Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 25

Search results for: Syeda Roshana Ali

25 System of Linear Equations, Gaussian Elimination

Authors: Rabia Khan, Nargis Munir, Suriya Gharib, Syeda Roshana Ali

Abstract:

In this paper linear equations are discussed in detail along with elimination method. Gaussian elimination and Gauss Jordan schemes are carried out to solve the linear system of equation. This paper comprises of matrix introduction, and the direct methods for linear equations. The goal of this research was to analyze different elimination techniques of linear equations and measure the performance of Gaussian elimination and Gauss Jordan method, in order to find their relative importance and advantage in the field of symbolic and numeric computation. The purpose of this research is to revise an introductory concept of linear equations, matrix theory and forms of Gaussian elimination through which the performance of Gauss Jordan and Gaussian elimination can be measured.

Keywords: direct, indirect, backward stage, forward stage

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24 Financial Literacy and Stock Market Participation: Does Gender Matter?

Authors: Irfan Ullah Munir, Shen Yue, Muhammad Shahzad Ijaz, Saad Hussain, Syeda Yumna Zaidi

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Financial literacy is fundamental to every decision-making process and has received attention from researchers, regulatory bodies and policy makers in the recent past. This study is an attempt to evaluate financial literacy in an emerging economy, particularly Pakistan, and its influence on people's stock market participation. Data of this study was collected through a structured questionnaire from a sample of 300 respondents. EFA is used to check the convergent and discriminant validity. Data is analyzed using Hayes (2013) approach. A set of demographic control variables that have passed the mean difference test is used. We demonstrate that participants with financial literacy tend to invest more in the stock market. We also find that association among financial literacy and participation in stock market gets moderated by gender.

Keywords: Financial literacy, Stock market participation, Gender, PSX

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23 Medical Social Work: Connotation, Prospects, and Challenges in Pakistan

Authors: Syeda Mahnaz Hassan

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Social work as a specialized field, grounded in scientific knowledge and skills, is more inclined towards problem-solving process rather than charity focused approach. Medical social work, as a primary method, deals with the bio-psychosocial-spiritual elements of an individual with a problem and assesses the pliability and strength of the patients, social support systems, and their families, to assist the patients to resolve their problems independently. The medical social worker, also known as case-worker or care-worker, has to play a substantial role in the rehabilitation and retrieval of an affected person. This paper examines the roles played and responsibilities discharged by the Medical Social Workers internationally and specifically concerning Pakistan. The capacity constraints and challenges confronted by Medical Social Workers in hospitals have also been highlighted, and some policy implications have been suggested to enhance the capabilities of Medical Social Workers for serving the patients in a befitting manner.

Keywords: medical social work, Pakistan, patients, rehabilitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
22 Municipal Leachate Treatment by Using Polyaluminium Chloride as a Coagulant

Authors: Syeda Azeem Unnisa

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The present study was undertaken at Jawaharnagar Solid Waste Municipal Dumpsite, Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation, Telangana State, India in 2017 which generates 90,000 litres of leachate per day. The main objective of the leachate treatment was to remove organic compounds like color, suspended solids, ammonia and COD by coagulation-flocculation using polyaluminum chloride (PAC) as coagulant which has higher coagulant efficiency and relative low cost compared to the conventional coagulants. Jar test apparatus was used to conduct experiments for pH 7, rapid mixing speed 150 rpm for 3 minute, slow mixing speed 30 rpm for 20 minute and the settling time of 30 minute for different dosage of PAC (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5 and 5.0 g/L). The highest percentage of removal of suspended solids, color, COD and ammonical nitrogen are 97%, 96%, 60% and 37% with PAC optimum dose of 2.0 g/l. The results indicate that the PAC was effective in leachate treatment which is very much suitable for high toxicity of waste and economically feasible for Indian conditions. The treated water can be utilized for other purpose apart from drinking.

Keywords: coagulant, leachate, polyaluminium chloride, treatment

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21 A Review on the Necessities of Green Building in Bangladesh and Its Construction Process

Authors: Syeda Afsana Azad

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Climate change, due to the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere has been recognized as one of the biggest threats to the present world. The condition of the earth is getting worse day by day due to climate change. Bangladesh is considered to be one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change due to large population, sharp urbanization, etc. Construction of green building is a very good solution to reduce the greenhouse effect. Green building technology refers to that kind of structures which are environmentally friendly and resource-efficient throughout a building’s service life. This technology can provide at least 50% energy saving opportunity to the nation. The necessity of the construction of structures in an environment-friendly way is increasing now. This study shows the scenario of rapid population growth, urbanization, necessity of green building in Bangladesh and also discusses the construction process of green building. As the present climate condition of Bangladesh is not friendly, construction of green building is very much needed. To battle climate change, it is mandatory to construct green building.

Keywords: Bangladesh, climate change, green building, green house effect

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20 Facile Synthesis of Novel Substituted Aryl-Thiazole (SAT) Analogs via One-Pot Multicomponent Reaction as Potent Cytotoxic Agents against Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Salma Mirza, Syeda Asma Naqvi, Khalid Mohammed Khan, M. Iqbal Choudhary

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In this study twenty-five (25) newly synthesized compounds substituted aryl thiazoles (SAT) 1-25 were synthesized, and in vitro cytotoxicity of these compounds was evaluated against four cancer cell lines namely, MCF-7 (ER+ve breast), MDA-MB-231 (ER-ve breast), HCT116 (colorectal), and, HeLa (cervical) and compared with the standard anticancer drug doxorubicin with IC50 value of 1.56 ± 0.05 μM. Among them, compounds 1, 4-8 and 19 were found to be active against all four cell lines. Compound 20 was found to be selectively active against MCF7 cells with IC50 value of 40.21 ± 4.15 µM, whereas compound 19 was active against only MCF7 and HeLa cells with IC50 values of 46.72 ± 1.8 and 19.86 ± 0.11 μM, respectively. These results suggest that aryl thiazoles 1 and 4 deserve to be investigated further in vivo as anti-cancer agents.

Keywords: anticancer agents, breast cancer cell lines (MCF7, MDA-MB-231), colorectal cancer cell line (HCT-116), cervical cancer cell line (HeLa), Thiazole derivatives

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19 Long Hours Impact on Work-Life Balance

Authors: Syeda Faiza Gardazi, Syed Ahsan Ali Gardazi, Ajmal Waheed

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The trend of overtime is increasing among workers due to more pressure to perform workloads, job insecurity, and financial issues. Overtime work affects the work-life balance conflict negatively as well positively. Work-life balance conflict has become an important issue as traditional work and family roles have changed. The purpose of the current research was to study the impact of overtime work on work-life balance conflict along with the moderating role of job satisfaction. For this purpose, data is collected from the employees working in different public and private sectors of Pakistan using simple random sampling technique. Descriptive statistics was used for data presentation and analysis. Correlation and regression analysis were used to test four research hypotheses proposed on the basis of research framework. The findings led to the acceptance of four hypotheses. The results show that high working hours and overtime in general lead to high work-life balance conflict. Moreover, job satisfaction moderates the relationship between overtime work and work-life balance conflict.

Keywords: family to work conflict, overtime work, work to family conflict, work-life balance conflict

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18 Subfamilial Relationships within Solanaceae as Inferred from atpB-rbcL Intergenic Spacer

Authors: Syeda Qamarunnisa, Ishrat Jamil, Abid Azhar, Zabta K. Shinwari, Syed Irtifaq Ali

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A phylogenetic analysis of family Solanaceae was conducted using sequence data from the chloroplast intergenic atpB-rbcL spacer. Sequence data was generated from 17 species representing 09 out of 14 genera of Solanaceae from Pakistan. Cladogram was constructed using maximum parsimony method and results indicate that Solanaceae is mainly divided into two subfamilies; Solanoideae and Cestroideae. Four major clades within Solanoideae represent tribes; Physaleae, Capsiceae, Datureae and Solaneae are supported by high bootstrap value and the relationships among them are not corroborating with the previous studies. The findings established that subfamily Cestroideae comprised of three genera; Cestrum, Lycium, and Nicotiana with high bootstrap support. Position of Nicotiana inferred with atpB-rbcL sequence is congruent with traditional classification, which placed the taxa in Cestroideae. In the current study Lycium unexpectedly nested with Nicotiana with 100% bootstrap support and identified as a member of tribe Nicotianeae. Expanded sampling of other genera from Pakistan could be valuable towards improving our understanding of intrafamilial relationships within Solanaceae.

Keywords: systematics, solanaceae, phylogenetics, intergenic spacer, tribes

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17 Perception of Discrimination Amongst Minorites in Canada Following the Inception of Bill 21

Authors: Ayman Mohammed, Abdul Raffay Ilyas, Syeda Rohma Sadia, Zuha Durrani, Fareeha Kamal, Shaheryar Syed, Arshiya Shareef, Mukarram Zaidi

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On June 16, 2019, Coalition Avenir de Québec (CAQ) passed Bill 21, a controversial bill impacting many Canadians. The Bill prohibits workers in the Quebec provincial sector from wearing any form of religious articles. While the Bill claims to treat all religious symbols equally, those with distinctive items of dress such as hijabs, kippahs, and turbans become targets of the discriminatory nature of the Bill. With the rise in xenophobic behaviour across Canada and the West, Think For Actions conducted a study of Bill 21. The study included responses from Indigenous, Muslims, Sikhs and Jewish people residing in Calgary. The focus was on the recent passing of Bill 21, their opinions on the perceived attitudes of intolerance, and the perceptions of common stereotypes. The data collection and analysis happened over 9 weeks. The method of data collection was semi-structured interviews held in focus groups in different religious institutions and cultural/community centres in Calgary. The focus groups generated unanimously negative responses to the Bill. Participants described the Bill as “hateful” and one which “targets minority religions”. The participants had hopes that the Bill would be defeated and Quebec residents would be protected by their basic rights to practice their religion.

Keywords: Bill 21, Islamophobia, Quebec, minorities, discrimination

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
16 Cloning, Expression and N-Terminal Pegylation of Human Interferon Alpha-2b Analogs and Their Cytotoxic Evaluation against Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Syeda Kiran Shahzadi, Nasir Mahmood, Muhammad Abdul Qadir

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In the current research, three recombinant human interferon alpha-2b proteins (two modified and one normal form) were produced and Pegylated with an aim to produce more effective drugs against viral infections and cancers. The modified recombinant human interferon alpha-2b proteins were produced by site-directed modifications of interferon alpha 2b gene, targeting the amino acids at positions ‘R23’ and ‘H34’. The resulting chemically modified and unmodified forms of human interferon alpha 2b were conjugated with methoxy-polyethylene glycol propanealdehyde (400 KDa) and methoxy-polyethylene glycol succinimidyl succinate (400 KDa). Pegylation of normal and modified forms of Interferon alpha-2b prolong their release time and enhance their efficacy. The conjugation of PEG with modified and unmodified human interferon alpha 2b protein drugs was also characterized with 1H-NMR, HPLC, and SDS-PAGE. Antiproliferative assays of modified and unmodified forms of drugs were performed in cell based bioassays using MDBK cell lines. The results indicated that experimentally produced recombinant human interferon alpha-2b proteins were biologically active and resulted in significant inhibition of cell growth.

Keywords: protein refolding, antiproliferative activities, biomedical applications, human interferon alpha-2b, pegylation, mPEG-propionaldehyde, site directed mutagenesis, E. coli expression

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15 Association of AGT (M268T) Gene Polymorphism in Diabetes and Nephropathy in Pakistan

Authors: Syed M. Shahid, Rozeena Shaikh, Syeda N. Nawab, Abid Azhar

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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a prevalent non-communicable disease worldwide. DM may lead to many vascular complications like hypertension, nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy and foot infections. Pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN) is implicated by the polymorphisms in genes encoding the specific components of renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) which include angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin-II receptor and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) genes. This study was designed to explore the possible association of AG (M268T) polymorphism in the patients of diabetes and nephropathy in Pakistan. Study subjects included 100 controls, 260 diabetic patients without renal insufficiency and 190 diabetic nephropathy patients with persistent albuminuria. Fasting blood samples were collected from all the subjects after getting institutional ethical approval and informed consent. The biochemical estimations, PCR amplification and direct sequencing for the specific region of AGT gene was carried out. A significantly high frequency of TT genotype and T allele of AGT (M268T) was observed in the patients of diabetes with nephropathy as compared to controls and diabetic patients without any known renal impairment. The TT genotype and T allele of AGT (M268T) polymorphism may be considered as a genetic risk factor for the development and progression of nephropathy in diabetes. Further cross sectional population studies would be of help to establish and confirm the observed possible association of AGT gene variations with development of nephropathy in diabetes.

Keywords: RAAS, AGT (M268T), diabetes, nephropathy

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14 Enhancement of Dielectric Properties of Co-Precipitated Spinel Ferrites NiFe₂O₄/Carbon Nano Fibers Nanohybrid

Authors: Iftikhar Hussain Gul, Syeda Aatika

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Nickel ferrite was prepared via wet chemical co-precipitation route. Carbon Nano Fibers (CNFs) were used to prepare NiFe₂O₄/CNFs nanohybrids. Polar solvent (ortho-xylene) was used for the dispersion of CNFs in ferrite matrix. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the formation of NiFe₂O₄/CNFs nanohybrids without any impurity peak. FTIR patterns showed two consistent characteristic absorption bands for tetrahedral and octahedral sites, confirming the formation of spinel structure of NiFe₂O₄. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images confirmed the coating of nickel ferrite nanoparticles on CNFs, which confirms the efficiency of deployed method. The dielectric properties were measured as a function of frequency at room temperature. Pure NiFe₂O₄ showed dielectric constant of 1.79 ×10³ at 100 Hz, which increased massively to 2.92 ×10⁶ at 100 Hz with the addition of 20% by weight of CNFs, proving it to be potential candidate for applications in supercapacitors. The impedance analysis showed a considerable decrease of resistance, reactance and cole-cole plot which confirms the decline of impedance on addition of CNFs. The pure NiFe₂O₄ has highest impedance values of 5.89 ×10⁷ Ohm at 100 Hz while the NiFe₂O₄/CNFs nanohybrid with CNFs (20% by weight) has the lowest impedance values of 4.25×10³ Ohm at 100 Hz, which proves this nanohybrid is useful for high-frequency applications.

Keywords: AC impedance, co-precipitation, nanohybrid, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction

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13 A Survey of Feature-Based Steganalysis for JPEG Images

Authors: Syeda Mainaaz Unnisa, Deepa Suresh

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Due to the increase in usage of public domain channels, such as the internet, and communication technology, there is a concern about the protection of intellectual property and security threats. This interest has led to growth in researching and implementing techniques for information hiding. Steganography is the art and science of hiding information in a private manner such that its existence cannot be recognized. Communication using steganographic techniques makes not only the secret message but also the presence of hidden communication, invisible. Steganalysis is the art of detecting the presence of this hidden communication. Parallel to steganography, steganalysis is also gaining prominence, since the detection of hidden messages can prevent catastrophic security incidents from occurring. Steganalysis can also be incredibly helpful in identifying and revealing holes with the current steganographic techniques, which makes them vulnerable to attacks. Through the formulation of new effective steganalysis methods, further research to improve the resistance of tested steganography techniques can be developed. Feature-based steganalysis method for JPEG images calculates the features of an image using the L1 norm of the difference between a stego image and the calibrated version of the image. This calibration can help retrieve some of the parameters of the cover image, revealing the variations between the cover and stego image and enabling a more accurate detection. Applying this method to various steganographic schemes, experimental results were compared and evaluated to derive conclusions and principles for more protected JPEG steganography.

Keywords: cover image, feature-based steganalysis, information hiding, steganalysis, steganography

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12 A Comparative Study of Environment Risk Assessment Guidelines of Developing and Developed Countries Including Bangladesh

Authors: Syeda Fahria Hoque Mimmi, Aparna Islam

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Genetically engineered (GE) plants are the need of time for increased demand for food. A complete set of regulations need to be followed from the development of a GE plant to its release into the environment. The whole regulation system is categorized into separate stages for maintaining the proper biosafety. Environmental risk assessment (ERA) is one of such crucial stages in the whole process. ERA identifies potential risks and their impacts through science-based evaluation where it is done in a case-by-case study. All the countries which deal with GE plants follow specific guidelines to conduct a successful ERA. In this study, ERA guidelines of 4 developing and 4 developed countries, including Bangladesh, were compared. ERA guidelines of countries such as India, Canada, Australia, the European Union, Argentina, Brazil, and the US were considered as a model to conduct the comparison study with Bangladesh. Initially, ten parameters were detected to compare the required data and information among all the guidelines. Surprisingly, an adequate amount of data and information requirements (e.g., if the intended modification/new traits of interest has been achieved or not, the growth habit of GE plants, consequences of any potential gene flow upon the cultivation of GE plants to sexually compatible plant species, potential adverse effects on the human health, etc.) matched between all the countries. However, a few differences in data requirement (e.g., agronomic conventions of non-transformed plants, applicants should clearly describe experimental procedures followed, etc.) were also observed in the study. Moreover, it was found that only a few countries provide instructions on the quality of the data used for ERA. If these similarities are recognized in a more framed manner, then the approval pathway of GE plants can be shared.

Keywords: GE plants, ERA, harmonization, ERA guidelines, Information and data requirements

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11 Re-Evaluation of Functional Assessment of Anorexia/Cachexia Therapy (Appetite Scale) with Nutritional Intake of Cancer Patients

Authors: Amena Omer Syeda, Harita Shyam

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Background: Anorexia a common symptom among patients with prolonged illness leading to anorexia-cachexia syndrome with a prevalence rate of 70%. In order to provide effective health care and better response to treatment, appetite should be assessed on admission and then periodically for earlier nutrition intervention. Functional Assessment of Anorexia/Cachexia Therapy (FAACT) appetite scale is 12 questions, patient-rated, symptom specific measure for appetite, and distress from anorexia. It assigns a score ranging from 0 (worst response) to 4 (best response). Therefore, proposing a total score of ≤24 may be sufficient to make a diagnosis of anorexia. Objectives: To assess the FAACT scale by co-relating the scores with the Nutritional intake and BMI of Cancer Patients. Methods: The FAACT scores of 100 cancer in-patients receiving chemotherapy or radiation as treatment, their 24-hour calorie and protein intake and BMI were recorded. The data was then statistically analyzed. Results: The calorie and protein intake and FAACT scores both showed a significant positive co-relation (p<0.001), inferring that the patients with a FAACT score of ≤24 where not meeting their calorie as well as protein requirements, hence rightly categorizing them as anorexic. The co-relation between BMI and FAACT scores showed a weak co-relation and was not statistically significant (p > 0.05).The FAACT scale thus is not sensitive to distinguish patients being under-weight, normal weight or obese. Conclusion: The FAACT scale helps in providing better palliative and nutritional care as it correctly assessed anorexia /cachexia in cancer patients and co-related significantly with their nutrient intake.

Keywords: appetite, cachexia, cancer, malnutrition

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10 Pistachio Supplementation Ameliorates the Motor and Cognitive Deficits in Rotenone-Induced Rat Model of Parkinson’s Disease

Authors: Saida Haider, Syeda Madiha

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Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common neurological disorder characterized by motor deficits and loss of dopaminergic neurons. Oxidative stress is said to play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of the disease. In the present study, PD was induced by injection of rotenone (1.5 mg/kg/day, s.c.) for eight days. Pistachio (800 mg/kg/day, p.o.) was given for two weeks. At the end of treatment brains were dissected out and striatum was isolated for biochemical and neurochemical analysis. Morris water maze (MWM) test and novel object recognition (NOR) task was used to test the memory function while motor behavior was determined by open field test (OFT), Kondziela inverted screen test (KIST), pole test (PT), beam walking test (BWT), inclined plane test (IPT) and footprint (FP) test. Several dietary components have been evaluated as potential therapeutic compounds in many neurodegenerative diseases. Increasing evidence shows that nuts have protective effects against various diseases by improving the oxidative status and reducing lipid peroxidation. Pistachio is the only nut that contains anthocyanin, a potent antioxidant having neuroprotective properties. Results showed that pistachio supplementation significantly restored the rotenone-induced motor deficits and improved the memory performance. Moreover, rats treated with pistachio also exhibited enhanced oxidative status and increased dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) concentration in striatum. In conclusion, to our best knowledge, we have for the first time shown that pistachio nut possesses neuroprotective effects against rotenone-induced motor and cognitive deficits. These beneficial effects of pistachio may be attributed to its high content of natural antioxidant and phenolic compounds. Hence, consumption of pistachio regularly as part of a daily diet can be beneficial in the prevention and treatment of PD.

Keywords: rotenone, pistachio, oxidative stress, Parkinson’s disease

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
9 Prospects of Milk Protein as a Potential Alternative of Natural Antibiotic

Authors: Syeda Fahria Hoque Mimmi

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Many new and promising treatments for reducing or diminishing the adverse effects of microorganisms are being discovered day by day. On the other hand, the dairy industry is accelerating the economic wheel of Bangladesh. Considering all these facts, new thoughts were developed to isolate milk proteins by the present experiment for opening up a new era of developing natural antibiotics from milk. Lactoferrin, an iron-binding glycoprotein with multifunctional properties, is crucial to strengthening the immune system and also useful for commercial applications. The protein’s iron-binding capacity makes it undoubtedly advantageous to immune system modulation and different bacterial strains. For fulfilling the purpose, 4 of raw and 17 of commercially available milk samples were collected from different farms and stores in Bangladesh (Dhaka, Chittagong, and Cox’s Bazar). Protein quantification by nanodrop technology has confirmed that raw milk samples have better quantities of protein than the commercial ones. All the samples were tested for their antimicrobial activity against 18 pathogens, where raw milk samples showed a higher percentage of antibacterial activity. In addition to this, SDS-PAGE (Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate–Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis) was performed to identify lactoferrin in the milk samples. Lactoferrin was detected in 9 samples from which 4 were raw milk samples. Interestingly, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholera, Staphylococcus aureus, and enterotoxigenic E. coli significantly displayed sensitivity against lactoferrin collected from raw milk. Only Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumonia, Enterococcus faecalis, and ETEC (Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli) were susceptible to lactoferrin obtained from a commercial one. This study suggested that lactoferrin might be used as the potential alternative of antibiotics for many diseases and also can be used to reduce microbial deterioration in the food and feed industry.

Keywords: alternative of antibiotics, commercially available milk, lactoferrin, nanodrop technology, pathogens, raw milk

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8 Porosity and Surface Chemistry of Functionalized Carbonaceous Materials from Date Palm Leaflets

Authors: El-Said I. El-Shafey, Syeda Naheed F. Ali, Saleh S. Al-Busafi, Haider A. J. Al-Lawati

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Date palm leaflets were utilized as a precursor for activated carbon (AC) preparation using KOH activation. AC produced was oxidized using nitric acid producing oxidized activated carbon (OAC). OAC that possesses acidic surface was surface functionalized to produce basic activated carbons using linear diamine compounds (ethylene diamine and propylene diamine). OAC was also functionalized to produce hydrophobic activated carbons using ethylamine (EA) and aniline (AN). Dehydrated carbon was also prepared from date palm leaflets using sulfuric acid dehydration/ oxidation and was surface functionalized in the same way as AC. Nitric acid oxidation was not necessary for DC as it is acidic carbon. The surface area of AC is high (823 m2/g) with microporosity domination, however, after oxidation and surface functionalization, both the surface area and surface microporosity decrease tremendously. DC surface area was low (15 m2/g) with mesoporosity domination. Surface functionalization has decreased the surface area of activated carbons. FTIR spectra show that -COOH group on DC and OAC almost disappeared after surface functionalization. The surface chemistry of all carbons produced was tested for pHzpc, basic sites, boehm titration, thermogravimetric analysis and zeta potential measurement. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy in addition to CHN elemental analysis were also carried out. DC and OAC possess low pHzpc and high surface functionality, however, basic and hydrophobic carbons possess high pHzpc and low surface functionality. The different behavior of carbons is related to their different surface chemistry. Methylene blue adsorption was found to be faster on hydrophobic carbons based on AC and DC. The Larger adsorption capacity of methylene blue was found for hydrophobic carbons. Dominating adsorption forces of methylene blue varies from carbon to another depending on its surface nature. Sorption forces include hydrophobic forces, H-bonding, electrostatic interactions and van der Waals forces.

Keywords: carbon, acidic, basic, hydrophobic

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7 A Methodological Approach to Digital Engineering Adoption and Implementation for Organizations

Authors: Sadia H. Syeda, Zain H. Malik

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As systems continue to become more complex and the interdependencies of processes and sub-systems continue to grow and transform, the need for a comprehensive method of tracking and linking the lifecycle of the systems in a digital form becomes ever more critical. Digital Engineering (DE) provides an approach to managing an authoritative data source that links, tracks, and updates system data as it evolves and grows throughout the system development lifecycle. DE enables the developing, tracking, and sharing system data, models, and other related artifacts in a digital environment accessible to all necessary stakeholders. The DE environment provides an integrated electronic repository that enables traceability between design, engineering, and sustainment artifacts. The DE activities' primary objective is to develop a set of integrated, coherent, and consistent system models for the program. It is envisioned to provide a collaborative information-sharing environment for various stakeholders, including operational users, acquisition personnel, engineering personnel, and logistics and sustainment personnel. Examining the processes that DE can support in the systems engineering life cycle (SELC) is a primary step in the DE adoption and implementation journey. Through an analysis of the U.S Department of Defense’s (DoD) Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD’s) Digital Engineering Strategy and their implementation, examples of DE implementation by the industry and technical organizations, this paper will provide descriptions of the current DE processes and best practices of implementing DE across an enterprise. This will help identify the capabilities, environment, and infrastructure needed to develop a potential roadmap for implementing DE practices consistent with its business strategy. A capability maturity matrix will be provided to assess the organization’s DE maturity emphasizing how all the SELC elements interlink to form a cohesive ecosystem. If implemented, DE can increase efficiency and improve the systems engineering processes' quality and outcomes.

Keywords: digital engineering, digital environment, digital maturity model, single source of truth, systems engineering life-cycle

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6 Clinical and Microbiologic Efficacy and Safety of Imipenem Cilastatin Relebactam in Complicated Infections: A Meta-analysis

Authors: Syeda Sahra, Abdullah Jahangir, Rachelle Hamadi, Ahmad Jahangir, Allison Glaser

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Background: Antimicrobial resistance is on the rise. The use of redundant and inappropriate antibiotics is contributing to recurrent infections and resistance. Newer antibiotics with more robust coverage for gram-negative bacteria are in great demand for complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs), complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs), hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia (H.A.B.P.), and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (V.A.B.P.). Objective: We performed this meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of a new antibiotic, Imipenem/cilastatin/relebactam, compared to other broad-spectrum antibiotics for complicated infections. Search Strategy: We conducted a systemic review search on PubMed, Embase, and Central Cochrane Registry. Selection Criteria: We included randomized clinical trials (R.C.T.s) with the standard of care as comparator arm with Imipenem/cilastatin/relebactam as intervention arm. Analysis: For continuous variables, the mean difference was used. For discrete variables, we used the odds ratio. For effect sizes, we used a confidence interval of 95%. A p-value of less than 0.05 was used for statistical significance. Analysis was done using a random-effects model irrespective of heterogeneity. Heterogeneity was evaluated using the I2 statistic. Results: The authors observed similar efficacy at clinical and microbiologic response levels on early follow-up and late follow-up compared to the established standard of care. The incidence of drug-related adverse events, serious adverse events, and drug discontinuation due to adverse events were comparable across both groups. Conclusion: Imipenem/cilastatin/relebactam has a non-inferior safety and efficacy profile compared to peer antibiotics to treat severe bacterial infections (cUTIs, cIAIs, H.A.B.P., V.A.B.P.).

Keywords: bacterial pneumonia, complicated intra-abdominal infections, complicated urinary tract infection, Imipenem, cilastatin, relebactam

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5 A Review of Pharmacological Prevention of Peri-and Post-Procedural Myocardial Injury After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

Authors: Syed Dawood Md. Taimur, Md. Hasanur Rahman, Syeda Fahmida Afrin, Farzana Islam

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The concept of myocardial injury, although first recognized from animal studies, is now recognized as a clinical phenomenon that may result in microvascular damage, no-reflow phenomenon, myocardial stunning, myocardial hibernation and ischemic preconditioning. The final consequence of this event is left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction leading to increased morbidity and mortality. The typical clinical case of reperfusion injury occurs in acute myocardial infarction (MI) with ST segment elevation in which an occlusion of a major epicardial coronary artery is followed by recanalization of the artery. This may occur either spontaneously or by means of thrombolysis and/or by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with efficient platelet inhibition by aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), clopidogrel and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. In recent years, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has become a well-established technique for the treatment of coronary artery disease. PCI improves symptoms in patients with coronary artery disease and it has been increasing the safety of procedures. However, peri- and post-procedural myocardial injury, including angiographical slow coronary flow, microvascular embolization, and elevated levels of cardiac enzyme, such as creatine kinase and troponin-T and -I, has also been reported even in elective cases. Furthermore, myocardial reperfusion injury at the beginning of myocardial reperfusion, which causes tissue damage and cardiac dysfunction, may occur in cases of the acute coronary syndrome. Because patients with myocardial injury is related to larger myocardial infarction and have a worse long-term prognosis than those without myocardial injury, it is important to prevent myocardial injury during and/or after PCI in patients with coronary artery disease. To date, many studies have demonstrated that adjunctive pharmacological treatment suppresses myocardial injury and increases coronary blood flow during PCI procedures. In this review, we highlight the usefulness of pharmacological treatment in combination with PCI in attenuating myocardial injury in patients with coronary artery disease.

Keywords: coronary artery disease, percutaneous coronary intervention, myocardial injury, pharmacology

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4 Prospects and Problems of Islamic Banking: A Case Study of Aurangabad District

Authors: Shabina Khan, Rukhsana Tabassum Syeda

Abstract:

Islamic banking is a finance system based on the principles of Shariah law. Charging interest is prohibited in Islam. Instead of charging interest the lender shares some part of profit or loss with the borrower, there is a great need for Islamic banking after the collapse of leading Wall Street institutions notably Lehman Brothers and other global finance institution, economic recession, Islamic banking have emerged as an alternative to conventional banking. Islamic banking is growing at the rate of more than 15% not only in Muslim countries, but also in secular and modern industrialized countries like U.K. Japan, France, Singapore, Hongkong. India with a total population of about 184 million about $ 1.5% Muslim deposit interest is lying unclaimed in different Indian banks, as there are no banks based on shariah laws approved by the RBI. When we take the example of Kerala state in India, almost 26.2% population is Muslim. Thus thousands of crore of rupees earned in interest is suspended accounts. In Kerala alone Rs. 40,000 crore and in Jammu and Kashmir Rs. 50,000 crore as interest earned on deposit of Muslim are lying unclaimed. By 2050, Indian Muslim population would be the largest in the world. It will surpass Indonesia. The Muslim population is likely to exceed 18% i.e. 310 mn. Muslim population will increase four percentage points from 14% to 18%. This paper studies the problems and prospects of Islamic banking in India. India has 29 states and Maharashtra is one of them. In the Maharashtra state is Aurangabad district. According to census 2011, Aurangabad city population is 51.07% is Hindu .Muslim is the second most popular religion with approximately 30.79. There are branches of Islamic banking run by Anjuman e Islam in many parts of India by the name of Al- Khair Baitul Mal which is a nongovernment organization. Its branch is in Aurangabad. The main objectives of this study are: 1. To find the scope of Islamic banking. 2. To study and analyze the prospects and problems of such organizations in Aurangabad district. 3. To create awareness about Islamic banking. 4. To study the functions of the organizations based on Islamic banking rules. 5. To encourage non-Muslims to invest in Islamic banking. The methodology used will be primary as well as secondary data. This is helping the weaker section of the society to obtain sources for trade and business. This paper finds that there is sufficient scope of Islamic banking in the region.

Keywords: Aurangabad, conventional banking, Islamic banking, Riba (interest)

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3 Physical Inactivity and Junk Food Consumption Consequent Obesity among University Girls: A Cross Sectional Study Unveils the Mayhem

Authors: Shahid Mahmood, Ghulam Mueen-Ud-Din, Farah Naz Akbar, Yousaf Quddoos, Syeda Mahvish Zahra, Wajiha Saeed, Tayyaba Sami Ullah

Abstract:

Obesity is an epidemic across the globe that affects all the segments of the population. Physical inactivity, passionate consumption of junk food, inadequate water intake and an unhealthy lifestyle are evident among university girls that are ruining their health gravely especially fat accumulation. The study was carried out to investigate the potential etiological factors of obesity development in university girls. The cross sectional study was carried out after approval of the Departmental Review Committee for Ethics (DRCE) as the par Declaration of Helsinki at Institute of Food Science and Nutrition (IFSN), University of Sargodha, Sargodha-Pakistan and Department of Food Science and Home Economics, G. C. Women University, Faisalabad-Pakistan. 400 girls were selected randomly from different departments of both universities. Nutritional status of the volunteers was assessed through approved protocols for demographics, anthropometrics, body composition, energetics, vital signs, clinical signs and symptoms, medical/family history, and dietary intake assessment (FFQ), water intake and physical activity level. The obesity was determined on body fat (%). Alarming and unheeded etiological factors for the development of obesity in girls were explored by the study. About 93 % girls had a sedentary level of physical activity, zealous consumption of junk food (5.31±1.23 servings), drank little water (1.09±0.26 L/day) that consequent high heaps of fat (35.06±3.02 %), measly body water (52.38±3.4 %), poor bone mass (05.14±0.31 Kg), and high BMI (26.68±1.14 Kg/m²) in 34% girls. The malnutrition also depicted by poor vital signs i.e. low body temperature (97.11±0.93 °F), slightly higher blood pressure (124.19±4.08 / 85.25±2.97 mmHg), rapid pulse rate (99.2 ± 6.85 beats/min), reduced blood O₂ saturation (96.53±0.96 %), scanty peak expiratory flow rate (297 ± 15.7 L /min). The outcomes of the research articulated that physical inactivity; extreme intakes of junk food, insufficient water consumption are etiological factors for obesity development among girls which are usually overlooked in Pakistan.

Keywords: informed consent, junk food, obesity, physical inactivity

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2 Debunking Sexual Myths in Bangladesh through an Intervention on the Internet

Authors: E. Rommes, Els Toonen, Rahil Roodsaz, Suborna Camellia, Farhana Alam, Saad Khan, Jhalok Ranjon Talukder, Tanveer Hassan, Syeda Farjana Ahmed, Sabina Faiz Rashid

Abstract:

In Bangladesh, a country in which adults (both parents and teachers) find it particularly hard to speak with youth about sexuality, adolescents seem to struggle with various insecurities about their sexual feelings, thoughts, behavior and physical characteristics. On the basis of a large number of interviews and focus groups with rural and urban Bangla adolescent girls and boys of lower and middle class as part of the large-scale three-year project ‘Breaking the Shame’, we have identified ten sexual themes or ‘myths’ that youth struggle with most. These encompass amongst others beliefs and insecurities on masturbation, discharge, same-sex behavior and feelings, the effects of watching porn and gender norms. We argue that the Internet is a particularly suitable medium to ‘debunk’ those myths, as youth can consult it anonymously and privately and so avoid social shame. Moreover, amongst the myths, we have identified two kinds which may need different debunking techniques. One kind of myth concerns scientifically uncontested, generally biological related information, such as the effects of having sex with a pregnant woman, questions on the effects of a penile or vaginal discharge or questions on the effects of masturbation. The second kind of myths concerns more diverse information sources and deals with e.g. religious or culturally specific norms, such as on the meaning and existence of homosexuality or gender appropriate norms of behavior in Bangladesh. For addressing both kinds of myths, expert information including a wealth of references to information resources needs to be provided, which the Internet is very suitable for. For the second kind of myths, adolescents also need to learn how to deal with sometimes conflicting norms and information sources, and they need to develop and reflect on their own opinions as part of their identity formation. On the basis of a literature review, we thus distinguish general information needs from identity formation needs, which includes the need to be able to relate information and opinions to one’s own opinions and situation. Hence, we argue that youth not only need abstract expert information to be able to debunk sexual myths, but also the option to discuss this information with other adolescents and compare their own situation and opinions with other peers, who in that way serve as ‘warm experts’ for each other. In this paper, we will describe the outcomes of our qualitative study above. In addition, we will present our findings of an intervention by presenting youth with general, uncontested information on the Internet with additional peer discussion options to compare the debunking effects on different kinds of myths.

Keywords: peer discussion, intervention, sexual myths, shame

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1 Sexuality Education through Media and Technology: Addressing Unmet Needs of Adolescents in Bangladesh

Authors: Farhana Alam Bhuiyan, Saad Khan, Tanveer Hassan, Jhalok Ranjon Talukder, Syeda Farjana Ahmed, Rahil Roodsaz, Els Rommes, Sabina Faiz Rashid

Abstract:

Breaking the shame’ is a 3 year (2015-2018) qualitative implementation research project which investigates several aspects of sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) issues for adolescents living in Bangladesh. Scope of learning SRHR issues for adolescents is limited here due to cultural and religious taboos. This study adds to the ongoing discussions around adolescent’s SRHR needs and aims to, 1) understand the overall SRHR needs of urban and rural unmarried female and male adolescents and the challenges they face, 2) explore existing gaps in the content of SRHR curriculum and 3) finally, addresses some critical knowledge gaps by developing and implementing innovative SRHR educational materials. 18 in-depth interviews (IDIs) and 10 focus-group discussions (FGDs) with boys and 21 IDIs and 14 FGDs with girls of ages 13-19, from both urban and rural setting took place. Curriculum materials from two leading organizations, Unite for Body Rights (UBR) Alliance Bangladesh and BRAC Adolescent Development Program (ADP) were also reviewed, with discussions with 12 key program staff. This paper critically analyses the relevance of some of the SRHR topics that are covered, the challenges with existing pedagogic approaches and key sexuality issues that are not covered in the content, but are important for adolescents. Adolescents asked for content and guidance on a number of topics which remain missing from the core curriculum, such as emotional coping mechanisms particularly in relationships, bullying, impact of exposure to porn, and sexual performance anxiety. Other core areas of concern were effects of masturbation, condom use, sexual desire and orientation, which are mentioned in the content, but never discussed properly, resulting in confusion. Due to lack of open discussion around sexuality, porn becomes a source of information for the adolescents. For these reasons, several myths and misconceptions regarding SRHR issues like body, sexuality, agency, and gender roles still persist. The pedagogical approach is very didactic, and teachers felt uncomfortable to have discussions on certain SRHR topics due to cultural taboos or shame and stigma. Certain topics are favored- such as family planning, menstruation- and presented with an emphasis on biology and risk. Rigid formal teaching style, hierarchical power relations between students and most teachers discourage questions and frank conversations. Pedagogy approaches within classrooms play a critical role in the sharing of knowledge. The paper also describes the pilot approaches to implementing new content in SRHR curriculum. After a review of findings, three areas were selected as critically important, 1) myths and misconceptions 2) emotional management challenges, and 3) how to use condom, that have come up from adolescents. Technology centric educational materials such as web page based information platform and you tube videos are opted for which allow adolescents to bypass gatekeepers and learn facts and information from a legitimate educational site. In the era of social media, when information is always a click away, adolescents need sources that are reliable and not overwhelming. The research aims to ensure that adolescents learn and apply knowledge effectively, through creating the new materials and making it accessible to adolescents.

Keywords: adolescents, Bangladesh, media, sexuality education, unmet needs

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