Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 393

Search results for: decorations in Iranian mosques

393 A Look at the History of Calligraphy in Decoration of Mosques in Iran: 630-1630 AD

Authors: Cengiz Tavşan, Niloufar Akbarzadeh

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Architecture in Iran has a continuous history from at least 5000 BC to the present, and numerous Iranian pre-Islamic elements have contributed significantly to the formation of Islamic art. At first, decoration was limited to small objects and containers and then progressed in the art of plaster and brickwork. They later applied in architecture as well. The art of gypsum and brickwork, which was prevalent in the form of motifs (animals and plants) in pre-Islam, was used in the aftermath of Islam with the art of calligraphy in decorations. The splendor and beauty of Iranian architecture, especially during the Islamic era, are related to decoration and design. After the invasion of Iran by the Arabs and the introduction of Islam to Iran, the arrival of the Iranian classical architecture significantly changed, and we saw the Arabic calligraphy decoration of the mosques in Iran. The principles of aesthetics in the art of calligraphy in Iran are based precisely on the principles of the beauty of ancient Iranian and Islamic art. On the other hand, after Islam, calligraphy was one of the most important sources of Islamic art in Islam and one of the important features of Islamic culture. First, the calligraphy had no cultural meaning and was only for decoration and beautification, it had the same meaning only in the inscriptions; however, over time, it became meaningful. This article provides a summary of the history of calligraphy in the mosques (from the entrance to Islam until the Safavid period), which cannot ignore the role of the calligraphy in their decorative ideas; and also, the important role that decorative elements play in creating a public space in terms of social and aesthetic performance. This study was conducted using library studies and field studies. The purpose of this study is to show the characteristics of architecture and art of decorations in Iran, especially in the mosque's architecture, which reaches the pinnacle of progress. We will see that religious beliefs and artistic practices are merging and trying to bring a single concept.

Keywords: Islamic art, Islamic architecture, decorations in Iranian mosques, calligraphy

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392 The Relationship between Anatomical Components of Mosques and Place Attachment with Respect to Islamic Wisdom and Art

Authors: Alitajer Saeed, Negintaji Farshad

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This study has been examined the relationship between anatomical components of mosques and place attachment of people to anatomies of mosques with the approach of attending to Islamic wisdom. To this end, this article by reviewing the theoretical and empirical literature of mosques' anatomy and the role of anatomy on the architectural design of Iranian mosques by examining the quantitative and qualitative indicators and in order to understand and identify the anatomy of mosques, components such as: entrance, portico, minarets, domes, bedchamber and pool have been investigated. For this purpose, SPSS software has been used. Research is related to field and is of descriptive, analytical and inferential type and quantitative and qualitative indicators have been examined. Statistical analysis obtained from the questionnaire indicates that there is a significant relationship between the anatomical components of architecture and place attachment of the participants. By understanding and identifying the anatomy of mosques and appropriate planning to use the anatomy in Islamic architecture and considering it as an eminent indicators of designing, it can present great Iranian architecture.

Keywords: Islamic wisdom, Islamic architecture, mosque anatomy place attachment, Islamic art

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391 Investigation of Anatomical Components of Mosques with the Approach of Attention to Islamic Wisdom

Authors: Farshad Negintaji, Hamid Reza Zeraat Pisheh, Mahshid Ghanea, Zahra Khalifeh, Mohammad Bagher Rahami

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This study has been examined the anatomical components of mosques with the approach of attending to Islamic wisdom and investigated the distinction between the anatomical design of mosques (traditional and modern) by considering the category of perception in Islamic architecture. To this end, this article by reviewing the theoretical and empirical literature of mosques' anatomy and the role of anatomy on the architectural design of Iranian mosques by examining the quantitative and qualitative indicators and in order to understand and identify the anatomy of mosques, indicators such as: entrance, portico, minarets, domes, bedchamber and pool have been used. The aim of this study has been to investigate materials, the functional properties, technology, sizes and fitness of (traditional and modern) mosques. For this purpose, a questionnaire was prepared in which the anatomical and spiritual elements of the mosque shape have been questioned. Research is related to field and is of descriptive, analytical and inferential type and quantitative and qualitative indicators have been examined.

Keywords: Islamic wisdom, Islamic architecture, mosque anatomy, the minaret, dome, bedchamber, entrance, pool, perception

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390 Genealogy of a Building: Tarikhaneh

Authors: Mohadeseh Salari Sardari

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As Muslims conquered Iran, their first impression was to show their power over others. They needed mosques for their multiple needs like prayer, tax collecting, law-making, hearing of law cases, and most important of all, as a seat of government. Sometimes they did not have time to build mosques and only began to build them after years of ruling. Many religious buildings with pre-Islamic past survived in Iran, most of the fire temples in cities were destroyed or changed radically, but some deserted temples outside of cities survived, and based on these surviving buildings, we can trace changes in fire temples inside cities and discover how they were adapted and expanded to be mosques. In addition, there are some other buildings with doubts about their date of construction. These buildings might be transitional buildings between two different historical eras or might be an old building with a slight change. One of these interesting buildings is Tarikhaneh, a small, simple yet striking building. By tracing Tarikhaneh’s roots in other buildings like fire temples and secular buildings existed before Arab invasion, it can be better understood how the original form of Tatikhaneh was.

Keywords: iranian architecture, early mosques, fire temples, adaptation and reuse

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389 Geometrical Analysis of Tiling Patterns in Azari Style: The Case of Tabriz Kaboud Mosque

Authors: Seyyedeh Faezeh Miralami, Sahar Sayyadchapari, Mona Laleh, Zahra Poursafar

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Tiling patterns are magnificent display of decoration in Islamic period. They transform the dusty and dreary facades to splendid and ornate ones. Due to ideological factors and elements of Azari style decorations, geometrical patterns and vegetative designs became prevalent and pervasive in religious sites like mosques. Objectives: The objective of this research is a study of tiling patterns in Tabriz Kaboud mosque, as a splendid work of architecture in Azari style. In this study, the geometrical designs and tiling patterns employed in the mosque decorations are examined and analyzed. Method: The research is based on a descriptive analysis method. Data and information are collected based on documents library and field study. Then, polished and brushed, the study resulted in an illustrative conclusion. Findings: In religious sites such as mosques, geometry represents ‘divination’ in Christian theology and ‘Unity with God’ or ‘Tawhid’ in Islamic terminology. In other words, science, literature, architecture, and all forms of human expression and representation are pointed towards one cause, unity or divination. Tiling patterns of Kaboud Mosque, mostly hexagonal, circular, square and triangle, form outstanding architectonic features which recount a story, a narration of divination or unification with the One.

Keywords: tiling, Azari style, Tabriz Kaboud Mosque, Islamic architecture

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388 Structural Analysis and Evolution of 18th Century Ottoman Imperial Mosques (1750-1799) in Comparison with the Classical Period Examples

Authors: U. Demir

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18th century which is the period of 'change' in the Ottoman Empire, affects the architecture as well, where the Classical period is left behind, architecture is differentiated in the form language. This change is especially noticeable in monumental buildings and thus manifested itself in the mosques. But, is it possible to talk about the structural context of the 'change' which has been occurred in decoration? The aim of this study is to investigate the changes and classical relations of the 18th century mosques through plan schedules and structure systems. This study focuses on the monumental mosques constructed during the reign of the three sultans who ruled in the second half of the century (Mustafa the 3rd 1757-1774, Abdülhamid the 1st 1774-1789 and Selim the 3rd). According to their construction years these are 'Ayazma, Laleli, Zeyneb Sultan, Fatih, Beylerbeyi, Şebsefa Kadın, Eyüb Sultan, Mihrişah Valide Sultan and Üsküdar-Selimiye' mosques. As a plan scheme, four mosques have a square or close to a rectangular square scheme, while the others have a rectangle scheme and showing the longitudinal development of the mihrab axis. This situation is widespread throughout the period. In addition to the longitudinal development plan, which is the general characteristic of the 18th century mosques, the use of the classical plan schemes continued in the same direction. Spatialization of the mihrab area was applied to the five mosques while other mosques were applied as niches on the wall surface. This situation is widespread in the period of the second half of the century. In the classical period, the lodges may be located at the back of the mosques interior, not interfering with the main worship area. In the period, the lodges were withdrawn from the main worship area. They are separated from the main interior with their own structural and covering systems. The plans seem to be formed as a result of the addition of lodge parts to the northern part of the Classical period mosques. The 18th century mosques are the constructions where the change of the architectural language and style can be observed easily. This change and the break from the classical period manifest themselves quickly in the structural elements, wall surface decorations, pencil work designs, small scale decor elements, motifs. The speed and intensity of change in the decor does not occur the same as in structural context. The mosque construction rules from the traditional and classical era still continues in the century. While some mosque structures have a plan which is inherited from the classical successor, some of were constructed with the same classical period rules. Nonetheless, the location and transformation of the lodges, which are affecting the interior design, are noteworthy. They provide a significant transition on the way to the new language of the mosque design that will be experienced in the next century. It is intended to draw attention to the structural evolution of the 18th century Ottoman architecture through the royal mosques within the scope of this conference.

Keywords: mosque structure, Ottoman architecture, structural evolution, 18th century architecture

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387 Historical Studies on Gilt Decorations on Glazed Surfaces

Authors: Sabra Saeidi

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This research focuses on the historical techniques associated with the lajevardina and Haft-Rangi production methods in creating tiles, with emphasis on the identification of the techniques of inserting gold sheets on the surface of such historical glazed tiles. In this regard, firstly, the history of the production of enamel, gold plated, and Lajevardina glazed pottery work made during the Khwarizmanshahid and Mongol era (eleventh to the thirteenth century) have been assessed to reach a better understanding of the background and the history associated with historical glazing methods. After the historical overview of the production technique of glazed pottery work and introductions of the civilizations using those techniques, we focused on the niches production methods of enamel and Lajevardina glazing, which are two categories of decorations usually found in tiles. Next, a general classification method for various types of gilt tiles has been introduced, which is applicable to the tile works up to Safavid period (Sixteenth to the seventeenth century). Gilded lajevardina glazed tiles, gilt Haft-Rangi tiles, monolithic glazed gilt tiles, and gilt mosaic tiles are included in the categories.

Keywords: gilt tiles, Islamic art, Iranian art, historical studies, gilding

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386 The Historical Background of Physical Changing Towards Ancient Mosques in Aceh, Indonesia

Authors: Karima Adilla

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Aceh province, into which Islam convinced to have entered Indonesia in the 12th Century before spreading throughout the archipelago and the rest of Southeast Asia, has several early Islamic mosques that still exist until today. However, due to some circumstances, the restoration and rehabilitation towards those mosques have been made in some periods, while the background was diverse. Concerning this, the research will examine the physical changing aspects of 3 prominent historical mosques in Aceh Besar and Banda Aceh; those are, Indrapuri Mosque, Baiturrahman Grand Mosque, and Baiturrahim Mosque built coincided with the beginning of Islam’s development in Aceh and regarded as eventful mosques. The existence of Indrapuri Mosque built on the remains of the Lamuri Kingdom’s temple is a historical trace that there was Hindu-Buddhist civilization in Aceh before Islam entered and became the majority religion about 98% from Aceh total population. Also, there was the Dutch who colonialized Aceh behind the existence of two famous mosques in Aceh, namely Baiturrahman Grand Mosque and Baiturrahim Mosque, as the colonizer also assisted to rebuild those 2 sacred Mosques to quell the anger of the Acehnese people because their mosque was burnt by the Dutch. Interestingly, despite underwent a long history successively since the rise of Islam after the Hindu-Buddhist kingdom had collapsed, colonialization, conflict, in Aceh, and even experienced the earthquake and tsunami disaster in 2004, those mosques still exist. Therefore, those mosques have been considered as historical silent witnesses. However, it was not merely those reasons that led the mosques underwent several physical changes, otherwise economic, political, social, cultural and religious factors were also highly influential. Instead of directly illustrating the physical changing of those three mosques, this research intends to identify under what condition the physical appearance continuously changing during the sultanate era, the colonial period until post-independent in terms of the architectural style, detail elements, design philosophy, and how the remnants buildings act as medium to bridge the history. A framework will use qualitative research methods by collecting actual data of the mosque's physical change figures through field studies, investigations, library studies and interviews. This research aims to define every trace of historical issues embedded in the physical changing of those mosques as they are intertwined in collecting historical proof. Thus, the result will reveal the characteristic interrelation between history, the mosque architectural style in a certain period, the physical changes background and its impact. Eventually, this research will also explicate a clear inference of each mosque’s role in representing history in Aceh Besar and Banda Aceh specifically, as well as Aceh generally through architectural design concepts.

Keywords: Aceh ancient mosques, Aceh history, Islamic architecture, physical changing

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385 The Arts of Walisanga's Mosques in Java: Structure/Architecture Studies and Its Meaning in Anthropological Perspective

Authors: Slamet Subiyantoro, Mulyanto

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Revealing the structure and symbolism meaning of the walisanga’s mosque arts in Java is very important to explain the philosophy of religious foundation which is a manifestation of the norms/ value system and behavior of the Javanese Islam society that support the culture. This research's aims are also to find the structure pattern of walisanga’s mosque and its symbolic meaning in the context of Javanese Islam society. In order to obtain the research objectives, the research were done in several walisanga’s mosques in Java using anthropological approach which is focused on its interpretation and semiotic analysis. The data were collected through interviews with key informants who well informed about the shape and symbolism of walisanga’s mosques in Java. The observation technique is done through visiting walisanga’s mosques to see directly about its structure/ architecture. In completing the information of comprehensive result of the research, it is also used documents and archives as well as any other source which is analyzed to deepen the discussion in answering the problems research. The flow of analysis is done using an interactive model through stages of data collection, data reduction, data presentation and verification. The analysis is done continuously in a cycle system to draw valid conclusions. The research result indicates that the structure/architecture of walisanga’s mosque in Java is structured/built up vertically as well as horizontally. Its structure/architecture is correlated to each other which is having a sacred meaning that is a process represents the mystical belief such as sangkan paraning dumadi and manuggaling kawula gusti.

Keywords: Walisanga’s mosques, Java, structure and architecture, meaning

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384 Layers of Identities in Nahdliyyin Mosque Architecture and Some Related Socio-Political Context Within

Authors: Yulia Eka Putrie, Widjaja Martokusumo

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The development of architecture today indicates that an architectural object often does not represent one single identity only. One architectural object could represents layers of multiple identities of an increasingly complex society. Mosque architecture for example, is mainly associated with one religious identity; that mosque architecture serves as the representation of Islamic identity. However, on many occasions, mosque architecture also serves as the representation of other motives, such as political, social, even individual identity. In normal circumstances, these layers of identities are not always seen or realized by common people outside the community. They are only represented implicitly in some symbolic forms, activities, and events. On the other hand, in specific circumstances, these kinds of identities were represented explicitly in mosque architecture. This paper is a part of an initial research on the representation of socio-political identities in Nahdliyyin mosques in East Java, Indonesia. Nahdliyyin mosques were chosen as the object of research because of its significance in Indonesian socio-political context, because majority of Indonesian muslims are culturally associated with Nahdlatul Ulama (NU) with its aswaja doctrine. Some frictions in mosque ownership and management between Nahdliyyin and other islamic school of thoughts, has resulted in preventive efforts, where some of the efforts are related to the representation of their identity in their mosque architecture. The research is a field research that took place in Malang, East Java. Malang is one of main cities in East Java; a cultural and regional basis of NU and Nahdliyyin people. Formal analysis were conducted in ten large Nahdliyyin mosques in Malang. Some structured and in-depth interviews were also held to explore the motives of identity representation in some architectural aspects of the mosques. The result of this initial study indicates that there are layers of identities which were manifested in the studied mosques. These layers of identities in Nahdliyyin mosques were based on the same main values, but represented through various formal expressions. Furthermore, the study also brings the deeper understanding on socio-political context of mosques in Nahdliyyin culture.

Keywords: Nahdliyyin mosque architecture, layers of identities, representation, Nahdlatul Ulama

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383 The General Evolution of Today's Mosque Architecture in Turkey: The Case of Mekke Mosque

Authors: Hatice Derya Arslan

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Religious buildings in terms of architectural features are known as the most repeated building types. Mosques representing Islam religion shows big differences in terms of architecture. In Turkey, every year many mosques are built all over the country and a majority of the mosques being built are inspired by the Ottoman and Seljuk architecture. Unfortunately, inspired by the architecture of the mosque made from traditional mosque architecture is often inadequate. In this study, first of all, the evolution of the mosque architecture in Turkey has been examined chronologically and shortly. After that, in the other part of the paper, Mekke Mosque which was built in Kutahya City Center of Turkey is discussed in terms of architectural properties. In this mosque, quasi-postmodern design was preferred. Generally preferred classical Ottoman architecture has been abandoned in this mosque. However, there exists a lot of issue in the interior and exterior design of the mosque was criticized in the conclusion part of the paper in a comparative manner.

Keywords: architectural criticism, mosque, ottoman and seljuk architecture, religious building

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382 Divorce for Iranian-Canadian Women: A Life and Death Matter

Authors: Shila Khayambashi

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Iran’s long history of patriarchy, coupled with the devaluation of women’s rights after Iran’s Islamic revolution of 1979, has subjected Iranian women to different forms of domestic abuse. Upon their migration, however, many Iranian women end their abusive relationship by filing for divorce. In many instances, leaving the abusive environment exposes these Iranian women to more dangerous circumstances. Iranian diasporic community has witnessed several domestically-charged fatalities in the past few years after the abused wives either ended their violent marriages or attempted to establish some control in their marital relationships. While the casualties have been reported in Iranian new media and press, the Canadian media failed to pay much attention to any of these cases. In this paper, I examine the post-migratory factors that encourage the abused Iranian women to leave their abusers after years of endurance. Additionally, I indicate the roles of organizational and governmental support for minority women who decide to terminate their violent relationships. I will also explore how the Canadian media outlets circumvent and ignore the cases of these minority victims.

Keywords: women's right, Divorce, Patriarchy, Domestic Abuse

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381 A Resistant-Based Comparative Study between Iranian Concrete Design Code and Some Worldwide Ones

Authors: Seyed Sadegh Naseralavi, Najmeh Bemani

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The design in most counties should be inevitably carried out by their native code such as Iran. Since the Iranian concrete code does not exist in structural design software, most engineers in this country analyze the structures using commercial software but design the structural members manually. This point motivated us to make a communication between Iranian code and some other well-known ones to create facility for the engineers. Finally, this paper proposes the so-called interpretation charts which help specify the position of Iranian code in comparison of some worldwide ones.

Keywords: beam, concrete code, strength, interpretation charts

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380 The Iranian Law and Refugee Survivors of Sexual and Gender-Based Violence

Authors: Aminreza Koohestani

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This paper intends to explore the existing safeguards available within the Iranian law in protecting refugees affected by Sexual and Gender-Based Violence (SGBV). The Iranian law afforded protection for women and girls against SGBV is scattered across various bodies of law. Moreover, the degree of protection provided by the law varies greatly from one type of SGBV to another. The paper discusses the scope of applicability of Iranian laws to refugees affected by SGBV as well as substantive and procedural laws afforded protection for survivors of SGBV.

Keywords: Iran, law, violence, women

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379 The Development of Iranian Theatrical Performance through the Integration of Narrative Elements from Western Drama

Authors: Azadeh Abbasikangevari

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Background and Objectives: Theatre and performance are two separate themes. What is presented in Iran as a performance is the species and ritual and traditional forms of the play. The Iranian performance has its roots in myth and ritual. Drama is essentially a Western phenomenon that has gradually entered Iran and influenced Iranian performance. A theatre is based on antagonism (axis) and protagonism (anti-axis), while performance has a monotonous and steady motion. The elements of Iranian performance include field, performance on the stage, and magnification in performance, all of which are based on narration. This type of narration has been present in Iranian modern drama. The objective of this study was to analyze the drama structure according to narration elements by a comparison between the Western theater and the Iranian performance and determining the structural differences in the type of narrative. Materials and Methods: In this study, the elements of the drama were analyzed using the library method among the available library resources. The review of the literature included research articles and textbooks which focused on Iranian plays, as well as books and articles which encompassed narrative and drama element. Data were analyzed in the comparative-descriptive method. Results: Examining and studying different kinds of Iranian performances, showed that the narrative has always been a characteristic feature of Iranian plays. Iranians have narrated the stories and myths and have had a particular skill of oral literature. Over time, they slowly introduced narrative culture into their art, where this element is the most important structural element in Iran's dramatic art. Considering the fact that narration in Iranian traditional play, such as Ta'ziyeh and Naghali, was oral and consequently, it was slowly forgotten and excluded from written theatrical texts. Since the drama has entered in its western form in Iran, the plays written by the authors were influenced by narrative elements existing in western plays. Conclusions: The narrative’s element has undoubtedly had an impact on modern Iranian drama and Iranian contemporary drama. Therefore, the element of narration is an integral part of the Iranian traditional play structure.

Keywords: drama methodology, Iranian performance, Iranian modern drama, narration

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378 Perception and Implementation of Machine Translation Applications by the Iranian English Translators

Authors: Abdul Amir Hazbavi

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The present study is an attempt to provide a relatively comprehensive preview of the Iranian English translators’ perception on Machine Translation. Furthermore, the study tries to shed light on the status of implementation of Machine Translation among the Iranian English Translators. To reach the aforementioned objectives, the Localization Industry Standards Association’s questioner for measuring perceptions with regard to the adoption of a technology innovation was adapted and used to investigate three parameter among the participants of the study, namely familiarity with Machine Translation, general perception on Machine Translation and implementation of Machine Translation systems in translation tasks. The participants of the study were 224 last-year undergraduate Iranian students of English translation at 10 universities across the country. The study revealed a very low level of adoption and a very high level of willingness to get familiar with and learn about Machine Translation, as well as a positive perception of and attitude toward Machine Translation by the Iranian English translators.

Keywords: translation technology, machine translation, perception, implementation

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377 Components of Emotional Intelligence in Iranian Entrepreneurs

Authors: Farzaneh Noori

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Entrepreneurs face different sort of difficulties especially with customers, organizations and employees. Emotional intelligence which is the ability to understand and control the emotions is an important factor to help entrepreneurs end up challenges to the result they prefer. Thus, it is assumed that entrepreneurs especially those who have passed the first challenging years of starting a new business, have high emotional intelligence. In this study the Iranian established entrepreneurs have been surveyed. According to Iran Gem 2014 report the percentage of established entrepreneur in Iran is 10.92%. So by using Cochran sample formula (1%) 96 Iranian established entrepreneurs have been selected and Emotional intelligence appraisal questionnaire distributed to them. The SPSS19 result shows high emotional intelligence in Iranian established entrepreneurs.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, emotional intelligence appraisal questionnaire, entrepreneurs, Iran

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376 A Brief Overview of Seven Churches in Van Province

Authors: Eylem Güzel, Soner Guler, Mustafa Gulen

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Van province which has a very rich historical heritage is located in eastern part of Turkey, between Lake Van and the Iranian border. Many civilizations prevailing in Van until today have built up many historical structures such as castles, mosques, churches, bridges, baths, etc. In 2011, a devastating earthquake with magnitude 7.2 Mw, epicenter in Tabanlı Village, occurred in Van, where a large part of the city locates in the first-degree earthquake zone. As a result of this earthquake, 644 people were killed; a lot of reinforced, unreinforced and historical structures were badly damaged. Many historical structures damaged due to this earthquake have been restored. In this study, the damages observed in Seven churches (Yedi Kilise) after 2011 Van earthquake is evaluated with regard to architecture and civil engineering perspective.

Keywords: earthquake, historical structures, Van province, church

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375 A Development of Community Participation in Developing Healthy Religion Places in Narathiwat Province, Thailand

Authors: Waepa Wanhussen

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The Ministry of Public Health has established policies accelerating health promotion to prevent public health problems in five border provinces of Thailand. One of these policies employs the religion to guide the community development and solve health issues consistent with the lifestyle and culture of those people. This policy is an important strategy to solve the problems due to the unrest and conflicts in the southern border provinces. This participatory action research aimed to develop mosques as healthy religion places in Narathiwat Province. In the development, the participatory action, consisting of 5 stages, was conducted from October 2012 - May 2013. Stage I: Conducting a survey for problems and needs for developing healthy religion places by employing community participation. Stage II: Analyzing problems and situations at a workshop containing informal interviews and group conversations with 200 participants (health providers at district level, Imams (the Muslim leaders), and community leaders). Stage III: Planning for developing healthy religion places by health providers, Imams, community leaders. Stage IV: Implementing the plan according to the conditions of problems and needs of the community in order to develop healthy religion places. Stage V: Evaluating the implementation by using the instrument, a criteria of being healthy religion place, for collecting data. Data were analyzed by using percentage. It was found that out of 630 mosques 575 (90.12%) passed the criteria of being a healthy religion place. Among these mosques, 190 mosques (30.15%) were in good and very good level, in which, after the implementation, the number of being good and very good healthy mosques increased by 22.58%. The researcher suggested that the developing sustainably healthy religion places require the participation of residences in the community and agencies such as local government, the Islamic Council of Narathiwat Province, and Council of Culture of Narathiwat Province. The healthy religion places can be used to strengthen and sustain health promotion and disease prevention in the community as health learning centers.

Keywords: healthy religion places, development of community participation, nursing informatics, health

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374 An Investigation on the Perception and Adoption of Terminology Management Applications by the Iranian English Language Translators

Authors: Abdul Amir Hazbavi

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In recent years, there have been increasing requests in the field of translation studies to develop software facilitating the analysis of corpora. One of the specialized tools in that regard are Terminology Management Tools. Briefly explaining, Terminology Management Tools are applications developed to help create and store terminological data in the form which allows for a controlled use of the data. While it has a long history and an established ground in translation market in most parts of the globe, the Iranian translators and translation market still seem to be unaware or unfamiliar with Terminology Management Tools. In order to provide a preview on the perception and adoption of Terminology Management Tools by the Iranian translators, the present survey was carried out among 224 last-year undergraduate Iranian students of English translation at 10 different universities across the country. The study revealed a very low level of adoption and a very high level of willingness to get familiar with and learn about Terminology Management Tools by the Iranian translators.

Keywords: translation, translation technology, terminology management tools, terminology management survey

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373 Anthropology of Women and War (1979-1988) in Iran: The Role of Islamic Republic Media

Authors: Mina Dousti

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Like many women worldwide, and especially those living in the Middle East, Iranian women are struggling to have equal rights as men. The Islamic Republic regime, established in 1979, made this path even more difficult for Iranian women. Media and the Islamic Republic's powerful propaganda are the main factors and advertisers in omitting women's social rights and civic activities. Also, the hijab (veil), which became obligatory immediately after the revolution based on the Qur'an and religious Hadiths, was another way of suppressing women. Since the Islamic Republic Revolution and the following Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988), the Iranian female community has been experiencing different social and legal challenges. Aside from the Islamic regime's role in ignoring women, their families have also contributed to this limitation via unreasonable zeals and religious prejudices. Subsequently, all these factors led to pushing Iranian women to the corner and public dormancy. During the eight-year war, many Iranian women directly participated in the war front line. Although they became martyred, the regime intentionally ignored their public presence employing Islamic justifications and Sharia as an excuse. The government did these actions to justify censorship and unfairness toward women.

Keywords: Iranian women, Islamic Republic Regime, hijab, revolution, Iran-Iraq war, Martyr

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372 Transformation and Integration: Iranian Women Migrants and the Use of Social Media in Australia

Authors: Azadeh Davachi

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Although there is a growing interest in Iranian female migration and gender roles, little attention has been paid to how Iranian migrant women in Australia access and sustain social networks, both locally and spatially dispersed over time. Social network theories have much to offer an analysis of migrant’s social ties and interpersonal relationships. Thus, it is important to note that social media are not only new communication channels in a migration network but also that they actively transform the nature of these networks and thereby facilitate migration for migrants. Drawing on that, this article will focus on Iranian women migrants and the use of social media in migration in Australia. Based on the case of main social networks such as Facebook and Instagram; this paper will investigate that how women migrants use these networks to facilitate the process of migration and integration. In addition, with the use of social networks, they could promote their home business and as a result become more engaged economically in Australian society. This paper will focus on three main Iranian pages in Instagram and Facebook, they will contend that compared to men, women are more active in these social networks. Consequently, as this article will discuss with the use of these social media Iranian migrant women can become more engaged and overcome post migration hardships, thus, gender plays a key role in using social media in migrant communities. Based on these findings from these social media pages, this paper will conclude that social media are transforming migration networks and thereby lowering the threshold for migration. It also will be demonstrated that these networks boost Iranian women’s confidence and lead them to become more visible in Iranian migrant communities comparing to men.

Keywords: integration, gender, migration, women migrants

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371 Mosque as a Sustainable Model in Iranian Traditional Urban Development: The Case Study of Vakil Mosque in Shiraz

Authors: Amir Hossein Ashari, Sedighe Erfan Manesh

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When investigating Iranian traditional and historical urban development, such as that seen in Shiraz, our attention is drawn to mosques as a focal point. Vakil Mosque in Shiraz is completely consistent, coordinated and integrated with the Bazaar, square and school. This is a significant example of traditional urban development. The position of the mosque in the most important urban joint near bazaar in a way that it is considered part of the bazaar structure are factors that have given it social, political, and economic roles in addition to the original religious role. These are among characteristics of sustainable development. The mosque has had an important effect in formation of the city because it is connected to main gates. In terms of access, the mosque has different main and peripheral access paths from different parts of the city. The courtyard of the mosque was located next to the main elements of the city so that it was considered as an urban open space, which made it a more active and more dynamic place. This study is carried out via library and field research with the purpose of finding strategies for taking advantage of useful features of the mosque in traditional urban development. These features include its role as a gathering center for people and city in sustainable urban development. Mosque can be used as a center for enhancing social interactions and creating a sense of association that leads to sustainable social space. These can act as a model which leads us to sustainable cities in terms of social and economic factors.

Keywords: mosque, traditional urban development, sustainable social space, Vakil Mosque, Shiraz

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370 Designing Sustainable Building Based on Iranian's Windmills

Authors: Negar Sartipzadeh

Abstract:

Energy-conscious design, which coordinates with the Earth ecological systems during its life cycle, has the least negative impact on the environment with the least waste of resources. Due to the increasing in world population as well as the consumption of fossil fuels that cause the production of greenhouse gasses and environmental pollution, mankind is looking for renewable and also sustainable energies. The Iranian native construction is a clear evidence of energy-aware designing. Our predecessors were forced to rely on the natural resources and sustainable energies as well as environmental issues which have been being considered in the recent world. One of these endless energies is wind energy. Iranian traditional architecture foundations is a appropriate model in solving the environmental crisis and the contemporary energy. What will come in this paper is an effort to recognition and introduction of the unique characteristics of the Iranian architecture in the application of aerodynamic and hydraulic energies derived from the wind, which are the most common and major type of using sustainable energies in the traditional architecture of Iran. Therefore, the recent research attempts to offer a hybrid system suggestions for application in new constructions designing in a region such as Nashtifan, which has potential through reviewing windmills and how they deal with sustainable energy sources, as a model of Iranian native construction.

Keywords: renewable energy, sustainable building, windmill, Iranian architecture

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369 Late Roman-Byzantine Glass Bracelet Finds at Amorium and Comparison with Other Cultures

Authors: Atilla Tekin

Abstract:

Amorium was one of the biggest cities of Byzantine Empire, located under and around the modern village of Hisarköy, Emirdağ, Afyonkarahisar Province, Turkey. It was situated on the routes of trades and Byzantine military road from Constantinople to Cilicia. In addition, it was on the routes of trades and a center of bishopric. After Arab invasion, Amorium gradually lost importance. The research consists of 1372 pieces of glass bracelet finds from mostly at 1998- 2009 excavations. Most of them were found as glass bracelets fragments. The fragments are of various size, forms, colors, and decorations. During the research, they were measured and grouped according to their crossings, at first. After being photographed, they were sketched by Adobe Illustrator and decoupaged by Photoshop. All forms, colors, and decorations were specified and compared to each other. Thus, they have been tried to be dated and uncovered the place of manufacture. The importance of the research is presenting the perception of image and admiration and comparing with other cultures.

Keywords: Amorium, glass bracelets, image, Byzantine empire, jewelry

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368 Women Retelling the Iranian Revolution: A Comparative Study of Novelists Maryam Madjidi and Negar Djavadi

Authors: Alessandro Giardino

Abstract:

The Iranian Revolution has been the object of numberless historical and semi-fictional accounts, often providing a monolithic perspective on the events, due to the westerner positioning of those recounting them. Against this tradition, two contemporary French-Iranian novels "Disoriental" (2016) by Negar Djavadi and "Marx and The Doll" (2017) by Maryam Madjidi have offered readers a female-oriented and interestingly layered representation of the Iranian Revolution, hence addressing the responsibilities and misconceptions of Western countries. Furthermore, these two women writers have shed light on the disenchantment of the Iranian intellectual class vis-à-vis the foundation of the Islamic Republic, by particularly focusing on the deterioration of women’s rights, as well as the repression of political, ethnical, religious and sexual minorities. By a psycholinguistic and semasiological analysis of the two novels by Djavadi and Madjidi, this essay will focus on alternative accounts of the revolution in order to reflect upon the role of intersectional literature to the understanding of history. More specifically, as both women, refugees, and bi-cultural writers, Djavadi and Madjidi unearthed moments and figures of the revolution which had disappeared from the prevalent narrative. In doing so, however, these two writers resorted to entirely opposite styles of writing that, it will be argued, stem from different types of female resistance. In defining these two approaches as a "narrative resistance" and a "photographic resistance," the essay will elucidate the dependence of these writers’ language on generational and psychological factors, but it will also stir a reflection on their different communicative strategies.

Keywords: Iranian revolution, French-Iranian, intersectionality, literature, women writers

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367 Iranian EFL Learners' Attitudes towards Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL)

Authors: Rose Shayeghi, Pejman Hosseiniun, Ghasem Ghorbanirostam

Abstract:

The present study was conducted to investigate the Iranian EFL learners’ attitudes toward the use of computer technology in language classes as a method of improving English learning. To this end, 120 male and female Iranian learners participated in the study. Instrumentation included a 20-item questionnaire. The analysis of the data revealed that the majority of learners had a positive attitude towards the application of CALL in language classes. Moreover, independent samples t-tests indicated that male participants had a significantly more positive attitude compared with that of the female participants. Finally, the results obtained through ANOVA revealed that the youngest age group had a significantly more positive attitude toward the use of technology in language classes compared to the other age groups.

Keywords: EFL learners, Iranian learners, CALL, language learning

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366 Assessment of Seismic Behavior of Masonry Minarets by Discrete Element Method

Authors: Ozden Saygili, Eser Cakti

Abstract:

Mosques and minarets can be severely damaged as a result of earthquakes. Non-linear behavior of minarets of Mihrimah Sultan and Süleymaniye Mosques and the minaret of St. Sophia are analyzed to investigate seismic response, damage and failure mechanisms of minarets during earthquake. Selected minarets have different height and diameter. Discrete elements method was used to create the numerical minaret models. Analyses were performed using sine waves. Two parameters were used for evaluating the results: the maximum relative dislocation of adjacent drums and the maximum displacement at the top of the minaret. Both parameters were normalized by the drum diameter. The effects of minaret geometry on seismic behavior were evaluated by comparing the results of analyses.

Keywords: discrete element method, earthquake safety, nonlinear analysis, masonry structures

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365 Evaluation of Phytochemical and Fatty Acids Content and Composition in Iranian Borage (Echium amoenum) in Different Habitate of Iran

Authors: Esmaeil Babakhanzadeh Sajirani, Mohamadjavad Shakouri

Abstract:

Iranian Gole GavZaban (Echium amoenum fich & mey), is one of the most important medicinal plant in north of iran . is dry petals used for tonic, tranquillizer, diaphoretic, cough suppressant and a remedy for sore throat in treditional Iranian medicine. This study is the report about the analysis of phytochemical and seeds oil of Echium amoenum's in different habitates and accessions of Iran. The results showed that the oil content of seeds was 36% and eleven fatty acids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography (GC). The major fatty acids wereα-Linolenicacid (39.99), Linoleic acid (20.86), linolenic acid (20%) and Oleic acid (15.36) respectively. The amount of phenols, tannins, flavonoids and anthocyanins with increasing height, increased amount of these compounds. So that the highest rates of these compounds were observed at an altitude of 2125 meters in ciposht accession.

Keywords: accession, phytochemical, oil components, Iranian borage

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364 Investigation of Regional Differences in Strong Ground Motions for the Iranian Plateau

Authors: Farhad Sedaghati, Shahram Pezeshk

Abstract:

Regional variations in strong ground motions for the Iranian Plateau have been investigated by using a simple statistical method called Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). In this respect, a large database consisting of 1157 records occurring within the Iranian Plateau with moment magnitudes of greater than or equal to 5 and Joyner-Boore distances up to 200 km has been considered. Geometric averages of horizontal peak ground accelerations (PGA) as well as 5% damped linear elastic response spectral accelerations (SA) at periods of 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 sec are used as strong motion parameters. The initial database is divided into two different datasets, for Northern Iran (NI) and Central and Southern Iran (CSI). The comparison between strong ground motions of these two regions reveals that there is no evidence for significant differences; therefore, data from these two regions may be combined to estimate the unknown coefficients of attenuation relationships.

Keywords: ANOVA, attenuation relationships, Iranian Plateau, PGA, regional variation, SA, strong ground motion

Procedia PDF Downloads 235