Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Search results for: orthorexia nervosa

15 A Mixed Methods Study Aimed at Exploring the Conceptualization of Orthorexia Nervosa on Instagram

Authors: Elena V. Syurina, Sophie Renckens, Martina Valente


Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the nature of the conversation around orthorexia nervosa (ON) on Instagram. Methods: The present study was conducted using mixed methods, combining a concurrent triangulation and sequential explanatory design. First, 3027 pictures posted on Instagram using #Orthorexia were analyzed. Then, a questionnaire about Instagram use related to ON was completed entirely by 185 respondents. These two quantitative data sources were statistically analyzed and triangulated afterwards. Finally, 9 interviews were conducted, to more deeply investigate what is being said about ON on Instagram and what the motivations to post about it are. Results: Four main categories of pictures were found to be represented in Instagram posts about ON: ‘food’, ‘people’, ‘text’, and ‘other.’ Savory and unprocessed food was most highly represented within the food category, and pictures of people were mostly pictures of the account holder. People who self-identify as having ON were more likely to post about ON, and they were significantly more likely to post about ‘food’, ‘people’ and ‘text.’ The goal of the posts was to raise awareness around ON, as well as to provide support for people who believe to be suffering from it. Conclusion: Since the conversation around ON on Instagram is supportive, it could be beneficial to consider Instagram use in the treatment of ON. However, more research is needed on a larger scale.

Keywords: orthorexia nervosa, Instagram, social media, disordered eating

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14 Comparison of Nutritional Status and Tendency of Depression and Orthorexia Nervosa in Vegan Vegetarian and Omnivorous

Authors: E. Yeşil, M. Özgök, M. Özdemir, B. Köse


The aim of the present study was to compare nutritional status, tendency of depression and orthorexia nervosa in vegan, vegetarian and omnivorous. The sample consisted of 150 individuals (126 women, 24 men) who agreed to participate in the study between February and May of the year 2018. Fifty vegan, fifty vegetarian and fifty omnivore diet pattern were compared. In the first part, each participant was interviewed using a structured questionnaire to obtain demographic information about education, occupation and health conditions. In the second part Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used. In the third part ORTO-11 was used. In the fourth part, 24 Hours Dietary Record was used in order to determine the nutritional status of individuals. The vegans and vegetarians were interviewed about their diets. The mean body mass index of the vegan, vegetarian and omnivore were, 21,24 ± 3,25; 22,2 ± 4,1 and 22,8 ± 4,3 respectively (p > 0,05). The daily energy intakes of the vegan, vegetarian and omnivore diet were 1792,57 ± 784,8 kcal; 1691,9 ± 742,2 kcal and 1697,9 ± 695,6 kcal (p > 0.05). The mean BDI of the vegan, vegetarian and omnivore diet were 6,2 ± 6,2, 9,8 ± 10,1 and 8,8 ± 8,1, respectively (p > 0,05). The mean ORTO-11 of the vegan, vegetarian and omnivore diet were 25,9 ± 4,2, 27,2 ± 5,9 and 26,4 ± 5,3 (p > 0,05). There was a statistically significant correlation between BDI and ORTO-11 in vegan diet group (p: 0,01 r: 0,333). There was a positive correlation between BMI and BDI in the vegetarian group (p: 0,01 r: 0,363). Also in the vegetarian group; there was a negative correlation between age and ORTO-11 (p: 0,01 r: -0,316). A statistically significant negative correlation was found between waist circumference and ORTO-11 (p: 0,05 r: -0,316) in the omnivore diet group. Also there was a negative correlation between age and BDI (p: 0,05 r: -0,338) in this group. As a conclusion, positive correlation was found between BDI and ORTO-11 score of vegan participants. There were no differences between three groups in BDI or ORTO-11 score.

Keywords: depression, orthorexia nervosa, vegan, vegetarian

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13 Eating Disorders and Eating Behaviors in Morbid Obese Women with and without Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Azadeh Mottaghi, Zeynab Shakeri


Background: Eating disorders (ED) are group of psychological disorders that significantly impair physical health and psychosocial function. EDconsists wide range of morbidity such as loss of eating control, binge eating disorder(BED), night eating syndrome (NES), and bulimia nervosa. Eating behavior is a wide range term that includes food choices, eating patterns, eating problems. In this study, current knowledge will be discussed aboutcomparison of eating disorders and eating behaviors in morbid obese women with and without type 2 diabetes. Methods: 231 womenwith morbid obesity were included in the study.Loss of eating control, Binge eating disorder and Bulimia nervosa, Night eating syndrome, and eating behaviors and psychosocial factorswere assessed. SPSS version 20 was used for statistical analysis. A p-value of <0.05 was considered significant. Results: There was a significant difference between women with and without diabetes in case of binge eating disorder (76.3% vs. 47.3%, p=0.001). Women with the least Interpersonal support evaluation list (ISEL) scores had a higher risk of eating disorders, and it is more common among diabetics (29.31% vs. 30.45%, p= 0.050). There was no significant difference between depression level and BDI score among women with or without diabetes. Although 38.5% (n=56) of women with diabetes and 50% (n=71) of women without diabetes had minimal depression. The logistic regression model has shown that women without diabetes had lower odds of exhibiting BED (OR=0.28, 95% CI 0.142-0.552).Women with and without diabetes with high school degree (OR=5.54, 95% CI 2.46-9.45, P= 0.0001 & OR=6.52, 95% CI 3.15-10.56, respectively) and moderate depression level (OR=2.03, 95% CI 0.98-3.95 & OR=3.12, 95% CI 2.12-4.56, P= 0.0001) had higher odds of BED. Conclusion: The result of the present study shows that the odds of BED was lower in non-diabetic women with morbid obesity. Women with morbid obesity who had high school degree and moderate depression level had more odds for BED.

Keywords: eating disorders binge eating disorder, night eating syndrome, bulimia nervosa, morbid obesity

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12 Designing a Waitlist Intervention for Adult Patients Awaiting Outpatient Treatment for Eating Disorders: Preliminary Findings from a Pilot Test

Authors: Deanne McArthur, Melinda Wall, Claire Hanlon, Dana Agnolin, Krista Davis, Melanie Dennis, Elizabeth Glidden, Anne Marie Smith, Claudette Thomson


In Canada, as prevalence rates and severity of illness have increased among patients suffering from eating disorders, wait times have grown substantially. Patients in Canada often face wait times in excess of 12 months. It is known that delaying treatment for eating disorders contributes to poor patient outcomes and higher rates of symptom relapse. Improving interim services for adult patients awaiting outpatient treatment is a priority for an outpatient eating disorders clinic in Ontario, Canada. The clinical setting currently provides care for adults diagnosed with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. At present, the only support provided while patients are on the waitlist consists of communication with primary care providers regarding parameters for medical monitoring. The significance of this study will be to test the feasibility, acceptability and efficacy of an intervention to support adult patients awaiting outpatient eating disorder treatment for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Methods: An intervention including psychoeducation, supportive resources, self-monitoring, and auxiliary referral will be pilot-tested with a group of patients in the summer of 2022 and detailed using a prospective cohort case study research design. The team will host patient focus groups in May 2022 to gather input informing the content of the intervention. The intervention will be pilot tested with newly-referred patients in June and July 2022. Patients who participate in the intervention will be asked to complete a survey evaluating the utility of the intervention and for suggestions, they may have for improvement. Preliminary findings describing the existing literature pertaining to waitlist interventions for patients with eating disorders, data gathered from the focus groups and early pilot testing results will be presented. Data analysis will continue throughout 2022 and early 2023 for follow-up publication and presentation in the summer of 2023. The aim of this study is to contribute to the body of knowledge pertaining to providing interim support to those patients waiting for treatment for eating disorders and, by extension, to improve outcomes for this population.

Keywords: eating disorders, waitlist management, intervention study, pilot test

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11 Emotional Processing Difficulties in Recovered Anorexia Nervosa Patients: State or Trait

Authors: Telma Fontao de Castro, Kylee Miller, Maria Xavier Araújo, Isabel Brandao, Sandra Torres


Objective: There is a dearth of research investigating the long-term emotional functioning of individuals recovered from anorexia nervosa (AN). This 15-year longitudinal study aimed to examine whether difficulties in cognitive processing of emotions persisted after long-term AN recovery and its link to anxiety and depression. Method: Twenty-four females, who were tested longitudinally during their acute and recovered AN phases, and 24 healthy control (HC) women, were screened for anxiety, depression, alexithymia, and emotion regulation difficulties (ER; only assessed in recovery phase). Results: Anxiety, depression, and alexithymia levels decreased significantly with AN recovery. However, scores on anxiety and difficulty in identifying feelings (alexithymia factor) remained high when compared to the HC group. Scores on emotion regulation difficulties were also lower in HC group. The abovementioned differences between AN recovered group and HC group in difficulties in identifying and accepting feelings and lack of emotional clarity were no longer present when the effect of anxiety and depression was controlled. Conclusions: Findings suggest that emotional dysfunction tends to decrease in AN recovered phase. However, using an HC group as a reference, we conclude that several emotional difficulties are still increased after long-term AN recovery, in particular, limited access to emotion regulation strategies, and difficulty controlling impulses and engaging in goal-directed behavior, thus suggesting to be a trait vulnerability. In turn, competencies related to emotional clarity and acceptance of emotional responses seem to be state-dependent phenomena linked to anxiety and depression. In sum, managing emotions remains a challenge for individuals recovered from AN. Under this circumstance, maladaptive eating behavior can serve as an affect regulatory function, increasing the risk of relapse. Emotional education and stabilization of depressive and anxious symptomatology after recovery emerge as an important avenue to protect from long-term AN relapse.

Keywords: alexithymia, anorexia nervosa, emotion recognition, emotion regulation

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10 The Multidisciplinary Treatment in Residence Care Clinic for Treatment of Feeding and Eating Disorders

Authors: Yuri Melis, Mattia Resteghini, Emanuela Apicella, Eugenia Dozio, Leonardo Mendolicchio


Aim: This retrospective study was created to analyze the psychometric, anthropometric and body composition values in patients at the beginning and the discharge of their of hospitalization in the residential care clinic for eating and feeding disorders (EFD’s). Method: The sample was composed by (N=59) patients with mean age N= 33,50, divided in subgroups: Anorexia Nervosa (AN) (N=28), Bulimia Nervosa (BN) (N=13) and Binge Eating Disorders (BED) (N=14) recruited from a residential care clinic for eating and feeding disorders. The psychometrics level was measured with self-report questionnaires: Eating Disorders Inventory-3 (EDI-3) The Body Uneasiness Test (BUT), Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI – 2). The anthropometric and nutritional values was collected by Body Impedance Assessment (B.I.A), Body mass index (B.M.I.). Measurements were made at the beginning and at the end of hospitalization, with an average time of recovery of about 8,6 months. Results: The all data analysis showed a statistical significance (p-value >0,05 | power size N=0,950) in variation from T0 (start of recovery) to T1 (end of recovery) in the clinical scales of MMPI-2, AN group (Hypocondria T0 64,14 – T1 56,39) (Depression T0 72,93 – T1 59,50) (Hysteria T0 61,29 – T1 56,17) (Psychopathic deviation T0 64,00 – T1 60,82) (Paranoia T0 63,82 – T1 56,14) (Psychasthenia T0 63,82 – T1 57,86) (Schizophrenia T0 64,68 – T1 60,43) (Obsessive T0 60,36 – T1 55,68); BN group (Hypocondria T0 64,08 – T1 47,54) (Depression T0 67,46 – T1 52,46) (Hysteria T0 60,62 – T1 47,84) (Psychopathic deviation T0 65,69 – T1 58,92) (Paranoia T0 67,46 – T1 55,23) (Psychasthenia T0 60,77 – T1 53,77) (Schizophrenia T0 64,68 – T1 60,43) (Obsessive T0 62,92 – T1 54,08); B.E.D groups (Hypocondria T0 59,43 – T1 53,14) (Depression T0 66,71 – T1 54,57) (Hysteria T0 59,86 – T1 53,82) (Psychopathic deviation T0 67,39 – T1 59,03) (Paranoia T0 58,57 – T1 53,21) (Psychasthenia T0 61,43 – T1 53,00) (Schizophrenia T0 62,29 – T1 56,36) (Obsessive T0 58,57 – T1 48,64). EDI-3 report mean value is higher than clinical cut-off at T0, in T1, there is a significant reduction of the general mean of value. The same result is present in the B.U.T. test in the difference between T0 to T1. B.M.I mean value in AN group is (T0 14,83 – T1 18,41) BN group (T0 20 – T1 21,33) BED group (T0 42,32 – T1 34,97) Phase Angle results: AN group (T0 4,78 – T1 5,64) BN (T0 6 – T1 6,53) BED group (T0 6 – T1 6,72). Discussion and conclusion: The evident presence that on the whole sample, we have an altered serious psychiatric and clinic conditions at the beginning of recovery. The interesting conclusions that we can draw from this analysis are that a multidisciplinary approach that includes the entire care of the subject: from the pharmacological treatment, analytical psychotherapy, Psychomotricity, nutritional rehabilitation, and rehabilitative, educational activities. Thus, this Multidisciplinary treatment allows subjects in our sample to be able to restore psychopathological and metabolic values to below the clinical cut-off.

Keywords: feeding and eating disorders, anorexia nervosa, care clinic treatment, multidisciplinary treatment

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9 The Transcutaneous Auricular Vagus Nerve Stimulation in Treatment of Depression and Anxiety Disorders in Recovery Patient with Feeding and Eating Disorders

Authors: Y. Melis, E. Apicella, E. Dozio, L. Mendolicchio


Introduction: Feeding and Eating Disorders (FED) represent the psychiatric pathology with the highest mortality rate and one of the major disorders with the highest psychiatric and clinical comorbidity. The vagus nerve represents one of the main components of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system and is involved in important neurophysiological functions. In FED, there is a spectrum of symptoms which with TaVNS (Transcutaneous Auricular Vagus Nerve Stimulation) therapy, is possible to have a therapeutic efficacy. Materials and Methods: Sample subjects are composed of 15 female subjects aged > 18 ± 51. Admitted to a psychiatry community having been diagnosed according to DSM-5: anorexia nervosa (AN) (N= 9), bulimia nervosa (BN) (N= 5), binge eating disorder (BED) (N= 1). The protocol included 9 weeks of Ta-VNS stimulation at a frequency of 1.5-3.5 mA for 4 hours per day. The variables detected are the following: Heart Rate Variability (HRV), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-HDRS-17), Body Mass Index (BMI), Beck Anxiety Index (BAI). Results: Data analysis showed statistically significant differences between recording times (p > 0.05) in HAM-D (t0 = 18.28 ± 5.31; t4 = 9.14 ± 7.15), in BAI (t0 = 24.7 ± 10.99; t4 = 13.8 ± 7.0). The reported values show how during (T0-T4) the treatment there is a decay of the degree in the depressive state, in the state of anxiety, and an improvement in the value of BMI. In particular, the BMI in the AN-BN sub-sample had a minimum gain of 5% and a maximum of 11%. The analysis of HRV did not show a clear change among subjects, thus confirming the discordance of the activity of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system in FED. Conclusions: Although the sample does not possess a relevant value to determine long-term efficacy of Ta-VNS or on a larger population, this study reports how the application of neuro-stimulation in FED may become a further approach therapeutic. Indeed, substantial improvements are highlighted in the results and confirmed hypotheses proposed by the study.

Keywords: feeding and eating disorders, neurostimulation, anxiety disorders, depression

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8 [Keynote Talk]: Mental Health Challenges among Women in Dubai, Mental Health Needs Assessment for Dubai (2015), Public Health and Safety Department - Dubai Health Authority (DHA)

Authors: Kadhim Alabady


Purpose: Mental health problems affect women and men equally, but some are more common among women. To Provide a baseline of the current picture of major mental health challenges among women in Dubai. which can then be used to measure the impact of interventions or service development. Method: We have used mixed methods evaluation approaches. This was used to increase the validity of findings by using a variety of data collection techniques. We have integrated qualitative and quantitative methods in this piece of work. Conducting the two approaches is to explore issues that might not be highlighted enough through one method. Results: The key findings are: The prevalence of people who suffer from different types of mental disorders remains largely unknown, many women are unwilling to seek professional help because of lack of awareness or the stigma attached to it. -It is estimated there were around 2,928–4,392 mothers in Dubai (2014) suffering from postnatal depression of which 858–1,287, early intervention can be effective. -The system for managing health care for women with mental illness is fragmented and contains gaps and duplications. -It is estimated 1,029 girl aged 13–19 years affected with anorexia nervosa and there would be an estimated 1,029 girl aged 13–19 years affected with anorexia nervosa. Recommendations: -Work is required with primary health care in order to identify women with undiagnosed mental illnesses. Further work is undertaken within primary health care to assess disease registries with the aim of helping GP practices to improve their disease registers. -It is important to conduct local psychiatric morbidity surveys in Dubai to obtain data and assess the prevalence of essential mental health symptoms and conditions that are not routinely collected to get a clear sense of what is needed and to assist decision and policy making in getting a complete picture on what services are required. -Emergency Mental Health Care – there is a need for a crisis response team to respond to emergencies in the community. -Continuum of care – a significant gap in the services for women once they diagnosed with mental disorder.

Keywords: mental health, depression, schizophrenia, women

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7 Impulsivity and Nutritional Restrictions in BED

Authors: Jaworski Mariusz, Owczarek Krzysztof, Adamus Mirosława


Binge eating disorder (BED) is one of the three main eating disorders, beside anorexia and bulimia nervosa. BED is characterized by a loss of control over the quantity of food consumed and the lack of the compensatory behaviors, such as induced vomiting or purging. Studies highlight that certain personality traits may contribute to the severity of symptoms in the ED. The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between psychological variables (Impulsivity and Urgency) and Nutritional restrictions in BED. The study included two groups. The first group consisted of 35 women with BED aged 18 to 28. The control group - 35 women without ED aged 18 to 28. ED-1 questionnaire was used in a study to assess the severity of impulsivity, urgency and nutritional restrictions. The obtained data were standardized. Statistical analyzes were performed using SPSS 21 software. The severity of impulsivity was higher in patients with BED than the control group. The relation between impulsivity and nutritional restrictions in BED was observed, only taking into consideration the relationship of these variables with the level of urgency. However, if the severity of urgency in this relationship is skipped, the relationship between impulsivity and nutritional restrictions will not occur. Impulsivity has a negative relationship with the level of urgency. This study suggests the need to analyze the interaction between impulsivity and urgency, and their relationship with dietary behavior in BED, especially nutritional restrictions. Analysis of single isolated features may give erroneous results.

Keywords: binge eating disorder, impulsivity, nutritional restrictions, urgency

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6 Experiencing the Shattered: Managing Countertransference Experiences with Anorexia Patients in Psychotherapy

Authors: M. Card


Working with anorexia patients can be a challenging experience for mental and health care professionals. The reasons for not wanting to work with this patient population stems from the numerous concerns surrounding the patient’s health – physically and mentally. Many health care professionals reported having strong negative feelings, such as; anger, hopelessness and helplessness when working with anorexia patients. These feelings often impaired their judgement to treatment and affected how they related to the patient. This research focused on psychotherapists who preferred to work with anorexia patients; what countertransference feelings were evoked in them during sessions with patients and most importantly, how they managed the feelings. The research used interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) as the theoretical framework and data analysis method. Semi-structured interviews were used with ten experienced psychotherapists to obtain their countertransference experiences with anorexia patients and how they manage it. There were three main themes discovered; (1) the use of supervision, (2) their own personal therapy and finally (3) experience and evolution. The research unearthed that experienced psychotherapists also experienced strong countertransference feelings towards their patients; some positive and some negative. However, these feelings could actually be interpreted as co-transference with their anorexia patients. The psychotherapists were able to own their part in the evocative unconscious nature of a relational therapeutic space, where their personal issues may be entangled in their anorexia patient’s symptomatology.

Keywords: anorexia nervosa, countertransference, co-transference, psychotherapy, relational psychotherapy

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5 The Use of Phototherapy with Unusual Case Studies in Counselling

Authors: Briar Schulz


The use of phototherapy within the counselling room offers significant advantages in extending far beyond typical "talk therapy" avenues. The benefits of using this approach are numerous and include: efficiency in recalling pertinent information in addition to utilizing a visual lens that often captures opulent detail that can be eluded in traditional dialogue. The goal of this presentation is to provide conference attendees with an opportunity to understand the therapeutic benefits and creative possibilities of incorporating photography into the clinical counselling process. This includes practical strategies for using in specific case studies, where studies of phototherapy have previously been limited. Ethical considerations and limitations to the process will also be addressed. Attendees will observe the benefits of using phototherapy with six longitudinal case studies including: a 30 year old female, with anorexia nervosa; a 22 year old self-harming individual with obsessive compulsive disorder; a 24 year old client with developmental delays, and bipolar disorder; a 14 year old client with Autism; and two clients with rare medical conditions struggling with depression and anxiety, one 21 years old and the other 16 years old. Aspects of each case will be linked to various theoretical modalities to highlight the efficiency and benefits of phototherapy in drawing important clinical conclusions. Furthermore, the use of phototherapy within these clinical areas remains a relatively unexplored area of the literature, and possibilities for future research will be highlighted. Finally, conference attendees will have the opportunity to try various phototherapy strategies within the interactive portion of this presentation. .

Keywords: Atypical, Case studies, Phototherapy, Photovoice

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4 Quality of Life and Willingness to Take Treatment and the Importance of the Disease in the Lives of Patients with Eating Disorders

Authors: Marzena Trojanczyk, Mariusz Jaworski, Ewa Dmoch Gajzlerska


Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the relationship between the level of quality of life and willingness to take treatment in patients with eating disorders as anorexia, bulimia and compulsive bingeing. Material and methods: The subjects consisted of 99 women with eating disorders: anorexia, n = 33; bulimia, n = 35; compulsive overeating, n = 31 and 35 women in the control group. The study used an original questionnaire to assess the overall quality of life, as well as selected areas of the physical, mental, social and spiritual satisfaction. The subjects were also asked about the level of motivation for treatment, and the importance of the disease in the lives of patients. Statistical analyses were performed using the statistical program SPSS 18.0. Results: Women with eating disorders in particular groups did not differ with respect to each other in the aspect of overall quality of life, satisfaction with the development of the spiritual, social functioning and mental health. The severity level of the disease in the lives of patients showed a negative correlation with social functioning in women with anorexia nervosa. In the case of patients with compulsive bingeing a positive relationship between the level of importance of the disease and the satisfaction of spiritual development is reported. Conclusions: Concerning the inferior quality of life, there is no relationship between a willingness to take treatment and the importance of the disease in the lives of patients with anorexia, bulimia and compulsive bingeing.

Keywords: anorexia, bulimia, compulsive overeating, quality of life

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3 Polymorphisms of the UM Genotype of CYP2C19*17 in Thais Taking Medical Cannabis

Authors: Athicha Cherdpunt, Patompong Satapornpong


The medical cannabis is made up of components also known as cannabinoids, which consists of two ingredients which are Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). Interestingly, the Cannabinoid can be used for many treatments such as chemotherapy, including nausea and vomiting, cachexia, anorexia nervosa, spinal cord injury and disease, epilepsy, pain, and many others. However, the adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of THC can cause sedation, anxiety, dizziness, appetite stimulation and impairments in driving and cognitive function. Furthermore, genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 influenced the THC metabolism and might be a cause of ADRs. Particularly, CYP2C19*17 allele increases gene transcription and therefore results in ultra-rapid metabolizer phenotype (UM). The aim of this study, is to investigate the frequency of CYP2C19*17 alleles in Thai patients who have been treated with medical cannabis. We prospectively enrolled 60 Thai patients who were treated with medical cannabis and clinical data from College of Pharmacy, Rangsit University. DNA of each patient was isolated from EDTA blood, using the Genomic DNA Mini Kit. CYP2C19*17 genotyping was conducted using the real time-PCR ViiA7 (ABI, Foster City, CA, USA). 30 patients with medical cannabis-induced ADRs group, 20 (67%) were female, and 10 (33%) were male, with an age range of 30-69 years. On the other hand, 30 patients without medical cannabis-induced ADRs (control group) consist of 17 (57%) female and 13 (43%) male. The most ADRs for medical cannabis treatment in the case group were dry mouth and dry throat (77%), tachycardia (70%), nausea (30%) and arrhythmia(10%). Accordingly, the case group carried CYP2C19*1/*1 (normal metabolizer) approximately 93%, while 7% patients carrying CYP2C19*1/*17 (ultra rapid metabolizers) exhibited in this group. Meanwhile, we found 90% of CYP2C19*1/*1 and 10% of CYP2C19*1/*17 in control group. In this study, we identified the frequency of CYP2C19*17 allele in Thai population which will support the pharmacogenetics biomarkers for screening and avoid ADRs of medical cannabis treatment.

Keywords: CYP2C19, allele frequency, ultra rapid metabolizer, medical cannabis

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2 The Association Between CYP2C19 Gene Distribution and Medical Cannabis Treatment

Authors: Vichayada Laohapiboolkul


Introduction: As the legal use of cannabis is being widely accepted throughout the world, medical cannabis has been explored in order to become an alternative cure for patients. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD) are natural cannabinoids found in the Cannabis plant which is proved to have positive treatment for various diseases and symptoms such as chronic pain, neuropathic pain, spasticity resulting from multiple sclerosis, reduce cancer-associated pain, autism spectrum disorders (ASD), dementia, cannabis and opioid dependence, psychoses/schizophrenia, general social anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, anorexia nervosa, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and Tourette's disorder. Regardless of all the medical benefits, THC, if not metabolized, can lead to mild up to severe adverse drug reactions (ADR). The enzyme CYP2C19 was found to be one of the metabolizers of THC. However, the suballele CYP2C19*2 manifests as a poor metabolizer which could lead to higher levels of THC than usual, possibly leading to various ADRs. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of CYP2C19, specifically CYP2C19*2, genes in Thai patients treated with medical cannabis along with adverse drug reactions. Materials and Methods: Clinical data and EDTA whole blood for DNA extraction and genotyping were collected from patients for this study. CYP2C19*2 (681G>A, rs4244285) genotyping was conducted using the Real-time PCR (ABI, Foster City, CA, USA). Results: There were 42 medical cannabis-induced ADRs cases and 18 medical cannabis tolerance controls who were included in this study. A total of 60 patients were observed where 38 (63.3%) patients were female and 22 (36.7%) were male, with a range of age approximately 19 - 87 years. The most apparent ADRs for medical cannabis treatment were dry mouth/dry throat (76.7%), followed by tachycardia (70%), nausea (30%) and a few arrhythmias (10%). In the total of 27 cases, we found a frequency of 18 CYP2C19*1/*1 alleles (normal metabolizers, 66.7%), 8 CYP2C19*1/*2 alleles (intermediate metabolizers, 29.6%) and 1 CYP2C19*2/*2 alleles (poor metabolizers, 3.7%). Meanwhile, 63.6% of CYP2C19*1/*1, 36.3% and 0% of CYP2C19*1/*2 and *2/*2 in the tolerance controls group, respectively. Conclusions: This is the first study to confirm the distribution of CYP2C19*2 allele and the prevalence of poor metabolizer genes in Thai patients who received medical cannabis for treatment. Thus, CYP2C19 allele might serve as a pharmacogenetics marker for screening before initiating treatment.

Keywords: medical cannabis, adverse drug reactions, CYP2C19, tetrahydrocannabinol, poor metabolizer

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1 Non-Timber Forest Products and Livelihood Linkages: A Case of Lamabagar, Nepal

Authors: Sandhya Rijal, Saroj Adhikari, Ramesh R. Pant


Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) have attracted substantial interest in the recent years with the increasing recognition that these can provide essential community needs for improved and diversified rural livelihood and support the objectives of biodiversity conservation. Nevertheless, various challenges are witnessed in their sustainable harvest and management. Assuming that sustainable management with community stewardship can offer one of the solutions to existing challenges, the study assesses the linkages between NTFPs and rural livelihood in Lamabagar village of Dolakha, Nepal. The major objective was to document the status of NTFPs and their contributions in households of Lamabagar. For status documentation, vegetation sampling was done using systematic random sampling technique. 30 plots of 10 m × 10 m were laid down in six parallel transect lines at horizontal distance of 160 m in two different community forests. A structured questionnaire survey was conducted in 76 households (excluding non-response rate) using stratified random sampling technique for contribution analysis. Likewise, key informant interview and focus group discussions were also conducted for data triangulations. 36 different NTFPs were recorded from the vegetation sample in two community forests of which 50% were used for medicinal purposes. The other uses include fodder, religious value, and edible fruits and vegetables. Species like Juniperus indica, Daphne bholua Aconitum spicatum, and Lyonia ovalifolia were frequently used for trade as a source of income, which was sold in local market. The protected species like Taxus wallichiana and Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora were also recorded in the area for which the trade is prohibited. The protection of these species urgently needs community stewardship. More than half of the surveyed households (55%) were depending on NTFPs for their daily uses, other than economic purpose whereas 45% of them sold those products in the market directly or in the form of local handmade products as a source of livelihood. NTFPs were the major source of primary health curing agents especially for the poor and unemployed people in the study area. Hence, the NTFPs contributed to livelihood under three different categories: subsistence, supplement income and emergency support, depending upon the economic status of the households. Although the status of forest improved after handover to the user group, the availability of valuable medicinal herbs like Rhododendron anthopogon, Swertia nervosa, Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora, and Aconitum spicatum were declining. Inadequacy of technology, lack of easy transport access, and absence of good market facility were the major limitations for external trade of NTFPs in the study site. It was observed that people were interested towards conservation only if they could get some returns: economic in terms of rural settlements. Thus, the study concludes that NTFPs could contribute rural livelihood and support conservation objectives only if local communities are provided with the easy access of technology, market and capital.

Keywords: contribution, medicinal, subsistence, sustainable harvest

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