Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9921

Search results for: specific methanogenic activity

9921 Pre-Treatment of Anodic Inoculum with Nitroethane to Improve Performance of a Microbial Fuel Cell

Authors: Rajesh P.P., Md. Tabish Noori, Makarand M. Ghangrekar


Methanogenic substrate loss is reported to be a major bottleneck in microbial fuel cell which significantly reduces the power production capacity and coulombic efficiency (CE) of microbial fuel cell (MFC). Nitroethane is found to be a potent inhibitor of hydrogenotrophic methanogens in rumen fermentation process. Influence of nitroethane pre-treated sewage sludge inoculum on suppressing the methanogenic activity and enhancing the electrogenesis in MFC was evaluated. MFC inoculated with nitroethane pre-treated anodic inoculum demonstrated a maximum operating voltage of 541 mV, with coulombic efficiency and sustainable volumetric power density of 39.85 % and 14.63 W/m3 respectively. Linear sweep voltammetry indicated a higher electron discharge on the anode surface due to enhancement of electrogenic activity while suppressing methanogenic activity. A 63 % reduction in specific methanogenic activity was observed in anaerobic sludge pre-treated with nitroethane; emphasizing significance of this pretreatment for suppressing methanogenesis and its utility for enhancing electricity generation in MFC.

Keywords: coulombic efficiency, methanogenesis inhibition, microbial fuel cell, nitroethane

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9920 Performance of an Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) during Start-Up Period

Authors: D. M. Bassuney, W. A. Ibrahim, Medhat A. E. Moustafa


Appropriate start-up of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) is considered to be the most delicate and important issue in the anaerobic process, and depends on several factors such as wastewater composition, reactor configuration, inoculum and operating conditions. In this work, the start-up performance of an ABR with working volume of 30 liters, fed continuously with synthetic food industrial wastewater along with semi-batch study to measure the methangenic activity by specific methanogenic activity (SMA) test were carried out at various organic loading rates (OLRs) to determine the best OLR used to start up the reactor. The comparison was based on COD removal efficiencies, start-up time, pH stability and methane production. An OLR of 1.8 Kg COD/m3d (5400 gCOD/m3 and 3 days HRT) showed best overall performance with COD removal efficiency of 94.44% after four days from the feeding and methane production of 3802 ml/L with an overall SMA of 0.36 gCH4-COD/gVS.d

Keywords: anaerobic baffled reactor, anaerobic reactor start-up, food industrial wastewater, specific methanogenic activity

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9919 Effect of Antimony on Microorganisms in Aerobic and Anaerobic Environments

Authors: Barrera C. Monserrat, Sierra-Alvarez Reyes, Pat-Espadas Aurora, Moreno Andrade Ivan


Antimony is a toxic and carcinogenic metalloid considered a pollutant of priority interest by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. It is present in the environment in two oxidation states: antimonite (Sb (III)) and antimony (Sb (V)). Sb (III) is toxic to several aquatic organisms, but the potential inhibitory effect of Sb species for microorganisms has not been extensively evaluated. The fate and possible toxic impact of antimony on aerobic and anaerobic wastewater treatment systems are unknown. For this reason, the objective of this study was to evaluate the microbial toxicity of Sb (V) and Sb (III) in aerobic and anaerobic environments. Sb(V) and Sb(III) were used as potassium hexahydroxoantimonate (V) and potassium antimony tartrate, respectively (Sigma-Aldrich). The toxic effect of both Sb species in anaerobic environments was evaluated on methanogenic activity and the inhibition of hydrogen production of microorganisms from a wastewater treatment bioreactor. For the methanogenic activity, batch experiments were carried out in 160 mL serological bottles; each bottle contained basal mineral medium (100 mL), inoculum (1.5 g of VSS/L), acetate (2.56 g/L) as substrate, and variable concentrations of Sb (V) or Sb (III). Duplicate bioassays were incubated at 30 ± 2°C on an orbital shaker (105 rpm) in the dark. Methane production was monitored by gas chromatography. The hydrogen production inhibition tests were carried out in glass bottles with a working volume of 0.36 L. Glucose (50 g/L) was used as a substrate, pretreated inoculum (5 g VSS/L), mineral medium and varying concentrations of the two species of antimony. The bottles were kept under stirring and at a temperature of 35°C in an AMPTSII device that recorded hydrogen production. The toxicity of Sb on aerobic microorganisms (from a wastewater activated sludge treatment plant) was tested with a Microtox standardized toxicity test and respirometry. Results showed that Sb (III) is more toxic than Sb (V) for methanogenic microorganisms. Sb (V) caused a 50% decrease in methanogenic activity at 250 mg/L. In contrast, exposure to Sb (III) resulted in a 50% inhibition at a concentration of only 11 mg/L, and an almost complete inhibition (95%) at 25 mg/L. For hydrogen-producing microorganisms, Sb (III) and Sb (V) inhibited 50% of this production with 12.6 mg/L and 87.7 mg/L, respectively. The results for aerobic environments showed that 500 mg/L of Sb (V) do not inhibit the Allivibrio fischeri (Microtox) activity or specific oxygen uptake rate of activated sludge. In the case of Sb (III), this caused a loss of 50% of the respiration of the microorganisms at concentrations below 40 mg/L. The results obtained indicate that the toxicity of the antimony will depend on the speciation of this metalloid and that Sb (III) has a significantly higher inhibitory potential compared to Sb (V). It was shown that anaerobic microorganisms can reduce Sb (V) to Sb (III). Acknowledgments: This work was funded in part by grants from the UA-CONACYT Binational Consortium for the Regional Scientific Development and Innovation (CAZMEX), the National Institute of Health (NIH ES- 04940), and PAPIIT-DGAPA-UNAM (IN105220).

Keywords: aerobic inhibition, antimony reduction, hydrogen inhibition, methanogenic toxicity

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9918 Separate Production of Hydrogen and Methane from Ethanol Wastewater Using Two-Stage UASB: Micronutrient Transportation

Authors: S. Jaikeaw, S. Chavadej


The objective of this study was to determine the effects of COD loading rate on hydrogen and methane production and micronutrient transportation using a two-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) system under mesophilic temperature (37°C) with a constant recycle ratio of 1:1 (final effluent flow rate: feed flow rate). The first (hydrogen) UASB unit having 4 L liquid holding volume was controlled at pH 5.5 but the second (methane) UASB unit having 24 L liquid holding volume had no pH control. The two-stage UASB system operated at different COD loading rates from 8 to 20 kg/m³d based on total UASB working volume. The results showed that, at the optimum COD loading rate of 13 kg/m³d, the produced gas from the hydrogen UASB unit contained 1.5% H₂, 16.5% CH₄, and 82% CO₂ with H₂S of 252 ppm and also provided a hydrogen yield of 1.66 mL/g COD removed (or 0.56 mL/g COD applied) and a specific hydrogen production rate of 156.85 ml H₂/LRd (or 5.12 ml H₂/g MLVSS d). Under the optimum COD loading rate, the produced gas from the methane UASB unit mainly contained methane and carbon dioxide without hydrogen of 74 and 26%, respectively with hydrogen sulfide of 287 ppm and the system also provided a maximum methane yield of 407.00 mL/g COD removed (or 263.23 mL/g COD applied) and a specific methane production rate of 2081.44 ml CH₄/LRd (or 99.75 ml CH₄/g MLVSS d). Under the optimum COD loading rate, all micronutrients markedly dropped by the sulfide precipitation reactions. The reduction of micronutrients mostly appeared in the methane UASB unit. Under the studied conditions, both Co and Ni were found to be greatly precipitated out, causing the deficiency to microbial activity. It is hypothesized that an addition of both Co and Ni can improve the methanogenic activity.

Keywords: hydrogen and methane production, ethanol wastewater, a two-stage upflow anaerobic blanket (UASB) system, mesophillic temperature, microbial concentration (MLVSS), micronutrients

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9917 Mitigating Ruminal Methanogenesis Through Genomic and Transcriptomic Approaches

Authors: Muhammad Adeel Arshad, Faiz-Ul Hassan, Yanfen Cheng


According to FAO, enteric methane (CH4) production is about 44% of all greenhouse gas emissions from the livestock sector. Ruminants produce CH4 as a result of fermentation of feed in the rumen especially from roughages which yield more CH4 per unit of biomass ingested as compared to concentrates. Efficient ruminal fermentation is not possible without abating CO2 and CH4. Methane abatement strategies are required to curb the predicted rise in emissions associated with greater ruminant production in future to meet ever increasing animal protein requirements. Ecology of ruminal methanogenesis and avenues for its mitigation can be identified through various genomic and transcriptomic techniques. Programs such as Hungate1000 and the Global Rumen Census have been launched to enhance our understanding about global ruminal microbial communities. Through Hungate1000 project, a comprehensive reference set of rumen microbial genome sequences has been developed from cultivated rumen bacteria and methanogenic archaea along with representative rumen anaerobic fungi and ciliate protozoa cultures. But still many species of rumen microbes are underrepresented especially uncultivable microbes. Lack of sequence information specific to the rumen's microbial community has inhibited efforts to use genomic data to identify specific set of species and their target genes involved in methanogenesis. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic study of entire microbial rumen populations offer new perspectives to understand interaction of methanogens with other rumen microbes and their potential association with total gas and methane production. Deep understanding of methanogenic pathway will help to devise potentially effective strategies to abate methane production while increasing feed efficiency in ruminants.

Keywords: Genome sequences, Hungate1000, methanogens, ruminal fermentation

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9916 Apply Activity-Based Costing Management System by Key Success Paths to Promote the Competitive Advantages and Operation Performance

Authors: Mei-Fang Wu, Shu-Li Wang, Feng-Tsung Cheng


Highly developed technology and highly competitive global market highlight the important role of competitive advantages and operation performances in sustainable company operation. Activity-Based Costing (ABC) provides accurate operation cost and operation performance information. Rich literature provide relevant research with cases study on Activity-Based Costing application, and yet, there is no research studying on cause relationship between key success factors of applying Activity-Based Costing and its specific outcomes, such as profitability or share market. These relationships provide the ways to handle the key success factors to achieve the specific outcomes for ensuring to promote the competitive advantages and operation performances. The main purposes of this research are exploring the key success paths by Key Success Paths approach which will lead the ways to apply Activity-Base Costing. The Key Success Paths is the innovative method which is exploring the cause relationships and explaining what are the effects of key success factors to specific outcomes of Activity-Based Costing implementation. The cause relationships between key success factors and successful specific outcomes are Key Success Paths (KSPs). KSPs are the guidelines to lead the cost management strategies to achieve the goals of competitive advantages and operation performances. The research findings indicate that good management system design may impact the good outcomes of Activity-Based Costing application and achieve to outstanding competitive advantage, operating performance and profitability as well by KSPs exploration.

Keywords: activity-based costing, key success factors, key success paths approach, key success paths, key failure paths

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9915 Histochemistry of Intestinal Enzymes of Juvenile Dourado Salminus brasiliensis Fed Bovine Colostrum

Authors: Debora B. Moretti, Wiolene M. Nordi, Thaline Maira P. Cruz, José Eurico P. Cyrino, Raul Machado-Neto


Enzyme activity was evaluated in the intestine of juvenile dourado (Salminus brasiliensis) fed with diets containing 0, 10 or 20% of lyophilized bovine colostrum (LBC) inclusion for either 30 or 60 days. The intestinal enzymes acid and alkaline phosphatase (ACP and ALP, respectively), non-specific esterase (NSE), lipase (LIP), dipeptidyl aminopeptidase IV (DAP IV) and leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) were studied using histochemistry in four intestinal segments (S1, S2, S3 and posterior intestine). Weak proteolitic activity was observed in all intestinal segments for DAP IV and LAP. The activity of NSE and LIP was also weak in all intestines, except for the moderate activity of NSE in the S2 of 20% LBC group after 30 days and in the S1 of 0% LBC group after 60 days. The ACP was detected only in the S2 and S3 of the 10% LBC group after 30 days. Moderate and strong staining was observed in the first three intestinal segments for ALP and weak activity in the posterior intestine. The activity of DAP IV, LAP and ALP were also present in the cytoplasm of the enterocytes. In the present results, bovine colostrum feeding did not cause alterations in activity of intestinal enzymes.

Keywords: carnivorous fish, enterocyte, intestinal epithelium, teleost

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9914 Application of Customized Bioaugmentation Inocula to Alleviate Ammonia Toxicity in CSTR Anaerobic Digesters

Authors: Yixin Yan, Miao Yan, Irini Angelidaki, Ioannis Fotidis


Ammonia, which derives from the degradation of urea and protein-substrates, is the major toxicant of the commercial anaerobic digestion reactors causing loses of up to 1/3 of their practical biogas production, which reflects directly on the overall revenue of the plants. The current experimental work is aiming to alleviate the ammonia inhibition in anaerobic digestion (AD) process by developing an innovative bioaugmentation method of ammonia tolerant methanogenic consortia. The ammonia tolerant consortia were cultured in batch reactors and immobilized together with biochar in agar (customized inocula). Three continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTR), fed with the organic fraction of municipal solid waste at a hydraulic retention time of 15 days and operated at thermophilic (55°C) conditions were assessed. After an ammonia shock of 4 g NH4+-N L-1, the customized inocula were bioaugmented into the CSTR reactors to alleviate ammonia toxicity effect on AD process. Recovery rate of methane production and methanogenic activity will be assessed to evaluate the bioaugmentation performance, while 16s rRNA gene sequence will be used to reveal the difference of microbial community changes through bioaugmentation. At the microbial level, the microbial community structures of the four reactors will be analysed to find the mechanism of bioaugmentation. Changes in hydrogen formation potential will be used to predict direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) between ammonia tolerant methanogens and syntrophic bacteria. This experimental work is expected to create bioaugmentation inocula that will be easy to obtain, transport, handled and bioaugment in AD reactors to efficiently alleviate the ammonia toxicity, without alternating any of the other operational parameters including the ammonia-rich feedstocks.

Keywords: artisanal fishing waste, acidogenesis, volatile fatty acids, pH, inoculum/substrate ratio

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9913 The Effects of Nano Zerovalent Iron (nZVI) and Magnesium Oxide Nanoparticles on Methane Production during Anaerobic Digestion of Waste Activated Sludge

Authors: Passkorn Khanthongthip, John T. Novak


Many studies have been reported that the nZVI and MgO NPs were often found in waste activated sludge (WAS). However, little is known about the impact of those NPs on WAS stabilization. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of both NPs on WAS anaerobic digestion for methane production and to examine the change of metanogenic population under those different environments using qPCR. Four dosages (2, 50, 100, and 200 mg/g-TSS) of MgO NPs were added to four different bottles containing WAS to investigate the impact of MgO NPs on methane production during WAS anaerobic digestion. The effects of nZVI on methane production during WAS anaerobic digestion were also conducted in another four bottles using the same methods described above except that the MgO NPs were replaced by nZVI. A bottle of WAS anaerobic digestion without nanoparticles addition was also operated to serve as a control. It was found that the relative amounts, compared to the control system, of methane production in each WAS anaerobic digestion bottle adding 2, 50, 100, 200 mg/gTSS MgO NPs were 98, 62, 28, and 14 %, respectively. This suggests that higher MgO NPs resulted in lower methane production. The data of batch test for the effects of corresponding released Mg2+ indicated that 50 mg/gTSS MgO NPs or higher could inhibit methane production at least 25%. Moreover, the volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration was 328, 384, 928, 3,684, and 7,848 mg/L for the control and four WAS anaerobic digestion bottles with 2, 50, 100, 200 mg/gTSS MgO NPs addition, respectively. Higher VFA concentration could reduce pH and subsequently decrease methanogen growth, resulting in lower methane production. The relative numbers of total gene copies of methanogens analyzed from samples taken from WAS anaerobic digestion bottles were approximately 99, 68, 38, and 24 % of control for the addition of 2, 50, 100, and 200 mg/gTSS, respectively. Obviously, the more MgO NPs appeared in sludge anaerobic digestion system, the less methanogens remained. In contrast, the relative amount of methane production found in another four WAS anaerobic digestion bottles adding 2, 50, 100, and 200 mg/gTSS nZVI were 102, 128, 112, and 104 % of the control, respectively. The measurement of methanogenic population indicated that the relative content of methanogen gene copies were 101, 132, 120, and 112 % of those found in control, respectively. Additionally, the cumulative VFA was 320, 234, 308, and 330 mg/L, respectively. This reveals that nZVI addition could assist to increase methanogenic population. Higher amount of methanogen accelerated VFA degradation for greater methane production, resulting in lower VFA accumulation in digesters. Moreover, the data for effects of corresponding released Fe2+ conducted by batch tests suggest that the addition of approximately 50 mg/gTSS nZVI increased methane production by 20%. In conclusion, the presence of MgO NPs appeared to diminish the methane production during WAS anaerobic digestion. Higher MgO NPs dosages resulted in more inhibition on methane production. In contrast, nZVI addition promoted the amount of methanogenic population which facilitated methane production.

Keywords: magnesium oxide nanoparticles, methane production, methanogenic population, nano zerovalent iron

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9912 Nitrogen Fixation of Soybean Approaches for Enhancing under Saline and Water Stress Conditions

Authors: Ayman El Sabagh, AbdElhamid Omar, Dekoum Assaha, Khair Mohammad Youldash, Akihiro Ueda, Celaleddin Barutçular, Hirofumi Saneoka


Drought and salinity stress are a worldwide problem, constraining global crop production seriously. Hence, soybean is susceptible to yield loss from water deficit and salinity stress. Therefore, different approaches have been suggested to solve these issues. Osmoprotectants play an important role in protection the plants from various environmental stresses. Moreover, organic fertilization has several beneficial effects on agricultural fields. Presently, efforts to maximize nitrogen fixation in soybean are critical because of widespread increase in soil degradation in Egypt. Therefore, a greenhouse research was conducted at plant nutritional physiology laboratory, Hiroshima University, Japan for assessing the impact of exogenous osmoregulators and compost application in alleviating the adverse effects of salinity and water stress on soybean. Treatments was included (i) water stress treatments (different soil moisture levels consisting of (100%, 75%, and 50% of field water holding capacity), (ii) salinity concentrations (0 and 15 mM) were applied in fully developed trifoliolate leaf node (V1), (iii) compost treatments (0 and 24 t ha-1) and (iv) the exogenous, proline and glycine betaine concentrations (0 mM and 25 mM) for each, was applied at two growth stages (V1 and R1). The seeds of soybean cultivar Giza 111, was sown into basin from wood (length10 meter, width 50cm, height 50cm and depth 350cm) containing a soil mixture of granite regosol soil and perlite (2:1 v/v). The nitrogen-fixing activity was estimated by using gas chromatography and all measurements were made in three replicates. The results showed that water deficit and salinity stress reduced biological nitrogen fixation and specific nodule activity than normal irrigation conditions. Exogenous osmoprotectants were improved biological nitrogen fixation and specific nodule activity as well as, applying of compost led to improving many of biological nitrogen fixation and specific nodule activity with superiority than stress conditions. The combined application compost fertilizer and exogenous osmoprotectants were more effective in alleviating the adverse effect of stress to improve biological nitrogen fixation and specific nodule activity of Soybean.

Keywords: a biotic stress, biological nitrogen fixation, compost, osmoprotectants, specific nodule activity, soybean

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9911 The Relationship between Motivation for Physical Activity and Level of Physical Activity over Time

Authors: Keyvan Molanorouzi, Selina Khoo, Tony Morris


In recent years, there has been a decline in physical activity among adults. Motivation has been shown to be a crucial factor in maintaining physical activity. The purpose of this study was to whether PA motives measured by the Physical Activity and Leisure Motivation Scale PALMS predicted actual amount of PA at a later time to provide evidence for the construct validity of the PALMS. A quantitative, cross-sectional descriptive research design was employed. The Demographic Form, PALMS, and International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short form (IPAQ-S) questionnaires were used to assess motives and amount for physical activity in adults on two occasions. A sample of 640 (489 male, 151 female) undergraduate students aged 18 to 25 years (mean ±SD; 22.30±8.13 years) took part in the study. Male participants were divided into three types of activities, namely exercise, racquet sport, and team sports and female participants only took part in one type of activity, namely team sports. After 14 weeks, all 640 undergraduate students who had filled in the initial questionnaire (Occasion 1) received the questionnaire via email (Occasion 2). Of the 640 students, 493 (77%; 378 males, 115 females) emailed back the completed questionnaire. The results showed that not only were pertinent sub-scales of PALMS positively related to amount of physical activity, but separate regression analyses showed the positive predictive effect of PALMS motives for amount of physical activity for each type of physical activity among participants. This study supported the construct validity of the PALMS by showing that the motives measured by PALMS did predict amount of PA. This information can be obtained to match people with specific sport or activity which in turn could potentially promote longer adherence to the specific activity.Methods: A quantitative, cross-sectional descriptive research design was employed. The Demographic Form, PALMS, and International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short form (IPAQ-S) questionnaires were used to assess motives and amount for physical activity in adults on two occasions. A sample of 640 (489 male, 151 female) undergraduate students aged 18 to 25 years (mean ±SD; 22.30±8.13 years) took part in the study. Male participants were divided into three types of activities, namely exercise, racquet sport, and team sports and female participants only took part in one type of activity, namely team sports. After 14 weeks, all 640 undergraduate students who had filled in the initial questionnaire (Occasion 1) received the questionnaire via email (Occasion 2). Of the 640 students, 493 (77%; 378 males, 115 females) emailed back the completed questionnaire. Results: The results showed that not only were pertinent sub-scales of PALMS positively related to amount of physical activity, but separate regression analyses showed the positive predictive effect of PALMS motives for amount of physical activity for each type of physical activity among participants. This study supported the construct validity of the PALMS by showing that the motives measured by PALMS did predict amount of PA. Conclusion: This information can be obtained to match people with specific sport or activity which in turn could potentially promote longer adherence to the specific activity.

Keywords: physical activity, motivation, level of physical activity, type of physical activity

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9910 Antioxidant Activity of the Algerian Traditional Kefir Supernatant

Authors: H. Amellal-Chibane, N. Dehdouh, S. Ait-Kaki, F. Halladj


Kefir is fermented milk that is produced by adding Kefir grains, consisting of bacteria and yeasts, to milk. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of the kefir supernatant and the raw milk. The Antioxidant activity assays of kefir supernatant and raw milk were evaluated by assessing the DPPH radical-scavenging activity. Kefir supernatant demonstrated high antioxidant activity (87.75%) compared to the raw milk (70.59 %). These results suggest that the Algerian kefir has interesting antioxidant activity.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, kefir, kefir supernatant, raw milk

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9909 To Assess Variables Related to Self-Efficacy for Increasing Physical Activity in Advanced-Stage Cancer Patients

Authors: S. Nikpour, S. Vahidi, H. Haghani


Introduction: Exercise has mental and physical health benefits for patients with advanced stage cancer who actively receive chemotherapy, yet little is known about patients’ levels of interest in becoming more active or their confidence in increasing their activity level. Methods and materials: A convenience sample of 200 patients with advanced-stage cancer who were receiving chemotherapy completed self-report measures assessing physical activity level, mood, and quality-of-life variables. Qualitative data on patient-perceived benefits of, and barriers to, physical activity also were collected, coded by independent raters, and organized by predominant themes. Results: Current physical activity level, physical activity outcome expectations, and positive mood were significantly associated with self-efficacy. Fatigue was the most frequently listed barrier to physical activity; improved physical strength and health were the most commonly listed benefits. Participants identified benefits related to both general health and cancer-symptom management that were related to exercise. 59.5% of participants reported that they were seriously planning to increase or maintain their physical activity level, and over 40% reported having interest in receiving an intervention to become more active. Conclusion: These results suggested that many advanced-stage cancer patients who receive chemotherapy are interested in maintaining or increasing their physical activity level and in receiving professional support for exercise. In addition, these individuals identified general health and cancer-specific benefits of, and barriers to, physical activity. Future research will investigate how these findings may be incorporated into physical activity interventions for advanced-stage oncology patients receiving medical treatment.

Keywords: physical activity, cancer, self-efficacy

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9908 Physical Activity, Exercise and Physical Fitness in Different Generation

Authors: Carl J. Caspersen, Kenneth E. Powell, Gregory M. Christenson, Kirupa V. Patel


‘Physical activity’, ‘exercise’, and ‘physical fitness’ are terms that describe different concepts. However, they are often confused with one another, and the terms are sometimes used interchangeably. This paper proposes definitions to distinguish them. Physical activity is defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that result in energy expenditure. The energy expenditure can be measured in kilocalories. Physical activity in daily life can be categorized into occupational, sports, Conditioning, household, or other activities. Exercise is a subset of physical activity that is planned, structured, and repetitive and has as a final or an intermediate objective the improvement or maintenance of physical fitness. Physical fitness is a set of attributes that are either health- or skill-related. The degree to which people have these attributes can be measured with specific tests. These definitions are offered as an interpretational framework for comparing studies that relate physical activity, exercise, and physical fitness to health. Physical activity is defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that require energy expenditure. Physical inactivity has been identified as the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality causing an estimated 3.2 million deaths globally. Regular moderate intensity physical activity – such as walking, cycling, or participating in sports – has significant benefits for health. For instance, it can reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, colon and breast cancer, and depression. Moreover, adequate levels of physical activity will decrease the risk of a hip or vertebral fracture and help control weight. Any bodily movement produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle that increases energy expenditure above a basal level. In these guidelines, physical activity generally refers to the subset of physical activity that enhances health.

Keywords: physical activity, exercise, physical fitness, sports

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9907 Validation of Contemporary Physical Activity Tracking Technologies through Exercise in a Controlled Environment

Authors: Reem I. Altamimi, Geoff D. Skinner


Extended periods engaged in sedentary behavior increases the risk of becoming overweight and/or obese which is linked to other health problems. Adding technology to the term ‘active living’ permits its inclusion in promoting and facilitating habitual physical activity. Technology can either act as a barrier to, or facilitate this lifestyle, depending on the chosen technology. Physical Activity Monitoring Technologies (PAMTs) are a popular example of such technologies. Different contemporary PAMTs have been evaluated based on customer reviews; however, there is a lack of published experimental research into the efficacy of PAMTs. This research aims to investigate the reliability of four PAMTs: two wristbands (Fitbit Flex and Jawbone UP), a waist-clip (Fitbit One), and a mobile application (iPhone Health Application) for recording a specific distance walked on a treadmill (1.5km) at constant speed. Physical activity tracking technologies are varied in their recordings, even while performing the same activity. This research demonstrates that Jawbone UP band recorded the most accurate distance compared to Fitbit One, Fitbit Flex, and iPhone Health Application.

Keywords: Fitbit, jawbone up, mobile tracking applications, physical activity tracking technologies

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9906 An Assessment of the Effects of Microbial Products on the Specific Oxygen Uptake in Submerged Membrane Bioreactor

Authors: M. F. R. Zuthi, H. H. Ngo, W. S. Guo, S. S. Chen, N. C. Nguyen, L. J. Deng, T. D. C Tran


Sustaining a desired rate of oxygen transfer for microbial activity is a matter of major concern for Biological Wastewater Treatment (MBR). The study reported in the paper was aimed at assessing the effects of microbial products on the Specific Oxygen Uptake Rate (SOUR) in a Conventional Membrane Bioreactor (CMBR) and that in a Sponge Submerged MBR (SSMBR). The production and progressive accumulation of Soluble Microbial Products (SMP) and Bound-Extracellular Polymeric Substances (BEPS) were found affecting the SOUR of the microorganisms which varied at different stages of operation of the MBR systems depending on the variable concentrations of the SMP/bEPS. The effect of bEPS on the SOUR was stronger in the SSMBR compared to that of the SMP, while relative high concentrations of SMP had adverse effects on the SOUR of the CMBR system. Of the different mathematical correlations analyzed in the study, logarithmic mathematical correlations could be established between SOUR and bEPS in SSMBR, and similar correlations could also be found between SOUR and SMP concentrations in the CMBR.

Keywords: microbial products, microbial activity, specific oxygen uptake rate, membrane bioreactor

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9905 Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Modeling of Detoxication Properties of Some 1,2-Dithiole-3-Thione Derivatives

Authors: Nadjib Melkemi, Salah Belaidi


Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) studies have been performed on nineteen molecules of 1,2-dithiole-3-thione analogues. The compounds used are the potent inducers of enzymes involved in the maintenance of reduced glutathione pools as well as phase-2 enzymes important to electrophile detoxication. A multiple linear regression (MLR) procedure was used to design the relationships between molecular descriptor and detoxication properties of the 1,2-dithiole-3-thione derivatives. The predictivity of the model was estimated by cross-validation with the leave-one-out method. Our results suggest a QSAR model based of the following descriptors: qS2, qC3, qC5, qS6, DM, Pol, log P, MV, SAG, HE and EHOMO for the specific activity of quinone reductase; qS1, qS2, qC3, qC4, qC5, qS6, DM, Pol, logP, MV, SAG, HE and EHOMO for the production of growth hormone. To confirm the predictive power of the models, an external set of molecules was used. High correlation between experimental and predicted activity values was observed, indicating the validation and the good quality of the derived QSAR models.

Keywords: QSAR, quinone reductase activity, production of growth hormone, MLR

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9904 Pd Supported on Activated Carbon: Effect of Support Texture on the Dispersion of Pd

Authors: Ji Sun Kim, Jae Ho Baek, Kyeong Ho Kim, Ji Hae Ha, Seong Soo Hong, Jung-Wook Park, Man Sig Lee


Carbon supported palladium catalysts have been used in many industrial reactions, especially for hydrogenation in the fine chemical industry. Porous carbons had been widely used as catalyst supports due to its higher surface area and larger pore volume. The specific surface area, pore structure and surface chemical functional groups of porous carbon affects metal dispersion and particle size. In this paper, we confirm the effect of support texture on the dispersion of Pd. Pd catalyst supported on activated carbon having various specific surface area were characterized by BET, XRD and FE-TEM. Catalyst activity and dispersion of prepared catalyst were evaluated on the basis of the CO adsorption capacity by CO-chemisorption. As concluding remark to this part of our study, let us note that specific area of carbon play important role on the synthesis of Pd/C catalyst/.

Keywords: carbon, dispersion, Pd/C, specific are, support

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9903 Investigating Activity Recognition Using 9-Axis Sensors and Filters in Wearable Devices

Authors: Jun Gil Ahn, Jong Kang Park, Jong Tae Kim


In this paper, we analyze major components of activity recognition (AR) in wearable device with 9-axis sensors and sensor fusion filters. 9-axis sensors commonly include 3-axis accelerometer, 3-axis gyroscope and 3-axis magnetometer. We chose sensor fusion filters as Kalman filter and Direction Cosine Matrix (DCM) filter. We also construct sensor fusion data from each activity sensor data and perform classification by accuracy of AR using Naïve Bayes and SVM. According to the classification results, we observed that the DCM filter and the specific combination of the sensing axes are more effective for AR in wearable devices while classifying walking, running, ascending and descending.

Keywords: accelerometer, activity recognition, directiona cosine matrix filter, gyroscope, Kalman filter, magnetometer

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9902 Biological Activity of Essential Oils from Salvia nemorosa L.

Authors: Abdol-Hassan Doulah


In this study, antimicrobial activity of essential oil and ethyl acetate and ether extracts of S. nemorosa were examined against some species of bacteria and fungi. The essential oil of the aerial part of S. nemorosa was examined by GC and GC-MS. In the essential oil of S. nemorosa 26 Compounds have been identified. 2-Nonanone (44.09 %), 2-Undecanone (33.79 %), E-Caryophyllene (3.74 %) and 2-Decanone (2.89 %) were the main components of the essential oil. The essential oil analysis showed greatest antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis (5.3 μg/ml) and S. cerevisiae (9.3 μg/ml). The ethyl acetate showed greatest antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis (106.7 μg/ml), Candida albicans (5.3 μg/ml) and ether extract showed greatest antimicrobial activity against Klebseilla pneumoniae (10.7 μg/ml) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (10.7 μg/ml). In conclusion, we suggest that the antimicrobial activity of S. nemorosa may be due to its content of germacrene and linalool.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, Salvia nemorosa L., essential oils, biological activity

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9901 The Order Russulales of Basidiomycota: Systematics, Ecology and Chemotaxonomy

Authors: Marco Clericuzio, Alfredo Vizzini


The secondary metabolites of Russulales (one of the main orders of phylum Basidiomycota), have been studied. They are mainly terpenoids, with sesquiterpenes being the most common ones, but also triterpenoids and prenylated phenols have been isolated. We found that classes of specific compounds seem to be often allied to systematic groupings, so that they may have chemotaxonomic significance. Moreover, the ecological implications of such metabolites, as well as their biological activities, are discussed. Lately, we have focused our attention on the anti-arthropod activity of Russula metabolites, in particular on the toxicity against mites and other crop pests.

Keywords: chemotaxonomy, fungi, insecticidal activity, russulales, terpenoids

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9900 Separation and Characterization of Micobacterium bovis Cell Surface Lysate Antigen

Authors: Albina V. Moskvicheva, Gevorg G. Kazarian, Anna R. Valeeva, Marina A. Efimova, Malik N. Mukminov, Eduard A. Shuralev, Rustam Kh. Ravilov, Kamil S. Khaertynov


Improving the early diagnosis of tuberculosis and solving a number of problems associated with the differential diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection, nonspecific tuberculin reactions caused by sensitization of the body by non-tuberculosis mycobacteria, is urgent. The filtrates and extracts of M. bovis cell surface components are promising antigens with diagnostic potential. The purpose of this study was to isolate and characterize antigenic proteins and determine the dominant M. bovis antigens recognized by the humoral immune system. The mycobacterial cells were homogenized on FastPrep-24. Gel-filtration chromatography was used to fractionate the lysates of cell surface component extracts and proteins isolated from M. bovis culture supernatant. The separated fractions were analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by determination of antigen serological activity using immunoblot with specific hyperimmune rabbit blood serum. As a result of electrophoretic separation of components by molecular weight, 23 antigen fractions were obtained. Analysis of densitograms showed that the fractions contained two zones of antigens with pronounced serological activity, corresponding to molecular weights of 28 and 21 kDa. The high serological activity of the 28 kDa antigen was established by immunoblot using hyperimmune blood sera. Separated and characterized by M. bovis specific antigen with a molecular weight of 28 kDa was added to the collection of specific marker antigens for M. bovis.

Keywords: antigen, gel-filtration chromatography, immunoblot, Mycobacterium bovis

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9899 An Extended Domain-Specific Modeling Language for Marine Observatory Relying on Enterprise Architecture

Authors: Charbel Aoun, Loic Lagadec


A Sensor Network (SN) is considered as an operation of two phases: (1) the observation/measuring, which means the accumulation of the gathered data at each sensor node; (2) transferring the collected data to some processing center (e.g., Fusion Servers) within the SN. Therefore, an underwater sensor network can be defined as a sensor network deployed underwater that monitors underwater activity. The deployed sensors, such as Hydrophones, are responsible for registering underwater activity and transferring it to more advanced components. The process of data exchange between the aforementioned components perfectly defines the Marine Observatory (MO) concept which provides information on ocean state, phenomena and processes. The first step towards the implementation of this concept is defining the environmental constraints and the required tools and components (Marine Cables, Smart Sensors, Data Fusion Server, etc). The logical and physical components that are used in these observatories perform some critical functions such as the localization of underwater moving objects. These functions can be orchestrated with other services (e.g. military or civilian reaction). In this paper, we present an extension to our MO meta-model that is used to generate a design tool (ArchiMO). We propose new constraints to be taken into consideration at design time. We illustrate our proposal with an example from the MO domain. Additionally, we generate the corresponding simulation code using our self-developed domain-specific model compiler. On the one hand, this illustrates our approach in relying on Enterprise Architecture (EA) framework that respects: multiple views, perspectives of stakeholders, and domain specificity. On the other hand, it helps reducing both complexity and time spent in design activity, while preventing from design modeling errors during porting this activity in the MO domain. As conclusion, this work aims to demonstrate that we can improve the design activity of complex system based on the use of MDE technologies and a domain-specific modeling language with the associated tooling. The major improvement is to provide an early validation step via models and simulation approach to consolidate the system design.

Keywords: smart sensors, data fusion, distributed fusion architecture, sensor networks, domain specific modeling language, enterprise architecture, underwater moving object, localization, marine observatory, NS-3, IMS

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9898 Electromyography Activity of the Lower Limb Muscles during Prostration and Squat Exercise

Authors: M. K. Mohd Safee, W. A. B. Wan Abas, F. Ibrahim, N. A. Abu Osman, N. A. Abdul Malik


This paper investigates the activity of the rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) in healthy subjects during salat (prostration) and specific exercise (squat exercise) using electromyography (EMG). A group of undergraduates aged between 19 to 25 years voluntarily participated in this study. The myoelectric activity of the muscles were recorded and analyzed. The finding indicated that there were contractions of the muscles during the salat and exercise with almost same EMG’s level. From the result, Wilcoxon’s Rank Sum test showed significant difference between prostration and squat exercise (p < 0.05) but the differences was very small; RF (8.63% MVC) and BF (11.43% MVC). Therefore, salat may be useful in strengthening exercise and also in rehabilitation programs for lower limb activities. This pilot study conducted initial research into the bio mechanical responses of human muscles in various positions of salat.

Keywords: electromyography, exercise, muscle, salat

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9897 Medium Design and Optimization for High Β-Galactosidase Producing Microbial Strains from Dairy Waste through Fermentation

Authors: Ashish Shukla, K. P. Mishra, Pushplata Tripathi


This paper investigates the production and optimization of β-galactosidase enzyme using synthetic medium by isolated wild strains (S1, S2) mutated strains (M1, M2) through SSF and SmF. Among the different cell disintegration methods used, the highest specific activity was obtained when the cells were permeabilized using isoamyl alcohol. Wet lab experiments were performed to investigate the effects of carbon and nitrogen substrates present in Vogel’s medium on β-galactosidase enzyme activity using S1, S2, and M1, M2 strains through SSF. SmF experiments were performed for effects of carbon and nitrogen sources in YLK2Mg medium on β-galactosidase enzyme activity using S1, S2 and M1, M2 strains. Effect of pH on β-galactosidase enzyme production was also done using S1, S2, and M1, M2 strains. Results were found to be very appreciable in all the cases.

Keywords: β-galactosidase, cell disintegration, permeabilized, SSF, SmF

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9896 Electromyography Activity of the Rectus Femoris and Biceps Femoris Muscles during Prostration and Squat Exercise

Authors: M. K. Mohd Safee, W. A. B. Wan Abas, F. Ibrahim, N. A. Abu Osman, N. A Abdul Malik


This paper investigates the activity of the rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) in healthy subjects during salat (prostration) and specific exercise (squat exercise) using electromyography (EMG). A group of undergraduates aged between 19 to 25 years voluntarily participated in this study. The myoelectric activity of the muscles were recorded and analyzed. The finding indicated that there were contractions of the muscles during the salat and exercise with almost same EMG’s level. From the result, Wilcoxon’s Rank Sum test showed significant difference between prostration and squat exercise (p<0.05) but the differences was very small; RF (8.63%MVC) and BF (11.43%MVC). Therefore, salat may be useful in strengthening exercise and also in rehabilitation programs for lower limb activities. This pilot study conducted initial research into the biomechanical responses of human muscles in various positions of salat.

Keywords: electromyography, exercise, muscle, salat

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9895 Exploring the Strategy to Identify Seed-Specific Acyl-Hydrolases from Arabidopsis thaliana by Activity-Based Protein Profiling

Authors: M. Latha, Achintya K. Dolui, P. Vijayaraj


Vegetable oils mainly triacylglycerol (TAG) are an essential nutrient in the human diet as well as one of the major global commodity. There is a pressing need to enhance the yield of oil production to meet the world’s growing demand. Oil content is controlled by the balance between synthesis and breakdown in the cells. Several studies have established to increase the oil content by the overexpression of oil biosynthetic enzymes. Interestingly the significant oil accumulation was observed with impaired TAG hydrolysis. Unfortunately, the structural, as well as the biochemical properties of the lipase enzymes, is widely unknown, and so far, no candidate gene was identified in seeds except sugar-dependent1 (SDP1). Evidence has shown that SDP1directly responsible for initiation of oil breakdown in the seeds during germination. The present study is the identification of seed-specific acyl-hydrolases by activity based proteome profiling (ABPP) using Arabidopsis thaliana as a model system. The ABPP reveals that around 8 to 10 proteins having the serine hydrolase domain and are expressed during germination of Arabidopsis seed. The N-term sequencing, as well as LC-MS/MS analysis, was performed for the differentially expressed protein during germination. The coding region of the identified proteins was cloned, and lipases activity was assessed with purified recombinant protein. The enzyme assay was performed against various lipid substrates, and we have observed the acylhydrolase activity towards lysophosphatidylcholine and monoacylglycerol. Further, the functional characteristic of the identified protein will reveal the physiological significance the enzyme in oil accumulation.

Keywords: lipase, lipids, vegetable oil, triacylglycerol

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9894 Physiological Regulation of Lignin-Modifying Enzymes Synthesis by Selected Basidiomycetes

Authors: Ana Tsokilauri


The uppermost factor in the regulation of lignin-cellulose activity of decaying white rot or free rot are the substances serving as carbon and nitrogen nutrition of microorganisms and are considered as the most important factor of generative activity of white rot. The research object was Basidiomycete Fungi, peculiar and common in Georgia, and the separation of 10 of them as pure crops. The unidentified pure crops have tasted in order to be determined the potential of synthesis of lignin-degrading enzymes and the substrate of optimal lignocellulose growth. One of the most important aspects of the research conducted on Basidiomycetes was the use of specific lignocellulosic residues for selecting Fungi as a substrate of their growth. In order to increase lignocellulose with the help of substrate, crops were selected from the screening stage that showed good laccase activity. (Dusheti 1; Dusheti 10; Fshavi 5; Fshavi1; Fshavi 8; Fshavi 32; Manglisi 26; Sabaduri20; Dusheti 7; Sabaduri 1 ), Among the selected cultures, the crops with good laccase activity against the following substances, in particular: Dusheti 1- in this case, the rate of enzymatic activity on bran substrate was -105,6 u/ml, mandarin-96,4 u/ml. In case of corn - 102,9 u/ml. In case of Dusheti 7- the indicators were as follows: bananas-121,7 u/ml, mandarin-125,4 u/ml, corn - 117,1 u/ml. In the case of Sanaduri 32, the laccase activity was as follows: pomegranate- 101,2 u/ml. As a result of conducted experiments, the synthesis and activity rates of enzymes depending on plant substrates varied within a fairly wide range, which is still being under research.

Keywords: Lignocellulosic substrate, Basidiomycetes, white-rot basidiomycetes, Laccase

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9893 Cardiovascular Disease Is Common among Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Authors: Fathia Ehmouda Zaid, Reim Abudelnbi


Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Patients and method: Cross-section study (68) patients diagnosed as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), who visited the outpatient clinic of rheumatology, these patients were interviewed with a structured questionnaire about their past and current clinically for presence of Cardiovascular disease in systemic lupus and use SLEDAI, specific tests [ECG –ECHO –CXRAY] the data are analyzed statistically by Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated and statistical significance was defined as P< 0.05,during period (2013-2014). Objective: Estimation Cardiovascular disease manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus, correlation with disease activity, morbidity, and mortality. Result: (68) Patients diagnosed as systemic lupus erythematosus' age range from (18-48 years), M=(13±29Y), Sex were female 66/68 (97.1%), male 2/68 (2.9%),duration of disease range[1-15year], M =[7±8y], we found Cardiovascular disease manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus 32/68 (47.1%), correlation with disease activity use SLEDAI,(r= 476** p=0.000),Morbidity,(r= .554**; p=0.000) and mortality (r=.181; p=.139), Cardiovascular disease manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus are pericarditis 8/68 (11.8%), pericardial effusion 6/68 (8.8%), myocarditis 4/68 (5.9 %), valvular lesions (endocarditis) 1/68 (1.5%), pulmonary hypertension (PAH) 12/68 (17.6%), coronary artery disease 1/68 (1.5%), none of patients have conduction abnormalities involvement. Correlation with disease activity use SLEDAI, pericarditis (r= .210, p=.086), pericardial effusion (r= 0.079, p=.520), myocarditis (r= 272*, p=.027), valvular lesions (endocarditis) (r= .112, p= .362), pulmonary hypertension (PAH) (r= .257*, p=.035) and coronary artery disease (r=.075, p=.544) correlation between cardiovascular disease manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus and specific organ involvement we found Mucocutaneous (r=.091 p= .459), musculoskeletal (MSK) (r=.110 p=.373), Renal disease (r=.278*, p=.022), neurologic disease (r=.085, p=.489) and Hematologic disease (r=-.264*, p=.030). Conclusion: Cardiovascular manifestation is more frequent symptoms with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is 47 % correlation with disease activity and morbidity but not with mortality. Recommendations: Focus research to evaluation and an adequate assessment of cardiovascular complications on the morbidity and mortality of the patients with SLE are still required.

Keywords: cardiovascular disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, disease activity, mortality

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9892 The Potential of Ursolic Acid Acetate as an Agent for Malarial Chemotherapy

Authors: Mthokozisi B. C. Simelane


Despite the various efforts by governmental and non-governmental organizations aimed at eradicating the disease, malaria is said to kill a child every 30 seconds. Traditional healers use different concoctions prepared from medicinal plants to treat malaria. In the quest to bio-prospect plant-derived triterpenes for anti-malaria activity, we report here the in vivo antiplasmodial activity of ursolic acid acetate (ursolic acid isolated from dichloromethane extract of Mimusops caffra was chemically modified to its acetate derivative). The transdermal administration of ursolic acid acetate (UAA) dose dependently showed complete inhibition of the parasites’ growth at the highest concentration of 400 mg/kg after 15 days of Plasmodium berghei infection. UAA prevented the in vitro aggregation of MDH but did not prevent the expression of PfHsp 70 in E. coli XL1 blue cells. It, however, enhanced PfHsp70 ATPase activity with the specific activity of 65 units (amount of phosphate released 73.83 nmolPi/ Ursolic acid acetate prevented the formation of hemozoin (60 ± 0.02% at 6 mg/ml). The results suggest that Ursolic acid acetate possesses potential anti-malaria properties.

Keywords: Mimusops caffra, ursolic acid acetate, hemozoin, Malaria

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