Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 58

Search results for: Instagram

58 A Mixed Methods Study Aimed at Exploring the Conceptualization of Orthorexia Nervosa on Instagram

Authors: Elena V. Syurina, Sophie Renckens, Martina Valente


Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the nature of the conversation around orthorexia nervosa (ON) on Instagram. Methods: The present study was conducted using mixed methods, combining a concurrent triangulation and sequential explanatory design. First, 3027 pictures posted on Instagram using #Orthorexia were analyzed. Then, a questionnaire about Instagram use related to ON was completed entirely by 185 respondents. These two quantitative data sources were statistically analyzed and triangulated afterwards. Finally, 9 interviews were conducted, to more deeply investigate what is being said about ON on Instagram and what the motivations to post about it are. Results: Four main categories of pictures were found to be represented in Instagram posts about ON: ‘food’, ‘people’, ‘text’, and ‘other.’ Savory and unprocessed food was most highly represented within the food category, and pictures of people were mostly pictures of the account holder. People who self-identify as having ON were more likely to post about ON, and they were significantly more likely to post about ‘food’, ‘people’ and ‘text.’ The goal of the posts was to raise awareness around ON, as well as to provide support for people who believe to be suffering from it. Conclusion: Since the conversation around ON on Instagram is supportive, it could be beneficial to consider Instagram use in the treatment of ON. However, more research is needed on a larger scale.

Keywords: orthorexia nervosa, Instagram, social media, disordered eating

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
57 An Analysis of Machine Translation: Instagram Translation vs Human Translation on the Perspective Translation Quality

Authors: Aulia Fitri


This aims to seek which part of the linguistics with the common mistakes occurred between Instagram translation and human translation. Instagram is a social media account that is widely used by people in the world. Everyone with the Instagram account can consume the captions and pictures that are shared by their friends, celebrity, and public figures across countries. Instagram provides the machine translation under its caption space that will assist users to understand the language of their non-native. The researcher takes samples from an Indonesian public figure whereas the account is followed by many followers. The public figure tries to help her followers from other countries understand her posts by putting up the English version after the Indonesian version. However, the research on Instagram account has not been done yet even though the account is widely used by the worldwide society. There are 20 samples that will be analysed on the perspective of translation quality and linguistics tools. As the MT, Instagram tends to give a literal translation without regarding the topic meant. On the other hand, the human translation tends to exaggerate the translation which leads a different meaning in English. This is an interesting study to discuss when the human nature and robotic-system influence the translation result.

Keywords: human translation, machine translation (MT), translation quality, linguistic tool

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
56 Micro Celebrities in Social Media Instagram and Their Personal Influence in Business Perspective

Authors: Yoga Maulana Putra, Herry Hudrasyah


The Internet has now become an important part of human life; it can be accessed through a computer or even a smartphone almost anywhere and anytime. The Internet has created many social media such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. Instagram has been acquired by Facebook in 2012. Since then, Instagram is growing fast. And now, Instagram is transforming from photo-sharing social media into business tools. As the result, some new behavior has been discovered. Some of Instagram user is becoming popular. These people also being called minor celebrity and they are also being used as marketing tools by many companies to influencing or promoting their product or service. This minor celebrity is existing because of their behavior in using Instagram. The company is using the personal influence of the minor celebrity to promoting and influencing their product or service, and the minor celebrity gets paid as much as their rate card. And their rate card based on their followers and insight. This research is using a qualitative method. An interview is being done to 6 minor celebrities from many different categories such as photographer, travel blogger, lifestyle, food blogger, fashion, and healthcare. Theory of reasoned behavior is being used as the grounded theory to discover the reason for their behavior and personal influence to describe their way to influencing people. The result of the interview is most of the minor celebrities is influenced by their friend’s circle in the process of using Instagram. They also had a different way to use their personal influence to affect their followers when the company employs them.

Keywords: humanities and social sciences, Instagram, minor celebrity, social media

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
55 Women’s Language and Gender Positioning in the Discourse of Indonesian Instagram Videos

Authors: Haira Rizka, Imas Istiani


The way women and men use language is an interesting topic to discuss. Nowadays, Instagram shows many videos which illustrate the difference of women’s and men’s language. Furthermore, the videos show how different genders behave in daily communication. This research aims to (1) investigate conversational characteristics of women represented in Indonesian Instagram videos, and (2) investigate how different genders behave in daily communication. To analyze the two research problems, this research employs Tannen’s theory of language and gender (1996). This is a descriptive qualitative research which describes phenomena of language and gender shown in Indonesian Instagram videos. The data were collected through observation. The collected data were then analyzed by employing ethnography and textual analysis. The research results show that in Indonesian Instagram videos, women dominate the conversation than men. Women’s are portrayed as a figure who are talkative, never wrong, and sensitive. Women’s dominating men proves that women always want to be understood, produce more words than men, and are more creative in producing verbal communication. Meanwhile, men are portrayed as calm, gentle, and patient creature who listen to women’s talk. Furthermore, men are portrayed to prefer being silent for avoiding conflict.

Keywords: gender, Instagram videos, language variety, women's language

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
54 Mourning Motivations for Celebrities in Instagram: A Case Study of Mohammadreza Shajarian's Death

Authors: Zahra Afshordi


Instagram, as an everyday life social network, hosts from the ultrasound image of an unborn fetus to the pictures of newly placed gravestones and funerals. It is a platform that allows its users to create a second identity independently from and at the same time in relation to the real space identity. The motives behind this identification are what this article is about. This article studies the motivations of Instagram users mourning for celebrities with a focus on the death of MohammadReza Shajarian. The Shajarian’s death had a wide reflection on Instagram Persian-speaking users. The purpose of this qualitative survey is to comprehend and study the user’s motivations in posting mourning and memorializing content. The methodology of the essay is a hybrid methodology consisting of content analysis and open-ended interviews. The results highlight that users' motives are more than just simple sympathy and include political protest, gaining cultural capital, reaching social status, and escaping from solitude.

Keywords: case study, celebrity, identity, Instagram, mourning, qualitative survey

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
53 Communication About Health and Fitness in Media and Its Hidden Message About Objectification

Authors: Emiko Suzuki


Although fitness is defined as the body’s ability to respond to the demand of physical activity without undue fatigue in health science, in media oftentimes physical activity is presented as means to an attractive body rather than a fit and healthy one. Of all types of media, Instagram is becoming an increasingly persuasive source of information and advice on health and fitness, where individuals conceptualize what health and fitness mean for them. However, this user-generated and unregulated platform can be problematic, as it can communicate misleading information about health and fitness and possibly leading individuals to psychological problems such as eating disorders. In fact, previous research has shown that some messages that were posted with a tag that related to inspire others to do fitness, in fact, encouraged distancing the self from the internal needs of the body. For this reason, this present study aims to explore how health and fitness are communicated on Instagram by analyzing images and texts. A content analysis of images that were labeled with particular hashtags was performed, followed by a thematic analysis of texts from the same set of images. The result shows an interesting insight about messages about how health and fitness are communicated from companies through media, then digested and further shared among communities on Instagram. The study explores how the use of visual focused way of communicating health and fitness can lead to the dehumanization of human bodies.

Keywords: Instagram, fitness, dehumanization, body image, embodiment

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
52 Contemporary World Values: The Effects of Quality of Brand-Generated Visual Contents on Customer Engagement Behaviours in Social Commerce

Authors: Hamed Azad, Azadeh M. Ardakani


Visual content, as an integral part of social media marketing, is growing dramatically. They are, in different technological usage categories (i.e., photos, graphics, animation IGTV, Stories, Livestreams, and Reels), associated with improving customer engagement behaviours (CEBs) in social commerce (SC). However, few researchers have explored the impact of specific and occasional contents that respect green products, gender equality, religious freedom, and LGBTs' rights. This study aims to compare and analyse how the ten best global brands (Interbrand's) in different categories communicate with customers on Instagram. Netnography approach and method used to conduct the data collection and data analysis of 1072 Instagram posts and 10494 comments. The results show that brands in fashion, sport, and homeware categories (H&M, Nike, and Ikea) emerge to use more effective content with the above global values elements than other brand categories. Findings also indicate that some different themes such as celebrities, models, pets, kids, aged and disabled people are part of visual management strategies on Instagram brands' pages. This research aims to inform researchers to consider all aspects of visual elements in content quality and marketing managers to increase brand optimisation, awareness, and authenticity by promoting contemporary world values on Instagram.

Keywords: green products, gender equality, religious freedom, LGBTs, Instagram, netnography

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
51 Promoting Libraries' Services and Events by Librarians Led Instagram Account: A Case Study on Qatar National Library's Research and Learning Instagram Account

Authors: Maryam Alkhalosi, Ahmad Naddaf, Rana Alani


Qatar National Library has its main accounts on social media, which presents the general image of the library and its daily news. A paper will be presented based on a case study researching the outcome of having a separate Instagram account led by librarians, not the Communication Department of the library. The main purpose of the librarians-led account is to promote librarians’ services and events, such as research consultation, reference questions, community engagement programs, collection marketing, etc. all in the way that librarians think it reflects their role in the community. Librarians had several obstacles to help users understanding librarians' roles. As was noticed that Instagram is the most popular social media platform in Qatar, it was selected to promote how librarians can help users through a focused account to create a direct channel between librarians and users. Which helps librarians understand users’ needs and interests. This research will use a quantitative approach depending on the case study, librarians have used their case in the department of Research and learning to find out the best practices might help in promoting the librarians' services and reaching out to a bigger number of users. Through the descriptive method, this research will describe the changes observed in the numbers of community users who interact with the Instagram account and engaged in librarians’ events. Statistics of this study are based on three main sources: 1. The internal monthly statistics sheet of events and programs held by the Research and Learning Department. 2. The weekly tracking of the Instagram account statistics. 3. Instagram’s tools such as polls, quizzes, questions, etc. This study will show the direct effect of a librarian-led Instagram account on the number of community members who participate and engage in librarian-led programs and services. In addition to highlighting the librarians' role directly with the community members. The study will also show the best practices on Instagram, which helps reaching a wider community of users. This study is important because, in the region, there is a lack of studies focusing on librarianship, especially on contemporary problems and its solution. Besides, there is a lack of understanding of the role of a librarian in the Arab region. The research will also highlight how librarians can help the public and researchers as well. All of these benefits can come through one popular easy channel in social media. From another side, this paper is a chance to share the details of this experience starting from scratch, including the phase of setting the policy and guidelines of managing the social media account, until librarians reached to a point where the benefits of this experience are in reality. This experience had even added many skills to the librarians.

Keywords: librarian’s role, social media, instagram and libraries, promoting libraries’ services

Procedia PDF Downloads 24
50 Show Products or Show Endorsers: Immersive Visual Experience in Fashion Advertisements on Instagram

Authors: H. Haryati, A. Nor Azura


Over the turn of the century, the advertising landscape has evolved significantly, from print media to digital media. In line with the shift to the advanced science and technology dramatically shake the framework of societies Fifth Industrial Revolution (IR5.0), technological endeavors have increased exponentially, which influenced user interaction more inspiring through online advertising that intentionally leads to buying behavior. Users are more accustomed to interactive content that responds to their actions. Thus, immersive experience has transformed into a new engagement experience To centennials. The purpose of this paper is to investigate pleasure and arousal as the fundamental elements of consumer emotions and affective responses to marketing stimuli. A quasi-experiment procedure will be adopted in the research involving 40 undergraduate students in Nilai, Malaysia. This study employed a 2 (celebrity endorser vs. Social media influencer) X 2 (high and low visual complexity) factorial between-subjects design. Participants will be exposed to a printed version depicting a fashion product endorsed by a celebrity and social media influencers, presented in high and low levels of visual complexity. While the questionnaire will be Distributing during the lab test session is used to control their honesty, real feedback, and responses through the latest Instagram design and engagement. Therefore, the research aims to define the immersive experience on Instagram and the interaction between pleasure and arousal. An advertisement that evokes pleasure and arousal will be likely getting more attention from the target audience. This is one of the few studies comparing the endorses in Instagram advertising. Also, this research extends the existing knowledge about the immersive visual complexity in the context of social media advertising.

Keywords: immersive visual experience, instagram, pleasure, arousal

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
49 Redefining Identity of People with Disabilities Based on Content Analysis of Instagram Accounts

Authors: Grzegorz Kubinski


The proposed paper is focused on forms of identity expression in people with disabilities (PWD) in the social networks like Instagram. Theoretical analysis widely proposes using the new media as an assistive tool for improving wellbeing and labour activities of PWD. This kind of use is definitely important and plays a key role in all social inclusion processes. However, Instagram is not a place where PWD only express their own problems, but in the opposite, allows them to construct a new definition of disability. In the paper, the problem how this different than a classical approach to disability is created by PWD will be discussed. This issue will be scrutinized mainly in two points. Firstly, the question of how disability is changed by other everyday activities, like fashion or sport, will be described. Secondly, and this could be seen as more important, the point how PWD redefining their bodies creating a different form of aesthetic will be presented. The paper is based on content analysis of Instagram accounts. About 20 accounts created by PWD were analyzed for 6 month period, taking into account elements like photos, comments and discussions. All those information were studied in relation to 'everyday life' category and 'aesthetic' category. Works by T. Siebers, L. J. Davis or R. McRuer were used as theoretical background. Conclusions and interpretations presented in the proposed paper show that the Internet can be used by PWD not only as prosthetic and assistive tools. PWD willingly use them as modes of expression their independence, agency and identity. The paper proposes that in further research this way of using the Internet communication by PWD should be taken into account as an important part of the understanding of disability.

Keywords: body, disability, identity, new media

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48 The Impact of Social Media to Indonesian Muslim Fashion Trend

Authors: Siti Dewi Aisyah


Islamic Muslim fashion has become a trend in Indonesia. It is said that social media has a huge impact on its development. Indonesia is ranked among the most users of social media. That is why people who wear hijab also use social media for different purposes, one of this is to introduce hijab fashion. Consequently, they are becoming famous in social media. Social media has become a tool for communicating their beliefs as a Muslim as well as personal branding as a good hijabi yet with a fashionable style. This research will examine the social media such as Blog and Instagram, how it triggers the consumer culture to hijabi, what is the actual meaning behind of their feed posts in their social media, how they produce good photograph in their social media and for what reason they use social media. This research had been conducted through in-depth interviews with several bloggers who created Hijabers Community who have made a new trend in Muslim fashion and also Instagrammers who made their feeds as a style inspiration. The methodology used for this research is by analyzing Blog and Instagram through visual analysis that also examines the semiotic meaning behind the photographs that are posted by the people on the social media especially about the Islamic Modest Fashion trend. The theoretical framework for this research is about studying social media that is examined through visual analysis. The Muslim fashion trend was lead by several bloggers and continued to Instagram which then created a consumption pattern. From colourful colors, pastel colors, monochrome colors to neutral coffee tone colors, it was influenced by the Muslim fashion designers that also become digital influencers in social media. It was concluded that social media had been a powerful promotional and effective tool to change the trend in Indonesian Muslim Fashion trend.

Keywords: blog, instagram, consumer culture, muslim fashion, social media, visual analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
47 The Impact of Different Social Networks on the Development of Digital Entrepreneurship

Authors: Mohammad Mehdizadeh, Sara Miri


In today's world, competition is one of the essential components of different markets. Therefore, in addition to economic factors, social factors can also affect the development and prosperity of businesses. In this regard, social networks are of particular importance and play a critical role in the flourishing and development of Internet businesses. The purpose of this article is to investigate the effect of different social networks in promoting digital entrepreneurship. The research method is the descriptive survey. The results show that social networks have a positive and significant impact on digital entrepreneurship development. Among the social networks studied, Instagram and Facebook have the most positive effect on digital entrepreneurship.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, Facebook, Instagram, social media

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
46 Shark Detection and Classification with Deep Learning

Authors: Jeremy Jenrette, Z. Y. C. Liu, Pranav Chimote, Edward Fox, Trevor Hastie, Francesco Ferretti


Suitable shark conservation depends on well-informed population assessments. Direct methods such as scientific surveys and fisheries monitoring are adequate for defining population statuses, but species-specific indices of abundance and distribution coming from these sources are rare for most shark species. We can rapidly fill these information gaps by boosting media-based remote monitoring efforts with machine learning and automation. We created a database of shark images by sourcing 24,546 images covering 219 species of sharks from the web application spark pulse and the social network Instagram. We used object detection to extract shark features and inflate this database to 53,345 images. We packaged object-detection and image classification models into a Shark Detector bundle. We developed the Shark Detector to recognize and classify sharks from videos and images using transfer learning and convolutional neural networks (CNNs). We applied these models to common data-generation approaches of sharks: boosting training datasets, processing baited remote camera footage and online videos, and data-mining Instagram. We examined the accuracy of each model and tested genus and species prediction correctness as a result of training data quantity. The Shark Detector located sharks in baited remote footage and YouTube videos with an average accuracy of 89\%, and classified located subjects to the species level with 69\% accuracy (n =\ eight species). The Shark Detector sorted heterogeneous datasets of images sourced from Instagram with 91\% accuracy and classified species with 70\% accuracy (n =\ 17 species). Data-mining Instagram can inflate training datasets and increase the Shark Detector’s accuracy as well as facilitate archiving of historical and novel shark observations. Base accuracy of genus prediction was 68\% across 25 genera. The average base accuracy of species prediction within each genus class was 85\%. The Shark Detector can classify 45 species. All data-generation methods were processed without manual interaction. As media-based remote monitoring strives to dominate methods for observing sharks in nature, we developed an open-source Shark Detector to facilitate common identification applications. Prediction accuracy of the software pipeline increases as more images are added to the training dataset. We provide public access to the software on our GitHub page.

Keywords: classification, data mining, Instagram, remote monitoring, sharks

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45 The Role of Social Media for the Movement of Modest Fashion in Indonesia

Authors: Siti Dewi Aisyah


Islamic Modest Fashion has become one of the emerging industries. It is said that social media has making a role in its development. From designers, hijabi bloggers and then instagrammers, they are often seen posting their everyday outfits. They want to combine their faith with cutting-edge fashion trend. Muslim consumers has become a potential targeted market due to the increasing of people wearing hijab. Muslim consumers are projected to spend $327 bilion on clothing by 2020. Indonesia, as the biggest Muslim majority country, has targeted to be The World’s Center for Muslim Fashion in the world as its national branding by 2020. This study will examine how social media especially Blog and Instagram can lead the movement of Islamic Modest Fashion in Indonesia, how it also brings consumer culture to hijabi and as the result it triggers Indonesia to brand itself and how all the elements in Indonesia including the designers, bloggers or instagrammers and also Indonesian Agency for Creative Economy together work to make its dream come true. This research will be conducted through interviews with several elements mentioned, and internet, blog, Instagram and Youtube analysis through visual analysis that also examine the semiotic meaning behind the picture that are posted by the people on the social media especially about the Islamic Modest Fashion trend. This research also contains a literature review of a diverse group of works on topics related to the study. This research will be examined through several theoretical frameworks including the study of social media, fashion culture and consumer culture. Fashion and consumer culture are also two main topics because fashion furthermore leads to consumer culture. The possible benefit of this research is to be a reference literature of Islamic Modest Fashion and social media’s role especially in an Indonesian context.

Keywords: blog, instagram, consumer culture, modest fashion, social media, visual analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
44 Visualizing Indonesian Hijab Fashion Style in Social Media

Authors: Siti Dewi Aisyah


The rise of the Internet in the late twentieth century rapidly gains information and understands the world through screens. The digital way of communication through the Internet becomes an ordinary daily pattern. In the digital era, Fashion has been tremendously shared on social media platform especially because of the emergence of #OOTD (Outfit of the Day). Fashion cannot survive without the media. The media have played a vital role in shaping fashion into the complex cultural phenomenon it has become, and fashion has become an intrinsic part of today’s visual culture, and vice versa. Islamic Muslim Fashion has become a trend in Indonesia. It is said that social media has a huge impact in its development. Indonesia is ranked among the most users of social media. That is why people who wear hijab also use social media for different purposes, one of this is to introduce hijab fashion. Consequently, they are becoming famous in social media. Social media has become a tool for communicating their beliefs as a Muslim as well as personal branding as a good hijabi yet with a fashionable style. This study will examine how social media especially Blog and Instagram can lead the movement of Islamic Modest Fashion in Indonesia, how it triggers the consumer culture to hijabi, how they visualize their style in their social media. This research had been conducted through in-depth interviews with several bloggers who created Hijabers Community who have made a new trend in Islamic fashion and also Instagrammers who made their feeds as a style inspiration. This research is based on empirical research with qualitative methods (text and picture analysis). The methodology used for this research is by analyzing Blog and Instagram through visual analysis on the social media especially about the Islamic Modest Fashion trend. This research also contains a literature review of a diverse group of works on topics related to the study. This research will be examined through several theoretical frameworks including the study of social media, visual analysis and consumer culture. Fashion and consumer culture are also two main topics because fashion furthermore leads to consumer culture. The benefit of this research is for gaining the insight how social media can visualize the trend in hijab fashion style of Indonesian people.

Keywords: blog, consumer culture, hijab fashion, instagram, style, visual analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
43 The Influence of Social Media to Trends Design at Restaurant in Urban Area of Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia

Authors: Suparwoko, M. Hardyan Prastyanto, Aisah Azhari Marwangi


Today, we face with some paradoxical tendencies. In the field of culture, on the one hand, we are witnessing the emergence of ethnic and religious fervor that is becoming stronger, but on the other hand, we are also witnessing a new ideology that characterized the flow of transnationalism, globalism, and secularism. Through social media, the globalization movement is accommodated to spread all over the world. Globalization also requires the commercialization of many fields, including architecture. In the architecture of commercial buildings, the appeal of the building is an important aspect for the function of the building. That theory is the basis for research of this study. This study aimed to know the influence of social media on the changing trends in the design of restaurant in urban areas of Yogyakarta Province. This study is using observation (survey) method to restaurants in Yogyakarta and surrounding areas to collect data, then the assessment of data by using the theory of the social media Path and Instagram that provide trend information from interior and building facades of the restaurant. By using social media Path and Instagram based survey methods, it can be seen that the intensity of social media users who publish or promote restaurant that has been chosen. Generally, conventional character of the restaurant have changed into a material and visually conceptual restaurant.

Keywords: influence, social media, changes, architecture trend

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
42 Transformation and Integration: Iranian Women Migrants and the Use of Social Media in Australia

Authors: Azadeh Davachi


Although there is a growing interest in Iranian female migration and gender roles, little attention has been paid to how Iranian migrant women in Australia access and sustain social networks, both locally and spatially dispersed over time. Social network theories have much to offer an analysis of migrant’s social ties and interpersonal relationships. Thus, it is important to note that social media are not only new communication channels in a migration network but also that they actively transform the nature of these networks and thereby facilitate migration for migrants. Drawing on that, this article will focus on Iranian women migrants and the use of social media in migration in Australia. Based on the case of main social networks such as Facebook and Instagram; this paper will investigate that how women migrants use these networks to facilitate the process of migration and integration. In addition, with the use of social networks, they could promote their home business and as a result become more engaged economically in Australian society. This paper will focus on three main Iranian pages in Instagram and Facebook, they will contend that compared to men, women are more active in these social networks. Consequently, as this article will discuss with the use of these social media Iranian migrant women can become more engaged and overcome post migration hardships, thus, gender plays a key role in using social media in migrant communities. Based on these findings from these social media pages, this paper will conclude that social media are transforming migration networks and thereby lowering the threshold for migration. It also will be demonstrated that these networks boost Iranian women’s confidence and lead them to become more visible in Iranian migrant communities comparing to men.

Keywords: integration, gender, migration, women migrants

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
41 Improving Engagement: Dental Veneers, a Qualitative Analysis of Posts on Instagram

Authors: Matthew Sedgwick


Introduction: Social media continues to grow in popularity and Instagram is one of the largest platforms available. It provides an invaluable method of communication between health care professionals and patients. Both patients and dentists can benefit from seeing clinical cases posted by other members of the profession. It can prompt discussion about how the outcome was achieved and showcases what is possible with the right techniques and planning. This study aimed to identify what people were posting about the topic ‘veneers’ and inform health care professionals as to what content had the most engagement and make recommendations as to how to improve the quality of social media posts. Design: 150 consecutive posts for the search term ‘veneers’ were analyzed retrospectively between 21st October 2021 to 31st October 2021. Non-English language posts duplicated posts, and posts not about dental veneers were excluded. After exclusions were applied, 80 posts were included in the study for analysis. The content of the posts was analyzed and coded and the main themes were identified. The number of comments, likes and views were also recorded for each post. Results: The themes were: before and after treatment, cost, dental training courses, treatment process and trial smiles. Dentists were the most common posters of content (82.5%) and it was interesting to note that there were no patients who posted about treatment in this sample. The main type of media was photographs (93.75%) compared to video (6.25%). Videos had an average of 45,541 views and more comments and likes than the average for photographs. The average number of comments and likes per post were 20.88 and 761.58, respectively. Conclusion: Before and after photographs were the most common finding as this is how dentists showcase their work. The study showed that videos showing the treatment process had more engagement than photographs. Dentists should consider making video posts showing the patient journey, including before and after veneer treatment, as this can result in more potential patients and colleagues viewing the content. Video content could help dentists distinguish their posts from others as it can also be used across other platforms such as TikTok or Facebook reaching a wider audience. More informative posts about how the result has shown are achieved required, including potential costs. This will help increase transparency regarding this treatment method, including the financial and potential biological cost to teeth. As a result, this will improve patient understanding and become an invaluable adjunct in informed consent.

Keywords: content analysis, dental veneers, Instagram, social media

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40 Fake news and Conspiracy Narratives in the Covid-19 Crisis: An International Comparison

Authors: Caja Thimm


Already well before the Corona pandemic hit the world, ‘fake news‘ were no longer regarded as harmless twists of the truth but as intentionally composed disinformation, often with the goal of manipulative populist propaganda. During the Corona crisis, particularly conspiracy narratives have become a worldwide phenomenon with dangerous consequences (anti vaccination myths). The success of these manipulated news need s to be counteracted by trustworthy news, which in Europe particularly includes public broadcasting media and their social media channels. To understand better how the main public broadcasters in Germany, the UK, and France used Instagram strategically, a comparative study was carried out. The study – comparative analysis of Instagram during the Corona Crisis In our empirical study, we compared the activities by selected formats during the Corona crisis in order to see how the public broadcasters reached their audiences and how this might, in the longer run, affect journalistic strategies on social media platforms. First analysis showed that the increase in the use of social media overall was striking. Almost one in two adult online users (48 %) obtained information about the virus in social media, and in total, 38% of the younger age group (18-24) looked for Covid19 information on Instagram, so the platform can be regarded as one of the central digital spaces for Corona related information searches. Quantitative measures showed that 47% of recent posts by the broadcasters were related to Corona, and 7% treated conspiracy myths. For the more detailed content analysis, the following categories of analysis were applied: • Digital storytelling and instastories • Textuality and semantic keys • links to information • stickers • videochat • fact checking • news ticker • service • infografics and animated tables Additionally to these basic features, we particularly looked for new formats created during the crisis. Journalistic use of social media platforms opens up immediate and creative ways of applying the media logics of the respective platforms, and particularly the BBC and ARD formats proved to be interactive, responsive, and entertaining. Among them were new formats such as a space for user questions and personal uploads, interviews, music, comedy, etc. Particularly the fact checking channel got a lot of attention, as many user questions were focused on the conspiracy theories, which dominated the public discourse during many weeks in 2020. In the presentation, we will introduce eight particular strategies that show how public broadcasting journalism can adopt digital platforms and use them creatively and, hence help to counteract against conspiracy narratives and fake news.

Keywords: fake news, social media, digital journalism, digital methods

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39 Songwriting in the Postdigital Age: Using TikTok and Instagram as Online Informal Learning Technologies

Authors: Matthias Haenisch, Marc Godau, Julia Barreiro, Dominik Maxelon


In times of ubiquitous digitalization and the increasing entanglement of humans and technologies in musical practices in the 21st century, it is to be asked, how popular musicians learn in the (post)digital Age. Against the backdrop of the increasing interest in transferring informal learning practices into formal settings of music education the interdisciplinary research association »MusCoDA – Musical Communities in the (Post)Digital Age« (University of Erfurt/University of Applied Sciences Clara Hoffbauer Potsdam, funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research, pursues the goal to derive an empirical model of collective songwriting practices from the study of informal lelearningf songwriters and bands that can be translated into pedagogical concepts for music education in schools. Drawing on concepts from Community of Musical Practice and Actor Network Theory, lelearnings considered not only as social practice and as participation in online and offline communities, but also as an effect of heterogeneous networks composed of human and non-human actors. Learning is not seen as an individual, cognitive process, but as the formation and transformation of actor networks, i.e., as a practice of assembling and mediating humans and technologies. Based on video stimulated recall interviews and videography of online and offline activities, songwriting practices are followed from the initial idea to different forms of performance and distribution. The data evaluation combines coding and mapping methods of Grounded Theory Methodology and Situational Analysis. This results in network maps in which both the temporality of creative practices and the material and spatial relations of human and technological actors are reconstructed. In addition, positional analyses document the power relations between the participants that structure the learning process of the field. In the area of online informal lelearninginitial key research findings reveal a transformation of the learning subject through the specific technological affordances of TikTok and Instagram and the accompanying changes in the learning practices of the corresponding online communities. Learning is explicitly shaped by the material agency of online tools and features and the social practices entangled with these technologies. Thus, any human online community member can be invited to directly intervene in creative decisions that contribute to the further compositional and structural development of songs. At the same time, participants can provide each other with intimate insights into songwriting processes in progress and have the opportunity to perform together with strangers and idols. Online Lelearnings characterized by an increase in social proximity, distribution of creative agency and informational exchange between participants. While it seems obvious that traditional notions not only of lelearningut also of the learning subject cannot be maintained, the question arises, how exactly the observed informal learning practices and the subject that emerges from the use of social media as online learning technologies can be transferred into contexts of formal learning

Keywords: informal learning, postdigitality, songwriting, actor-network theory, community of musical practice, social media, TikTok, Instagram, apps

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38 Application of Social Media for Promoting Library and Information Services: A Case Study of Library Science Professionals of India

Authors: Payel Saha


Social media is playing an important role for dissemination of information in society. In 21st century most people have a smart phone and used different social media tools like Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, WhatsApp, Skype etc. in day to day life. It is rapidly growing web-based tool for everyone to share thoughts, ideas and knowledge globally using internet. The study highlights the current use of social media tools for promoting library and information services of Library and Information Professionals of India, which are working in Library. The study was conducted during November, 2017. A structured questionnaire was prepared using google docs and shared using different mailing list, sent to individual email IDs and sharing with other social media tools. Only 90 responses received from the different states of India and analyzed via MS-Excel. The data receive from 17 states and 3 union territories of India; however most of the respondents has come from the states Odisha 23, Himachal Pradesh 14 and Assam 10. The results revealed that out 90 respondents 37 Female and 53 male categories and also majority of respondents 71 have come from academic library followed by special library 15, Public library 3 and corporate library 1 respondent. The study indicates that, out of 90 respondent’s majority of 53 of respondents said that their Library have a social media account while 39 of respondents have not their Library social media account. The study also inform that Facebook, YouTube, Google+, LinkedIn, Twitter and Instagram are using by the LIS professional of India and Facebook 86 was popular social media tool among the other social media tools. Furthermore, respondent reported that they are using social media tools for sharing photos of events and programs of library 72, followed by tips for using different services 64, posting of new arrivals 56, tutorials of database 35 and send brief updates to patrons 32, announcement of library holidays 22. It was also reported by respondents that they are sharing information about scholarships training programs and marketing of library events etc. The study furthermore identify that lack of time is the major problem while using social media with 53 of respondents followed by low speed of internet 35, too many social media tools to learn 17 and some 3 respondents reported that there is no problem while using social media tools. The results also revealed that, majority of the respondents reported that they are using social media tools in daily basis 71 followed by weekly basis 16. It was followed by monthly 1 respondent and other 2 of the respondents. In summary, this study is expected to be useful in further promoting the social media for dissemination of library and information services to the general public.

Keywords: application of social media, India, promoting library services, library professionals

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37 The Influence of Fashion Bloggers on the Pre-Purchase Decision for Online Fashion Products among Generation Y Female Malaysian Consumers

Authors: Mohd Zaimmudin Mohd Zain, Patsy Perry, Lee Quinn


This study explores how fashion consumers are influenced by fashion bloggers towards pre-purchase decision for online fashion products in a non-Western context. Malaysians rank among the world’s most avid online shoppers, with apparel the third most popular purchase category. However, extant research on fashion blogging focuses on the developed Western market context. Numerous international fashion retailers have entered the Malaysian market from luxury to fast fashion segments of the market; however Malaysian fashion consumers must balance religious and social norms for modesty with their dress style and adoption of fashion trends. Consumers increasingly mix and match Islamic and Western elements of dress to create new styles enabling them to follow Western fashion trends whilst paying respect to social and religious norms. Social media have revolutionised the way that consumers can search for and find information about fashion products. For online fashion brands with no physical presence, social media provide a means of discovery for consumers. By allowing the creation and exchange of user-generated content (UGC) online, they provide a public forum that gives individual consumers their own voices, as well as access to product information that facilitates their purchase decisions. Social media empower consumers and brands have important roles in facilitating conversations among consumers and themselves, to help consumers connect with them and one another. Fashion blogs have become an important fashion information sources. By sharing their personal style and inspiring their followers with what they wear on popular social media platforms such as Instagram, fashion bloggers have become fashion opinion leaders. By creating UGC to spread useful information to their followers, they influence the pre-purchase decision. Hence, successful Western fashion bloggers such as Chiara Ferragni may earn millions of US dollars every year, and some have created their own fashion ranges and beauty products, become judges in fashion reality shows, won awards, and collaborated with high street and luxury brands. As fashion blogging has become more established worldwide, increasing numbers of fashion bloggers have emerged from non-Western backgrounds to promote Islamic fashion styles, such as Hassanah El-Yacoubi and Dian Pelangi. This study adopts a qualitative approach using netnographic content analysis of consumer comments on two famous Malaysian fashion bloggers’ Instagram accounts during January-March 2016 and qualitative interviews with 16 Malaysian Generation Y fashion consumers during September-October 2016. Netnography adapts ethnographic techniques to the study of online communities or computer-mediated communications. Template analysis of the data involved coding comments according to the theoretical framework, which was developed from the literature review. Initial data analysis shows the strong influence of Malaysian fashion bloggers on their followers in terms of lifestyle and morals as well as fashion style. Followers were guided towards the mix and match trend of dress with Western and Islamic elements, for example, showing how vivid colours or accessories could be worked into an outfit whilst still respecting social and religious norms. The blogger’s Instagram account is a form of online community where followers can communicate and gain guidance and support from other followers, as well as from the blogger.

Keywords: fashion bloggers, Malaysia, qualitative, social media

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36 Social Networks as a Tool for Sports Marketing

Authors: Márcia Aparecida Teixeira


Sports, in particular football, boosts considerably the financial market of a certain locality, be it city or even a country. The financial transactions involving this medium stand out from other existing businesses, such as small industries. Strategically, social networks are inserted in this sporting environment, in order to promote and attract new fans of this modality. The present study analyzes the use of social networks in Sports Marketing with a focus on football. For the object of this study, it was chosen a specific club, the Club Atlético Mineiro, a Brazilian club of great national notoriety. The social networks on focus will be: Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. It will be analyzed the content and frequency of the posts, reception of the target public in relation to the content made available and its feedback.

Keywords: social network, sport, strategy, marketing

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35 The Rise in Popularity of Online Islamic Fashion In Indonesia: An Economic, Political, and Socio-Anthropological Perspective

Authors: Cazadira Fediva Tamzil, Agung Sulthonaulia Utama


The rise in popularity of Indonesian Islamic fashion displayed and sold through social networking sites, especially Instagram, might seem at first glance like a commonplace and localized phenomenon. However, when analyzed critically, it actually reveals the relations between the global and local Indonesian economy, as well as a deep socio-anthropological dimension relating to religion, culture, class, work, identity. Conducted using a qualitative methodology, data collection technique of literature review, and observation of various social networking sites, this research finds four things that lead to the aforementioned conclusion. First, the rise of online Islamic fashion retailers was triggered by the shift in the structure of global and national Indonesian economy as well as the free access of information made possible by democratization in Indonesia and worldwide advances in terms of technology. All of those factors combined together gave birth to a large amount of middle-class Indonesians with high consumer culture and entrepreneurial flair. Second, online Islamic fashion retailers are the new cultural trendsetters in society. All these show how Indonesians are becoming increasingly pious, no longer only adhere to Western conception of luxury and that many are increasingly exploiting Islam commercial and status-acquiring purposes. Third, the online Islamic fashion retailers actually reveal a shift in the conception of ‘work’ – social media has made work no longer only confined to the toiling activities inside factories, but instead something that can be done from any location only through posting online words or pictures that can increase a fashion product’s capital value. Without realizing it, many celebrities and online retailers who promote Islamic fashion through social media on a daily basis are now also ‘semi-free immaterial labors’ – a slight reconceptualization to Tiziana Terranova’s concept of ‘free labor’ and Maurizio Lazzarato’s ‘immaterial labor’, which basically refer to people who create economic value and thus help out capitals from producing immaterial things with only little compensation in return. Fourth, this research also shows that the diversity of Islamic fashion styles being sold on Instagram reflects the polarized identity of Islam in Indonesia. In stark contrast with the theory which states that globalization always leads to the strengthening and unification of identity, this research shows how polarized the Islamic identity in Indonesia really is – even in the face of globalization.

Keywords: global economy, Indonesian online Islamic fashion, political relations, socio-anthropology

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34 Patterns of Positive Feedback Formation in the System of Online Action

Authors: D. Gvozdikov


The purpose of this study is an attempt to describe an online action as a system that combines disjointed events and behavioral chains into a whole. The research focuses on patterns of naturally-formed chains of actions united by an orientation towards the online environment. A key characteristic of the system of online action is that it acts as an attractor for separate actions and chains of behavioral repertoire accumulating time and efforts made by users. The article demonstrates how the chains of online-offline actions are combined into a single pattern due to a simple identifiable mechanism, a positive feedback system. Using methods of digital ethnography and analyzing the content of the Instagram application and media blogs, the research reveals how through the positive feedback mechanism the entire system of online action acquires stability and can expand involving new spheres of human activity.

Keywords: digital anthropology, internet studies, systems theory, social media

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33 Haunted Pilgrims: The Absence of Touch and the Sounds of Silence in Online Communication

Authors: Karen Armstrong


This paper explores the impact of two aspects of online communication: the absence of touch and the sound of silence. In order to place the discussion in context, the paper begins with a brief description of communication itself and the many ways in which we communicate with each other both verbally and non-verbally. Next, the discussion moves to consider the general characteristics of online communication and the ways in which it is similar as well as very different from face to face communication. This examination considers the ways we communicate primarily in email, but also through texting, instagram stickers, and twitter—the primary modes of online communication aside from face to face videos, which are less common. With few exceptions of course, most such interactions take place without sound or physical contact. First to be examined is the absence of touch, followed by the presence of silence. The paper explores these issues, concluding with the ways in which both absence of touch and the prevalence of silence are important determinants shaping communication in our online universe.

Keywords: absence of touch, communication, face-to-face, haptics, online, silence

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32 Selfie: Redefining Culture of Narcissism

Authors: Junali Deka


“Pictures speak more than a thousand words”. It is the power of image which can have multiple meanings the way it is read by the viewers. This research article is an outcome of the extensive study of the phenomenon of‘selfie culture’ and dire need of self-constructed virtual identity among youths. In the recent times, there has been a revolutionary change in the concept of photography in terms of both techniques and applications. The popularity of ‘self-portraits’ mainly depend on the temporal space and time created on social networking sites like Facebook, Instagram. With reference to Stuart’s Hall encoding and decoding process, the article studies the behavior of the users who post photographs online. The photographic messages (Roland Barthes) are interpreted differently by different viewers. The notion of ‘self’, ‘self-love and practice of looking (Marita Sturken) and ways of seeing (John Berger) got new definition and dimensional together. After Oscars Night, show host Ellen DeGeneres’s selfie created the most buzz and hype in the social media. The term was judged the word of 2013, and has earned its place in the dictionary. “In November 2013, the word "selfie" was announced as being the "word of the year" by the Oxford English Dictionary. By the end of 2012, Time magazine considered selfie one of the "top 10 buzzwords" of that year; although selfies had existed long before, it was in 2012 that the term "really hit the big time an Australian origin. The present study was carried to understand the concept of ‘selfie-bug’ and the phenomenon it has created among youth (especially students) at large in developing a pseudo-image of its own. The topic was relevant and gave a platform to discuss about the cultural, psychological and sociological implications of selfie in the age of digital technology. At the first level, content analysis of the primary and secondary sources including newspapers articles and online resources was carried out followed by a small online survey conducted with the help of questionnaire to find out the student’s view on selfie and its social and psychological effects. The newspapers reports and online resources confirmed that selfie is a new trend in the digital media and it has redefined the notion of beauty and self-love. The Facebook and Instagram are the major platforms used to express one-self and creation of virtual identity. The findings clearly reflected the active participation of female students in comparison to male students. The study of the photographs of few selected respondents revealed the difference of attitude and image building among male and female users. The study underlines some basic questions about the desire of reconstruction of identity among young generation, such as - are they becoming culturally narcissist; responsible factors for cultural, social and moral changes in the society, psychological and technological effects caused by Smartphone as well, culminating into a big question mark whether the selfie is a social signifier of identity construction.

Keywords: Culture, Narcissist, Photographs, Selfie

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31 Gluteal Augmentation: A Historical Perspective on Society's Fascination with Buttock Size

Authors: Shane R. Jackson


Gluteal augmentation with fat grafting, commonly referred to as the Brazilian Butt Lift, is the fastest-growing cosmetic surgical procedure, despite the risks and controversy that surrounds it. While many commentators attribute this rise in popularity with current societal trends towards public sharing of private life, the fascination with buttock size is in fact a much older human trait. By searching beyond medical literature and delving into historical sources, from ancient civilisations, through the Renaissance and Victorian eras to the ‘Instagram generation’ of the present day, this paper examines the differences – and similarities – in society’s ideal buttock shape and size. Furthermore, the ways in which these various cultures have altered their appearance to achieve this ideal are also examined, looking at the influence of the broader historical context. A deeper understanding of the historical, cultural and psychosocial factors that influence a patient’s desire for buttock augmentation allows the clinician to formulate a well-rounded surgical plan.

Keywords: augmentation, Brazilian butt lift, buttock, fat graft, gluteal

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30 Identifying Effective Strategies to Promote Vietnamese Fashion Brands in an Internationally Dominated Market

Authors: Lam Hong Lan, Gabor Sarlos


It is hard to search for best practices in promotion for local fashion brands in Vietnam as the industry is still very young. Local fashion start-ups have grown quickly in the last five years, thanks in part to the internet and social media. However, local designer/owners can face a huge challenge when competing with international brands in the Vietnamese market – and few local case studies are available for guidance. In response, this paper studied how local small- to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) promote to their target customers in order to compete with international brands. Knowledge of both successful and unsuccessful approaches generated by this study is intended to both contribute to the academic literature on local fashion in Vietnam as well as to help local designers to learn from and improve their brand-building strategy. The primary study featured qualitative data collection via semi-structured depth interviews. Transcription and data analysis were conducted manually in order to identify success factors that local brands should consider as part of their promotion strategy. Purposive sampling of SMEs identified five designers in Ho Chi Minh City (the biggest city in Vietnam) and three designers in Hanoi (the second biggest) as interviewees. Participant attributes included: born in the 1980s or 1990s; familiar with internet and social media; designer/owner of a successful local fashion brand in the key middle market and/or mass market segments (which are crucial to the growth of local brands). A secondary study was conducted using social listening software to gather further qualitative data on what were considered to be successful or unsuccessful approaches to local fashion brand promotion on social media. Both the primary and secondary studies indicated that local designers had maximized their promotion budget by using owned media and earned media instead of paid media. Findings from the qualitative interviews indicate that internet and social media have been used as effective promotion platforms by local fashion start-ups. Facebook and Instagram were the most popular social networks used by the SMEs interviewed, and these social platforms were believed to offer a more affordable promotional strategy than traditional media such as TV and/or print advertising. Online stores were considered an important factor in helping the SMEs to reach customers beyond the physical store. Furthermore, a successful online store allowed some SMEs to reduce their business rental costs by maintaining their physical store in a cheaper, less central city area as opposed to a more traditional city center store location. In addition, the small comparative size of the SMEs allowed them to be more attentive to their customers, leading to higher customer satisfaction and rate of return. In conclusion, this study found that these kinds of cost savings helped the SMEs interviewed to focus their scarce resources on producing unique, high-quality collections in order to differentiate themselves from international brands. Facebook and Instagram were the main platforms used for promotion and brand-building. The main challenge to this promotion strategy identified by the SMEs interviewed was to continue to find innovative ways to maximize the impact of a limited marketing budget.

Keywords: Vietnam, SMEs, fashion brands, promotion, marketing, social listening

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29 A Study of Social Media Users’ Switching Behavior

Authors: Chiao-Chen Chang, Yang-Chieh Chin


Social media has created a change in the way the network community is clustered, especially from the location of the community, from the original virtual space to the intertwined network, and thus the communication between people will change from face to face communication to social media-based communication model. However, social media users who have had a fixed engagement may have an intention to switch to another service provider because of the emergence of new forms of social media. For example, some of Facebook or Twitter users switched to Instagram in 2014 because of social media messages or image overloads, and users may seek simpler and instant social media to become their main social networking tool. This study explores the impact of system features overload, information overload, social monitoring concerns, problematic use and privacy concerns as the antecedents on social media fatigue, dissatisfaction, and alternative attractiveness; further influence social media switching. This study also uses the online questionnaire survey method to recover the sample data, and then confirm the factor analysis, path analysis, model fit analysis and mediating analysis with the structural equation model (SEM). Research findings demonstrated that there were significant effects on multiple paths. Based on the research findings, this study puts forward the implications of theory and practice.

Keywords: social media, switching, social media fatigue, alternative attractiveness

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