Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Search results for: rockfall

6 The Phenomenon of Rockfall in the Traceca Corridor and the Choice of Engineering Measures to Combat It

Authors: I. Iremashvili, I. Pirtskhalaishvili, K. Kiknadze, F. Lortkipanidze


The paper deals with the causes of rockfall and its possible consequences on slopes adjacent to motorways and railways. A list of measures is given that hinder rockfall; these measures are directed at protecting roads from rockfalls, and not preventing them. From the standpoint of local stability of slopes the main effective measure is perhaps strengthening their surface by the method of filling, which will check or end (or both) the process of deformation, local slipping off, sliding off and development of erosion.

Keywords: rockfall, concrete spraying, heliodevices, railways

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5 A Structural Equation Model of Risk Perception of Rockfall for Revisit Intention

Authors: Ya-Fen Lee, Yun-Yao Chi


The study aims to explore the relationship between risk perceptions of rockfall and revisit intention using a Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) analysis. A total of 573 valid questionnaires are collected from travelers to Taroko National Park, Taiwan. The findings show the majority of travellers have the medium perception of rockfall risk, and are willing to revisit the Taroko National Park. The revisit intention to Taroko National Park is influenced by hazardous preferences, willingness-to-pay, obstruction and attraction. The risk perception has an indirect effect on revisit intention through influencing willingness-to-pay. The study results can be a reference for mitigation the rockfall disaster.

Keywords: risk perception, rockfall, revisit intention, structural equation modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
4 Analysis of Rockfall Hazard along Himalayan Road Cut Slopes

Authors: Sarada Prasad Pradhan, Vikram Vishal, Tariq Siddique


With a vast area of India comprising of hilly terrain and road cut slopes, landslides and rockfalls are a common phenomenon. However, while landslide studies have received much attention in the past in India, very little literature and analysis is available regarding rockfall hazard of many rockfall prone areas, specifically in Uttarakhand Himalaya, India. The subsequent lack of knowledge and understanding of the rockfall phenomenon as well as frequent incidences of rockfall led fatalities urge the necessity of conducting site-specific rockfall studies to highlight the importance of addressing this issue as well as to provide data for safe design of preventive structures. The present study has been conducted across 10 rockfall prone road cut slopes for a distance of 15 km starting from Devprayag, India along National Highway 58 (NH-58). In order to make a qualitative assessment of Rockfall Hazard posed by these slopes, Rockfall Hazard Rating using standards for Indian Rockmass has been conducted at 10 locations under different slope conditions. Moreover, to accurately predict the characteristics of the possible rockfall phenomenon, numerical simulation was carried out to calculate the maximum bounce heights, total kinetic energies, translational velocities and trajectories of the falling rockmass blocks when simulated on each of these slopes according to real-life conditions. As it was observed that varying slope geometry had more fatal impacts on Rockfall hazard than size of rock masses, several optimizations have been suggested for each slope regarding location of barriers and modification of slope geometries in order to minimize damage by falling rocks. This study can be extremely useful in emphasizing the significance of rockfall studies and construction of mitigative barriers and structures along NH-58 around Devprayag.

Keywords: rockfall, slope stability, rockmass, hazard

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
3 Web Map Service for Fragmentary Rockfall Inventory

Authors: M. Amparo Nunez-Andres, Nieves Lantada


One of the most harmful geological risks is rockfalls. They cause both economic lost, damaged in buildings and infrastructures, and personal ones. Therefore, in order to estimate the risk of the exposed elements, it is necessary to know the mechanism of this kind of events, since the characteristics of the rock walls, to the propagation of fragments generated by the initial detached rock mass. In the framework of the research RockModels project, several inventories of rockfalls were carried out along the northeast of the Spanish peninsula and the Mallorca island. These inventories have general information about the events, although the important fact is that they contained detailed information about fragmentation. Specifically, the IBSD (Insitu Block Size Distribution) is obtained by photogrammetry from drone or TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanner) and the RBSD (Rock Block Size Distribution) from the volume of the fragment in the deposit measured by hand. In order to share all this information with other scientists, engineers, members of civil protection, and stakeholders, it is necessary a platform accessible from the internet and following interoperable standards. In all the process, open-software have been used: PostGIS 2.1., Geoserver, and OpenLayers library. In the first step, a spatial database was implemented to manage all the information. We have used the data specifications of INSPIRE for natural risks adding specific and detailed data about fragmentation distribution. The next step was to develop a WMS with Geoserver. A previous phase was the creation of several views in PostGIS to show the information at different scales of visualization and with different degrees of detail. In the first view, the sites are identified with a point, and basic information about the rockfall event is facilitated. In the next level of zoom, at medium scale, the convex hull of the rockfall appears with its real shape and the source of the event and fragments are represented by symbols. The queries at this level offer a major detail about the movement. Eventually, the third level shows all elements: deposit, source, and blocks, in their real size, if it is possible, and in their real localization. The last task was the publication of all information in a web mapping site ( with data classified by levels using libraries in JavaScript as OpenLayers.

Keywords: geological risk, web mapping, WMS, rockfalls

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
2 Slope Stability Study at Jalan Tun Sardon and Sungai Batu, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia by Using 2-D Resistivity Method

Authors: Muhamad Iqbal Mubarak Faharul Azman, Azim Hilmy Mohd Yusof, Nur Azwin Ismail, Noer El Hidayah Ismail


Landslides and rock falls are the examples of environmental and engineering problems in Malaysia. There are various methods that can be applied for the environmental and engineering problems but geophysical methods are seldom applied as the main investigation technique. This paper aims to study the slope stability by using 2-D resistivity method at Jalan Tun Sardon and Sungai Batu, Pulau Pinang. These areas are considered as highly potential for unstable slope in Penang Island based on recent cases of rockfall and landslide reported especially during raining season. At both study areas, resistivity values greater than 5000 ohm-m are detected and considered as the fresh granite. The weathered granite is indicated by resistivity value of 750-1500 ohm-m with depth of < 14 meters at Sungai Batu area while at Jalan Tun Sardon area, the weathered granite with resistivity values of 750-2000 ohm-m is found at depth < 14 meter at distance 0-90 meter but at distance of 95-150 meter, the weathered granite is found at depth < 26 meter. Saturated zone is detected only at Sungai Batu with resistivity value <250 ohm-m at distance 100-120 meter. A fracture is detected at distance about 70 meter at Jalan Tun Sardon area. Unstable slope is expected to be affected by the weathered granite that dominates the subsurface of the study areas along with triggering factor such as heavy rainfall.

Keywords: 2-D resistivity, environmental issue, landslide, slope stability

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1 The Future of Adventure Tourism in a Warmer World: An Exploratory Study of Mountain Guides’ Perception of Environmental Change in Canada

Authors: Brooklyn Rushton, Michelle Rutty, Natalie Knowles, Daniel Scott


As people are increasingly on the search for extraordinary experiences and connections with nature, adventure tourism is experiencing significant growth and providing tourists with life-changing experiences. Unlike built attraction-based tourism, adventure tourism relies entirely on natural heritage, which leaves communities dependent on adventure tourism extremely vulnerable to environmental and climatic changes. A growing body of evidence suggests that global climate change will influence the future of adventure tourism and mountain outdoor recreation opportunities on a global scale. Across Canada, more specifically, climate change is broadly anticipated to present risks for winter-snow sports, while opportunities are anticipated to arise for green season activities. These broad seasonal shifts do not account for the indirect impacts of climate change on adventure tourism, such as the cost of adaptation or the increase of natural hazards and the associated likelihood of accidents. While some research has examined the impact of climate change on natural environments that adventure tourism relies on, a very small body of research has specifically focused on guides’ perspectives or included hard adventure tourism activities. The guiding industry is unique, as guides are trained through an elegant blend of art and science to make decisions based on experience, observation, and intuition. While quantitative research can monitor change in natural environments, guides local knowledge can provide eye-witness accounts and outline what environmental changes mean for the future sustainability of adventure tourism. This research will capture the extensive knowledge of mountain guides to better understand the implications of climate change for mountain adventure and potential adaptive responses for the adventure tourism industry. This study uses a structured online survey with open and close-ended questions that will be administered using Qualtrics (an online survey platform). This survey is disseminated to current members of the Association of Canadian Mountain Guides (ACMG). Participation in this study will be exclusive to members of the ACMG operating in the outdoor guiding streams. The 25 survey questions are organized into four sections: demographic and professional operation (9 questions), physical change (4 questions), climate change perception (6 questions), and climate change adaptation (6 questions). How mountain guides perceive and respond to climate change is important knowledge for the future of the expanding adventure tourism industry. Results from this study are expected to provide important information to mountain destinations on climate change vulnerability and adaptive capacity. Expected results of this study include guides insight into: (1) experience-safety relevant observed physical changes in guided regions (i.e. glacial coverage, permafrost coverage, precipitation, temperature, and slope instability) (2) changes in hazards within the guiding environment (i.e. avalanches, rockfall, icefall, forest fires, flooding, and extreme weather events), (3) existing and potential adaptation strategies, and (4) key information and other barriers for adaptation. By gaining insight from the knowledge of mountain guides, this research can help the tourism industry at large understand climate risk and create adaptation strategies to ensure the resiliency of the adventure tourism industry.

Keywords: adventure tourism, climate change, environmental change, mountain hazards

Procedia PDF Downloads 119