Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 723

Search results for: split ring resonator

723 Complementary Split Ring Resonator-Loaded Microstrip Patch Antenna Useful for Microwave Communication

Authors: Subal Kar, Madhuja Ghosh, Amitesh Kumar, Arijit Majumder


Complementary split-ring resonator (CSRR) loaded microstrip square patch antenna has been optimally designed with the help of high frequency structure simulator (HFSS). The antenna has been fabricated on the basis of the simulation design data and experimentally tested in anechoic chamber to evaluate its gain, bandwidth, efficiency and polarization characteristics. The CSRR loaded microstrip patch antenna has been found to realize significant size miniaturization (to the extent of 24%) compared to the conventional-type microstrip patch antenna both operating at the same frequency (5.2 GHz). The fabricated antenna could realize a maximum gain of 4.17 dB, 10 dB impedance bandwidth of 34 MHz, efficiency 50.73% and with maximum cross-pol of 10.56 dB down at the operating frequency. This practically designed antenna with its miniaturized size is expected to be useful for airborne and space borne applications at microwave frequency.

Keywords: split ring resonator, metamaterial, CSRR loaded patch antenna, microstrip patch antenna, LC resonator

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722 Parametric Analysis of Water Lily Shaped Split Ring Resonator Loaded Fractal Monopole Antenna for Multiband Applications

Authors: C. Elavarasi, T. Shanmuganantham


A coplanar waveguide (CPW) feed is presented, and comprising a split ring resonator (SRR) loaded fractal with water lily shape is used for multi band applications. The impedance matching of the antenna is determined by the number of Koch curve fractal unit cells. The antenna is designed on a FR4 substrate with a permittivity of εr = 4.4 and size of 14 x 16 x 1.6 mm3 to generate multi resonant mode at 3.8 GHz covering S band, 8.68 GHz at X band, 13.96 GHz at Ku band, and 19.74 GHz at K band with reflection coefficient better than -10 dB. Simulation results show that the antenna exhibits the desired voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) level and radiation patterns across the wide frequency range. The fundamental parameters of the antenna such as return loss, VSWR, good radiation pattern with reasonable gain across the operating bands are obtained.

Keywords: fractal, metamaterial, split ring resonator, waterlily shape

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721 Full-Wave Analysis of Magnetic Meta-Surfaces for Microwave Component Applications

Authors: Christopher Hardly Joseph, Nicola Pelagalli, Davide Mencarelli, Luca Pierantoni


In this contribution, we report the electromagnetic response of a split ring resonator (SRR) based magnetic metamaterial unit cell in free space nature by means of a full-wave electromagnetic simulation. The effective parameters of these designed structures have been analyzed. The structures have been specifically designed to work at high frequency considering the development of many microwave and lower mm-wave devices. In addition to that, the application of the designed metamaterial structures is also proposed, namely metamaterial loaded planar transmission lines, potentially useful to optimize size and quality factor of circuit components and radiating elements.

Keywords: CPW, Microwave Components, Negative Permeability, Split Ring Resonator (SRR)

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720 Temperature Dependence of Relative Permittivity: A Measurement Technique Using Split Ring Resonators

Authors: Sreedevi P. Chakyar, Jolly Andrews, V. P. Joseph


A compact method for measuring the relative permittivity of a dielectric material at different temperatures using a single circular Split Ring Resonator (SRR) metamaterial unit working as a test probe is presented in this paper. The dielectric constant of a material is dependent upon its temperature and the LC resonance of the SRR depends on its dielectric environment. Hence, the temperature of the dielectric material in contact with the resonator influences its resonant frequency. A single SRR placed between transmitting and receiving probes connected to a Vector Network Analyser (VNA) is used as a test probe. The dependence of temperature between 30 oC and 60 oC on resonant frequency of SRR is analysed. Relative permittivities ‘ε’ of test samples for different temperatures are extracted from a calibration graph drawn between the relative permittivity of samples of known dielectric constant and their corresponding resonant frequencies. This method is found to be an easy and efficient technique for analysing the temperature dependent permittivity of different materials.

Keywords: metamaterials, negative permeability, permittivity measurement techniques, split ring resonators, temperature dependent dielectric constant

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
719 Improvement and Miniaturization RFID Patch Antenna by Inclusion the Complementary Metamaterials

Authors: Seif Naoui, Lassaad Latrach, Ali Gharsallah


This paper is specialized to highlight the method of miniaturization and improvement the patch antenna by using the complementary metamaterial. This method is presented by a simple technique is composed a structure of patch antenna integrated in its surface a cell of complementary split ring resonator. This resonator is placed at the middle of the radiating patch in parallel with the transmission line and with a variable angle of orientation. The objective is to find the ultimate angle where the best results are obtained on improving the characteristics of the considered antenna. This motif widespread at the traceability applications by wireless communication for RFID technology at the operation frequency 2.45 GHz. Our contribution is based on studies empirical often presented in this article. All simulation results were made by the CST Microwave Studio.

Keywords: complimentary split ring resonators, computer simulation technology microwave studio, metamaterials patch antennas, microstrip patch antenna, radio frequency identification

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718 A Polyimide Based Split-Ring Neural Interface Electrode for Neural Signal Recording

Authors: Ning Xue, Srinivas Merugu, Ignacio Delgado Martinez, Tao Sun, John Tsang, Shih-Cheng Yen


We have developed a polyimide based neural interface electrode to record nerve signals from the sciatic nerve of a rat. The neural interface electrode has a split-ring shape, with four protruding gold electrodes for recording, and two reference gold electrodes around the split-ring. The split-ring electrode can be opened up to encircle the sciatic nerve. The four electrodes can be bent to sit on top of the nerve and hold the device in position, while the split-ring frame remains flat. In comparison, while traditional cuff electrodes can only fit certain sizes of the nerve, the developed device can fit a variety of rat sciatic nerve dimensions from 0.6 mm to 1.0 mm, and adapt to the chronic changes in the nerve as the electrode tips are bendable. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement was conducted. The gold electrode impedance is on the order of 10 kΩ, showing excellent charge injection capacity to record neural signals.

Keywords: impedance, neural interface, split-ring electrode, neural signal recording

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717 Modeling and Simulation of Practical Metamaterial Structures

Authors: Ridha Salhi, Mondher Labidi, Fethi Choubani


Metamaterials have attracted much attention in recent years because of their electromagnetic exquisite proprieties. We will present, in this paper, the modeling of three metamaterial structures by equivalent circuit model. We begin by modeling the SRR (Split Ring Resonator), then we model the HIS (High Impedance Surfaces), and finally, we present the model of the CPW (Coplanar Wave Guide). In order to validate models, we compare the results obtained by an equivalent circuit models with numerical simulation.

Keywords: metamaterials, SRR, HIS, CPW, IDC

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716 Sensitivity Improvement of Optical Ring Resonator for Strain Analysis with the Direction of Strain Recognition Possibility

Authors: Tayebeh Sahraeibelverdi, Ahmad Shirazi Hadi Veladi, Mazdak Radmalekshah


Optical sensors became attractive due to preciseness, low power consumption, and intrinsic electromagnetic interference-free characteristic. Among the waveguide optical sensors, cavity-based ones attended for the high Q-factor. Micro ring resonators as a potential platform have been investigated for various applications as biosensors to pressure sensors thanks to their sensitive ring structure responding to any small change in the refractive index. Furthermore, these small micron size structures can come in an array, bringing the opportunity to have any of the resonance in a specific wavelength and be addressed in this way. Another exciting application is applying a strain to the ring and making them an optical strain gauge where the traditional ones are based on the piezoelectric material. Making them in arrays needs electrical wiring and about fifty times bigger in size. Any physical element that impacts the waveguide cross-section, Waveguide elastic-optic property change, or ring circumference can play a role. In comparison, ring size change has a larger effect than others. Here an engineered ring structure is investigated to study the strain effect on the ring resonance wavelength shift and its potential for more sensitive strain devices. At the same time, these devices can measure any strain by mounting on the surface of interest. The idea is to change the" O" shape ring to a "C" shape ring with a small opening starting from 2π/360 or one degree. We used the Mode solution of Lumbrical software to investigate the effect of changing the ring's opening and the shift induced by applied strain. The designed ring radius is a three Micron silicon on isolator ring which can be fabricated by standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) micromachining. The measured wavelength shifts from1-degree opening of the ring to a 6-degree opening have been investigated. Opening the ring for 1-degree affects the ring's quality factor from 3000 to 300, showing an order of magnitude Q-factor reduction. Assuming a strain making the ring-opening from 1 degree to 6 degrees, our simulation results showing negligible Q-factor reduction from 300 to 280. A ring resonator quality factor can reach up to 108 where an order of magnitude reduction is negligible. The resonance wavelength shift showed a blue shift and was obtained to be 1581, 1579,1578,1575nm for 1-, 2-, 4- and 6-degree ring-opening, respectively. This design can find the direction of the strain-induced by applying the opening on different parts of the ring. Moreover, by addressing the specified wavelength, we can precisely find the direction. We can open a significant opportunity to find cracks and any surface mechanical property very specifically and precisely. This idea can be implemented on polymer ring resonators while they can come with a flexible substrate and can be very sensitive to any strain making the two ends of the ring in the slit part come closer or further.

Keywords: optical ring resonator, strain gauge, strain sensor, surface mechanical property analysis

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715 Multiple-Channel Piezoelectric Actuated Tunable Optical Filter for WDM Application

Authors: Hailu Dessalegn, T. Srinivas


We propose new multiple-channel piezoelectric (PZT) actuated tunable optical filter based on racetrack multi-ring resonators for wavelength de-multiplexing network applications. We design tunable eight-channel wavelength de-multiplexer consisting of eight cascaded PZT actuated tunable multi-ring resonator filter with a channel spacing of 1.6 nm. The filter for each channel is basically structured on a suspended beam, sandwiched with piezoelectric material and built in integrated ring resonators which are placed on the middle of the beam to gain uniform stress and linearly varying longitudinal strain. A reference single mode serially coupled multi stage racetrack ring resonator with the same radii and coupling length is designed with a line width of 0.8974 nm with a flat top pass band at 1dB of 0.5205 nm and free spectral range of about 14.9 nm. In each channel, a small change in the perimeter of the rings is introduced to establish the shift in resonance wavelength as per the defined channel spacing. As a result, when a DC voltage is applied, the beams will elongate, which involves mechanical deformation of the ring resonators that induces a stress and a strain, which brings a change in refractive index and perimeter of the rings leading to change in the output spectrum shift providing the tunability of central wavelength in each channel. Simultaneous wave length shift as high as 45.54 pm/V has been achieved with negligible tunability variation in the eight channel tunable optical filter proportional to the DC voltage applied in the structure, and it is capable of tuning up to 3.45 nm in each channel with a maximum loss difference of 0.22 dB in the tuning range and out of band rejection ratio of 35 dB, with a low channel crosstalk ≤ 30 dB.

Keywords: optical MEMS, piezoelectric (PZT) actuation, tunable optical filter, wavelength de-multiplexer

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714 Rings Characterized by Classes of Rad-plus-Supplemented Modules

Authors: Manoj Kumar Patel


In this paper, we introduce and give various properties of weak* Rad-plus-supplemented and cofinitely weak* Rad-plus-supplemented modules over some special kinds of rings, in particular, artinian serial ring and semiperfect ring. Also prove that ring R is artinian serial if and only if every right and left R-module is weak* Rad-plus-supplemented. We provide the counter example which proves that weak* Rad-plus-supplemented module is the generalization of plus-supplemented and Rad-plus-supplemented modules. Furthermore, as an application of above finding results of this research article, our main focus is to characterized the semisimple ring, artinian principal ideal ring, semilocal ring, semiperfect ring, perfect ring, commutative noetherian ring and Dedekind domain in terms of weak* Rad-plus-supplemented module.

Keywords: cofinitely weak* Rad-plus-supplemented module , Dedekind domain, Rad-plus-supplemented module, semiperfect ring

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713 Silicon-Photonic-Sensor System for Botulinum Toxin Detection in Water

Authors: Binh T. T. Nguyen, Zhenyu Li, Eric Yap, Yi Zhang, Ai-Qun Liu


Silicon-photonic-sensor system is an emerging class of analytical technologies that use evanescent field wave to sensitively measure the slight difference in the surrounding environment. The wavelength shift induced by local refractive index change is used as an indicator in the system. These devices can be served as sensors for a wide variety of chemical or biomolecular detection in clinical and environmental fields. In our study, a system including a silicon-based micro-ring resonator, microfluidic channel, and optical processing is designed, fabricated for biomolecule detection. The system is demonstrated to detect Clostridium botulinum type A neurotoxin (BoNT) in different water sources. BoNT is one of the most toxic substances known and relatively easily obtained from a cultured bacteria source. The toxin is extremely lethal with LD50 of about 0.1µg/70kg intravenously, 1µg/ 70 kg by inhalation, and 70µg/kg orally. These factors make botulinum neurotoxins primary candidates as bioterrorism or biothreat agents. It is required to have a sensing system which can detect BoNT in a short time, high sensitive and automatic. For BoNT detection, silicon-based micro-ring resonator is modified with a linker for the immobilization of the anti-botulinum capture antibody. The enzymatic reaction is employed to increase the signal hence gains sensitivity. As a result, a detection limit to 30 pg/mL is achieved by our silicon-photonic sensor within a short period of 80 min. The sensor also shows high specificity versus the other type of botulinum. In the future, by designing the multifunctional waveguide array with fully automatic control system, it is simple to simultaneously detect multi-biomaterials at a low concentration within a short period. The system has a great potential to apply for online, real-time and high sensitivity for the label-free bimolecular rapid detection.

Keywords: biotoxin, photonic, ring resonator, sensor

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712 Mixed Frequency Excitation of an Electrostatically Actuated Resonator

Authors: Abdallah H. Ramini, Alwathiqbellah I. Ibrahim, Mohammad I. Younis


We investigate experimentally and theoretically the dynamics of a capacitive resonator under mixed frequency excitation of two AC harmonic signals. The resonator is composed of a proof mass suspended by two cantilever beams. Experimental measurements are conducted using a laser Doppler Vibrometer to reveal the interesting dynamics of the system when subjected to two-source excitation. A nonlinear single-degree-of-freedom model is used for the theoretical investigation. The results reveal combination resonances of additive and subtractive type, which are shown to be promising to increase the bandwidth of the resonator near primary resonance frequency. Our results also demonstrate the ability to shift the combination resonances to much lower or much higher frequency ranges. We also demonstrate the dynamic pull-in instability under mixed frequency excitation.

Keywords: electrostatically actuated resonator, multi-frequency excitation, nonlinear dynamics, AC harmonic signals

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711 Genetic Algorithm Optimization of Microcantilever Based Resonator

Authors: Manjula Sutagundar, B. G. Sheeparamatti, D. S. Jangamshetti


Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) resonators have shown the potential of replacing quartz crystal technology for sensing and high frequency signal processing applications because of inherent advantages like small size, high quality factor, low cost, compatibility with integrated circuit chips. This paper presents the optimization and modelling and simulation of the optimized micro cantilever resonator. The objective of the work is to optimize the dimensions of a micro cantilever resonator for a specified range of resonant frequency and specific quality factor. Optimization is carried out using genetic algorithm. The genetic algorithm is implemented using MATLAB. The micro cantilever resonator is modelled in CoventorWare using the optimized dimensions obtained from genetic algorithm. The modeled cantilever is analysed for resonance frequency.

Keywords: MEMS resonator, genetic algorithm, modelling and simulation, optimization

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710 Study of a Fabry-Perot Resonator

Authors: F. Hadjaj, A. Belghachi, A. Halmaoui, M. Belhadj, H. Mazouz


A laser is essentially an optical oscillator consisting of a resonant cavity, an amplifying medium and a pumping source. In semiconductor diode lasers, the cavity is created by the boundary between the cleaved face of the semiconductor crystal and air and also has reflective properties as a result of the differing refractive indices of the two media. For a GaAs-air interface a reflectance of 0.3 is typical and therefore the length of the semiconductor junction forms the resonant cavity. To prevent light, being emitted in unwanted directions from the junction and Sides perpendicular to the required direction are roughened. The objective of this work is to simulate the optical resonator Fabry-Perot and explore its main characteristics, such as FSR, Finesse, Linewidth, Transmission and so on that describe the performance of resonator.

Keywords: Fabry-Perot Resonator, laser diod, reflectance, semiconductor

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709 Simulation Analysis of Optical Add Drop Multiplexer in a Ring Network

Authors: Surinder Singh, Meenakshi


In this paper MZI-FBG based optical add drop multiplexer is designed and its performance is analyzed in the ring network. In the ring network nodes are composed of optical add drop multiplexer, transmitter and receiver. OADM is used to add or drop any frequency at intermediate nodes without affecting other channels. In this paper the performance of the ring network is carried out by varying various kinds of fiber with or without amplifiers.

Keywords: OADM, ring network, MZI-FBG, transmitter

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708 A Novel Dual Band-pass filter Based On Coupling of Composite Right/Left Hand CPW and (CSRRs) Uses Ferrite Components

Authors: Mohammed Berka, Khaled Merit


Recent works on microwave filters show that the constituent materials such filters are very important in the design and realization. Several solutions have been proposed to improve the qualities of filtering. In this paper, we propose a new dual band-pass filter based on the coupling of a composite (CRLH) coplanar waveguide with complementary split ring resonators (CSRRs). The (CRLH) CPW is composed of two resonators, each one has an interdigital capacitor (CID) and two short-circuited stubs parallel to top ground plane. On the lower ground plane, we use defected ground structure technology (DGS) to engrave two (CSRRs) offered with different shapes and dimensions. Between the top ground plane and the substrate, we place a ferrite layer to control the electromagnetic coupling between (CRLH) CPW and (CSRRs). The global filter that has coplanar access will have a dual band-pass behavior around the magnetic resonances of (CSRRs). Since there’s no scientific or experimental result in the literature for this kind of complicated structure, it was necessary to perform simulation using HFSS Ansoft designer.

Keywords: complementary split ring resonators, coplanar waveguide, ferrite, filter, stub.

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707 On the Girth of the Regular Digraph of Ideals of a ‎Commutative ‎Ring

Authors: Masoud Karimi


‎Let R be a commutative ring‎. ‎The regular digraph of ideals of R, which is denoted by‎ Γ(R)‎, ‎is a digraph whose vertex-set is the set of all ‎non-‎trivial ideals of R and‎, ‎for every‎ two distinct vertices I and J‎, ‎there is an arc from I to J‎, ‎whenever I contains‎ a non-zero-divisor on J. In this article, ‎we ‎show ‎that an indecomposable ‎Noetherian ring ‎‎‎R ‎is ‎Artinian ‎local ‎if ‎and ‎only ‎if Z(I)=Z(R) ‎for ‎every ‎non-nilpotent ‎ideal ‎‎‎I‎. ‎Then ‎we ‎conclude ‎that ‎‎the ‎girth ‎of‎ Γ(R)‎ ‎is ‎not ‎equal ‎to ‎four.

Keywords: commutative ring‎, ‎girth‎, regular digraph‎, zero-divisor

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706 On Modules over Dedekind Prime Rings

Authors: Elvira Kusniyanti, Hanni Garminia, Pudji Astuti


This research studies an interconnection between finitely generated uniform modules and Dedekind prime rings. The characterization of modules over Dedekind prime rings that will be investigated is an adoption of Noetherian and hereditary concept. Dedekind prime rings are Noetherian and hereditary rings. This property of Dedekind prime rings is a background of the idea of adopting arises. In Noetherian area, it was known that a ring R is Noetherian ring if and only if every finitely generated R-module is a Noetherian module. Similar to that result, a characterization of the hereditary ring is related to its projective modules. That is, a ring R is hereditary ring if and only if every projective R-module is a hereditary module. Due to the above two results, we suppose that characterization of a Dedekind prime ring can be analyzed from finitely generated modules over it. We propose a conjecture: a ring R is a Dedekind prime ring if and only if every finitely generated uniform R-module is a Dedekind module. In this article, we will generalize a concept of the Dedekind module for non-commutative ring case and present a part of the above conjecture.

Keywords: dedekind domains, dedekind prime rings, dedekind modules, uniform modules

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705 Structural Analysis of Hydro-Turbine Spiral Casing and Stay Ring Using Ansys

Authors: Surjit Angra, Pooja Rani, Vinod Kumar


In hydro power plant spiral casing and Stay ring is meant to guide the water flow to guide vane and runner. Spiral casing and Stay ring is subjected to static i.e. pressure load as well as fluctuating load acting on the structure due to water hammer effect in water conductor system. Finite element method has been used to calculate stresses on spiral casing and stay ring. These calculations were done for the maximum possible loading under operating condition "LC1 Quick Shut Down”. The design load is reached for the spiral casing and stay ring during the emergency closure of the guide apparatus "LC1 Quick Shut Down”. During this operation the forces from the head cover to the stay ring also reach their maximum.

Keywords: hydro-turbine, spiral casing, stay ring, structural analysis

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704 Improved of Elliptic Curves Cryptography over a Ring

Authors: Abdelhakim Chillali, Abdelhamid Tadmori, Muhammed Ziane


In this article we will study the elliptic curve defined over the ring An and we define the mathematical operations of ECC, which provides a high security and advantage for wireless applications compared to other asymmetric key cryptosystem.

Keywords: elliptic curves, finite ring, cryptography, study

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
703 Increasing of Gain in Unstable Thin Disk Resonator

Authors: M. Asl. Dehghan, M. H. Daemi, S. Radmard, S. H. Nabavi


Thin disk lasers are engineered for efficient thermal cooling and exhibit superior performance for this task. However the disk thickness and large pumped area make the use of this gain format in a resonator difficult when constructing a single-mode laser. Choosing an unstable resonator design is beneficial for this purpose. On the other hand, the low gain medium restricts the application of unstable resonators to low magnifications and therefore to a poor beam quality. A promising idea to enable the application of unstable resonators to wide aperture, low gain lasers is to couple a fraction of the out coupled radiation back into the resonator. The output coupling gets dependent on the ratio of the back reflection and can be adjusted independently from the magnification. The excitation of the converging wave can be done by the use of an external reflector. The resonator performance is numerically predicted. First of all the threshold condition of linear, V and 2V shape resonator is investigated. Results show that the maximum magnification is 1.066 that is very low for high quality purposes. Inserting an additional reflector covers the low gain. The reflectivity and the related magnification of a 350 micron Yb:YAG disk are calculated. The theoretical model was based on the coupled Kirchhoff integrals and solved numerically by the Fox and Li algorithm. Results show that with back reflection mechanism in combination with increasing the number of beam incidents on disk, high gain and high magnification can occur.

Keywords: unstable resonators, thin disk lasers, gain, external reflector

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702 Passive Attenuation with Multiple Resonator Rings for Musical Instruments Equalization

Authors: Lorenzo Bonoldi, Gianluca Memoli, Abdelhalim Azbaid El Ouahabi


In this paper, a series of ring-shaped attenuators utilizing Helmholtz and quarter wavelength resonators in variable, fixed, and combined configurations have been manufactured using a 3D printer. We illustrate possible uses by incorporating such devices into musical instruments (e.g. in acoustic guitar sound holes) and audio speakers with a view to controlling such devices tonal emissions without electronic equalization systems. Numerical investigations into the transmission loss values of these ring-shaped attenuators using finite element method simulations (COMSOL Multiphysics) have been presented in the frequency range of 100– 1000 Hz. We compare such results for each attenuator model with experimental measurements using different driving sources such as white noise, a maximum-length sequence (MLS), square and sine sweep pulses, and point scans in the frequency domain. Finally, we present a preliminary discussion on the comparison of numerical and experimental results.

Keywords: equaliser, metamaterials, musical, instruments

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701 CRLH and SRR Based Microwave Filter Design Useful for Communication Applications

Authors: Subal Kar, Amitesh Kumar, A. Majumder, S. K. Ghosh, S. Saha, S. S. Sikdar, T. K. Saha


CRLH (composite right/left-handed) based and SRR (split-ring resonator) based filters have been designed at microwave frequency which can provide better performance compared to conventional edge-coupled band-pass filter designed around the same frequency, 2.45 GHz. Both CRLH and SRR are unit cells used in metamaterial design. The primary aim of designing filters with such structures is to realize size reduction and also to realize novel filter performance. The CRLH based filter has been designed in microstrip transmission line, while the SRR based filter is designed with SRR loading in waveguide. The CRLH based filter designed at 2.45 GHz provides an insertion loss of 1.6 dB with harmonic suppression up to 10 GHz with 67 % size reduction when compared with a conventional edge-coupled band-pass filter designed around the same frequency. One dimensional (1-D) SRR matrix loaded in a waveguide shows the possibility of realizing a stop-band with sharp skirts in the pass-band while a stop-band in the pass-band of normal rectangular waveguide with tailoring of the dimensions of SRR unit cells. Such filters are expected to be very useful for communication systems at microwave frequency.

Keywords: BPF, CRLH, harmonic, metamaterial, SRR and waveguide

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700 Heterocyclic Ring Extension of Estrone: Synthesis and Cytotoxicity of Fused Pyrin, Pyrimidine and Thiazole Derivatives

Authors: Rafat M. Mohareb


Several D-ring alkylated estrone analogues display exceptionally high affinity for estrogen receptors. In particular, compounds in which an E-ring is formed are known to be involved in the inhibition of steroidogenic enzymes. Such compounds also have an effect on steroid dehydrogenase activity and the ability to inhibit the detrimental action of the steroid sulfatase enzyme. Generally, E-ring extended steroids have been accessed by modification of the C17-ketone in the D-ring by either arylimine or oximino formation, addition of a carbon nucleophile or hydrazone formation. Other approaches have included ketone reduction, silyl enol ether formation or ring-closing metathesis (giving five- or six-membered E-rings). Chemical modification of the steroid D-ring provides a way to alter the functional groups, sizes and stereochemistry of the D-ring, and numerous structure-activity relationships have been established by such synthetic alterations. Steroids bearing heterocycles fused to the D-ring of the steroid nucleus have been of pharmaceutical interest. In the present paper, we report on the efficient synthesis of estrone possessing pyran, pyrimidine and thiazole ring systems. This study focused on the synthesis and biochemical evaluation of newly synthesized heterocyclic compounds which were then subjected through inhibitory evaluations towards human cancer and normal cell lines.

Keywords: estrone, heterocyclization, cytotoxicity, biomedicine

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699 Highly Conductive Polycrystalline Metallic Ring in a Magnetic Field

Authors: Isao Tomita


Electrical conduction in a quasi-one-dimensional polycrystalline metallic ring with a long electron phase coherence length realized at low temperature is investigated. In this situation, the wave nature of electrons is important in the ring, where the electrical current I can be induced by a vector potential that arises from a static magnetic field applied perpendicularly to the ring’s area. It is shown that if the average grain size of the polycrystalline ring becomes large (or comparable to the Fermi wavelength), the electrical current I increases to ~I0, where I0 is a current in a disorder-free ring. The cause of this increasing effect is examined, and this takes place if the electron localization length in the polycrystalline potential increases with increasing grain size, which gives rise to coherent connection of tails of a localized electron wave function in the ring and thus provides highly coherent electrical conduction.

Keywords: electrical conduction, electron phase coherence, polycrystalline metal, magnetic field

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698 Development of Forging Technology of Cam Ring Gear for Truck Using Small Bar

Authors: D. H. Park, Y. H. Tak, H. H. Kwon, G. J. Kwon, H. G. Kim


This study focused on developing forging technology of a large-diameter cam ring gear from the small bar. The analyses of temperature variation and deformation behavior of the material are important to obtain the optimal forging products. The hot compression test was carried out to know formability at high temperature. In order to define the optimum forging conditions including material temperature, strain and forging load, the finite element method was used to simulate the forging process of cam ring gear parts. Test results were in good agreement with the simulations. An existing cam ring gear is presented the chips generated by cutting the rod material and the durability issues, but this would be to develop a large-diameter cam ring gear forging parts for truck in order to solve the durability problem and the material waste.

Keywords: forging technology, cam ring, gear, truck, small bar

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697 Model Estimation and Error Level for Okike’s Merged Irregular Transposition Cipher

Authors: Okike Benjamin, Garba E. J. D.


The researcher has developed a new encryption technique known as Merged Irregular Transposition Cipher. In this cipher method of encryption, a message to be encrypted is split into parts and each part encrypted separately. Before the encrypted message is transmitted to the recipient(s), the positions of the split in the encrypted messages could be swapped to ensure more security. This work seeks to develop a model by considering the split number, S and the average number of characters per split, L as the message under consideration is split from 2 through 10. Again, after developing the model, the error level in the model would be determined.

Keywords: merged irregular transposition, error level, model estimation, message splitting

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696 Analysis of Road Network Vulnerability Due to Merapi Volcano Eruption

Authors: Imam Muthohar, Budi Hartono, Sigit Priyanto, Hardiansyah Hardiansyah


The eruption of Merapi Volcano in Yogyakarta, Indonesia in 2010 caused many casualties due to minimum preparedness in facing disaster. Increasing population capacity and evacuating to safe places become very important to minimize casualties. Regional government through the Regional Disaster Management Agency has divided disaster-prone areas into three parts, namely ring 1 at a distance of 10 km, ring 2 at a distance of 15 km and ring 3 at a distance of 20 km from the center of Mount Merapi. The success of the evacuation is fully supported by road network infrastructure as a way to rescue in an emergency. This research attempts to model evacuation process based on the rise of refugees in ring 1, expanded to ring 2 and finally expanded to ring 3. The model was developed using SATURN (Simulation and Assignment of Traffic to Urban Road Networks) program version 11.3. 12W, involving 140 centroid, 449 buffer nodes, and 851 links across Yogyakarta Special Region, which was aimed at making a preliminary identification of road networks considered vulnerable to disaster. An assumption made to identify vulnerability was the improvement of road network performance in the form of flow and travel times on the coverage of ring 1, ring 2, ring 3, Sleman outside the ring, Yogyakarta City, Bantul, Kulon Progo, and Gunung Kidul. The research results indicated that the performance increase in the road networks existing in the area of ring 2, ring 3, and Sleman outside the ring. The road network in ring 1 started to increase when the evacuation was expanded to ring 2 and ring 3. Meanwhile, the performance of road networks in Yogyakarta City, Bantul, Kulon Progo, and Gunung Kidul during the evacuation period simultaneously decreased in when the evacuation areas were expanded. The results of preliminary identification of the vulnerability have determined that the road networks existing in ring 1, ring 2, ring 3 and Sleman outside the ring were considered vulnerable to the evacuation of Mount Merapi eruption. Therefore, it is necessary to pay a great deal of attention in order to face the disasters that potentially occur at anytime.

Keywords: model, evacuation, SATURN, vulnerability

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695 Parameters Affecting Load Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Ring Deep Beams

Authors: Atef Ahmad Bleibel


Most codes of practice, like ACI 318-14, require the use of strut-and-tie modeling to analyze and design reinforced concrete deep beams. Though, investigations that conducted on deep beams do not include ring deep beams of influential parameters. This work presents an analytical parametric study using strut-and-tie modeling stated by ACI 318-14 to predict load capacity of 20 reinforced concrete ring deep beam specimens with different parameters. The parameters that were under consideration in the current work are ring diameter (Dc), number of supports (NS), width of ring beam (bw), concrete compressive strength (f'c) and width of bearing plate (Bp). It is found that the load capacity decreases by about 14-36% when ring diameter increases by about 25-75%. It is also found that load capacity increases by about 62-189% when number of supports increases by about 33-100%, while the load capacity increases by about 25-75% when the beam ring width increases by about 25-75%. Finally, it is found that load capacity increases by about 24-76% when compressive strength increases by about 24-76%, while the load capacity increases by about 5-16% when Bp increases by about 25-75%.

Keywords: load parameters, reinforced concrete, ring deep beam, strut and tie

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694 Finite Element and Split Bregman Methods for Solving a Family of Optimal Control Problem with Partial Differential Equation Constraint

Authors: Mahmoud Lot


In this article, we will discuss the solution of elliptic optimal control problem. First, by using the nite element method, we obtain the discrete form of the problem. The obtained discrete problem is actually a large scale constrained optimization problem. Solving this optimization problem with traditional methods is difficult and requires a lot of CPU time and memory. But split Bergman method converts the constrained problem to an unconstrained, and hence it saves time and memory requirement. Then we use the split Bregman method for solving this problem, and examples show the speed and accuracy of split Bregman methods for solving these types of problems. We also use the SQP method for solving the examples and compare with the split Bregman method.

Keywords: Split Bregman Method, optimal control with elliptic partial differential equation constraint, finite element method

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