Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6981

Search results for: disaster response policy

6981 Response Delay Model: Bridging the Gap in Urban Fire Disaster Response System

Authors: Sulaiman Yunus

Abstract:

The need for modeling response to urban fire disaster cannot be over emphasized, as recurrent fire outbreaks have gutted most cities of the world. This necessitated the need for a prompt and efficient response system in order to mitigate the impact of the disaster. Promptness, as a function of time, is seen to be the fundamental determinant for efficiency of a response system and magnitude of a fire disaster. Delay, as a result of several factors, is one of the major determinants of promptgness of a response system and also the magnitude of a fire disaster. Response Delay Model (RDM) intends to bridge the gap in urban fire disaster response system through incorporating and synchronizing the delay moments in measuring the overall efficiency of a response system and determining the magnitude of a fire disaster. The model identified two delay moments (pre-notification and Intra-reflex sequence delay) that can be elastic and collectively plays a significant role in influencing the efficiency of a response system. Due to variation in the elasticity of the delay moments, the model provides for measuring the length of delays in order to arrive at a standard average delay moment for different parts of the world, putting into consideration geographic location, level of preparedness and awareness, technological advancement, socio-economic and environmental factors. It is recommended that participatory researches should be embarked on locally and globally to determine standard average delay moments within each phase of the system so as to enable determining the efficiency of response systems and predicting fire disaster magnitudes.

Keywords: delay moment, fire disaster, reflex sequence, response, response delay moment

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
6980 Disaster Preparedness and Management in Saudi Arabia: An Empirical Investigation

Authors: Shougi Suliman Abosuliman, Arun Kumar, Firoz Alam

Abstract:

Disaster preparedness is a key success factor for any effective disaster management practices. This paper evaluates the disaster preparedness and management in Saudi Arabia using an empirical investigation approach. It presents the results of the survey conducted by interviewing representatives of the Saudi decision-makers and administrators responsible for disaster control in Jeddah before, during and after flooding in 2009 and 2010. First, demographics of the respondents are presented, followed by quantitative analysis of their views and experiences regarding the Kingdom’s readiness before and after each flood. This is shown as a series of dependent and independent variables. Following this is a list of respondents’ priorities for disaster preparation in the Kingdom.

Keywords: disaster response policy, crisis management, effective service delivery, Jeddah

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
6979 Asymmetries in Monetary Policy Response: The Role of Uncertainty in the Case of Nigeria

Authors: Elias Udeaja, Elijah Udoh

Abstract:

Exploring an extended SVAR model (SVAR-X), we use the case of Nigeria to hypothesize for the role of uncertainty as the underlying source of asymmetries in the response of monetary policy to output and inflation. Deciphered the empirical finding is the potential of monetary policy exhibiting greater sensitive to shocks due to output growth than they do to shocks due to inflation in recession periods, while the reverse appears to be the case for a contractionary monetary policy. We also find the asymmetric preference in the response of monetary policy to changes in output and inflation as relatively more pronounced when we control for uncertainty as the underlying source of asymmetries.

Keywords: asymmetry response, developing economies, monetary policy shocks, uncertainty

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
6978 Investigating the Role of Emergency Nurses and Disaster Preparedness during Mass Gathering in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Fuad Alzahrani, Yiannis Kyratsis

Abstract:

Although emergency nurses, being the frontline workers in mass-gatherings, are essential for providing an effective public health response, little is known about the skills that emergency nurses have, or require, in order to respond effectively to a disaster event. This paper is designed to address this gap in the literature by conducting an empirical study on emergency nurses’ preparedness at the mass-gathering event of Hajj in Mecca city. To achieve this aim, this study conducted a cross-sectional survey among 106 emergency department nurses in all the public hospitals in Mecca in 2014. The results revealed that although emergency nurses’ role understanding is high; they have limited knowledge and awareness of how to respond appropriately to mass-gathering disaster events. To address this knowledge gap, the top three most beneficial types of education and training courses suggested are: hospital education sessions, the Emergency Management Saudi Course and workshop; and short courses in disaster management. Finally, recommendations and constructive strategies are developed to provide the best practice in enhancing disaster preparedness. This paper adds to the body of knowledge regarding emergency nurses and mass gathering disasters. This paper measures the level of disaster knowledge, previous disaster response experience and disaster education and training amongst emergency nurses in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. It is anticipated that this study will provide a foundation for future studies aimed at better preparing emergency nurses for disaster response. This paper employs new strategies to improve the emergency nurses’ response during mass gatherings for the Hajj. Increasing the emergency nurses’ knowledge will develop their effective responses in mass-gathering disasters.

Keywords: emergency nurses, mass-gatherings, hajj, disaster preparedness, disaster knowledge, perceived role, disaster training, previous disaster response experience

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
6977 Role of mHealth in Effective Response to Disaster

Authors: Mohammad H. Yarmohamadian, Reza Safdari, Nahid Tavakoli

Abstract:

In recent years, many countries have suffered various natural disasters. Disaster response continues to face the challenges in health care sector in all countries. Information and communication management is a significant challenge in disaster scene. During the last decades, rapid advances in information technology have led to manage information effectively and improve communication in health care setting. Information technology is a vital solution for effective response to disasters and emergencies so that if an efficient ICT-based health information system is available, it will be highly valuable in such situation. Of that, mobile technology represents a nearly computing technology infrastructure that is accessible, convenient, inexpensive and easy to use. Most projects have not yet reached the deployment stage, but evaluation exercises show that mHealth should allow faster processing and transport of patients, improved accuracy of triage and better monitoring of unattended patients at a disaster scene. Since there is a high prevalence of cell phones among world population, it is expected the health care providers and managers to take measures for applying this technology for improvement patient safety and public health in disasters. At present there are challenges in the utilization of mhealth in disasters such as lack of structural and financial issues in our country. In this paper we will discuss about benefits and challenges of mhealth technology in disaster setting considering connectivity, usability, intelligibility, communication and teaching for implementing this technology for disaster response.

Keywords: information technology, mhealth, disaster, effective response

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
6976 Using Optical Character Recognition to Manage the Unstructured Disaster Data into Smart Disaster Management System

Authors: Dong Seop Lee, Byung Sik Kim

Abstract:

In the 4th Industrial Revolution, various intelligent technologies have been developed in many fields. These artificial intelligence technologies are applied in various services, including disaster management. Disaster information management does not just support disaster work, but it is also the foundation of smart disaster management. Furthermore, it gets historical disaster information using artificial intelligence technology. Disaster information is one of important elements of entire disaster cycle. Disaster information management refers to the act of managing and processing electronic data about disaster cycle from its’ occurrence to progress, response, and plan. However, information about status control, response, recovery from natural and social disaster events, etc. is mainly managed in the structured and unstructured form of reports. Those exist as handouts or hard-copies of reports. Such unstructured form of data is often lost or destroyed due to inefficient management. It is necessary to manage unstructured data for disaster information. In this paper, the Optical Character Recognition approach is used to convert handout, hard-copies, images or reports, which is printed or generated by scanners, etc. into electronic documents. Following that, the converted disaster data is organized into the disaster code system as disaster information. Those data are stored in the disaster database system. Gathering and creating disaster information based on Optical Character Recognition for unstructured data is important element as realm of the smart disaster management. In this paper, Korean characters were improved to over 90% character recognition rate by using upgraded OCR. In the case of character recognition, the recognition rate depends on the fonts, size, and special symbols of character. We improved it through the machine learning algorithm. These converted structured data is managed in a standardized disaster information form connected with the disaster code system. The disaster code system is covered that the structured information is stored and retrieve on entire disaster cycle such as historical disaster progress, damages, response, and recovery. The expected effect of this research will be able to apply it to smart disaster management and decision making by combining artificial intelligence technologies and historical big data.

Keywords: disaster information management, unstructured data, optical character recognition, machine learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
6975 Design of Real Time Early Response Systems for Natural Disaster Management Based on Automation and Control Technologies

Authors: C. Pacheco, A. Cipriano

Abstract:

A new concept of response system is proposed for filling the gap that exists in reducing vulnerability during immediate response to natural disasters. Real Time Early Response Systems (RTERSs) incorporate real time information as feedback data for closing control loop and for generating real time situation assessment. A review of the state of the art works that fit the concept of RTERS is presented, and it is found that they are mainly focused on manmade disasters. At the same time, in response phase of natural disaster management many works are involved in creating early warning systems, but just few efforts have been put on deciding what to do once an alarm is activated. In this context a RTERS arises as a useful tool for supporting people in their decision making process during natural disasters after an event is detected, and also as an innovative context for applying well-known automation technologies and automatic control concepts and tools.

Keywords: disaster management, emergency response system, natural disasters, real time

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
6974 Disaster Response Training Simulator Based on Augmented Reality, Virtual Reality, and MPEG-DASH

Authors: Sunho Seo, Younghwan Shin, Jong-Hong Park, Sooeun Song, Junsung Kim, Jusik Yun, Yongkyun Kim, Jong-Moon Chung

Abstract:

In order to effectively cope with large and complex disasters, disaster response training is needed. Recently, disaster response training led by the ROK (Republic of Korea) government is being implemented through a 4 year R&D project, which has several similar functions as the HSEEP (Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program) of the United States, but also has several different features as well. Due to the unpredictiveness and diversity of disasters, existing training methods have many limitations in providing experience in the efficient use of disaster incident response and recovery resources. Always, the challenge is to be as efficient and effective as possible using the limited human and material/physical resources available based on the given time and environmental circumstances. To enable repeated training under diverse scenarios, an AR (Augmented Reality) and VR (Virtual Reality) combined simulator is under development. Unlike existing disaster response training, simulator based training (that allows remote login simultaneous multi-user training) enables freedom from limitations in time and space constraints, and can be repeatedly trained with different combinations of functions and disaster situations. There are related systems such as ADMS (Advanced Disaster Management Simulator) developed by ETC simulation and HLS2 (Homeland Security Simulation System) developed by ELBIT system. However, the ROK government needs a simulator custom made to the country's environment and disaster types, and also combines the latest information and communication technologies, which include AR, VR, and MPEG-DASH (Moving Picture Experts Group - Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP) technology. In this paper, a new disaster response training simulator is proposed to overcome the limitation of existing training systems, and adapted to actual disaster situations in the ROK, where several technical features are described.

Keywords: augmented reality, emergency response training simulator, MPEG-DASH, virtual reality

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
6973 Application of Soft Systems Methodology in Solving Disaster Emergency Logistics Problems

Authors: Alhasan Hakami, Arun Kumar, Sung J. Shim, Yousef Abu Nahleh

Abstract:

In recent years, many high intensity earthquakes have occurred around the world, such as the 2011 earthquake in Tohoku, Japan. These large-scale disasters caused huge casualties and losses. In addition, inefficient disaster response operations also caused the second wave of casualties and losses, and expanded the damage. Effective disaster management can be used to respond to the chaotic situation, and reduce the damage. However, some inefficient disaster response operations are still used. Therefore, this case study chose the 921 earthquakes for analysing disaster emergency logistics problems and proposed the Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) to solve disaster emergency logistics problems. Moreover, it analyses the effect of human factors on system operation, and suggests a solution to improve the system.

Keywords: soft systems methodology, emergency logistics, earthquakes, Japan, system operation

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
6972 In Case of Possible Disaster Management with Geographic Information System in Konya

Authors: Savaş Durduran, Ceren Yağci

Abstract:

The nature of the events going on in the world, when people’s lives are considered significantly affects natural disasters. Considering thousands of years of earth history, it is seen that many natural disasters, particularly earthquakes located in our country. Behaving cautious, without occurring hazards, after being disaster is much easier and cost effective than returning to the normal life. The four phases of disaster management in the whole world has been described as; pre-disaster preparedness and mitigation, post-disaster response and rehabilitation studies. Pre-disaster and post-disaster phases has half the weight of disaster management. How much would be prepared for disaster, no matter how disaster damage reducing work gives important, we will be less harm from material and spiritual sense. To do this in a systematic way we use the Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The execution of the emergency services to be on time and emergency control mechanism against the development the most appropriate decision Geographic Information System GIS) can be useful. The execution of the emergency services to be on time and emergency control mechanism towards for developing to be the most appropriate decision Geographic Information System (GIS) can be useful. The results obtained by using products with GIS analysis of seismic data to the city, manager of the city required information and data that can be more healthy and satisfies the appropriate policy decisions can be produced. In this study, using ArcGIS software and benefiting reports of the earthquake that occurred in the Konya city, spatial and non-spatial data consisting databases created, by the help of this database a potential disaster management aimed in the city of Konya regard to urban earthquake, GIS-aided analyzes were performed.

Keywords: geographic information systems (GIS), disaster management, emergency control mechanism, Konya

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
6971 Realizing the National Disaster Management Policy of Sri Lanka through Public Private Partnerships

Authors: K. W. A. M. Kokila, Matsui Kenichi

Abstract:

Sri Lanka’s disaster management policy aims to protect lives and developments in disaster affected areas by effectively using resources for disaster risk reduction, emergency management, and community awareness. However, funding for these action programs has posed a serious challenge to the country’s economy. This paper examines the extent to which private-public partnerships (PPPs) can facilitate and expedite disaster management works. In particular, it discusses the results of the questionnaire survey among policymakers, government administrators, NGOs, and private businesses. This questionnaire was conducted in 2017. All respondents were selected based on their experience in PPP projects in the past. The survey focused on clarifying the effectiveness of past PPP projects as well as their efficiency and transparency. The respondents also provided their own opinions and suggestions to improve the future PPP projects in Sri Lanka. The questionnaire was distributed to fifteen persons. The results show that almost all respondents think that PPP projects are beneficial and important for future disaster risk management in Sri Lanka. The respondents, however, showed some reservation about effectiveness and transparency of the PPP process. This paper also discusses the results on the respondents’ perceptions about their capacity regarding human resources and management. This paper, overall, sheds light on technological, financial and human resource management practices in developed countries as well as policy and legislation provisions regarding PPP projects.

Keywords: disaster management, policy, private public partnership, projects

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
6970 Tornado Disaster Impacts and Management: Learning from the 2016 Tornado Catastrophe in Jiangsu Province, China

Authors: Huicong Jia, Donghua Pan

Abstract:

As a key component of disaster reduction management, disaster emergency relief and reconstruction is an important process. Based on disaster system theory, this study analyzed the Jiangsu tornado from the formation mechanism of disasters, through to the economic losses, loss of life, and social infrastructure losses along the tornado disaster chain. The study then assessed the emergency relief and reconstruction efforts, based on an analytic hierarchy process method. The results were as follows: (1) An unstable weather system was the root cause of the tornado. The potentially hazardous local environment, acting in concert with the terrain and the river network, was able to gather energy from the unstable atmosphere. The wind belt passed through a densely populated district, with vulnerable infrastructure and other hazard-prone elements, which led to an accumulative disaster situation and the triggering of a catastrophe. (2) The tornado was accompanied by a hailstorm, which is an important triggering factor for a tornado catastrophe chain reaction. (3) The evaluation index (EI) of the emergency relief and reconstruction effect for the ‘‘6.23’’ tornado disaster in Yancheng was 91.5. Compared to other relief work in areas affected by disasters of the same magnitude, there was a more successful response than has previously been experienced. The results provide new insights for studies of disaster systems and the recovery measures in response to tornado catastrophe in China.

Keywords: China, disaster system, emergency relief, tornado catastrophe

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
6969 An Integrated Emergency Management System for the Tourism Industry in Oman

Authors: Majda Al Salti

Abstract:

Tourism industry is considered globally as one of the leading industries due to its noticeable contribution to countries' gross domestic product (GDP) and job creation. However, tourism is vulnerable to crisis and disaster that requires its preparedness. With its limited capabilities, there is a need to improve links and the understanding between the tourism industry and the emergency services, thus facilitating future emergency response to any potential incident. This study aims to develop the concept of an integrated emergency management system for the tourism industry. The study used face-to-face semi-structured interviews to evaluate the level of crisis and disaster preparedness of the tourism industry in Oman. The findings suggested that there is a lack of understanding of crisis and disaster management, and hence preparedness level among Oman Tourism Authorities appears to be under-expectation. Therefore, a clear need for tourism sector inter- and intra-integration and collaboration is important in the pre-disaster stage. The need for such integrations can help the tourism industry in Oman to prepare for future incidents as well as identifying its requirements in time of crisis for effective response.

Keywords: tourism, emergency services, crisis, disaster

Procedia PDF Downloads 25
6968 Sudan’s Approach to Knowledge Management in Disaster Management

Authors: Mohamed Abdalla Elamein Boshara, Peter Charles Woods, Nour Eldin Mohamed Elshaiekh

Abstract:

Knowledge Management has become very important for Disaster Management response and planning. This paper proposes the implementation of a Knowledge Management System with a sustainable data collection mechanism for reliable and timely information management to support decision makers in making the right decisions in the timely manner.

Keywords: knowledge management, disaster management, incident tracking, web application

Procedia PDF Downloads 503
6967 Enhancing Disaster Response Capabilities in Asia-Pacific: An Explorative Study Applied to Decision Support Tools for Logistics Network Design

Authors: Giuseppe Timperio, Robert de Souza

Abstract:

Logistics operations in the context of disaster response are characterized by a high degree of complexity due to the combined effect of a large number of stakeholders involved, time pressure, uncertainties at various levels, massive deployment of goods and personnel, and gigantic financial flow to be managed. It also involves several autonomous parties such as government agencies, militaries, NGOs, UN agencies, private sector to name few, to have a highly collaborative approach especially in the critical phase of the immediate response. This is particularly true in the context of L3 emergencies that are the most severe, large-scale humanitarian crises. Decision-making processes in disaster management are thus extremely difficult due to the presence of multiple decision-makers involved, and the complexity of the tasks being tackled. Hence, in this paper, we look at applying ICT based solutions to enable a speedy and effective decision making in the golden window of humanitarian operations. A high-level view of ICT based solutions in the context of logistics operations for humanitarian response in Southeast Asia is presented, and their viability in a real-life case about logistics network design is explored.

Keywords: decision support, disaster preparedness, humanitarian logistics, network design

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
6966 Comprehensive Framework for Pandemic-Resilient Cities to Avert Future Migrant Crisis: A Case of Mumbai

Authors: Vasudha Thapa, Kiran Chappa

Abstract:

There is a pressing need to prepare cities in the developing countries of the global south such as India against the chaos created by COVID 19 pandemic and future disaster risks. This pandemic posed the nation with an unprecedented challenge of dealing with a wave of stranded migrant workers. These workers comprise the most vulnerable section of the society in case of any pandemic or disaster risks. The COVID 19 pandemic exposed the vulnerability of migrant workers in the urban form and the need for capacity-building strategies against future pandemics. This paper highlights the challenges of these migrant workers in the case of Mumbai city in lockdown, post lockdown, and the current uncertain scenarios. The paper deals with a thorough investigation of the existing and the recent policies and strategies taken by the Urban Local Bodies (ULBs), state, and central government to assist these migrants in the city during this mayhem of uncertainties. The paper looks further deep into the challenges and opportunities presented in the current scenario through the assessment of existing data and response to policy measures taken by the government organizations. The ULBs are at the forefront in the response to any disaster risk, hence the paper assesses the capacity gaps of the Urban local bodies in mitigating the risks posed by any pandemic-like situation. The study further recommends capacity-building strategies at various levels of governance and uniform policy measures to assist the migrant population of the city.

Keywords: urban resilience, covid 19, migrant population, India, capacity building, governance

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
6965 Tapping Traditional Environmental Knowledge: Lessons for Disaster Policy Formulation in India

Authors: Aparna Sengupta

Abstract:

The paper seeks to find answers to the question as to why India’s disaster management policies have been unable to deliver the desired results. Are the shortcomings in policy formulation, effective policy implementation or timely prevention mechanisms? Or is there a fundamental issue of policy formulation which sparsely takes into account the cultural specificities and uniqueness, technological know-how, educational, religious and attitudinal capacities of the target population into consideration? India was slow in legislating disaster policies but more than that the reason for lesser success of disaster polices seems to be the gap between policy and the people. We not only keep hearing about the failure of governmental efforts but also how the local communities deal far more efficaciously with disasters utilizing their traditional knowledge. The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami which killed 250,000 people (approx.) could not kill the tribal communities who saved themselves due to their age-old traditional knowledge. This large scale disaster, considered as a landmark event in history of disasters in the twenty-first century, can be attributed in bringing and confirming the importance of Traditional Environmental Knowledge in managing disasters. This brings forth the importance of cultural and traditional know-how in dealing with natural disasters and one is forced to question as to why shouldn’t traditional environmental knowledge (TEK) be taken into consideration while formulating India’s disaster resilience policies? Though at the international level, many scholars have explored the connectedness of disaster to cultural dimensions and several research examined how culture acts as a stimuli in perceiving disasters and their management (Clifford, 1956; Mcluckie, 1970; Koentjaraningrat, 1985; Peacock, 1997; Elliot et.al, 2006; Aruntoi, 2008; Kulatunga, 2010). But in the Indian context, this field of inquiry i.e. linking disaster policies with tradition and generational understanding has seldom received attention of the government, decision- making authorities, disaster managers and even in the academia. The present study attempts to fill this gap in research and scholarship by presenting an historical analysis of disaster and its cognition by cultural communities in India. The paper seeks to interlink the cultural comprehension of Indian tribal communities with scientific-technology towards more constructive disaster policies in India.

Keywords: culture, disasters, local communities, traditional knowledge

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6964 Analysis of Risk-Based Disaster Planning in Local Communities

Authors: R. A. Temah, L. A. Nkengla-Asi

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Planning for future disasters sets the stage for a variety of activities that may trigger multiple recurring operations and expose the community to opportunities to minimize risks. Local communities are increasingly embracing the necessity for planning based on local risks, but are also significantly challenged to effectively plan and response to disasters. This research examines basic risk-based disaster planning model and compares it with advanced risk-based planning that introduces the identification and alignment of varieties of local capabilities within and out of the local community that can be pivotal to facilitate the management of local risks and cascading effects prior to a disaster. A critical review shows that the identification and alignment of capabilities can potentially enhance risk-based disaster planning. A tailored holistic approach to risk based disaster planning is pivotal to enhance collective action and a reduction in disaster collective cost.

Keywords: capabilities, disaster planning, hazards, local community, risk-based

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
6963 Women's Concerns in Disasters at Family Level in Iranian Context

Authors: Maryam Nakhaei, Hamid Reza Khankeh, Mitra Moodi, Leila Daddoust

Abstract:

Although individuals (men and women) experience disasters in different ways, because of important women’s roles in the family, we aim to shed more light on their issues in doing family. In this report, we present an overview of the main qualitative and quantitative findings of different projects have been conducted in the regions affected by disaster in Iran. This paper explores women’s needs and experiences after disaster at the family level in 'disaster response behavior', 'personal health' including reproductive health and needs of pregnant women, 'livelihood responsibilities', and 'marital relationships'. This clarification can help not only to ensure that their needs are adequately addressed but also to plan family based strategies which consider their strengths.

Keywords: disaster, family, women, Iran

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
6962 Design and Performance Analysis of Resource Management Algorithms in Response to Emergency and Disaster Situations

Authors: Volkan Uygun, H. Birkan Yilmaz, Tuna Tugcu

Abstract:

This study focuses on the development and use of algorithms that address the issue of resource management in response to emergency and disaster situations. The presented system, named Disaster Management Platform (DMP), takes the data from the data sources of service providers and distributes the incoming requests accordingly both to manage load balancing and minimize service time, which results in improved user satisfaction. Three different resource management algorithms, which give different levels of importance to load balancing and service time, are proposed for the study. The first one is the Minimum Distance algorithm, which assigns the request to the closest resource. The second one is the Minimum Load algorithm, which assigns the request to the resource with the minimum load. Finally, the last one is the Hybrid algorithm, which combines the previous two approaches. The performance of the proposed algorithms is evaluated with respect to waiting time, success ratio, and maximum load ratio. The metrics are monitored from simulations, to find the optimal scheme for different loads. Two different simulations are performed in the study, one is time-based and the other is lambda-based. The results indicate that, the Minimum Load algorithm is generally the best in all metrics whereas the Minimum Distance algorithm is the worst in all cases and in all metrics. The leading position in performance is switched between the Minimum Distance and the Hybrid algorithms, as lambda values change.

Keywords: emergency and disaster response, resource management algorithm, disaster situations, disaster management platform

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
6961 Predicting the Human Impact of Natural Onset Disasters Using Pattern Recognition Techniques and Rule Based Clustering

Authors: Sara Hasani

Abstract:

This research focuses on natural sudden onset disasters characterised as ‘occurring with little or no warning and often cause excessive injuries far surpassing the national response capacities’. Based on the panel analysis of the historic record of 4,252 natural onset disasters between 1980 to 2015, a predictive method was developed to predict the human impact of the disaster (fatality, injured, homeless) with less than 3% of errors. The geographical dispersion of the disasters includes every country where the data were available and cross-examined from various humanitarian sources. The records were then filtered into 4252 records of the disasters where the five predictive variables (disaster type, HDI, DRI, population, and population density) were clearly stated. The procedure was designed based on a combination of pattern recognition techniques and rule-based clustering for prediction and discrimination analysis to validate the results further. The result indicates that there is a relationship between the disaster human impact and the five socio-economic characteristics of the affected country mentioned above. As a result, a framework was put forward, which could predict the disaster’s human impact based on their severity rank in the early hours of disaster strike. The predictions in this model were outlined in two worst and best-case scenarios, which respectively inform the lower range and higher range of the prediction. A necessity to develop the predictive framework can be highlighted by noticing that despite the existing research in literature, a framework for predicting the human impact and estimating the needs at the time of the disaster is yet to be developed. This can further be used to allocate the resources at the response phase of the disaster where the data is scarce.

Keywords: disaster management, natural disaster, pattern recognition, prediction

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6960 Ethical 'Spaces': A Critical Analysis of the Medical, Ethical and Legal Complexities in the Treatment and Care of Unidentified and Critically Incapacitated Victims Following a Disaster

Authors: D. Osborn, L. Easthope

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The increasing threat of ‘marauding terror,' utilising improvised explosive devices and firearms, has focused the attention of policy makers and emergency responders once again on the treatment of the critically injured patient in a highly volatile scenario. Whilst there have been significant improvements made in the response and lessons learned from recent disasters in the international disaster community there still remain areas of uncertainty and a lack of clarity in the care of the critically injured. This innovative, longitudinal study has at its heart the aim of using ethnographic methods to ‘slow down’ the journey such patients will take and make visible the ethical complexities that 2017 technologies, expectations and over a decade of improved combat medicine techniques have brought. The primary researcher, previously employed in the hospital emergency management environment, has closely followed responders as they managed casualties with life-threatening injuries. Ethnographic observation of Exercise Unified Response in March 2016, exposed the ethical and legal 'vacuums' within a mass casualty and fatality setting, specifically the extrication, treatment and care of critically injured patients from crushed and overturned train carriages. This article highlights a gap in the debate, evaluation, planning and response to an incident of this nature specifically the incapacitated, unidentified patients and the ethics of submitting them to the invasive ‘Disaster Victim Identification’ process. Using a qualitative ethnographic analysis, triangulating observation, interviews and documentation, this analysis explores the gaps and highlights the next stages in the researcher’s pathway as she continues to explore with emergency practitioners some of this century’s most difficult questions in relation to the medico-legal and ethical challenges faced by emergency services in the wake of new and emerging threats and medical treatment expectations.

Keywords: ethics, disaster, Disaster Victim Identification (DVI), legality, unidentified

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
6959 Multi-Objective Multi-Period Allocation of Temporary Earthquake Disaster Response Facilities with Multi-Commodities

Authors: Abolghasem Yousefi-Babadi, Ali Bozorgi-Amiri, Aida Kazempour, Reza Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, Maryam Irani

Abstract:

All over the world, natural disasters (e.g., earthquakes, floods, volcanoes and hurricanes) causes a lot of deaths. Earthquakes are introduced as catastrophic events, which is accident by unusual phenomena leading to much loss around the world. Such could be replaced by disasters or any other synonyms strongly demand great long-term help and relief, which can be hard to be managed. Supplies and facilities are very important challenges after any earthquake which should be prepared for the disaster regions to satisfy the people's demands who are suffering from earthquake. This paper proposed disaster response facility allocation problem for disaster relief operations as a mathematical programming model. Not only damaged people in the earthquake victims, need the consumable commodities (e.g., food and water), but also they need non-consumable commodities (e.g., clothes) to protect themselves. Therefore, it is concluded that paying attention to disaster points and people's demands are very necessary. To deal with this objective, both commodities including consumable and need non-consumable commodities are considered in the presented model. This paper presented the multi-objective multi-period mathematical programming model regarding the minimizing the average of the weighted response times and minimizing the total operational cost and penalty costs of unmet demand and unused commodities simultaneously. Furthermore, a Chebycheff multi-objective solution procedure as a powerful solution algorithm is applied to solve the proposed model. Finally, to illustrate the model applicability, a case study of the Tehran earthquake is studied, also to show model validation a sensitivity analysis is carried out.

Keywords: facility location, multi-objective model, disaster response, commodity

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
6958 The Flood Disaster Management of Communities in Ubon Ratchathani Province, Thailand

Authors: Eakarat Boonreang, Anothai Harasarn

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The objectives of this study are to investigate the flood disaster management capacity of communities in Ubon Ratchathani province, Thailand, and to recommend the sustainable flood management approaches of communities in Ubon Ratchathani province, Thailand. The selected population consisted of the community leaders and committees, the executives of local administrative organizations, and the head of Ubon Ratchathani provincial office of disaster prevention and mitigation. The data was collected by in-depth interview, focus group, and observation. The data was analyzed and classified in order to determine the communities’ capacity in flood disaster management. The results revealed that communities’ capacity were as follows, before flood disaster, the community leaders held a meeting with the community committees in order to plan disaster response and determined evacuation routes, and the villagers moved their belongings to higher places and prepared vehicles for evacuation. During flood disaster, the communities arranged motorboats for transportation and villagers evacuated to a temporary evacuation center. Moreover, the communities asked for survival bags, motorboats, emergency toilets, and drinking water from the local administrative organizations and the 22nd Military Circle. After flood disaster, the villagers cleaned and fixed their houses and also collaborated in cleaning the temple, school, and other places in the community. The recommendation approaches for sustainable flood disaster management consisted of structural measures, such as the establishment of reservoirs and building higher houses, and non-structural measures such as raising awareness and fostering self-reliance, establishing disaster management plans, rehearsal of disaster response procedures every year, and transferring disaster knowledge among younger generations. Moreover, local administrative organizations should formulate strategic plans that focus on disaster management capacity building at the community level, particularly regarding non-structural measures. Ubon Ratchathani provincial offices of disaster prevention and mitigation should continually monitor and evaluate the outcomes of community based disaster risk management program, including allocating more flood disaster management-related resources among local administrative organizations and communities.

Keywords: capacity building, community based disaster risk management, flood disaster management, Thailand

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6957 The Role of Organizational Identity in Disaster Response, Recovery and Prevention: A Case Study of an Italian Multi-Utility Company

Authors: Shanshan Zhou, Massimo Battaglia

Abstract:

Identity plays a critical role when an organization faces disasters. Individuals reflect on their working identities and identify themselves with the group and the organization, which facilitate collective sensemaking under crisis situations and enable coordinated actions to respond to and recover from disasters. In addition, an organization’s identity links it to its regional community, which fosters the mobilization of resources and contributes to rapid recovery. However, identity is also problematic for disaster prevention because of its persistence. An organization’s ego-defenses system prohibits the rethink of its identity and a rigid identity obstructs disaster prevention. This research aims to tackle the ‘problem’ of identity by study in-depth a case of an Italian multi–utility which experienced the 2012 Northern Italy earthquakes. Collecting data from 11 interviews with top managers and key players in the local community and archived materials, we find that the earthquakes triggered the rethink of the organization’s identity, which got reinforced afterward. This research highlighted the importance of identity in disaster response and recovery. More importantly, it explored the solution of overcoming the barrier of ego-defense that is to transform the organization into a learning organization which constantly rethinks its identity.

Keywords: community identity, disaster, identity, organizational learning

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6956 Disaster Nursing Competency of Nurses in Surattani Province, Thailand: A Factor Analysis

Authors: Rungnapa Chantra

Abstract:

As health care rapidly changes, the nursing profession is also evolving to improve quality of care while maintaining competency in their practice. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors of disaster nurse competencies and investigate the predictable variables in disaster nurse competencies in Suratthani Province, Thailand. The sample consisted of 305 nurses who were recruited by simple random sampling. The development questionnaires from ICN Framework and research contains Pre/Mitigation, Preparedness, Response and Recovery/Rehabilitation Competencies (α=0.87). The data were analyzed using Principle Components Extraction and Orthogonal Rotation with Varimax Method. The findings were as follows; four significant factors of disaster nurse competencies in Suratthani Province, Thailand were identified. These factors were described by 62 variables that accounted for 50.01% of the total variance. The results of this study could be for agencies that are responsible for the development of nursing competencies and should be aware of the development of knowledge and skills in disaster management.

Keywords: disaster nursing competency of nurses, nursing informatics, health science, medical

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6955 The Capacity Building in the Natural Disaster Management of Thailand

Authors: Eakarat Boonreang

Abstract:

The past two decades, Thailand faced the natural disasters, for instance, Gay typhoon in 1989, tsunami in 2004, and huge flood in 2011. The disaster management in Thailand was improved both structure and mechanism for cope with the natural disaster since 2007. However, the natural disaster management in Thailand has various problems, for examples, cooperation between related an organizations have not unity, inadequate resources, the natural disaster management of public sectors not proactive, people has not awareness the risk of the natural disaster, and communities did not participate in the natural disaster management. Objective of this study is to find the methods for capacity building in the natural disaster management of Thailand. The concept and information about the capacity building and the natural disaster management of Thailand were reviewed and analyzed by classifying and organizing data. The result found that the methods for capacity building in the natural disaster management of Thailand should be consist of 1)link operation and information in the natural disaster management between nation, province, local and community levels, 2)enhance competency and resources of public sectors which relate to the natural disaster management, 3)establish proactive natural disaster management both planning and implementation, 4)decentralize the natural disaster management to local government organizations, 5)construct public awareness in the natural disaster management to community, 6)support Community Based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM) seriously, and 7)emphasis on participation in the natural disaster management of all stakeholders.

Keywords: capacity building, Community Based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM), Natural Disaster Management, Thailand

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6954 Disaster Preparedness for Academic Libraries in Malaysia: An Exploratory Study

Authors: Siti Juryiah Mohd Khalid, Norazlina Dol

Abstract:

Academic libraries in Malaysia are still not prepared for disaster even though several occasions have been reported. The study sets out to assess the current status of preparedness in disaster management among Malaysian academic libraries in the State of Selangor and the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur. To obtain a base level of knowledge on disaster preparedness of current practices, a questionnaire was distributed to chief librarians or their assignees in charge of disaster or emergency preparedness at 40 academic libraries and 34 responses were received. The study revolved around the current status of preparedness, on various issues including existence of disaster preparedness plan among academic libraries in Malaysia, disaster experiences by the academic libraries, funding, risk assessment activities and involvement of library staff in disaster management. Frequency and percentage tables were used in the analysis of the data collected. Some of the academic libraries under study have experienced one form of disaster or the other. Most of the academic libraries do not have a written disaster preparedness plan. The risk assessments and staff involvement in disaster preparedness by these libraries were generally adequate.

Keywords: academic libraries, disaster preparedness plan, disaster management, emergency plan

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6953 Sustainable Reconstruction: Towards Guidelines of Post-Disaster Vulnerability Reduction for Permanent Informal Housing in Malaysia Due to Flooding

Authors: Ruhizal Roosli, Julaihi Wahid, Abu Hassan Abu Bakar, Faizal Baharum

Abstract:

This paper reports on the progress of a study on the reconstruction project after the ‘Yellow Flood’ disaster in Kelantan, Malaysia. Malaysia still does not have guidelines to build housing after a disaster especially in disaster-prone areas. At the international level, many guidelines have been prepared that is found suitable for post-disaster housing. Which guidelines can be adapted that best describes the situation in Malaysia? It was reported that the houses should be built on stilts, which can withstand certain level of impact during flooding. Unfortunately, until today no specific guideline was available to assist homeowners to rebuild their homes after disaster. In addition, there is also no clear operational procedure to monitor the progress of this construction work. This research is an effort to promoting resilient housing; safety and security; and secure tenure in a prone area. At the end of this study, key lessons will be emerged from the review process and data analysis. These inputs will then have influenced to the content that will be developed and presented as guidelines. An overall objective is to support humanitarian responses to disaster and conflicts for resilience house construction to flood prone area. Interviews with the field based staff were from recent post-disaster housing workforce (disaster management mechanism in Malaysia especially in Kelantan). The respondents were selected based on their experiences in disaster response particularly related to housing provision. These key lessons are perhaps the best practical (operational and technical) guidelines comparing to other International cases to be adapted to the national situations.

Keywords: disaster, guideline, housing, Malaysia, reconstruction

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6952 Media Framing and Agenda-Setting of Hurricane Harvey’s News Coverage: A Content Analysis of The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, and The Houston Chronicle from 2017 To 2018

Authors: S M Asger Ali, Duane A. Gill

Abstract:

During crisis moments like a natural disaster, people tend to rely on the mass media to get up-to-date information and stay informed. However, when media are covering crisis news, they may lose some objectivity, and rather than providing balanced news coverage, media may become critical towards the government and private sectors for their participation in disaster response and recovery processes. This paper investigated the print media coverage of Hurricane Harvey and utilized data from three newspapers: the New York Times (online), the Wall Street Journal (online), and the Houston Chronicle. By examining the media's use of descriptors, quotes, wording, and images, this research explored how media coverage framed government and private sectors for their role in Harvey's response and recovery. Findings revealed that the human-interest frame received the most media attention, and the morality frame received less attention. Regarding tone, this study found that the media's overall tone for government response was neutral. However, the tone for the federal government was slightly negative, while the tone for city and state level of government was slightly positive. By examining the media's tone and frame, this research contributes to the literature on risk communication, mass media, and disaster studies.

Keywords: hurricane Harvey, mass media, risk communication, disaster response, media framing, crisis news coverage

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