Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: calligraphy

12 Deciphering Chinese Calligraphy as the Architectural Essence of Tao Fong Shan Christian Center in Hong Kong

Authors: Chak Kwong Lau

Abstract:

Many buildings in Hong Kong are graced with enchanting works of Chinese calligraphy. An excellent example is Tao Fong Shan Christian Center founded by a Norwegian missionary, Karl Ludvig Reichelt (1877-1952) in 1930. Adorned with many inspiring works of Chinese calligraphy, the center functions as a place for the study of Christianity where people of different religions can meet to have religious discussions and intellectual exchanges. This paper examines the pivotal role played by Chinese calligraphy in creating a significant context for the center to fulfill her visions and missions. The methodology of this research involves stylistic and textual analyses of works of calligraphy, in particular through an examination and interpretation of their extended meanings in terms of architectural symbology and social and cultural contexts. Findings showed that Chinese calligraphy was effectively used as a powerful vehicle for a purposeful development of contextual Christian spirituality in Hong Kong.

Keywords: Chinese calligraphy, Hong Kong architecture, Hong Kong calligraphy, Johannes Prip-Møller, Karl Ludvig Reichelt, Norwegian missionary, Tao Fong Shan Christian Center, traditional Chinese architecture

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11 A Look at the History of Calligraphy in Decoration of Mosques in Iran: 630-1630 AD

Authors: Cengiz Tavşan, Niloufar Akbarzadeh

Abstract:

Architecture in Iran has a continuous history from at least 5000 BC to the present, and numerous Iranian pre-Islamic elements have contributed significantly to the formation of Islamic art. At first, decoration was limited to small objects and containers and then progressed in the art of plaster and brickwork. They later applied in architecture as well. The art of gypsum and brickwork, which was prevalent in the form of motifs (animals and plants) in pre-Islam, was used in the aftermath of Islam with the art of calligraphy in decorations. The splendor and beauty of Iranian architecture, especially during the Islamic era, are related to decoration and design. After the invasion of Iran by the Arabs and the introduction of Islam to Iran, the arrival of the Iranian classical architecture significantly changed, and we saw the Arabic calligraphy decoration of the mosques in Iran. The principles of aesthetics in the art of calligraphy in Iran are based precisely on the principles of the beauty of ancient Iranian and Islamic art. On the other hand, after Islam, calligraphy was one of the most important sources of Islamic art in Islam and one of the important features of Islamic culture. First, the calligraphy had no cultural meaning and was only for decoration and beautification, it had the same meaning only in the inscriptions; however, over time, it became meaningful. This article provides a summary of the history of calligraphy in the mosques (from the entrance to Islam until the Safavid period), which cannot ignore the role of the calligraphy in their decorative ideas; and also, the important role that decorative elements play in creating a public space in terms of social and aesthetic performance. This study was conducted using library studies and field studies. The purpose of this study is to show the characteristics of architecture and art of decorations in Iran, especially in the mosque's architecture, which reaches the pinnacle of progress. We will see that religious beliefs and artistic practices are merging and trying to bring a single concept.

Keywords: Islamic art, Islamic architecture, decorations in Iranian mosques, calligraphy

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10 The Art of Contemporary Arabic Calligraphy in Oman: Salman Alhajri as an Example

Authors: Salman Amur Alhajri

Abstract:

Purpose: This paper explores the art of contemporary Arabic calligraphy in Oman. It explains the aesthetic features of Arabic calligraphy as a unique icon of Islamic art. This paper also explores the profile of one Omani artist, Salman Alhajri, as an example of Omani artists who have developed unique styles in this art stream. Methodology and approach: The paper is based on a theoretical study using a descriptive and case-study approach. Omani artists are fascinated by the art forms of Arabic calligraphy, which combine both spiritual meaning and aesthetic beauty. Artist Salman Alhajri is an example of a contemporary Arabic artist who uses Arabic calligraphy as the main theme in his art. Dr. Alhajri is trying to introduce the beauty of Arabic letters from a new aesthetic point of view. He also aims to create unusual visual effects that viewers can easily interact with. Even though words and phrases appear in Alhajri’s artwork, they are not conveying direct meanings: viewers can create their own meaning or expressions from them by appreciating the compositions of the artwork. Results: Arabic writing is directly related to the identity of Omani artists and their cultural background. This paper shows how the beauty of Arabic letters comes from its indefinite possibilities in designing calligraphic expressions, even within a single word, because letters can be stretched and transformed in various ways to create different compositions. Omani artists are interested in employing new media applications in this kind of practice to find new techniques for creating artwork based on Arabic writing. It is really important for all Omani artists to practice this art style because Arabic calligraphy and its flexibility introduce infinite possibilities that involve further exploration and investigation.

Keywords: Islamic art, contemporary Arabic calligraphy, new techniques, Omani artist

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9 Incorporating Chinese Calligraphic Concept in 3D Space

Authors: Woon Lam Ng.

Abstract:

This paper explores the basic structures of Chinese calligraphy brushwork, its textures, its characteristic forms, and how its strength can be incorporated into 3d animation. It investigates how these structures could create visual simplification and suggest movement. The conceptual difference between realistic rendering and the Chinese calligraphic concept of simplification is discussed. With the help of the Python programmable environment in Maya, the concept of Chinese calligraphy in 3d space and its idea of visual simplification and abstraction were explored. The work demonstrates how the Chinese calligraphic brushwork could suggest the dynamics of motion in 3d space. Some limitations of the Maya emitting process are also discussed. Possible further explorations through additional mathematical adjustments to the selected Maya shader are also suggested to enhance the presentation.

Keywords: calligraphy, brushwork, dynamics, movements

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8 Dancing Calligraphy: An Aesthetic Study of Dancing Ink (2017)

Authors: Chingwen Yeh, Chang Ning Hung

Abstract:

This paper aims to analysis the aesthetic qualities of Dancing Ink (2017) performed by Miao-Hsuan Dance Group in Taiwan. The premiere was performed at Taichung Seaport Art Center Exhibition Hall Room A, in Taichung Taiwan on March 11th, 2017. What calligraphic elements were applied into the contemporary dance choreography was examed by these authors. Although calligraphy and dance are two different art forms, one can see in Dancing Ink that the beauty of Yin Yang force circling; the flow of Chi from inner meditation to the outer physical action are resonated in both art forms. The aesthetic experience was documented through qualitative research methods. In-depth interviews were conducted within a focus group including the calligrapher, the choreographer, the participated professional dancers and the appreciators. Subject matter, movement qualities, characteristic and meaning are the four main areas of interpretation originated from Janet Adshead’s dance analytical theory. Based on all the research data collection and analysis, this research found: 1) Making invisible spirituality visible in relations to creative process, 2) An artistic symbol that transforms from two-dimensional into three-dimensional generates a new aesthetic value, 3) Choreography and calligraphy require different artistic skills and disciplines but expressed the similar dynamic and rhythm in their movement.

Keywords: Chi, Dancing Ink, Miao Hsuan Dance Group, Yin Yang force

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7 The Evaluation of Islamic Concept in Contemporary Mosque Design with the Case of Study: Jogokariyan Mosque Yogyakarta Indonesia

Authors: Ibrahim Malik, M. Ikramullah al Kambuna

Abstract:

Today the crisis of understanding in Islamic values has been extended to the architectural design. The majority of Muslim Architects when they designed Islamic Architectural building always stuck in cultural symbols, forms of facade, carvings calligraphy, and all of things which intimately associated with middle eastern culture. As well as the interpretation of symbols form, by designing a dome in every mosque, calligraphy carving in the interior of the mosque, and the other elements in the building which interpreted to the middle east culture. So here there are problems in understanding the meaning of Islam with Kaffah (overall), which appeared a distortion of understanding to distinguish between cultural and theological values in a design. This paper will try to evaluate the design of a contemporary mosque in Indonesia, with case studies in Jogokariyan Mosque Yogyakarta Indonesia. The building evaluation are focused in building function , aesthetic, comfort, and security. And finally from this research should be found the results of the integrated design evaluation of a contemporary mosque which based on the study of the Quran and Hadith.

Keywords: evaluation, islamic concept, mosque, Hadith, Quran

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6 The Characteristics of Islamic Concept In Contemporary Mosque Design With The Case Modulation of Study: Kauman Mosque Yogyakarta Indonesia

Authors: Sulihantoro, Muhamad Irga Fahreza

Abstract:

Age of onset of the crisis makes more advanced understanding of the values of Islam that has been etched in architectural design. The majority Muslim mosque architecture designing buildings when they designed the architecture of Islam has always stuck in a cultural symbol, the shape of the facade, carving calligraphy, and all things that are closely related to the culture of the Middle East. As well as the interpretation of symbols, by designing a dome in every mosque, calligraphy carvings inside the mosque, and the other elements in the building which is interpreted by middle eastern culture. So here we have a problem understanding the meaning of Islam with kaf fah (overall), which appears distorted understanding to distinguish between cultural values and theological in design. This paper will try to evaluate the design of a contemporary mosque in Indonesia, with a case study in Masjid Kauman Yogyakarta Indonesia. building characteristics focused on the function of the building, history, aesthetics, comfort, and safety. The results of this study should be found on the evaluation of the integrated design of contemporary mosques are based on a study of the Quran and Hadith.

Keywords: characteristics, Islamic concept, culture, Kauman Mosque

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5 Mystical Principles of Islamic Art

Authors: Seyed Razi Nousavi Gilani

Abstract:

Islamic culture and especially the Shia is full of mystical and philosophical elements. A close look at the history of Islamic civilization, which is supposed to represent the teachings and words of faith leaders with the knowledge and use of the philosophical and mystical concepts, has influenced Islamic art. This article explains the influence of Shiite Islamic teachings and their teachings of mystical elements on Islamic art and examines as case studies in the arts such as architecture, calligraphy and painting. These arts have always been associated with mystical and philosophical teachings in view of traditional artists.

Keywords: mystics, Islamic Art, Islamic culture, mystic

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4 The Influence of Islamic Arts in Omani Weaving Motifs

Authors: Zahra Ahmed Al-zadjali

Abstract:

The influence of Islam on arts can be found primarily in calligraphy, arabesque designs and architecture. Also, geometric designs were used quite extensively. Muslim craftsmen produced stunning designs based on simple geometric principles and traditional motifs which were used to decorate many surfaces. The idea of interlacing simple rectilinear lines to form the patterns impressed Arabs. Nomads of Persia, Turks and Mongols were equally impressed with the designs so they begin to use them in their homes in carpet weaving. Islamic designs, motifs and colours which were used became common place and served to influence people’s tastes. Modern life style and contemporary products have changed the style of people’s daily lives, however, people still long for the nomadic way of life. This is clearly reflected in people’s homes. In a great many Muslim homes, Islamic decorative motifs can be seen along with traditional ‘Bedouin’ style furnishing, especially in homes of the Arabian Peninsula.

Keywords: art, craft, design, Oman, weaving

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3 Biomorphic Ornaments in Islamic Architecture and Their Development

Authors: Esra Alhamal

Abstract:

Islamic architecture is known for the ornamental patterns that cover the architectural surfaces: floors, walls, and ceilings. This quality in Islamic buildings has long impressed other civilisation, and it is a visual language that exists across the Islamic lands. Ornamentation is divided into three types: geometry, biomorphs, and Arabic calligraphy. The focus of this study is the biomorphic ornaments. This paper will aim to define and characterise biomorphic patterns and trace their development from the 7th to the 18th centuries. Although the time period is seemingly long, the biomorphic patterns and their motifs have been consistent and supported by a geometric system underlying the free flowing, symmetrical motifs. The methodology of this paper consists of analysing and comparing biomorphic patterns from each Islamic period using rules of geometry and symmetry. The study is concluded with a table showcasing the main motifs and how they developed under each Islamic dynasty. This research is a documentation of the biomorphic language and having this record will help contemporary designers employ biomorphic ornaments thoughtfully.

Keywords: architectural surface, biomorphic patterns, Islamic patterns, Islamic ornamentation

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2 Islam and Globalization: Accommodation or Containment of One by the Other

Authors: Mohammed Isah Shehu

Abstract:

This paper examined the context of globalization and Islam and accommodation or containment of one by the other. The paper is born out of the misconception and misunderstanding among many people that globalization is purely Western, anti-Islam and that Islam, globalization and Islam are diametrically opposed as such have no places for accommodating each other. The study used secondary sources to gather data. The study found that from its origin, Islam is in the whole context, a globalized religion and the contemporary globalization is already contained by Islam; that while contemporary globalization is centered on Western world, values and preferences (Western civilization, information and communication technology, free markets, trade and investments); some of the major foundation works that are aiding globalization were originally handiworks of past great Muslims (Islamic civilizations, Order of Algebra, tools of Navigation, Calligraphy, Medicine, Astronomy et cetera) whose major values are not Islamic; with globalization the Muslims have greater opportunities of spreading of Islam and practicing it in a most conducive atmosphere, easy and fast linkage with their fellow Muslim brothers wherever they may be; easier and freer world of trade and have the best opportunities to most things. The study however observed that Western contemporary globalization poses threats to religions such as those of globalization of immorality, injustice, trade with anti-Islamic terms and conditions, internationalized crime et cetera. Muslims would have to avoid or be cautious of many things for Islam is a complete religion that has what is forbidden and allowed (halaal and haramm) based on principles of (Shariah, justice to all, humanity and compassion, obedience to and seeking Allah’s pleasure); to Muslims, Contemporary globalization has to be in conformity with original provisions of Islam. The study recommended that Muslims must rise up in seeking knowledge on Islam and all other fields, further intellectual explorations of works by Muslim scholars/thinkers so that any advancement in globalization would be properly domesticated within Islam for the Muslims to make optimum use of any advancement to the benefit of Islam.

Keywords: accommodation, containment, Islam, globalization

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1 Decoration in Anatolian Seljuk Minarets

Authors: Turkan Harmanbasi, Zeliha Busra Eryigit

Abstract:

The Anatolian Seljuk State was established in Anatolia by the Seljuks and continued its existence between the 11th and 14th centuries. Iznik was the first capital of Anatolian Seljuks. With the conquest of Konya in 1086, this place was declared as the capital. The Anatolian Seljuk State, with its numerous cultural elements, has produced valuable and permanent works for more than two centuries. Most of the important and monumental works were built in Konya. Anatolian Seljuk Art that makes unique; the technique in his works is the difference in material and style. It has gained an important place in Islamic architecture with this feature. In this period, rich embellishment programs emerged with the use of geometrical ornaments, floral motifs and calligraphy belts. In the Anatolian Seljuks, decoration was mainly applied with façade, crown gates, doors, windows, mihrab, mimbar, cover, transition elements and minarets; built with stone, brick and wooden materials. The minarets are located adjacent to the mosques or outside, as a high place that can be reached by stairs, which is made to invite people to worship and to announce this to people. They are architectural elements that have always been important in Islamic architecture with their compositions, construction techniques and ornaments. In different countries where Islam has spread, it has gained different appearances with the influence of local traditions. In the Seljuk art, minarets have become indispensable architectural elements of mosques and masjids. Stone and brick are generally used as a material in the minarets, and in some examples it can be seen that the tile was accompanied by the material. Ornamental motifs are formed by bringing these materials side by side vertically or horizontally. The scope of this study, the decoration details of the minarets built during the Anatolian Seljuk period will be examined. As a study area, samples from various Anatolian cities, especially Konya, were selected. Aim of studying the decoration of the Anatolian Seljuk minaret can shed some light on one of the most important aspects of the Islamic architecture in Anatolia and the development of the minaret in the Islamic World.

Keywords: Anatolian Seljuk, decoration, Islamic architecture, minaret, ornament

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