Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Search results for: Lily Rachmawati

26 Challenges in Video Based Object Detection in Maritime Scenario Using Computer Vision

Authors: Dilip K. Prasad, C. Krishna Prasath, Deepu Rajan, Lily Rachmawati, Eshan Rajabally, Chai Quek


This paper discusses the technical challenges in maritime image processing and machine vision problems for video streams generated by cameras. Even well documented problems of horizon detection and registration of frames in a video are very challenging in maritime scenarios. More advanced problems of background subtraction and object detection in video streams are very challenging. Challenges arising from the dynamic nature of the background, unavailability of static cues, presence of small objects at distant backgrounds, illumination effects, all contribute to the challenges as discussed here.

Keywords: autonomous maritime vehicle, object detection, situation awareness, tracking

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25 Effect of Substrate Type on Pollutant Removal and Greenhouse Gases Emissions in Constructed Wetlands with Ornamental Plants

Authors: Maria E. Hernnadez, Elizabeth Ramos, Claudia Ortiz


Pollutant removal (N-NH4, COD, S-SO4, N-NO3 and P-PO4) and greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide) emissions were investigated in constructed wetlands CW mesocosms with four types of substrate (gravel (G) zeolite (Z), Gravel+Plastic (GP) and zeolite+plastic), all planted with the ornamental plant lily (Lilium sp). Significantly higher N-NH4 removal was found in the CW-Z (97%) and CW-ZP (85%) compared with CW-G (61%) and CW-GP (17%), also significantly lower emissions of nitrous oxide were found in CW-Z (2.2 µgm-2min-1) and CW-ZP (2.5 µgm-2min-1) compared with CW-G(7.4 µgm-2min-1 ) and CW-GP (6.30 µgm-2min-1).

Keywords: methane, nitrous oxide, lily, zeolite

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24 Parametric Analysis of Water Lily Shaped Split Ring Resonator Loaded Fractal Monopole Antenna for Multiband Applications

Authors: C. Elavarasi, T. Shanmuganantham


A coplanar waveguide (CPW) feed is presented, and comprising a split ring resonator (SRR) loaded fractal with water lily shape is used for multi band applications. The impedance matching of the antenna is determined by the number of Koch curve fractal unit cells. The antenna is designed on a FR4 substrate with a permittivity of εr = 4.4 and size of 14 x 16 x 1.6 mm3 to generate multi resonant mode at 3.8 GHz covering S band, 8.68 GHz at X band, 13.96 GHz at Ku band, and 19.74 GHz at K band with reflection coefficient better than -10 dB. Simulation results show that the antenna exhibits the desired voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) level and radiation patterns across the wide frequency range. The fundamental parameters of the antenna such as return loss, VSWR, good radiation pattern with reasonable gain across the operating bands are obtained.

Keywords: fractal, metamaterial, split ring resonator, waterlily shape

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23 Suitable Indoor Plants for Green Office Development in Faculty of Science and Technology, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Thailand

Authors: Tatsanawalai Utarasakul


Nowadays, green office principles are very broadly initiated in many offices, organizations, as well as in universities. The concepts of green office are composed of seven prominent issues. One of them, physical implementation, is to develop a pleasant atmosphere for staff in the faculty with selected optimum plant species for the office. 50 species from NASA research and other documents were studied for the selection criteria of plants which were appropriate for specific locations in order to reduce indoor air pollutants such as formaldehyde, benzene, and trichloroethylene. For the copy and examination preparation room in which particulate matter and volatile organic compounds can be found, some plants such as peace lily, gerbera daisy, and bamboo palm should be set, which are very effective in treating trichloroethylene. For common rooms and offices where formaldehyde can be found, which is generated from many building materials, bamboo palm, mother-in-law's tongue, peace lily, striped dracaena, cornstalk plant, golden pathos, and green spider plant should be set.

Keywords: indoor plants, indoor air quality, phytoremediation, green office

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22 Cross-Sectional Analysis of Sustainability Activities in the Pharmaceutical Companies

Authors: Kanika Saxena, Sunita Balani


Purpose - The aim of the study is to compare the reported sustainability activities in areas of emission, water management and gender equality, currently undertaken by the seven major pharmaceutical companies. Methodology: The published corporate sustainability activity reports for the year 2017 for seven pharmaceutical companies have been studied. The two main criteria for the inclusion of pharmaceutical companies in this study are that they are globally recognized and active in the field of sustainability reporting. Company’s actions and initiatives have been grouped under three categories: (i) Emissions (ii) Water management (iii) Gender Equality in terms of employee workforce. Findings: Based on the sustainability reports, quantification and grading of the companies showed interesting results. Johnson & Johnson and Bayer are leading their activities under emissions and water management categories. The number of activities under emission and water management in case of Eli Lily, Roche, Sanofi, Pfizer and GlaxoSmithKline were 19, 16, 16, 11 and 6 respectively. Johnson & Johnson and Eli Lily are leading in taking the initiatives to curb the problem of emissions as compared with other 5 companies. Under the category of gender equality in terms of employee workforce, Eli Lily is leading the group of sampled companies with 47% of women employee workforce globally followed by Sanofi with 46.2% (42.2% of managers) female employees. It has also been observed that in some of the reports, gender diversification in the workforce has not been mentioned though the total number of employees were mentioned. Conclusion: This study could serve as the informative material for future in-depth industry-specific studies in order to find out the participation of the pharmaceutical companies in the reporting of the sustainability activities especially in reference to emission, water management and gender equality in the workforce. In addition to it, this can be helpful as a reference point for other companies in the pharmaceutical sector who are yet to explore the field of sustainability initiatives and reporting. Due to the limited scope of this study, only seven major players of the pharmaceutical sector who are active in the field of sustainability have been considered.

Keywords: emission, gender equality workforce, pharmaceutical, sustainability, water management

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21 Systematics of Water Lilies (Genus Nymphaea L.) Using 18S rDNA Sequences

Authors: M. Nakkuntod, S. Srinarang, K.W. Hilu


Water lily (Nymphaea L.) is the largest genus of Nymphaeaceae. This family is composed of six genera (Nuphar, Ondinea, Euryale, Victoria, Barclaya, Nymphaea). Its members are nearly worldwide in tropical and temperate regions. The classification of some species in Nymphaea is ambiguous due to high variation in leaf and flower parts such as leaf margin, stamen appendage. Therefore, the phylogenetic relationships based on 18S rDNA were constructed to delimit this genus. DNAs of 52 specimens belonging to water lily family were extracted using modified conventional method containing cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). The results showed that the amplified fragment is about 1600 base pairs in size. After analysis, the aligned sequences presented 9.36% for variable characters comprising 2.66% of parsimonious informative sites and 6.70% of singleton sites. Moreover, there are 6 regions of 1-2 base(s) for insertion/deletion. The phylogenetic trees based on maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood with high bootstrap support indicated that genus Nymphaea was a paraphyletic group because of Ondinea, Victoria and Euryale disruption. Within genus Nymphaea, subgenus Nymphaea is a basal lineage group which cooperated with Euryale and Victoria. The other four subgenera, namely Lotos, Hydrocallis, Brachyceras and Anecphya were included the same large clade which Ondinea was placed within Anecphya clade due to geographical sharing.

Keywords: nrDNA, phylogeny, taxonomy, waterlily

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20 Obtaining Triploid Plants of Sprekelia formosissima by Artificial Hybridization

Authors: Jose Manuel Rodriguez-Dominguez, Rodrigo Barba-Gonzalez, Ernesto Tapia-Campos


Sprekelia formosissima (L.) Herbert is a bulbous ornamental species of the monocotyledonous Amaryllidaceae family, and it is a perennial, herbaceous monotypic plant commonly known as ‘Aztec Lily’ or ‘Jacobean Lily’; it is distributed through Mexico and Guatemala. Its scarlet flowers with curved petals have made it an exceptional ornamental pot plant. Cytogenetic studies in this species have shown differences in chromosome number (2n=60, 120, 150, 180) with a basic number x=30. Different reports have shown a variable ploidy level (diploid, tetraploid, pentaploid and hexaploid); however, triploid plants have not been reported. In this work, triploid plants of S. formosissima were obtained by crossing tetraploid (2n=4x=120) with diploid (2n=2x=60) genotypes of this species; the seeds obtained from the crosses were placed in pots with a moist substrate made of Peat Moss: Vermiculite (7:3) for germination. Root tips were collected, and metaphasic chromosome preparations were performed. For chromosome counting, the best five metaphases obtained were photographed with a Leica DMRA2 microscope (Leica Microsystems, Germany) microscopy coupled to an Evolution QEI camera under phase contrast (Media-Cybernetics). Chromosomes counting in root-tip cells showed that 100% of the plants were triploid (2n=3x=90). Although tetraploid or pentaploid plants of S. formosissima are highly appreciated, they usually have lower growth rates than related diploid ones. For this reason, it is important to obtain triploid plants, which have advantages such as higher growth rates than tetraploid and pentaploid, larger flowers than those of the diploid plants and they are expected to not be able to produce seeds because their gametes are aneuploids. Furthermore, triploids may become very important for genomic research in the future, creating opportunities for discovering and monitoring genomic and transcriptomic changes in unbalanced genomes, hence the importance of this work.

Keywords: Amaryllidaceae, cytogenetics, ornamental, ploidy level

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19 Genesis and Survival Chance of Autotriploid in Natural Diploid Population of Lilium lancifolium Thunb

Authors: Ji-Won Park, Jong-Wha Kim


Triploid L. lancifolium have a wide geographic distribution. By contrast, diploid L. lancifolium have limited distributions in the islands and coastal regions of the South and West Korean Peninsula and northern Tsushima Island, Japan. L. lancifolium diploids and triploids are not sympatrically distributed with other lily species or ploidy lines in West Sea and South Sea Islands of the Korean Peninsula. This observation raises the following questions: 'Why have autotriploid L. lancifolium never been observed in those isolated islands?', 'What mechanism excludes the occurrence of autotriploids, if they arise?'. To determine the occurrence and survival of triploid plants in natural diploid populations of tiger lily (Lilium lancifolium), ploidy analysis was conducted on natural open-pollinated seeds produced from plants grown on isolated islands, and on hybrid seeds produced by artificial crossing between plant populations originating on different Korean islands. Normal seeds were classified into five grades depending on the ratio of embryo/endosperm lengths, including 5/5, 4/5, 3/5, 2/5, and 1/5. Triploids were not observed among seedlings produced from natural open pollinations on isolated islands. Triploids were detected only in seedlings of underdeveloped seed grades(3/5 and 2/5) from artificial crosses between populations from different isolated islands. The triploid occurrence frequency was calculated as 0.0 for natural open-pollinated seedlings and 0.000582 for artificial crosses(6 triploids from 10,303 seedlings). Triploids were produced from crosses between isolated populations located at least 70 km apart; no triploids were detected in inter-population crosses of plants originating on the same islands. Triploid seedlings have very low viability in soil. We analyzed factors affecting triploid occurrence and survival in natural diploid populations of L. lancifolium. The results suggest that triploids originate from fertilization between plants that are genetically isolated due to geographical isolation and/or genotypic differences.

Keywords: Lilium lancifolium, autotriploid, natural population, genetic distance, 2n female gamete

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18 The Integration and Practice of Indigenous Knowledge System and Sustainable Environmental Education Concept

Authors: Shih-Tsung Chen, Yenchin Hsiao


Evergreen Lily is a newly-built school after Morakot Typhoon took place. The school is located on Majia farm, which is surrounded by mountains. The fund in the construction of the school is solely sponsored by Chang Yung-Fa Foundation. There are 483 permanent houses near the school belonging to three tribes, Dashe, Majia, and Haocha. Due to the most ancient heritages of Paiwan and Rukai in these three tribes, the school is full of cultural atmosphere. From modern and traditional perspectives, Evergreen Lily strives to establish and develop a long-lasting educational model to meet the expectation of the tribes, parents, and the public. This study is a case study of how to develop indigenous education in newly established schools after the Morakot Hurricane disaster to meet the concept of environmental education. The systematic curriculum construction of education and cultural integration and the systematic practice of curriculum practice will be discussed, and the concept and practice of tribal education curriculum and sustainable environmental education will be understood. This study found that this school integrates the spirit of natural philosophy, democratic education, ethnic and experimental education, and constructs a knowledge system that includes three levels of spiritual culture, institutional culture, and material culture, as well as six dimensions of life philosophy, natural ecology, organizational system, tribal literature and history, song and dance, and technical and artistic methods. Adhering to the concept of harmonious education and the sustainable common good, the development of school-based tribal academic courses accounts for about one-third of the total number of teaching sessions, and there are different cultural themes in grades one to six, and there are clear teaching modules to effectively enhance students' potential inspiration. The complete curriculum implementation model can be described as a model for the development of indigenous schools to sustainable environmental education.

Keywords: environmental education, indigenous education, sustainable development, school-based curriculum

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17 The Effect of Skin to Skin Contact Immediately to Maternal Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy after Cesarean Section

Authors: D. Triana, I. N. Rachmawati, L. Sabri


Maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy is positively associated with increased duration of breastfeeding in different cultures and age groups. This study aims to determine the effect of skin-to-skin contact immediately after the cesarean section on maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy. The research design is Posttest quasi-experimental research design only with control groups involving 52 women with consecutive sampling in Langsa-Aceh. The data collected through breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form. The results of Independent t-test showed a significant difference in the mean values of maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy in the intervention group and the control group (59.00 ± 6.54; 49.62 ± 7.78; p= 0.001). Skin to skin contact is proven to affect the maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy after cesarean section significantly.

Keywords: breastfeeding self-efficacy, cesarean section, skin to skin contact, immediately

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16 Mountain Photo Sphere: An Android Application of Mountain Hiking Street View

Authors: Yanto Budisusanto, Aulia Rachmawati


Land navigation technology that is being developed is Google Street View to provide 360° street views, enabling the user to know the road conditions physically with the photo display. For climbers, especially beginners, detail information of climbing terrain is needed so climbers can prepare supplies and strategies before climbing. Therefore, we built a mountaineer guide application named Mountain Photo Sphere. This application displays a 360̊ panoramic view of mountain hiking trail and important points along the hiking path and its surrounding conditions. By combining panoramic photos 360̊ and tracking paths from coordinate data, a virtual tour will be formed. It is built using Java language and Android Studio. The hiking trail map composed by Google Maps API (Gaining access to google maps), Google GEO API (Gaining access to google maps), and OpenStreetMap API (Getting map files to be accessed offline on the Application). This application can be accessed offline so that climbers can use the application during climbing activities.

Keywords: google street view, panoramic photo 360°, mountain hiking, mountain photo sphere

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15 Corporate Social Responsibility Initiatives in COVID-19: The Effect of CSR Motives Attributions on Advocacy

Authors: Tengku Ezni Balqiah, Fanny Martdianty, Rifelly Dewi Astuti, Mutia Nurazizah Rachmawati


The Corona Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has changed the world considerably and has disrupted businesses and people’s lives globally. In response to the pandemic, businesses have seen increased demand for corporate social responsibility (CSR). Businesses can increase their investments in CSR initiatives during the pandemic through various actions. This study examines how the various motives of philanthropy CSR influence perceived quality of life, company image, and advocacy. This study employed surveys of 719 respondents from seven provinces in Indonesia that had the highest number of COVID-19 cases in the country. A structural equation model was used to test the hypothesis. The results showed that value and strategic motives positively influenced the perceived quality of life and corporate image, while the egoistic motive was negatively associated with both the perceived quality of life and the image of the company. The study also suggested that advocacy was strongly related to the perceived quality of life instead of a corporate image. The results indicate that, during a pandemic, both public- (i.e. value) and firm-serving (i.e. strategic) motives can have the same impact as long as people perceive that the businesses are sincere.

Keywords: advocacy, COVID 19, CSR motive, Indonesia, quality of life

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14 Education, Technology and Geopolitics: The Arab World as an Instance

Authors: Abdulrahman Al Lily


This article spans the domains of education, technology and geo-politics. It uses as an instance the Arab scholarship of education and technology, viewing its scholarly community through the geographical lens of regionalism. It enquires into the power relations among scholars in the Arab region and between scholars in the Arab region and their fellows from outside the region. It addresses the research question: to what extent have region-informed factors affected the scholarly community of education and technology in the Arab region? This question was answered by both qualitative and numerical enquiry, analysing documents, interviews and a survey of native Arabic-speaking scholars. Having analysed the data using the grounded theory approach, two categories of power relations among scholars were identified: power relations within a particular region and power relations across regions. Considering these two categories, a theoretical proposition could be posited that there could be power relationships among scholars that exist on a regional basis. The recommendation is therefore that research should further shed light upon the regionalistic (and thus geographically informed political) dynamics of scholarly communities.

Keywords: education, technology, politics, geography, regionalism, Arab

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13 Modeling of Building a Conceptual Scheme for Multimodal Freight Transportation Information System

Authors: Gia Surguladze, Nino Topuria, Lily Petriashvili, Giorgi Surguladze


Modeling of building processes of a multimodal freight transportation support information system is discussed based on modern CASE technologies. Functional efficiencies of ports in the eastern part of the Black Sea are analyzed taking into account their ecological, seasonal, resource usage parameters. By resources, we mean capacities of berths, cranes, automotive transport, as well as work crews and neighbouring airports. For the purpose of designing database of computer support system for Managerial (Logistics) function, using Object-Role Modeling (ORM) tool (NORMA – Natural ORM Architecture) is proposed, after which Entity Relationship Model (ERM) is generated in automated process. The software is developed based on Process-Oriented and Service-Oriented architecture, in Visual Studio.NET environment.

Keywords: seaport resources, business-processes, multimodal transportation, CASE technology, object-role model, entity relationship model, SOA

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12 Evidence-Based Investigation of the Phonology of Nigerian Instant Messaging

Authors: Emmanuel Uba, Lily Chimuanya, Maryam Tar


Orthographic engineering is no longer the preserve of the Short Messaging Service (SMS), which is characterised by limited space. Such stylistic creativity or deviation is fast creeping into real-time messaging, popularly known as Instant Messaging (IM), despite the large number of characters allowed. This occurs at various linguistic levels: phonology, morphology, syntax, etc. Nigerians are not immune to this linguistic stylisation. This study investigates the phonological and meta-phonological conventions of the messages sent and received via WhatsApp by Nigerian graduates. This is ontological study of 250 instant messages collected from 98 graduates from different ethnic groups in Nigeria. The selection and analysis of the messages are based on figure and ground principle. The results reveal the use of accent stylisation, phoneme substitution, blending, consonantisation (a specialised form of deletion targeting vowels), numerophony (using a figure/number, usually 1-10, to represent a word or syllable that has the same sound) and phonetic respelling in the IMs sent by Nigerians. The study confirms the existence of linguistic creativity.

Keywords: figure and ground principle, instant messaging, linguistic stylisation, meta-phonology

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11 Recurrent Patterns of Netspeak among Selected Nigerians on WhatsApp Platform: A Quest for Standardisation

Authors: Lily Chimuanya, Esther Ajiboye, Emmanuel Uba


One of the consequences of online communication is the birth of new orthography genres characterised by novel conventions of abbreviation and acronyms usually referred to as Netspeak. Netspeak, also known as internet slang, is a style of writing mainly used in online communication to limit the length of text characters and to save time. The aim of this study is to evaluate how second language users of the English language have internalised this new convention of writing; identify the recurrent patterns of Netspeak; and assess the consistency of the use of the identified patterns in relation to their meanings. The study is corpus-based, and data drawn from WhatsApp chart pages of selected groups of Nigerian English speakers show a large occurrence of inconsistencies in the patterns of Netspeak and their meanings. The study argues that rather than emphasise the negative impact of Netspeak on the communicative competence of second language users, studies should focus on suggesting models as yardsticks for standardising the usage of Netspeak and indeed all other emerging language conventions resulting from online communication. This stance stems from the inevitable global language transformation that is eminent with the coming of age of information technology.

Keywords: abbreviation, acronyms, Netspeak, online communication, standardisation

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10 Nursing Students Assessment to the Clinical Learning Environment and Mentoring in Children Nursing

Authors: Lily Parm, Irma Nool, Liina Männiksaar, Mare Tupits, Ivi Prits, Merilin Kuhi, Valentina Raudsepp


Background: The results of previous clinical satisfaction surveys show that nursing students swhounderw entinternships in the pediatricwardhadthelowestsatisfactioncomparedtootherwards, but the quality of students' practicaltrainingexperienceisanimportant determinant in nursing education. The aim of theresearchwastodescribenursingstudents` assessment to the clinical learning environment and supervision in pediatric wards Method: Theresearchisquantitative. All studentswhohadpracticaltraining in the pediatric ward participated in the study (N = 39). FordatacollectionClinicalLearningEnvironment, Supervision, and NurseTeacher (CLES + T) evaluationscalewasused, wherethescalewasanswered on a 5-point Likert scale. In addition, 10 backgroundvariableswereused in the questionnaire. IBM SPSS Statistics 28.0 wasusedfordataanalysis. Descriptive statistics and Spearmanncorrelationanalysiswasusedtofindcorrelatinsbetweenbackgroundvariables and satisfaction with supervision.Permissiontoconductthestudy (No 695) hasbeenobtainedbytheEthicsCommittee of theInstituteforHealthDevelopment. Results: Of therespondents, 28 (71.8%) werefirst-year, 9 (23.1%) second-year and 2 (5.1%) fourth-yearstudents. Thelargestshare of the last practicaltrainigwas in nursing, with 27 (69.2%) respondents. Mainlythementorswerenursesfor 32 (82,1%) of students.Satisfactionwiththementoring (4.4 ± 0.83) and wardnursemanager`sleaderhiostyle (4.4 ± 0.7), ratedthehighest and therole of thenurseteacherwasratedthelowest (3,7 ± 0.83.In Spearmann'scorrelationanalysis, therewas a statisticallystrongcorrelationbetween a positiveattitudetowardsthesupervisor'ssupervision and receivingfeedbackfromthesupervisor (r =0.755; p <0.001), studentsatisfactionwithsupervision (r = 0.742; p <0.001), supervisionbased on cooperation (r = 0.77) and instructionbased on theprinciple of equalitythatpromotedlearning (r = 0.755; p <0.001). Conclusions: Theresults of theresearchshowedhighsatisfactionwiththesupervisionand therole of wardmanager. Stillbettercooperationisneededbetweenpracticalplacement and nursingschooltoenhancethestudents`satisfactionwithsupervision.

Keywords: CLES+T, clinical environment, nurse teacher, statisfaction, pediatric ward, mentorship

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9 Understanding Music through the Framework of Feminist Confessional Literary Criticism: Heightening Audience Identification and Prioritising the Female Voice

Authors: Katharine Pollock


Feminist scholars assert that a defining aspect of feminist confessional literature is that it expresses both an individual and communal identity, one which is predicated on the commonly-shared aspects of female experience. Reading feminist confessional literature in this way accommodates a plurality of readerly experiences and textual interpretations. It affirms the individual whilst acknowledging those experiences which bind women together, and refuses traditional objective criticism. It invites readers to see themselves reflected in the text, and encourages them to share their own stories. Similarly, music which communicates women’s personal experience, fictive or not, expresses a dual identity. There is an inherent risk of imposing a confessional reading upon a musical or literary text. Understanding music as being multivocal in the same way as confessional literature negates this patriarchal tendency, and allows listeners to engage with both the subjective and collective aspects of a text. By hearing their own stories reflected in the music, listeners engage in an ongoing dialogic process in which female stories are prioritised. This refuses patriarchal silencing and ensures a diversity of female voices. To demonstrate the veracity of these claims, literary criticism is applied to Lily Allen’s music, and memoir My Thoughts Exactly.

Keywords: confession, female, feminist, literature, music

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8 Soil and the Gut Microbiome: Supporting the 'Hygiene Hypothesis'

Authors: Chris George, Adam Hamlin, Lily Pereg, Richard Charlesworth, Gal Winter


Background: According to the ‘hygiene hypothesis’ the current rise in allergies and autoimmune diseases stems mainly from reduced microbial exposure due, amongst other factors, to urbanisation and distance from soil. However, this hypothesis is based on epidemiological and not biological data. Useful insights into the underlying mechanisms of this hypothesis can be gained by studying our interaction with soil. Soil microbiota may be directly ingested or inhaled by humans, enter the body through skin-soil contact or using plants as vectors. This study aims to examine the ability of soil microbiota to colonise the gut, study the interaction of soil microbes with the immune system and their potential protective activity. Method: The nutrition of the rats was supplemented daily with fresh or autoclaved soil for 21 days followed by 14 days of no supplementations. Faecal samples were collected throughout and analysed using 16S sequencing. At the end of the experiment rats were sacrificed and tissues and digesta were collected. Results/Conclusion: Results showed significantly higher richness and diversity following soil supplementation even after recovery. Specific soil microbial groups identified as able to colonise the gut. Of particular interest was the mucosal layer which emerged as a receptive host for soil microorganisms. Histological examination revealed innate and adaptive immune activation. Findings of this study reinforce the ‘hygiene hypothesis’ by demonstrating the ability of soil microbes to colonise the gut and activate the immune system. This paves the way for further studies aimed to examine the interaction of soil microorganisms with the immune system.

Keywords: gut microbiota, hygiene hypothesis, microbiome, soil

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7 Capture-recapture to Estimate Completeness of Pulmonary Tuberculosis with Two Sources

Authors: Ratchadaporn Ungcharoen, Lily Ingsrisawang


Capture-recapture methods are popular techniques for indirect estimation the size of wildlife populations and the completeness of cases in epidemiology and social sciences. The aim of this study was to estimate the completeness of pulmonary tuberculosis cases confirmed by two sources of hospital registrations and surveillance systems in 2013 in Nakhon Pathom province, Thailand. Several estimators of population size were considered: the Lincoln-Petersen estimator, the Chapman estimator, the Chao’s lower bound estimator, the Zelterman’s estimator, etc. We focus on the Chapman and Chao’s lower bound estimators for estimating the completeness of pulmonary tuberculosis from two sources. The retrieved pulmonary tuberculosis data from two sources were analyzed and bootstrapped for 30 samples, with 241 observations from source 1 and 305 observations from source 2 per sample, for additional exploration of the completeness of pulmonary tuberculosis. The results from the original data show that the Chapman’s estimator gave the estimation of a total 360 (95% CI: 349-371) pulmonary tuberculosis cases, resulting in 57% estimated completeness cases. But the Chao’s lower bound estimator estimated the total of 365 (95% CI: 354-376) pulmonary tuberculosis cases and its estimated completeness cases was 55.9%. For the results from bootstrap samples, the Chapman and the Chao’s lower bound estimators gave an estimated 347 (95% CI: 309-385) and 353 (95% CI: 315-390) pulmonary tuberculosis cases, respectively. If for two sources recoding systems are available, record-linkage and capture-recapture analysis can be useful for estimating the completeness of different registration system. Both Chapman and Chao’s lower bound estimator approaches produce very close estimates.

Keywords: capture-recapture, Chao, Chapman, pulmonary tuberculosis

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6 Thermal Performance of the Extensive Wetland Green Roofs in Winter in Humid Subtropical Climate

Authors: Yi-Yu Huang, Chien-Kuo Wang, Sreerag Chota Veettil, Hang Zhang, Hu Yike


Regarding the pressing issue of reducing energy consumption and carbon footprint of buildings, past research has focused more on analyzing the thermal performance of the extensive terrestrial green roofs with sedum plants in summer. However, the disadvantages of this type of green roof are relatively limited thermal performance, low extreme weather adaptability, relatively higher demands in maintenance, and lower added value in healing landscape. In view of this, this research aims to develop the extensive wetland green roofs with higher thermal performance, high extreme weather adaptability, low demands in maintenance, and high added value in healing landscape, and to measure its thermal performance for buildings in winter. The following factors are considered including the type and mixing formula of growth medium (light weight soil, akadama, creek gravel, pure water) and the type of aquatic plants. The research adopts a four-stage field experiment conducting on the rooftop of a building in a humid subtropical climate. The results found that emergent (Roundleaf rotala), submerged (Ribbon weed), floating-leaved (Water lily) wetland green roofs had similar thermal performance, and superior over wetland green roof without plant, traditional terrestrial green roof (without plant), and pure water green roof (without plant, nighttime only) in terms of overall passive cooling (8.00C) and thermal insulation (4.50C) effects as well as a reduction in heat amplitude (77-85%) in winter in a humid subtropical climate. The thermal performance of the free-floating (Water hyacinth) wetland green roof is inferior to that of the other three types of wetland green roofs, whether in daytime or nighttime.

Keywords: thermal performance, extensive wetland green roof, Aquatic plant, Winter , Humid subtropical climate

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5 The Classification Performance in Parametric and Nonparametric Discriminant Analysis for a Class- Unbalanced Data of Diabetes Risk Groups

Authors: Lily Ingsrisawang, Tasanee Nacharoen


Introduction: The problems of unbalanced data sets generally appear in real world applications. Due to unequal class distribution, many research papers found that the performance of existing classifier tends to be biased towards the majority class. The k -nearest neighbors’ nonparametric discriminant analysis is one method that was proposed for classifying unbalanced classes with good performance. Hence, the methods of discriminant analysis are of interest to us in investigating misclassification error rates for class-imbalanced data of three diabetes risk groups. Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the classification performance between parametric discriminant analysis and nonparametric discriminant analysis in a three-class classification application of class-imbalanced data of diabetes risk groups. Methods: Data from a healthy project for 599 staffs in a government hospital in Bangkok were obtained for the classification problem. The staffs were diagnosed into one of three diabetes risk groups: non-risk (90%), risk (5%), and diabetic (5%). The original data along with the variables; diabetes risk group, age, gender, cholesterol, and BMI was analyzed and bootstrapped up to 50 and 100 samples, 599 observations per sample, for additional estimation of misclassification error rate. Each data set was explored for the departure of multivariate normality and the equality of covariance matrices of the three risk groups. Both the original data and the bootstrap samples show non-normality and unequal covariance matrices. The parametric linear discriminant function, quadratic discriminant function, and the nonparametric k-nearest neighbors’ discriminant function were performed over 50 and 100 bootstrap samples and applied to the original data. In finding the optimal classification rule, the choices of prior probabilities were set up for both equal proportions (0.33: 0.33: 0.33) and unequal proportions with three choices of (0.90:0.05:0.05), (0.80: 0.10: 0.10) or (0.70, 0.15, 0.15). Results: The results from 50 and 100 bootstrap samples indicated that the k-nearest neighbors approach when k = 3 or k = 4 and the prior probabilities of {non-risk:risk:diabetic} as {0.90:0.05:0.05} or {0.80:0.10:0.10} gave the smallest error rate of misclassification. Conclusion: The k-nearest neighbors approach would be suggested for classifying a three-class-imbalanced data of diabetes risk groups.

Keywords: error rate, bootstrap, diabetes risk groups, k-nearest neighbors

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4 Lean Implementation in a Nurse Practitioner Led Pediatric Primary Care Clinic: A Case Study

Authors: Lily Farris, Chantel E. Canessa, Rena Heathcote, Susan Shumay, Suzanna V. McRae, Alissa Collingridge, Minna K. Miller


Objective: To describe how the Lean approach can be applied to improve access, quality and safety of care in an ambulatory pediatric primary care setting. Background: Lean was originally developed by Toyota manufacturing in Japan, and subsequently adapted for use in the healthcare sector. Lean is a systematic approach, focused on identifying and reducing waste within organizational processes, improving patient-centered care and efficiency. Limited literature is available on the implementation of the Lean methodologies in a pediatric ambulatory care setting. Methods: A strategic continuous improvement event or Rapid Process Improvement Workshop (RPIW) was launched with the aim evaluating and structurally supporting clinic workflow, capacity building, sustainability, and ultimately improving access to care and enhancing the patient experience. The Lean process consists of five specific activities: Current state/process assessment (value stream map); development of a future state map (value stream map after waste reduction); identification, quantification and prioritization of the process improvement opportunities; implementation and evaluation of process changes; and audits to sustain the gains. Staff engagement is a critical component of the Lean process. Results: Through the implementation of the RPIW and shifting workload among the administrative team, four hours of wasted time moving between desks and doing work was eliminated from the Administrative Clerks role. To streamline clinic flow, the Nursing Assistants completed patient measurements and vitals for Nurse Practitioners, reducing patient wait times and adding value to the patients visit with the Nurse Practitioners. Additionally, through the Nurse Practitioners engagement in the Lean processes a need was recognized to articulate clinic vision, mission and the alignment of NP role and scope of practice with the agency and Ministry of Health strategic plan. Conclusions: Continuous improvement work in the Pediatric Primary Care NP Clinic has provided a unique opportunity to improve the quality of care delivered and has facilitated further alignment of the daily continuous improvement work with the strategic priorities of the Ministry of Health.

Keywords: ambulatory care, lean, pediatric primary care, system efficiency

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3 A Narrative Inquiry of Identity Formation of Chinese Fashion Designers

Authors: Lily Ye


The contemporary fashion industry has witnessed the global rise of Chinese fashion designers. China plays more and more important role in this sector globally. One of the key debates in contemporary time is the conception of Chinese fashion. A close look at previous discussions on Chinese fashion reveals that most of them are explored through the lens of cultural knowledge and assumptions, using the dichotomous models of East and West. The results of these studies generate an essentialist and orientalist notion of Chinoiserie and Chinese fashion, which sees individual designers from China as undifferential collective members marked by a unique and fixed set of cultural scripts. This study challenges this essentialist conceptualization and brings fresh insights to the discussion of Chinese fashion identity against the backdrop of globalisation. Different from a culturalist approach to researching Chinese fashion, this paper presents an alternative position to address the research agenda through the mobilisation of Giddens’ (1991) theory of reflexive identity formation, privileging individuals’ agency and reflexivity. This approach to the discussion of identity formation not only challenges the traditional view seeing identity as the distinctive and essential characteristics belonging to any given individual or shared by all members of a particular social category or group but highlights fashion designers’ strategic agency and their role as fashion activist. This study draws evidence from a textual analysis of published stories of a group of established Chinese designers such as Guo Pei, Huishan Zhang, Masha Ma, Uma Wang, and Ma Ke. In line with Giddens’ concept of 'reflexive project of the self', this study uses a narrative methodology. Narratives are verbal accounts or stories relating to experiences of Chinese fashion designers. This approach offers the fashion designers a chance to 'speak' for themselves and show the depths and complexities of their experiences. It also emphasises the nuances of identity formation in fashion designers, whose experiences cannot be captured in neat typologies. Thematic analysis (Braun and Clarke, 2006) is adopted to identify and investigate common themes across the whole dataset. At the centre of the analysis is individuals’ self-articulation of their perceptions, experiences and themselves in relation to culture, fashion and identity. The finding indicates that identity is constructed around anchors such as agency, cultural hybridity, reflexivity and sustainability rather than traditional collective categories such as culture and ethnicity. Thus, the old East-West dichotomy is broken down, and essentialised social categories are challenged by the multiplicity and fragmentation of self and cultural hybridity created within designers’ 'small narratives'.

Keywords: Chinoiserie, fashion identity, fashion activism, narrative inquiry

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2 Understanding Awareness, Agency and Autonomy of Mothers and Potential of Digital Technology in Expanding Maternal Health Information Access: A Survey of Mothers in Urban India

Authors: Sumiti Saharan, Pallav Patankar, Lily W. Lee


Understanding the health-seeking behaviors and attitudes of women towards maternal health in the context of gender roles and family dynamics is tremendously crucial for designing effective and impactful interventions aimed at improving maternal and child health outcomes. Further, as the digital world becomes more accessible and affordable, it is imperative to scope the potential of digital technology in enabling access to maternal health information in different socio-economic groups (SEGs). In the summer of 2017, we conducted a study with 500 women across different SEGs in urban India who were pregnant or had had a delivery in the last year. The study was undertaken to assess their maternal health information seeking behavior with a particular focus on probing their use of digital technology for health-related information. The study also measured women's decision-making autonomy in the context of maternal health, awareness of their rights to quality and respectful maternal healthcare, and agency to voice their rights. We probed the impact of key variables including education, age, and socioeconomic status on all outcome variables. In terms of health-seeking behaviors, we found that women heavily relied on medical professionals and/or their mothers and mothers-in-law for all maternal health advice. Digital adoption was found to be high across all SEGs, with around 70% of women from all populations using the internet several times a week. On the other hand, use of the internet for both accessing maternal health information and choosing maternity hospitals were both significantly dependent on SEG. The key reasons reported for not using the internet for health purposes were lack of awareness and lack of trust on content accuracy. Decisions around health practices and type of delivery were found to be jointly made by women and other family members. Almost all women reported their husbands to play a key role in all maternal health decisions and for decisions with a clear financial implication like choice of hospital for delivery, husbands were reported to be the sole decision maker by a majority of women. The agency of women was also found to be low in interactions with maternal healthcare providers with a third of respondents not comfortable with voicing their opinions and preferences to their doctors. Interestingly, we find that this relatively low agency was prominent in both lower middle class and middle-class SEGs. Recognition of the sociocultural determinants of behavior is the first step in developing actionable strategies for improving maternal health outcomes. Our study quantifies the agency and autonomy of women in urban India and the variables that impact them. Our findings emphasize the value of gender normative approaches that factor in the key role husbands play in guiding maternal health decisions. They also highlight the power of digital approaches for catalyzing access to maternal health information. These insights into the attitude and behaviors of mothers in context of their sociocultural environments—and their relationship with digital technology—can help pave the way towards designing effective, scalable maternal and child health programs in developing nations like India.

Keywords: access to healthcare information, behavior, digital health, maternal health

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1 Empirical Modeling and Spatial Analysis of Heat-Related Morbidity in Maricopa County, Arizona

Authors: Chuyuan Wang, Nayan Khare, Lily Villa, Patricia Solis, Elizabeth A. Wentz


Maricopa County, Arizona, has a semi-arid hot desert climate that is one of the hottest regions in the United States. The exacerbated urban heat island (UHI) effect caused by rapid urbanization has made the urban area even hotter than the rural surroundings. The Phoenix metropolitan area experiences extremely high temperatures in the summer from June to September that can reach the daily highest of 120 °F (48.9 °C). Morbidity and mortality due to the environmental heat is, therefore, a significant public health issue in Maricopa County, especially because it is largely preventable. Public records from the Maricopa County Department of Public Health (MCDPH) revealed that between 2012 and 2016, there were 10,825 incidents of heat-related morbidity incidents, 267 outdoor environmental heat deaths, and 173 indoor heat-related deaths. A lot of research has examined heat-related death and its contributing factors around the world, but little has been done regarding heat-related morbidity issues, especially for regions that are naturally hot in the summer. The objective of this study is to examine the demographic, socio-economic, housing, and environmental factors that contribute to heat-related morbidity in Maricopa County. We obtained heat-related morbidity data between 2012 and 2016 at census tract level from MCDPH. Demographic, socio-economic, and housing variables were derived using 2012-2016 American Community Survey 5-year estimate from the U.S. Census. Remotely sensed Landsat 7 ETM+ and Landsat 8 OLI satellite images and Level-1 products were acquired for all the summer months (June to September) from 2012 and 2016. The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2016 percent tree canopy and percent developed imperviousness data were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). We used ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analysis to examine the empirical relationship between all the independent variables and heat-related morbidity rate. Results showed that higher morbidity rates are found in census tracts with higher values in population aged 65 and older, population under poverty, disability, no vehicle ownership, white non-Hispanic, population with less than high school degree, land surface temperature, and surface reflectance, but lower values in normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and housing occupancy. The regression model can be used to explain up to 59.4% of total variation of heat-related morbidity in Maricopa County. The multiscale geographically weighted regression (MGWR) technique was then used to examine the spatially varying relationships between heat-related morbidity rate and all the significant independent variables. The R-squared value of the MGWR model increased to 0.691, that shows a significant improvement in goodness-of-fit than the global OLS model, which means that spatial heterogeneity of some independent variables is another important factor that influences the relationship with heat-related morbidity in Maricopa County. Among these variables, population aged 65 and older, the Hispanic population, disability, vehicle ownership, and housing occupancy have much stronger local effects than other variables.

Keywords: census, empirical modeling, heat-related morbidity, spatial analysis

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