Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4557

Search results for: double negative metamaterial

4557 Non Classical Photonic Nanojets in near Field of Metallic and Negative-Index Scatterers, Purely Electric and Magnetic Nanojets

Authors: Dmytro O. Plutenko, Alexei D. Kiselev, Mikhail V. Vasnetsov


We present the results of our analytical and computational study of Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams scattering by spherical homogeneous isotropic particles located on the axis of the beam. We consider different types of scatterers (dielectric, metallic and double negative metamaterials) and different polarizations of the LG beams. A possibility to generate photonic nanojets using metallic and double negative metamaterial Mie scatterers is shown. We have studied the properties of such nonclassical nanojets and discovered new types of the nanojets characterized by zero on-axes magnetic (or electric) field with the electric (or magnetic) field polarized along the z-axis.

Keywords: double negative metamaterial, Laguerre-Gaussian beam, Mie scattering, optical vortices, photonic nanojets

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4556 Discrimination of Modes of Double- and Single-Negative Grounded Slab

Authors: R. Borghol, T. Aguili


In this paper, we investigate theoretically the waves propagation in a lossless double-negative grounded slab (DNG). This study is performed by the Transverse Resonance Method (TRM). The proper or improper nature of real and complex modes is observed. They are highly dependent on metamaterial parameters, i.e. ɛr-negative, µr-negative, or both. Numerical results provided that only the proper complex modes (i.e., leaky modes) exist in DNG slab, and only the improper complex modes exist in single-negative grounded slab.

Keywords: double negative grounded slab, real and complex modes, single negative grounded slab, transverse resonance method

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
4555 Effect on Bandwidth of Using Double Substrates Based Metamaterial Planar Antenna

Authors: Smrity Dwivedi


The present paper has revealed the effect of double substrates over a bandwidth performance for planar antennas. The used material has its own importance to get minimum return loss and improved directivity. The author has taken double substrates to enhance the efficiency in terms of gain of antenna. Metamaterial based antenna has its own specific structure which increased the performance of antenna. Improved return loss is -20 dB, and the voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) is 1.2, which is better than single substrate having return loss of -15 dB and VSWR of 1.4. Complete results are obtained using commercial software CST microwave studio.

Keywords: CST microwave studio, metamaterial, return loss, VSWR

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
4554 Performance Improvement of UWB Corrugated Antipodal Vivaldi Antenna Using Spiral Shape Negative Index Metamaterial

Authors: Rahul Singha, D. Vakula


This paper presents a corrugated antipodal vivaldi antenna with improved performance by using negative index metamaterial (NIM) of the Archimedean spiral design. A single layer NIM piece is placed perpendicular middle of the two arm of the proposed antenna. The antenna size is 30×60×0.787 mm3 operating at 8GHz. The simulated results of NIM corrugated antipodal vivaldi antenna show that the gain and directivity has increased up to 1.2dB and 1dB respectively. The HPBW is increased by 90 with the reflection coefficient less than ‒10 dB from 4.7 GHz to 11 GHz for UWB application.

Keywords: Negative Index Metamaterial (NIM), Ultra Wide Band (UWB), Half Power Beam Width (HPBW), vivaldi antenna

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4553 Polarization Insensitive Absorber with Increased Bandwidth Using Multilayer Metamaterial

Authors: Srilaxmi Gangula, MahaLakshmi Vinukonda, Neeraj Rao


A wide band polarization insensitive metamaterial absorber with bandwidth enhancement in X and C band is proposed. The structure proposed here consists of a periodic unit cell of resonator arrangements in double layer. The proposed structure shows near unity absorption at frequencies of 6.21 GHz and 10.372 GHz spreading over a bandwidth of 1 GHz and 6.21 GHz respectively in X and C bands. The proposed metamaterial absorber is designed so as to increase the bandwidth. The proposed structure is also independent for TE and TM polarization. Because of its simple implementation, near unity absorption and wide bandwidth this dual band polarization insensitive metamaterial absorber can be used for EMI/EMC applications.

Keywords: absorber, C-band, metamaterial, multilayer, X-band

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4552 Design and Analysis of Metamaterial Based Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser

Authors: Ishraq M. Anjum


Distributed Bragg reflectors are used in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) in order to achieve very high reflectivity. Use of metamaterial in place of distributed Bragg reflector can reduce the device size significantly. A silicon-based metamaterial near perfect reflector is designed to be used in place of distributed Bragg reflectors in VCSELs. Mie resonance in dielectric microparticles is exploited in order to design the metamaterial. A reflectivity of 98.31% is achieved using finite-difference time-domain method. An 808nm double intra-cavity contacted VCSEL structure with 1.5 λ cavity is proposed using this metamaterial near perfect reflector. The active region is designed to be composed of seven GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells. Upon numerical investigation of the designed VCSEL structure, the threshold current is found to be 2.96 mA at an aperture of 40 square micrometers and the maximum output power is found to be 71 mW at a current of 141 mA. Miniaturization of conventional VCSELs is possible using this design.

Keywords: GaAs, LASER, metamaterial, VCSEL, vertical cavity surface emitting laser

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
4551 Electromagnetic Energy Harvesting by Using a Rectenna with a Metamaterial Lens

Authors: Ursula D. C. Resende, Fabiano S. Bicalho, Sandro T. M. Gonçalves


The growing demand for cheap and clean energy sources have been motivated by the study and development of distinct technologies and devices able to provide different amounts of energy. In order to supply energy for small loads, the energy from the electromagnetic spectrum can be harvested. This possibility is particularly interesting because this kind of energy is constantly available in the environment and the number of radiofrequency sources is permanently increasing, due to advances in telecommunications services. A rectenna, which is a combination of an antenna and a rectifier circuit, is an equipment that can efficiently perform the electromagnetic energy harvesting. However, since the amount of electromagnetic energy available in the environment is very small, limited values of power can be harvested by the rectenna. Therefore, several technical strategies have been investigated in order to increase this amount of power. In this work, a metamaterial electromagnetic lens is used to improve the electromagnetic energy harvesting. The rectenna investigated was designed and optimized to charge a Li-Ion battery using the electromagnetic energy from an internet Wi-Fi commercial router model TL-WR841HP operating in 2.45 GHz with maximal output power equal to 18 dBm. The rectenna consists of a high directive antenna, a double voltage rectifier circuit and a metamaterial lens. The printed antenna, constituted of two rectangular radiator elements, was projected and optimized by using the Computer Simulation Software (CST) in order to obtain high directivities and values of S11 parameter below -10 dB in 2.45 GHz. The antenna was printed over a double-sided copper fiberglass substrate, FR4, with characterized relative electric permittivity εr = 4.3 and tangent of losses δ = 0.01. The rectifier circuit, which incorporates a circuit for impedance matching and uses the Schottky diode HSMS-2852, was projected and optimized by using Advanced Design Software (ADS) and built over the same FR4 substrate. The metamaterial cell is composed of two Square Split Ring Resonator (S-SRR) and a thin wire in order to operate with negative values of εr and relative magnetic permeability in 2.45 GHz. In order to evaluate the performance of the purposed rectenna two experimental charging tests were performed, one without and other with the metamaterial lens. The result obtained demonstrate that the electromagnetic lens was able to significantly increase the levels of electric current delivered to the battery, approximately 44%.

Keywords: electromagnetic energy harvesting, electromagnetic lens, metamaterial, rectenna

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4550 Analysis of Metamaterial Permeability on the Performance of Loosely Coupled Coils

Authors: Icaro V. Soares, Guilherme L. F. Brandao, Ursula D. C. Resende, Glaucio L. Siqueira


Electrical energy can be wirelessly transmitted through resonant coupled coils that operate in the near-field region. Once in this region, the field has evanescent character, the efficiency of Resonant Wireless Power Transfer (RWPT) systems decreases proportionally with the inverse cube of distance between the transmitter and receiver coils. The commercially available RWPT systems are restricted to short and mid-range applications in which the distance between coils is lesser or equal to the coil size. An alternative to overcome this limitation is applying metamaterial structures to enhance the coupling between coils, thus reducing the field decay along the distance between them. Metamaterials can be conceived as composite materials with periodic or non-periodic structure whose unconventional electromagnetic behaviour is due to its unit cell disposition and chemical composition. This new kind of material has been used in frequency selective surfaces, invisibility cloaks, leaky-wave antennas, among other applications. However, for RWPT it is mainly applied as superlenses which are lenses that can overcome the optical limitation and are made of left-handed media, that is, a medium with negative magnetic permeability and electric permittivity. As RWPT systems usually operate at wavelengths of hundreds of meters, the metamaterial unit cell size is much smaller than the wavelength. In this case, electric and magnetic field are decoupled, therefore the double negative condition for superlenses are not required and the negative magnetic permeability is enough to produce an artificial magnetic medium. In this work, the influence of the magnetic permeability of a metamaterial slab inserted between two loosely coupled coils is studied in order to find the condition that leads to the maximum transmission efficiency. The metamaterial used is formed by a subwavelength unit cell that consist of a capacitor-loaded split ring with an inner spiral that is designed and optimized using the software Computer Simulation Technology. The unit cell permeability is experimentally characterized by the ratio of the transmission parameters between coils measured with and without the presence of the metamaterial slab. Early measurements results show that the transmission coefficient at the resonant frequency after the inclusion of the metamaterial is about three times higher than with just the two coils, which confirms the enhancement that this structure brings to RWPT systems.

Keywords: electromagnetic lens, loosely coupled coils, magnetic permeability, metamaterials, resonant wireless power transfer, subwavelength unit cells

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4549 Full-Wave Analysis of Magnetic Meta-Surfaces for Microwave Component Applications

Authors: Christopher Hardly Joseph, Nicola Pelagalli, Davide Mencarelli, Luca Pierantoni


In this contribution, we report the electromagnetic response of a split ring resonator (SRR) based magnetic metamaterial unit cell in free space nature by means of a full-wave electromagnetic simulation. The effective parameters of these designed structures have been analyzed. The structures have been specifically designed to work at high frequency considering the development of many microwave and lower mm-wave devices. In addition to that, the application of the designed metamaterial structures is also proposed, namely metamaterial loaded planar transmission lines, potentially useful to optimize size and quality factor of circuit components and radiating elements.

Keywords: CPW, Microwave Components, Negative Permeability, Split Ring Resonator (SRR)

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4548 Design of a Dual Polarized Resonator Antenna for Mobile Communication System

Authors: N. Fhafhiem, P. Krachodnok, R. Wongsan


This paper proposes the development and design of double layer metamaterials based on electromagnetic band gap (EBG) rods as a superstrate of a resonator antenna to enhance required antenna characteristics for the mobile base station. The metallic rod type metamaterial can partially reflect wave of a primary radiator. The antenna was designed and analyzed by a simulation result from CST Microwave Studio and designed technique could be confirmed by a measurement results from prototype antenna that agree with simulation results. The results indicate that the antenna can also generate a dual polarization by using a 45˚ oriented curved strip dipole located at the center of the reflector plane with double layer superstrate. It can be used to simplify the feed system of an antenna. The proposed antenna has a bandwidth covering the frequency range of 1920 – 2200 MHz, the gain of the antenna increases up to 14.06 dBi. In addition, an interesting sectoral 60˚ pattern is presented in horizontal plane.

Keywords: metamaterial, electromagnetic band gap, dual polarization, resonator antenna

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
4547 Microwave Transmission through Metamaterial Based on Permalloy Flakes under Magnetic Resonance and Antiresonance Conditions

Authors: Anatoly B. Rinkevich, Eugeny A. Kuznetsov, Yuri I. Ryabkov


Transmission of electromagnetic waves through a plate of metamaterial based on permalloy flakes and reflection from the plate is investigated. The metamaterial is prepared of permalloy flakes sized from few to 50μ placed into epoxy-amine matrix. Two series of metamaterial samples are under study with the volume portion of permalloy particles 15% and 30%. There is no direct electrical contact between permalloy particles. Microwave measurements have been carried out at frequencies of 12 to 30 GHz in magnetic fields up to 12 kOe. Sharp decrease of transmitted wave is observed under ferromagnetic resonance condition caused by absorption. Under magnetic antiresonance condition, in opposite, maximum of reflection coefficient is observed at frequencies exceeding 30 GHz. For example, for metamaterial sample with the volume portion of permalloy of 30%, the variation of reflection coefficient in magnetic field reaches 300%. These high variations are of interest to develop magnetic field driven microwave devices. Magnetic field variations of refractive index are also estimated.

Keywords: ferromagnetic resonance, magnetic antiresonance, microwave metamaterials, permalloy flakes, transmission and reflection coefficients

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
4546 Improving Radiation Efficiency Using Metamaterial in Pyramidal Horn Antenna

Authors: Amit Kumar Baghel, Sisir Kumar Nayak


The proposed metamaterial design help to increase the radiation efficiency at 2.9 GHz by reducing the side and back lobes by making the phase difference of the waves emerging from the phase center of the horn antenna same after passing through metamaterial array. The unit cell of the metamaterial is having concentric ring structure made of copper of 0.035 mm thickness on both sides of FR4 sheet. The inner ring diameter is kept as 3 mm, and the outer ring diameters are changed according to the path and tramission phase difference of the unit cell from the phase center of the antenna in both the horizontal and vertical direction, i.e., in x- and y-axis. In this case, the ring radius varies from 3.19 mm to 6.99 mm with the respective S21 phase difference of -62.25° to -124.64°. The total phase difference can be calculated by adding the path difference of the respective unit cell in the array to the phase difference of S21. Taking one of the unit cell as the reference, the total phase difference between the reference unit cell and other cells must be integer multiple of 360°. The variation of transmission coefficient S21 with the ring radius is greater than -6 dB. The array having 5 x 5 unit cell is kept inside the pyramidal horn antenna (L X B X H = 295.451 x 384.233 x 298.66 mm3) at a distance of 36.68 mm from the waveguide throat. There is an improvement in side lobe level in E-plane by 14.6 dB when the array is used. The front to back lobe ration is increased by 1 dB by using the array. The proposed antenna with metamaterial array can be used in beam shaping for wireless power transfer applications.

Keywords: metamaterial, side lobe level, front to back ratio, beam forming

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
4545 Design and Performance Comparison of Metamaterial Based Antenna for 4G/5G Mobile Devices

Authors: Jalal Khan, Daniyal Ali Sehrai, Shakeel Ahmad


This paper presents the design and performance evaluation of multiband metamaterial based antenna operating in the 3.6 GHz (4G), 14.33 GHz, and 28.86 GHz (5G) frequency bands, for future mobile and handheld devices. The radiating element of the proposed design is made up of a conductive material supported by a 1.524 mm thicker Rogers-4003 substrate, having a relative dielectric constant and loss tangent of 3.55 and 0.0027, respectively. The substrate is backed by truncated ground plane. The future mobile communication system is based on higher frequencies, which are highly affected by the atmospheric conditions. Therefore, to overcome the path loss problem, essential enhancements and improvements must be made in the overall performance of the antenna. The traditional ground plane does not provide the in-phase reflection and surface wave suppression due to which side and back lobes are produced. This will affect the antenna performance in terms of gain and efficiency. To enhance the overall performance of the antenna, a metamaterial acting as a high impedance surface (HIS) is used as a reflector in the proposed design. The simulated gain of the metamaterial based antenna is enhanced from {2.76-6.47, 4.83-6.71 and 7.52-7.73} dB at 3.6, 14.33 and 28.89 GHz, respectively relative to the gain of the antenna backed by a traditional ground plane. The proposed antenna radiated efficiently with a radiated efficiency (>85 %) in all the three frequency bands with and without metamaterial surface. The total volume of the antenna is (L x W x h=45 x 40 x 1.524) mm3. The antenna can be potentially used for wireless handheld devices and mobile terminal. All the simulations have been performed using the Computer Simulation Technology (CST) software.

Keywords: CST MWS, fourth generation/fifth generation, 4G/5G, high gain, multiband, metamaterial

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4544 A Finite Element Analysis of Hexagonal Double-Arrowhead Auxetic Structure with Enhanced Energy Absorption Characteristics and Stiffness

Authors: Keda Li, Hong Hu


Auxetic materials, as an emerging artificial designed metamaterial has attracted growing attention due to their promising negative Poisson’s ratio behaviors and tunable properties. The conventional auxetic lattice structures for which the deformation process is governed by a bending-dominated mechanism have faced the limitation of poor mechanical performance for many potential engineering applications. Recently, both load-bearing and energy absorption capabilities have become a crucial consideration in auxetic structure design. This study reports the finite element analysis of a class of hexagonal double-arrowhead auxetic structures with enhanced stiffness and energy absorption performance. The structure design was developed by extending the traditional double-arrowhead honeycomb to a hexagon frame, the stretching-dominated deformation mechanism was determined according to Maxwell’s stability criterion. The finite element (FE) models of 2D lattice structures established with stainless steel material were analyzed in ABAQUS/Standard for predicting in-plane structural deformation mechanism, failure process, and compressive elastic properties. Based on the computational simulation, the parametric analysis was studied to investigate the effect of the structural parameters on Poisson’s ratio and mechanical properties. The geometrical optimization was then implemented to achieve the optimal Poisson’s ratio for the maximum specific energy absorption. In addition, the optimized 2D lattice structure was correspondingly converted into a 3D geometry configuration by using the orthogonally splicing method. The numerical results of 2D and 3D structures under compressive quasi-static loading conditions were compared separately with the traditional double-arrowhead re-entrant honeycomb in terms of specific Young's moduli, Poisson's ratios, and specified energy absorption. As a result, the energy absorption capability and stiffness are significantly reinforced with a wide range of Poisson’s ratio compared to traditional double-arrowhead re-entrant honeycomb. The auxetic behaviors, energy absorption capability, and yield strength of the proposed structure are adjustable with different combinations of joint angle, struts thickness, and the length-width ratio of the representative unit cell. The numerical prediction in this study suggests the proposed concept of hexagonal double-arrowhead structure could be a suitable candidate for the energy absorption applications with a constant request of load-bearing capacity. For future research, experimental analysis is required for the validation of the numerical simulation.

Keywords: auxetic, energy absorption capacity, finite element analysis, negative Poisson's ratio, re-entrant hexagonal honeycomb

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4543 Mutual Coupling Reduction between Patch Antenna Array Elements Using Metamaterial Z Shaped Resonators

Authors: Oossama Tabbabi, Mondher Labidi, Fethi Choubani, J. David


Modern wireless communication systems require compact design, low cost and simple structure antennas to insure reliability, agility, and high efficiency characteristics. This paper presents a microstrip antenna array designed for 8 GHz applications. To reduce the mutual coupling effects, a Z shape metamaterial structure was imprinted in the microstrip antenna array composed of two elements. Simulation results show the improvement of mutual coupling by adding Z shape metamaterial structure to the antenna substrate. The proposed structure reduces mutual coupling by 19 dB. The simulation has been performed by using HFSS simulator.

Keywords: antenna array, compact design, modern wireless communication, mutual coupling effects

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4542 A Terahertz Sensor and Dynamic Switch Based on a Bilayer Toroidal Metamaterial

Authors: Angana Bhattacharya, Rakesh Sarkar, Gagan Kumar


Toroidal resonances, a new class of electromagnetic excitations, demonstrate exceptional properties as compared to electric and magnetic dipolar resonances. The advantage of narrow linewidth in toroidal resonance is utilized in this proposed work, where a bilayer metamaterial (MM) sensor has been designed in the terahertz frequency regime (THz). A toroidal MM geometry in a single layer is first studied. A second identical MM geometry placed on top of the first layer results in the coupling of toroidal excitations, leading to an increase in the quality factor (Q) of the resonance. The sensing capability of the resonance is studied. Further, the dynamic switching from an 'off' stage to an 'on' stage in the bilayer configuration is explored. The ardent study of such toroidal bilayer MMs could provide significant potential in the development of bio-molecular and chemical sensors, switches, and modulators.

Keywords: toroidal resonance, bilayer, metamaterial, terahertz, sensing, switching

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4541 Multi-Band, Polarization Insensitive, Wide Angle Receptive Metamaterial Absorber for Microwave Applications

Authors: Lincy Stephen, N. Yogesh, G. Vasantharajan, V. Subramanian


This paper presents the design and simulation of a five band metamaterial absorber at microwave frequencies. The absorber unit cell consists of squares and strips arranged as the top layer and a metallic ground plane as the bottom layer on a dielectric substrate. Simulation results show five near perfect absorption bands at 3.15 GHz, 7.15 GHz, 11.12 GHz, 13.87 GHz, and 16.85 GHz with absorption magnitudes 99.68%, 99.05%, 96.98%, 98.36% and 99.44% respectively. Further, the proposed absorber exhibits polarization insensitivity and wide angle receptivity. The surface current analysis is presented to explain the mechanism of absorption in the structure. With these preferable features, the proposed absorber can be excellent choice for potential applications such as electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding, radar cross section reduction.

Keywords: electromagnetic absorber, metamaterial, multi- band, polarization insensitive, wide angle receptive

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
4540 UML Model for Double-Loop Control Self-Adaptive Braking System

Authors: Heung Sun Yoon, Jong Tae Kim


In this paper, we present an activity diagram model for double-loop control self-adaptive braking system. Since activity diagram helps to improve visibility of self-adaption, we can easily find where improvement is needed on double-loop control. Double-loop control is adopted since the design conditions and actual conditions can be different. The system is reconfigured in runtime by using double-loop control. We simulated to verify and validate our model by using MATLAB. We compared single-loop control model with double-loop control model. Simulation results show that double-loop control provides more consistent brake power control than single-loop control.

Keywords: activity diagram, automotive, braking system, double-loop, self-adaptive, UML, vehicle

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4539 Modeling and Simulation of Practical Metamaterial Structures

Authors: Ridha Salhi, Mondher Labidi, Fethi Choubani


Metamaterials have attracted much attention in recent years because of their electromagnetic exquisite proprieties. We will present, in this paper, the modeling of three metamaterial structures by equivalent circuit model. We begin by modeling the SRR (Split Ring Resonator), then we model the HIS (High Impedance Surfaces), and finally, we present the model of the CPW (Coplanar Wave Guide). In order to validate models, we compare the results obtained by an equivalent circuit models with numerical simulation.

Keywords: metamaterials, SRR, HIS, CPW, IDC

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4538 Ion-Acoustic Double Layers in a Non-Thermal Electronegative Magnetized Plasma

Authors: J. K. Chawla, S. K. Jain, M. K. Mishra


Ion-acoustic double layers have been studied in magnetized plasma. The modified Korteweg-de Vries (m-KdV) equation using reductive perturbation method is derived. It is found that for the selected set of parameters, the system supports rarefactive double layers depending upon the value of nonthermal parameters. It is also found that the magnetization affects only the width of the double layer. For a given set of parameter values, increases in the magnetization and the obliqueness angle (θ) between wave vector and magnetic field, affect the width of the double layers, however the amplitude of the double layers have no effect. An increase in the values of nonthermal parameter decreases the amplitude of the rarefactive double layer. The effect of the ion temperature ratio on the amplitude and width of the double layers are also discussed in detail.

Keywords: ion-acoustic double layers, magnetized electronegative plasma, reductive perturbation method, the modified Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation

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4537 Metamaterial Lenses for Microwave Cancer Hyperthermia Treatment

Authors: Akram Boubakri, Fethi Choubani, Tan Hoa Vuong, Jacques David


Nowadays, microwave hyperthermia is considered as an effective treatment for the malignant tumors. This microwave treatment which comes to substitute the chemotherapy and the surgical intervention enables an in-depth tumor heating without causing any diseases to the sane tissue. This technique requires a high precision system, in order to effectively concentrate the heating just in the tumor, without heating any surrounding healthy tissue. In the hyperthermia treatment, the temperature in cancerous area is typically raised up to over 42◦C and maintained for one hour in order to destroy the tumor sufficiently, whilst in the surrounding healthy tissues, the temperature is maintained below 42◦C to avoid any damage. Metamaterial lenses are widely used in medical applications like microwave hyperthermia treatment. They enabled a subdiffraction resolution thanks to the amplification of the evanescent waves and they can focus electromagnetic waves from a point source to a point image. Metasurfaces have been used to built metamaterial lenses. The main mechanical advantages of those structures over three dimensional material structures are ease of fabrication and a smaller required volume. Here in this work, we proposed a metasurface based lens operating at the frequency of 6 GHz and designed for microwave hyperthermia. This lens was applied and showed good results in focusing and heating the tumor inside a breast tissue with an increased and maintained temperature above 42°C. The tumor was placed in the focal distance of the lens so that only the tumor tissue will be heated. Finally, in this work, it has been shown that the hyperthermia area within the tissue can be carefully adjusted by moving the antennas or by changing the thickness of the metamaterial lenses based on the tumor position. Even though the simulations performed in this work have taken into account an ideal case, some real characteristics can be considered to improve the obtained results in a realistic model.

Keywords: focusing, hyperthermia, metamaterial lenses, metasurface, microwave treatment

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4536 Analysis of the Effect of GSR on the Performance of Double Flow Corrugated Absorber Solar Air Heater

Authors: S. P. Sharma, Som Nath Saha


This study investigates the effect of Global Solar Radiation (GSR) on the performance of double flow corrugated absorber solar air heater. A mathematical model of a double flow solar air heater, in which air is flowing simultaneously over and under the absorbing plate is presented and solved by developing a computer program in C++ language. The performance evaluation is studied in terms of air temperature rise, energy, effective and exergy efficiencies. The performance of double flow corrugated absorber is compared with double flow flat plate and conventional solar air heaters. It is found that double flow effectively increases the air temperature rise and efficiencies in comparison to a conventional collector. However, corrugated absorber is more superior to that of flat plate double flow solar air heater. The results show that increasing the solar radiation leads to achieve higher air temperature rise and efficiencies.

Keywords: corrugated absorber, double flow, flat plate, solar air heater

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4535 Design and Implementation of a 94 GHz CMOS Double-Balanced Up-Conversion Mixer for 94 GHz Imaging Radar Sensors

Authors: Yo-Sheng Lin, Run-Chi Liu, Chien-Chu Ji, Chih-Chung Chen, Chien-Chin Wang


A W-band double-balanced mixer for direct up-conversion using standard 90 nm CMOS technology is reported. The mixer comprises an enhanced double-balanced Gilbert cell with PMOS negative resistance compensation for conversion gain (CG) enhancement and current injection for power consumption reduction and linearity improvement, a Marchand balun for converting the single LO input signal to differential signal, another Marchand balun for converting the differential RF output signal to single signal, and an output buffer amplifier for loading effect suppression, power consumption reduction and CG enhancement. The mixer consumes low power of 6.9 mW and achieves LO-port input reflection coefficient of -17.8~ -38.7 dB and RF-port input reflection coefficient of -16.8~ -27.9 dB for frequencies of 90~100 GHz. The mixer achieves maximum CG of 3.6 dB at 95 GHz, and CG of 2.1±1.5 dB for frequencies of 91.9~99.4 GHz. That is, the corresponding 3 dB CG bandwidth is 7.5 GHz. In addition, the mixer achieves LO-RF isolation of 36.8 dB at 94 GHz. To the authors’ knowledge, the CG, LO-RF isolation and power dissipation results are the best data ever reported for a 94 GHz CMOS/BiCMOS up-conversion mixer.

Keywords: CMOS, W-band, up-conversion mixer, conversion gain, negative resistance compensation, output buffer amplifier

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4534 The Effect of Global Solar Radiation on the Thermal and Thermohydraulic Performance of Double Flow Corrugated Absorber Solar Air Heater

Authors: Suresh Prasad Sharma, Som Nath Saha


This paper deals with the effect of Global Solar Radiation (GSR) on the performance of double flow solar air heater having corrugated plate as an absorber. An analytical model of a double flow solar air heater has been presented, and a computer program in C++ language has been developed to calculate the outlet air temperature, heat gain, pressure drop for estimating the thermal and thermohydraulic efficiencies. The performance of double flow corrugated absorber is compared with double flow flat plate and conventional solar air heaters. It is found that the double flow arrangement effectively increases the air temperature rise and efficiencies in comparison to a conventional collector. However, corrugated absorber is more superior to that of flat plate double flow solar air heater. The results indicate that increasing the solar radiation leads to achieve higher air temperature rise and efficiencies.

Keywords: corrugated absorber, double flow, flat plate, solar air heater

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
4533 Performance Analysis of SAC-OCDMA System using Different Detectors

Authors: Somaya A. Abd El Mottaleb, Ahmed Abd El Aziz, Heba A. Fayed, Moustafa H. Aly


In this paper, we present the performance of spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access using different detectors at different transmission distances using single photodiode detection technique. Modified double weight codes are used as signature codes. Simulation results show that the system using avalanche photo detector can move distance longer than that using positive intrinsic negative photo detector.

Keywords: avalanche photodiode, modified double weight, multiple access technique, single photodiode.

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4532 Application of Double Side Approach Method on Super Elliptical Winkler Plate

Authors: Hsiang-Wen Tang, Cheng-Ying Lo


In this study, the static behavior of super elliptical Winkler plate is analyzed by applying the double side approach method. The lack of information about super elliptical Winkler plates is the motivation of this study and we use the double side approach method to solve this problem because of its superior ability on efficiently treating problems with complex boundary shape. The double side approach method has the advantages of high accuracy, easy calculation procedure and less calculation load required. Most important of all, it can give the error bound of the approximate solution. The numerical results not only show that the double side approach method works well on this problem but also provide us the knowledge of static behavior of super elliptical Winkler plate in practical use.

Keywords: super elliptical winkler plate, double side approach method, error bound, mechanic

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4531 Thermohydraulic Performance of Double Flow Solar Air Heater with Corrugated Absorber

Authors: S. P. Sharma, Som Nath Saha


This paper deals with the analytical investigation of thermal and thermohydraulic performance of double flow solar air heaters with corrugated and flat plate absorber. A mathematical model of double flow solar air heater has been presented, and a computer program in C++ language is developed to estimate the outlet temperature of air for the evaluation of thermal and thermohydraulic efficiency by solving the governing equations numerically using relevant correlations for heat transfer coefficients. The results obtained from the mathematical model is compared with the available experimental results and it is found to be reasonably good. The results show that the double flow solar air heaters have higher efficiency than conventional solar air heater, although the double flow corrugated absorber is superior to that of flat plate double flow solar air heater. It is also observed that the thermal efficiency increases with increase in mass flow rate; however, thermohydraulic efficiency increases with increase in mass flow rate up to a certain limit, attains the maximum value, then thereafter decreases sharply.

Keywords: corrugated absorber, double flow, solar air heater, thermos-hydraulic efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
4530 Next Generation of Tunnel Field Effect Transistor: NCTFET

Authors: Naima Guenifi, Shiromani Balmukund Rahi, Amina Bechka


Tunnel FET is one of the most suitable alternatives FET devices for conventional CMOS technology for low-power electronics and applications. Due to its lower subthreshold swing (SS) value, it is a strong follower of low power applications. It is a quantum FET device that follows the band to band (B2B) tunneling transport phenomena of charge carriers. Due to band to band tunneling, tunnel FET is suffering from a lower switching current than conventional metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET). For improvement of device features and limitations, the newly invented negative capacitance concept of ferroelectric material is implemented in conventional Tunnel FET structure popularly known as NC TFET. The present research work has implemented the idea of high-k gate dielectric added with ferroelectric material on double gate Tunnel FET for implementation of negative capacitance. It has been observed that the idea of negative capacitance further improves device features like SS value. It helps to reduce power dissipation and switching energy. An extensive investigation for circularity uses for digital, analog/RF and linearity features of double gate NCTFET have been adopted here for research work. Several essential designs paraments for analog/RF and linearity parameters like transconductance(gm), transconductance generation factor (gm/IDS), its high-order derivatives (gm2, gm3), cut-off frequency (fT), gain-bandwidth product (GBW), transconductance generation factor (gm/IDS) has been investigated for low power RF applications. The VIP₂, VIP₃, IMD₃, IIP₃, distortion characteristics (HD2, HD3), 1-dB, the compression point, delay and power delay product performance have also been thoroughly studied.

Keywords: analog/digital, ferroelectric, linearity, negative capacitance, Tunnel FET, transconductance

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4529 Exergy Based Performance Analysis of Double Flow Solar Air Heater with Corrugated Absorber

Authors: S. P. Sharma, Som Nath Saha


This paper presents the performance, based on exergy analysis of double flow solar air heaters with corrugated and flat plate absorber. A mathematical model of double flow solar air heater based on energy balance equations has been presented and the results obtained have been compared with that of a conventional flat-plate solar air heater. The double flow corrugated absorber solar air heater performs thermally better than the flat plate double flow and conventional flat-plate solar air heater under same operating conditions. However, the corrugated absorber leads to higher pressure drop thereby increasing pumping power. The results revealed that the energy and exergy efficiencies of double flow corrugated absorber solar air heater is much higher than conventional solar air heater with the concept involving of increase in heat transfer surface area and turbulence in air flow. The results indicate that the energy efficiency increases, however, exergy efficiency decreases with increase in mass flow rate.

Keywords: corrugated absorber, double flow, exergy efficiency, solar air heater

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4528 Resonant Auxetic Metamaterial for Automotive Applications in Vibration Isolation

Authors: Adrien Pyskir, Manuel Collet, Zoran Dimitrijevic, Claude-Henri Lamarque


During the last decades, great efforts have been made to reduce acoustic and vibrational disturbances in transportations, as it has become a key feature for comfort. Today, isolation and design have neutralized most of the troublesome vibrations, so that cars are quieter and more comfortable than ever. However, some problems remain unsolved, in particular concerning low-frequency isolation and the frequency-dependent stiffening of materials like rubber. To sum it up, a balance has to be found between a high static stiffness to sustain the vibration source’s mass, and low dynamic stiffness, as wideband as possible. Systems meeting these criteria are yet to be designed. We thus investigated solutions inspired by metamaterials to control efficiently low-frequency wave propagation. Structures exhibiting a negative Poisson ratio, also called auxetic structures, are known to influence the propagation of waves through beaming or damping. However, their stiffness can be quite peculiar as well, as they can present regions of zero stiffness on the stress-strain curve for compression. In addition, auxetic materials can be easily adapted in many ways, inducing great tuning potential. Using finite element software COMSOL Multiphysics, a resonant design has been tested through statics and dynamics simulations. These results are compared to experimental results. In particular, the bandgaps featured by these structures are analyzed as a function of design parameters. Great stiffness properties can be observed, including low-frequency dynamic stiffness loss and broadband transmission loss. Such features are very promising for practical isolation purpose, and we hope to adopt this kind of metamaterial into an effective industrial damper.

Keywords: auxetics, metamaterials, structural dynamics, vibration isolation

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