the recently published method.

Keywords: brain MRI segmentation, dynamic energy model, multi-atlas segmentation, energy minimization

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