Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Search results for: Ikram Elsiddig

27 In vitro Susceptibility of Madurella mycetomatis to the Extracts of Anogeissus leiocarpus Leaves

Authors: Ikram Mohamed Eltayeb Elsiddig, Saad Mohamed Hussein Ayoub, Abdel Khalig Muddather, Hiba Abdel Rahman Ali

Abstract:

Anogeissusleiocarpus (Combretaceae) is well known for its medicinal uses in African traditional medicine, for treating many human diseases mainly skin diseases and infections.Mycetoma disease is a fungal and/ or bacterial skin infection, mainly cause by Madurella mycetomatis fungus.This study was carried out in vitro to investigate the antifungal activity of Anogeissusleiocarpus leaf extracts against the isolated pathogenicMadurellamycetomatis, by using the NCCLS modified method compared to Ketoconazole standard drug and MTT assay. The bioactive fraction was subjected to chemical analysis implementing different chromatographic analytical methods (TLC, HPLC, and LC-MS/MS). The results showed significance antifungal activity of A. leiocarpus leaf extractsagainst the isolated pathogenicM. mycetomatis, compared to negative and positive controls. The chloroform fraction showed the highest antifungal activity.The chromatographic analysis of the chloroform fraction with the highest activity showed the presence of important bioactive compounds such as ellagic and flavellagic acids derivatives, flavonoids and stilbenoid, which are well known for their antifungal activity.

Keywords: Anogeissus leiocarpus, crude extracts and fractions of Anogeissus leiocarpus, in vitrosusceptibility of Madurella mycetomatis, Madurella mycetomatis

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26 Phytochemical Screening, Antioxidant Activity, Lipid Profile Effect of Citrus reticulata Fruit Peel, Zingiber officinale Rhizome, and Sesamum indicum Seed Extracts

Authors: Amna Beshir Medani Ahmed, Samar Saadeldin Abdelmotalab Omer, Ikram Mohammed Eltayeb Elsiddig, Saad Mohammed Hussein Ayoub

Abstract:

Many herbal medicinal products are considered as potential hypocholesterolemic agents with encouraging safety profiles, however, only a limited amount of clinical research exists to support their efficacy. The present study was designed to compare the antihypercholesterolaemic and antioxidant activities of the crude ethanolic extracts of Citrus reticulata peel, Zingiber officinale rhizome, and Sesamum indicum seeds. Forty-five rats were used throughout the experiment, which were divided into nine groups, five rats in each as follows; normal control group (normal rats fed with standard normal diet), rats fed hypercholesterolemic diet consisting of 1% cholesterol and 10% saturated animal fat, which were further divided into eight groups; hypercholesterolemic control group (rats only fed hypercholesterolemic diet), groups 3,4,5,6,7, and 8 were given Citrus reticulata, Zingiber officinale, and Sesamum indicum ethanolic extracts at doses of (250mg/kg and 500mg/kg, respectively) orally; and group 9 rats were given atorvastatin (0.18mg/kg) orally as a reference antihypercholesterolaemic drug. Blood samples were obtained four weeks following treatment from the retro-orbital venous plexus after fasting overnight from all groups and the lipid profile (serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides levels) was measured and the risk ratio (TC/HDL-C) was assessed. The antioxidant activity of the three plant extracts was determined using DPPH free-radical assay. Results of in vivo and in vitro antihypercholesterolaemic and antioxidant assay, respectively, revealed that the three extracts possess comparable antioxidant and anti-hypercholesterolaemic activities.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, Sesamum indicum, HDL, LDL, anti hypercholesterolemic effects, TGs, citrus reticulata, zingiber officinale

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25 Synergistic and Antagonistic Interactions between Garlic Extracts and Metformin in Diabetes Treatment

Authors: Ikram Elsiddig, Amna Hamad, Yacouba Djamila

Abstract:

Abstract—The worldwide increasing of using herbs in form of medicine with or without prescription medications potentiates the interactions between herbal products and conventional medicines; due to more research for herb-drug interactions are needed. for a long time hyperglycemia had been treated with several medicinal plants. A. sativum, belonging to the Liliaceae family is well known for its medicinal uses in African traditional medicine, it used for treating of many human diseases mainly diabetes, high cholesterol and high blood pressure. The purpose of this study is to determine the interaction effect between A. sativum bulb extracts and metformin drug used in diabetes treatment. The in vitro and in vivo evaluation were conducted by glucose reuptake using isolated rats hemidiaphgrams tissue and by estimate glucose tolerance in glucose-loaded wistar albino rats. The results showed that, petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts were found to have activity of glucose uptake in isolated rats hemidiaphgrams of 24.11 mg/g, 19.07 mg/g and 15.66 mg/g compared to metformin drug of 17 mg/g. These activity were reducded to 17.8 mg/g, 13.59 mg/g and 14.46 mg/g after combination with metformin, metformin itself reduced to 13.59 mg/g, 14.46 mg/g and 12.71 mg/g in comination with chloroform and ethyl acetate. These decrease in activity could be due to herbal–drug interaction between the extracts of A. sativum bulb and metformin drug. The interaction between A. sativum extract and metformin was also shown by in vivo study on the induced hyperglycemic rats. The glucose level after administered of 200 mg/kg was found to be increase with 47.2 % and 17.7% at first and second hour compared to the increase of blood glucose in the control group of 82.6% and76.7%.. At fourth hour the glucose level was became less than normal with 3.4% compared to control which continue to increase with 68.2%. Dose of 400 mg/kg at first hour showed increase in blood glucose of 31.5 %, at second and fourth hours the glucose level was became less than normal with decrease of 3.2 % and 30.4%. After combination the activity was found to be less than that of extract at both high and low dose, whereas, at first and second hour, the glucose level was found to be increase with 50.4% and 21.2%, at fourth hour the glucose level was became less than normal with 14%. Therefore A. sativum could be a potential source for anti-diabetic when it used alone, and it is significant important to use the garlic extract alone instead of combined with Metformin drug in diabetes- treatment.

Keywords: metformin, garlic, synergistic, antagonistic

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24 The Effect of Arbutin Powder and Arctostaphylos uvaursi Aqueous Leaf Extract on Synthesis of Melanin by Madurella mycetomatis

Authors: Ikram Elsiddig, Amina Omer

Abstract:

Arctostaphylos uvaursi is a plant of the family Ericaceae, it’s used in skin care products mostly for its depigmenting action, due to the presence of hydroquinones that are well known inhibitors of tyrosinase, an enzyme involved in melanin biosynthesis in humans. The main hydroquinone found within the A. uvaursi is arbutin, which is found with varying percentage within the plant depending on the season, and area from which the plant is harvested. An in vitro experiment has shown that the arbutin found within the bearberry leaf extract inhibited the biosynthesis of melanin in human melanoma cells and in three-dimensional human skin model. Madurella mycetomatis is filamentous fungus that causes the fungal form of mycetoma known as eumycetoma, with existing anti-fungals and surgery, only 35% of people living eumycetoma are treated, M. mycetomatis has been found to shield itself against the antifungal therapy through the production of melanin decreasing the effectiveness of the therapy, therefore there is a need for a new and more effective therapy. The aim of the study was to investigate and compare the effect of arbutin powder and aqueous extract of A. uvaursi containing arbutin on the biosynthesis of melanin by M. mycetomatis. The experiment was carried out by culturing M. mycetomatis on minimal media composed of 2% agar, 15 mM glucose, 10 mM MgSO4, 29.4 mM KH2PO4, 13 mM glycin and 80mg/l gentamicin, the media was supplied with different concentration of arbutin solution (5, 25 50,and 75mg) and aqueous extract of A. uvaursi to contain arbutin with concentrations (5, 25 50,and 75mg), the plates were incubated for two month and the result was observed by the naked eye. The results revealed that the arbutin powder had an inhibitory effect on melanin synthesis by M. mycetomatis that correlated with its established inhibitory effect on melanin synthesis in humans. The inhibitory effect of arbutin on melanin synthesis by M. mycetomatis was found to be dose dependent. A. uvaursi aqueous leaf extract containing arbutin was also found to decrease melanin production by M. mycetomatis, however plates containing high concentrations of aqueous extract couldn’t be assessed for its melanin inhibitory effect due to the high content of carbohydrates in the extract that promoted the growth of fungi Asperigullus niger rendering the plates unsuitable for visual inspection. In conclusion inhibition of melanin synthesis was observed on the arbutin powder as well as the aqueous extract containing arbutin. A. uvaursi is known to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity, which can aid in wound healing that is beneficial in the chronic inflammation caused by M. mycetomatis.

Keywords: melanin, arbutin, arctostaphylos, Madurella

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23 Phytochemical Screening and Anti-Hypothyroidism Activity of Lepidium sativum Ethanolic Extract

Authors: Ikram Elsiddig, Reham Hajomer, Amna Hamad

Abstract:

Lepidium sativum (Garden Cress) belonging to Brassicaceae family is an annual herb locally known as El-rshad. In Ayurveda it is an important medicinal plant, traditionally used for the treatment of jaundice, liver problems, spleen diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, menstrual problems, fracture, arthritis, inflammatory conditions and for treatment of hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormones (Triiodithyronine T3 and Thyroxine T4) which are commonly caused by iodine deficiency. It’s divided into primary and secondary hypothyroidism, the primary caused by failure of thyroid function and secondary due to the failure of adequate thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secretion from the pituitary gland or thyroid -releasing hormone (TRH) from the hypothalamus. The disease is most common in women over age 60. The objective regarding this study is to know whether Lepidium sativum would affect the level of thyroid hormones. The extract was prepared with 96% ethanol using Soxhlet apparatus. The anti-hypothyroidism activity was tested by using thirty male Wistar rats weighing (100-140 g) were used in the experiment. They were grouping into five groups, Group 1: Normal group= Administered only distilled water. Then 10 mg/kg Propylthiouracil was added to the drinking water of all other groups to induce hypothyroidism. Group 2: Negative control without any treatment; Group 3: Test group= treated with oral administration of 500mg/kg extract; Group 4: treated with oral administration of 250mg/kg of the extract; Group 5: Standard group (positive control) = treated with intraperitoneal Levothyroxine. All rats were incubated for 20 days at animal house with room temperature of proper ventilation provided with standard diet. The result show that the Lepidium sativum extract was found to increases the T3 and T4 in the propylthiouracil induced rats with values (0.29 ng/dl T3 and 0.57 U T4) for the 500mg/kg and (0.27 ng/dl T3 and 0.517 U T4) for the 250mg/kg in comparison with standard with values (0.241 ng/dl T3 and 0.516 U T4) so that Lepidium sativum can be stimulatory to thyroid function and possess significant anti-hypothyroidism effect with p-values ranges from (0.000006*-0.893472). In conclusion, from results obtained, Lepidium sativum plant extract was found to posses anti-hypothyroidism effects so its act as an agent that stimulates thyroid hormone secretion.

Keywords: extract, anti-hypothyroidism, lepidium, sativum

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22 Anti-Hyperglycemic Effects and Chemical Analysis of Allium sativum Bulbs Growing in Sudan

Authors: Ikram Mohamed Eltayeb Elsiddig, Yacouba Amina Djamila, Amna El Hassan Hamad

Abstract:

Hyperglycemia and diabetes have been treated with several medicinal plants for a long time, meanwhile reduce associated side effects than the synthetic ones. Therefore, the search for more effective and safer anti-diabetic agents derived from plants has become an interest area of active research. A. sativum, belonging to the Liliaceae family is well known for its medicinal uses in African traditional medicine, it used for treating of many human diseases mainly diabetes, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure. The present study was carried out to investigate the anti-hyperglycemic effect of the extracts of A. sativum bulb growing in Sudan on glucose-loaded Wistar albino rats. A. sativum bulbs were collected from local vegetable market at Khourtoum/ Sudan in a fresh form, identified and authenticated by taxonomist, then dried, and extracted with solvents of increasing polarity: petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol by using Soxhlet apparatus. The effect of the extracts on glucose uptake was evaluated by using the isolated rats hemidiaphgrams after loading the fasting rats with glucose, and the anti-hyperglycemic effect was investigated on glucose-loaded Wistar albino rats. Their effects were compared to control rats administered with the vehicle and to a standard group administered with Metformin standard drug. The most active extract was analyzed chemically using GC-MS analysis compared to NIST library. The results showed significant anti-diabetic effect of extracts of A. sativum bulb growing in Sudan. Addition to the hypoglycemic activity of A. sativum extracts was found to be decreased with increase in the polarity of the extraction solvent; this may explain the less polarity of substance responsible for the activity and their concentration decreased with polarity increase. The petroleum ether extract possess anti-hyperglycemic activity more significant than the other extracts and the Metformin standard drug with p-value 0.000** of 400mg/kg at 1 hour, 2 hour and four hour; and p-value 0.019*, 0.015* and 0.010* of 200mg/kg at 1 hour, 2 hour and four hour respectively. The GC-MS analysis of petroleum ether extract, with highest anti -diabetes activity showed the presence of Methyl linolate (42.75%), Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester (10.54%), Methyl α-linolenate (8.36%), Dotriacontane (6.83), Tetrapentacontane (6.33), Methyl 18-methylnonadecanoate (4.8), Phenol,2,2’-methylenebis[6-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-methyl] (3.25), Methyl 20-methyl-heneicosanoate (2.70), Pentatriacontane (2.13) and many other minor compounds. The most of these compounds are well known for their anti-diabetic activity. The study concluded that A. sativum bulbs extracts were found to enhanced the reuptake of glucose in the isolated rat hemidiaphragm and have antihyperglycemic effect when evaluated on glucose-loaded albino rats with petroleum ether extract activity more significant than the Metformin standard drug.

Keywords: bulbs, sativum, Allium, anti-hyperglycemic

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21 Forecast Financial Bubbles: Multidimensional Phenomenon

Authors: Zouari Ezzeddine, Ghraieb Ikram

Abstract:

From the results of the academic literature which evokes the limitations of previous studies, this article shows the reasons for multidimensionality Prediction of financial bubbles. A new framework for modeling study predicting financial bubbles by linking a set of variable presented on several dimensions dictating its multidimensional character. It takes into account the preferences of financial actors. A multicriteria anticipation of the appearance of bubbles in international financial markets helps to fight against a possible crisis.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks, predictions, classical measures, financial bubbles, multidimensional

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20 Gas Chromatographic: Mass Spectroscopic Analysis of Citrus reticulata Fruit Peel, Zingiber officinale Rhizome, and Sesamum indicum Seed Ethanolic Extracts Possessing Antioxidant Activity and Lipid Profile Effects

Authors: Samar Saadeldin Abdelmotalab Omer, Ikram Mohamed Eltayeb Elsiddig, Saad Mohammed Hussein Ayoub

Abstract:

A variety of herbal medicinal plants are known to confer beneficial effects in regards to modification of cardiovascular ri’=sk factors. The anti-hypercholesterolaemic and antioxidant activities of the crude ethanolic extracts of Citrus reticulate fruit peel, Zingiber officinale rhizome and Sesamum indicum seed extracts have been demonstrated. These plants are assumed to possess biologically active principles, which impart their pharmacologic activities. GC-MS analysis of the ethanolic extracts was carried out to identify the active principles and their percentages of occurrence in the analytes. Analysis of the extracts was carried out using (GS-MS QP) type Schimadzu 2010 equipped with a capillary column RTX-50 (restec), (length 30mm, diameter 0.25mm, and thickness 0.25mm). Helium was used as a carrier gas, the temperature was programmed at 200°C for 5 minutes at a rate of 15ml/minute, and the extracts were injected using split injection mode. The identification of different components was achieved from their Mass Spectra and Retention time, compared with those in the NIST library. The results revealed the presence of 80 compounds in Sudanese locally grown C. reticulata fruit peel extract, most of which were monoterpenoid compounds including Limonene (3.03%), Alpha & Gamma - terpinenes (2.61%), Linalool (1.38%), Citral (1.72%) which are known to have profound antioxidant effects. The Sesquiterpenoids Humulene (0.26%) and Caryophyllene (1.97%) were also identified, the latter known to have profound anti-anxiety and anti-depressant activity in addition to the beneficiary effects in lipid regulation. The analysis of the locally grown S. indicum oily and water soluble portions of seed extract revealed the presence of a total of 64 compounds with considerably high percentage of the mono-unsaturated fatty acid ester methyl oleate (66.99%) in addition to methyl stearate (9.35%) and palmitate (15.71%) of oil portion, whereas, plant sterols including Gamma-sitosterol (13.5%), fucosterol (2.11%) and stigmasterol (1.95%) in addition to gamma-tocopherol (1.16%) were detected in extract water-soluble portion. The latter indicate various principles known to have valuable pharmacological benefits including antioxidant activities and beneficiary effects on intestinal cholesterol absorption and regulation of serum cholesterol levels. Z. officinale rhizome extract analysis revealed the presence of 93 compounds, the most abundant were alpha-zingeberine (16.5%), gingerol (9.25%), alpha-sesquiphellandrene (8.3%), zingerone (6.78%), beta-bisabolene (4.19%), alpha-farnesene (3.56%), ar-curcumene (3.29%), gamma-elemene (1.25%) and a variety of other compounds. The presence of these active principles reflected on the activity of the extract. Activity could be assigned to a single or a combination of two or more extract components. GC-MS analysis concluded the occurrence of compounds known to possess antioxidant activity and lipid profile effects.

Keywords: Gas Chromatography, indicum, officinale, reticulata

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19 FPGA Implementation of the BB84 Protocol

Authors: Jaouadi Ikram, Machhout Mohsen

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The development of a quantum key distribution (QKD) system on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) platform is the subject of this paper. A quantum cryptographic protocol is designed based on the properties of quantum information and the characteristics of FPGAs. The proposed protocol performs key extraction, reconciliation, error correction, and privacy amplification tasks to generate a perfectly secret final key. We modeled the presence of the spy in our system with a strategy to reveal some of the exchanged information without being noticed. Using an FPGA card with a 100 MHz clock frequency, we have demonstrated the evolution of the error rate as well as the amounts of mutual information (between the two interlocutors and that of the spy) passing from one step to another in the key generation process.

Keywords: Cryptography, Security, Communication, FPGA, protocol, key, QKD, BB84

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18 The Traffic Congestion in Biskra in Algeria

Authors: Selatnia Khaled Grine Ikram

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The city of Biskra, like other Algerian cities, knows of urban traffic congestion. The concentration of investments especially in the secondary and tertiary sectors in the Wilaya has attracted a large rural population. The latter, combined with the high rate of natural growing, favored the imbalance of the spatial frame of wilayal system and consequently the traffic congestion of the primate city (Biskra). This urban disease is explained by a two-tier development. The capital of Wilaya growing faster than its others centers body and takes measurements of proportion to the whole. The consequences can only be negative. The pressure on the roads, the growth of the fleet, overloading of equipment and activities have become the characteristics of the city of Biskra, which can no longer meet the needs of its inhabitants. This research attempts to show the relationship between urban congestion of the primate city and the imbalance of the spatial structure of the micro-regional urban system.

Keywords: Spatial Structure, Traffic Congestion, pressure on the roads, equipment and activities

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17 A Supervised Face Parts Labeling Framework

Authors: Khalil Khan, Ikram Syed, Muhammad Ehsan Mazhar, Iran Uddin, Nasir Ahmad

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Face parts labeling is the process of assigning class labels to each face part. A face parts labeling method (FPL) which divides a given image into its constitutes parts is proposed in this paper. A database FaceD consisting of 564 images is labeled with hand and make publically available. A supervised learning model is built through extraction of features from the training data. The testing phase is performed with two semantic segmentation methods, i.e., pixel and super-pixel based segmentation. In pixel-based segmentation class label is provided to each pixel individually. In super-pixel based method class label is assigned to super-pixel only – as a result, the same class label is given to all pixels inside a super-pixel. Pixel labeling accuracy reported with pixel and super-pixel based methods is 97.68 % and 93.45% respectively.

Keywords: classification, face labeling, semantic segmentation, face segmentation

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16 Graph Planning Based Composition for Adaptable Semantic Web Services

Authors: Rihab Ben Lamine, Raoudha Ben Jemaa, Ikram Amous Ben Amor

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This paper proposes a graph planning technique for semantic adaptable Web Services composition. First, we use an ontology based context model for extending Web Services descriptions with information about the most suitable context for its use. Then, we transform the composition problem into a semantic context aware graph planning problem to build the optimal service composition based on user's context. The construction of the planning graph is based on semantic context aware Web Service discovery that allows for each step to add most suitable Web Services in terms of semantic compatibility between the services parameters and their context similarity with the user's context. In the backward search step, semantic and contextual similarity scores are used to find best composed Web Services list. Finally, in the ranking step, a score is calculated for each best solution and a set of ranked solutions is returned to the user.

Keywords: Adaptation, context, web service composition, semantic web service, graph planning

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15 A Memetic Algorithm Approach to Clustering in Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Masood Ahmad, Ataul Aziz Ikram, Ishtiaq Wahid

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Wireless sensor network (WSN) is the interconnection of mobile wireless nodes with limited energy and memory. These networks can be deployed formany critical applications like military operations, rescue management, fire detection and so on. In flat routing structure, every node plays an equal role of sensor and router. The topology may change very frequently due to the mobile nature of nodes in WSNs. The topology maintenance may produce more overhead messages. To avoid topology maintenance overhead messages, an optimized cluster based mobile wireless sensor network using memetic algorithm is proposed in this paper. The nodes in this network are first divided into clusters. The cluster leaders then transmit data to that base station. The network is validated through extensive simulation study. The results show that the proposed technique has superior results compared to existing techniques.

Keywords: Routing, meme, WSN, memetic algorithm, cluster based

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14 Cultural Diversity and Challenges for Female Entrepreneurs: Empirical Study of an Emerging Economy

Authors: Amir Ikram, Muhammad Fiaz, Qin Su, Muhammad Waqas Shabbir

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Women entrepreneurship witnessed a healthy rise in the last decade or so, and the scenario in Pakistan is not different. However female leaders are facing various, cultural, career oriented, and professional challenges. The study investigates the impact of social and industry-specific challenges on female entrepreneurship; social challenges was evaluated in terms of culture, and industry-specific challenges was measured in terms of team management and career growth. Purposive sampling was employed to collect data from 75 multicultural organizations operating in the culturally diverse and historic city of Lahore, Pakistan. Cronbach’s alpha was conducted to endorse the reliability of survey questionnaire, while correlation and regression analysis were used to test hypotheses. Industry-specific challenges were found to be more significant as compared to cultural factors. The paper also highlights the importance of female entrepreneurship for emerging economies, and suggests that bringing women to mainstream professions can lead to economic success.

Keywords: Leadership, emerging economy, female entrepreneurship, cultural challenges

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13 Evaluation of Biosurfactant Production by a New Strain Isolated from the Lagoon of Mar Chica Degrading Gasoline

Authors: Ikram Kamal, Mohamed Blaghen

Abstract:

Pollution caused by petroleum hydrocarbons in terrestrial and aquatic environment is a common phenomenon that causes significant ecological and social problems. Biosurfactant applications in the environmental industries are promising due to their biodegradability, low toxicity and effectiveness in enhancing biodegradation and solubilization of low solubility compounds. Currently, the main application is for enhancement of oil recovery and hydrocarbon bioremediation due to their biodegradability and low critical micelle concentration (CMC). In this study we have investigated the potential of bacterial strains collected aseptically from the lagoon Marchika (water and soil) in Nador, Morocco; for the production of biosurfactants. This study also aimed to optimize the biosurfactant production process by changing the variables that influence the type and amount of biosurfactant produced by these microorganisms such as: carbon sources and also other physical and chemical parameters such as temperature and pH. Emulsification index, methylene blue test and thin layer chromatography (TLC) revealed the ability of strains used in this study to produce compounds that could emulsify gasoline. In addition a GC/MS was used to separate and identify different biosurfactants purified.

Keywords: Biodegradability, Petroleum Hydrocarbons, biosurfactant, critical micelle concentration, lagoon Marchika

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12 Sandy Soil Properties under Different Plant Cover Types in Drylands, Sudan

Authors: Rayan Elsiddig Eltaib, Yamanaka Norikazu, Mubarak Abdelrahman Abdalla

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This study investigated the effects of Acacia Senegal, Calotropis procera, Leptadenia pyrotechnica, Ziziphus spina Christi, Balanites aegyptiaca, Indigofera oblongigolia, Arachis hypogea and Sesimum indicum grown in the western region of White Nile State on soil properties of the 0-10, 10-30, 30-60 and 60-90 cm depths. Soil properties were: pH(paste), electrical conductivity of the saturation extract (ECe), total N (TN), organic carbon (OC), soluble K, available P, aggregate stability and water holding capacity. Triplicate Soil samples were collected after the end of the rainy season using 5 cm diameter auger. Results indicated that pH, ECe and TN were not significantly different among plant cover types. In the top 10-30 cm depth, OC under all types was significantly higher than the control (4.1 to 7.7 fold). The highest (0.085%) OC was found under the Z. spina Christi and A. Senegal whereas the lowest (0.045%) was reported under the A. hypogea. In the 10-30 cm depth, with the exception of A. hypogea, Z. spina christi and S. indicum, P content was almost similar but significantly higher than the control by 72 to 129%. In the 10-30 cm depth, K content under the S. indicum (0.46 meq/L) was exceptionally high followed by Z. spina christi (0.102 meq/L) as compared to the control (0.029 meq/L). Water holding capacity and aggregate stability of the top 0-10 cm depth were not significantly different among plant cover types. Based on the fact that accumulation of organic matter in the soil profile of any ecosystem is an important indicator of soil quality, results of this study may conclude that (1) cultivation of A.senegal, B.aegyptiaca and Z. spina Christi improved soil quality whereas (2) cultivation of A. hypogea or soil that is solely invaded with C. procera and L.pyrotechnica may induce soil degradation.

Keywords: Crops, Soil Properties, trees, shrubs, canopy

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11 Study of Petroleum Hydrocarbons Biodegradation and the Role of Biosurfactants Produced by Bacteria Isolated from the Lagoon of Mar Chica in This Process

Authors: Ikram Kamal, Mohamed Blaghen

Abstract:

Petroleum hydrocarbons are serious problems and global pollutants in the environment due to their toxicity, carcinogenicity and persistent organic pollutant properties. One of the approaches to enhance biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons is to use biosurfactant. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic biomolecules produced as metabolic by-products from microorganisms they received considerable attention in the field of environmental remediation processes such as bioremediation. Biosurfactants have been considered as a desirable alternative to synthetic surfactants in various applications particularly in the environmental field. In comparison with their synthetic counterparts, biosurfactants have been reported to be less toxic, biodegradable and persistent. In this study we have investigated the potential of bacterial strains collected aseptically from the lagoon Marchika (water and soil) in Nador, Morocco; for the production of biosurfactants. This study also aimed to optimize the biosurfactant production process by changing the variables that influence the type and amount of biosurfactant produced by these microorganisms such as: carbon sources and also other physical and chemical parameters such as temperature and pH. Emulsification index, methylene blue test and thin layer chromatography (TLC) revealed the ability of strains used in this study to produce compounds that could emulsify gasoline. In addition, a HPLC/MS was used to separate and identify different biosurfactants purified.

Keywords: biodegradation, Petroleum Hydrocarbons, biosurfactants, lagoon Marchika, emulsification index

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10 Characterization of Biosurfactants Produced by Bacteria Degrading Gasoline

Authors: Ikram Kamal, Mohamed Blaghen

Abstract:

Biosurfactants are amphiphilic biological compounds consisting of hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains produced extracellularly or as part of the cell membrane by a variety of yeast, bacteria and filamentous fungi. Biosurfactant applications in the environmental industries are promising due to their biodegradability, low toxicity, and effectiveness in enhancing biodegradation and solubilization of low solubility compounds. Currently, the main application is for enhancement of oil recovery and hydrocarbon bioremediation due to their biodegradability and low critical micelle concentration (CMC). The use of biosurfactants has also been proposed for various industrial applications, such as in food additives, cosmetics, detergent formulations and in combinations with enzymes for wastewater treatment. In this study, we have investigated the potential of bacterial strains: Mannheimia haemolytica, Burkholderia cepacia and Serratia ficaria were collected aseptically from the lagoon Marchika (water and soil) in Nador, Morocco; for the production of biosurfactants. This study also aimed to optimize the biosurfactant production process by changing the variables that influence the type and amount of biosurfactant produced by these microorganisms such as: carbon sources and also other physical and chemical parameters such as temperature and pH. Emulsification index, methylene blue test, and thin layer chromatography (TLC) revealed the ability of strains used in this study to produce compounds that could emulsify gasoline. In addition, a GC/MS was used to separate and identify different biosurfactants purified.

Keywords: Biodegradability, biosurfactants, Mannheimia haemolytica, Burkholderia cepacia, Serratia ficaria

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9 The Effectiveness of First World Asylum Practices in Deterring Applications, Offering Bureaucratic Deniability, and Violating Human Rights: A Greek Case Study

Authors: Claudia Huerta, Pepijn Doornenbal, Walaa Elsiddig

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Rising waves of nationalism around the world have led first-world migration receiving countries to exploit the ambiguity of international refugee law and establish asylum application processes that deter applications, allow for bureaucratic deniability, and violate human rights. This case study of Greek asylum application practices argues that the 'pre-application' asylum process in Greece violates the spirit of international law by making it incredibly difficult for potential asylum seekers to apply for asylum, in essence violating the human rights of thousands of asylum seekers. This study’s focus is on the Greek mainland’s asylum 'pre-application' process, which in 2016 began to require those wishing to apply for asylum to do so during extremely restricted hours via a basic Skype line. The average wait to simply begin the registration process to apply for asylum is 81 days, during which time applicants are forced to live illegally in Greece. This study’s methodology in analyzing the 'pre-application' process consists of hours of interviews with asylum seekers, NGOs, and the Asylum Service office on the ground in Athens, as well as an analysis of the Greek Asylum Service historical asylum registration statistics. This study presents three main findings: the delays associated with the Skype system in Greece are the result of system design, as proven by a statistical analysis of Greek asylum registrations, NGOs have been co-opted by the state to perform state functions during the process, and the government’s use of technology is both purposefully lazy and discriminatory. In conclusion, the study argues that such asylum practices are part of a pattern of first-world migration receiving countries policies’ which discourage asylum seekers from applying and fall short of the standards in international law.

Keywords: Migration, Governance, Policy, European Union, Greece, irregular, refugee, Skype, asylum

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8 Determinants of Non-Performing Loans: An Empirical Investigation of Bank-Specific Micro-Economic Factors

Authors: Amir Ikram, Qin Su, Faisal Ijaz

Abstract:

The empirical study was undertaken to explore the determinants of non-performing loans (NPLs) of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) sector held by the commercial banks. Primary data was collected through well-structured survey questionnaire from credit analysts/bankers of 42 branches of 9 commercial banks, operating in the district of Lahore (Pakistan), for 2014-2015. Selective descriptive analysis and Pearson chi-square technique were used to illustrate and evaluate the significance of different variables affecting NPLs. Branch age, duration of the loan, and credit policy were found to be significant determinants of NPLs. The study proposes that bank-specific and SME-specific microeconomic variables directly influence NPLs, while macroeconomic factors act as intermediary variables. Framework exhibiting causal nexus of NPLs was also drawn on the basis of empirical findings. The results elaborate various origins of NPLs and suggest that they are primarily instigated by the loan sanctioning procedure of the financial institution. The paper also underlines the risk management practices adopted by the bank at branch level to averse the risk of loan default. Empirical investigation of bank-specific microeconomic factors of NPLs with respect to Pakistan’s economy is the novelty of the study. Broader strategic policy implications are provided for credit analysts and entrepreneurs.

Keywords: Small and medium enterprises, commercial banks, microeconomic factors, non-performing loans

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7 Contribution of Upper Body Kinematics on Tennis Serve Performance

Authors: Fuzail Ahmad, Ikram Hussain, Tawseef Ahmad Bhat

Abstract:

Tennis serve is characterized as one of the most prominent techniques pertaining to the success of winning a point. The study was aimed to explore the contributions of the upper body kinematics on the tennis performance during Davis Cup (Oceania Group). Four Indian International tennis players who participated in the Davis Cup held at Indore, India were inducted as the subjects for this study, with mean age 27 ± 4.79 Years, mean weight 186 ± 6.03 cm, mean weight 81.25 ± 7.41kg, respectively. The tennis serve was bifurcated into three phases viz, preparatory phase, force generation phase and follow through phase. The kinematic data for the study was recorded through the high speed canon camcorder having a shuttle speed of 1/2000, at a frame rate of 50 Hz. The data was analysed with the motion analysis software. The descriptive statistics and F-test was employed through SPSS version 17.0 for the determination of the undertaken kinematic parameters of the study, and was computed at a 0.05 level of significance with 46 degrees of freedom. Mean, standard deviation and correlation coefficient also employed to find out the relationship among the upper body kinematic parameter and performance. In the preparatory phase, the analysis revealed that no significant difference exists among the kinematic parameters of the players on the performance. However, in force generation phase, wrist velocity (r= 0.47), torso velocity (r= -0.53), racket velocity r= 0.60), and in follow through phase, torso acceleration r= 0.43), elbow angle (r= -0.48) play a significant role on the performance of the tennis serve. Therefore, players should ponder upon the velocities of the above segments at the time of preparation for the competitions.

Keywords: Kinematics, Motion Analysis, Davis Cup, tennis serve

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6 Phytochemical Screening, Antioxidant and Hepatoprotection Assessment of Extracts of Coriandrum sativm L. on Wistar Rats

Authors: Amna Beshir Medani Ahmed, Saad Mohamed Hussein Ayoub, Hiba T. Allah ALtieb Gusm ALsied, Ikram Mohamed ELtayeb

Abstract:

This study was carried out to determine the hepatoactivity and the antioxidant activity of Coiradrum sativum L. aerial part and fruit extracts against CCL4 induced acute liver damages in Wistar rats. The aerial parts and fruits part of the plant were extracted 96% ethanol with soxhlet apparatus. Hepatic injury was achieved by subcutaneous injection of 3 ml/kg of CCL4 diluted with olive oil with ratio 1:1. The extracts were mixed together 1:1 ratio and given in different doses 100,200,400 mg/kg/day for 5 days under CCL4 induction at 3rd day. The significance of differences between means by using T-test was compared among the groups. The mixture of the two extracts didn’t show any significant result in protecting liver injury (antagonistic effects), it shows high level of liver enzyme like alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT). Serological studies further confirmed the results. The results obtained were compared with silymarin (70 mg/kg/day) orally, the standard drug for hepatoprotection which show recovery close to normalization almost like that of silymarin; therefore, further studies on this plant with different ratios especially in isolated tissue to spot more light on antagonistic effects of the two extracts. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by the DPPH method. The results obtained show high anti-oxidant activity for fruits extract while slight or moderate antioxidant activity to aerial extracts.

Keywords: Silymarin, antioxidant, phytochemical screening, hepatoprotection, aerial part, Coriadrum sativum L, fruity

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5 A Comparative Study of Anti-Diabetic Activity of Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Artemisia absinthium and Combination with Difference Ratio

Authors: Ikram Mohamed ELtayeb, Ustina Saeed Barsoumbolice

Abstract:

Cinnamomum zeylanicum belong to the family Lauraceae and Artemisia absinthium belong to the family Asteraceae. Both were traditionally used as antiemetic, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic. In Sudan, the mixtures of the two plants were traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes. Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia. It is mainly classified into two major groups, type-1 and type-2. Type-2 is a combination of resistance to insulin action and an inadequate compensatory insulin secretory response. The treatment of type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM) with synthetic drugs have many side effects so many researches were conducted to overcome or reduce this side effects by using alternative medicine. The objective of this study is to investigate and compare the anti-diabetic activity of C. zeylanicum and A. absinthium and their combination with difference ratio. C. zeylanicum and A. absinthium were extracted by 96% ethanol using Soxhlet apparatus. Thirty-two rats were divided into eight groups; each group contains four rats. 1st group was administered with distilled water at dose of 10ml/kg, 2nd group had received glucose only at dose of 2g/kg intraperitoneal, the standard group (3rd group) had received Glibenclamide orally at dose of 0.45mg/kg, 4th group received 100 mg C. zeylanicum + 300 mg A. absinthium with a ratio of (25:75), 5th group received 300 mg C. zeylanicum + 100 mg A. absinthium with a ratio of (75:25), 6th group received 200 mg C. zeylanicum + 200 mg A. absinthiumwith a ratio of (50:50), 7th group received 400 mg of A. absinthium, 8th group received 400 mg of C. zeylanicum. Then the blood samples were taken Retro-orbitally at 0, 1, 2 and 4 hours and the glucose level was measured. Each plant alone and their combination with different ratios shows antidiabetic effect. The significant activity was shown by A. absinthium extract (400 mg/kg), combination of ratio of (75:25) A. absinthium: C. zeylanicum(400mg/kg) and then C. zeylanicum(400mg/kg) with p-value 0.001, 0.022, 0.030 respectively, the activity was found to be increased with time. The other combinations showed less activity with p-value > 0.05. The result concludes that the good antidiabetic activity was performed by A. absinthium alone and its activity decreased by increase combination ratio with C. zeylanicum. Which maybe explains by the antagonistic effect between the compounds of C. zeylanicum and A. absinthium.

Keywords: Artemisia absinthium, combination, antidiabetic, Cinnamomum zeylanicum

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4 Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) for Radiation Dosimetry Applications

Authors: Malik Sajjad Mehmood, Aisha Ali, Hamna Khan, Tariq Yasin, Masroor Ikram

Abstract:

Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is one of the polymers belongs to polyethylene (PE) family having monomer –CH2– and average molecular weight is approximately 3-6 million g/mol. Due its chemical, mechanical, physical and biocompatible properties, it has been extensively used in the field of electrical insulation, medicine, orthopedic, microelectronics, engineering, chemistry and the food industry etc. In order to alter/modify the properties of UHMWPE for particular application of interest, certain various procedures are in practice e.g. treating the material with high energy irradiations like gamma ray, e-beam, and ion bombardment. Radiation treatment of UHMWPE induces free radicals within its matrix, and these free radicals are the precursors of chain scission, chain accumulation, formation of double bonds, molecular emission, crosslinking etc. All the aforementioned physical and chemical processes are mainly responsible for the modification of polymers properties to use them in any particular application of our interest e.g. to fabricate LEDs, optical sensors, antireflective coatings, polymeric optical fibers, and most importantly for radiation dosimetry applications. It is therefore, to check the feasibility of using UHMWPE for radiation dosimetery applications, the compressed sheets of UHMWPE were irradiated at room temperature (~25°C) for total dose values of 30 kGy and 100 kGy, respectively while one were kept un-irradiated as reference. Transmittance data (from 400 nm to 800 nm) of e-beam irradiated UHMWPE and its hybrids were measured by using Muller matrix spectro-polarimeter. As a result significant changes occur in the absorption behavior of irradiated samples. To analyze these (radiation induced) changes in polymer matrix Urbach edge method and modified Tauc’s equation has been used. The results reveal that optical activation energy decreases with irradiation. The values of activation energies are 2.85 meV, 2.48 meV, and 2.40 meV for control, 30 kGy, and 100 kGy samples, respectively. Direct and indirect energy band gaps were also found to decrease with irradiation due to variation of C=C unsaturation in clusters. We believe that the reported results would open new horizons for radiation dosimetery applications.

Keywords: Radiation Dosimetry, electron beam, Tauc’s equation, UHMWPE, Urbach method

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3 In vitro Susceptibility of Isolated Shigella flexneri and Shigella dysenteriae to the Ethanolic Extracts of Trachyspermum ammi and Peganum harmala

Authors: Ikram Mohamed ELtayeb, Ibrahim Siddig Hamid

Abstract:

Trachyspermum ammi belongs to the family Apiaceae, is used traditionally for the treatment of gastrointestinal ailments, lack of appetite and bronchial problems as well used as antiseptic, antimicrobial, antipyretic, febrifugal and in the treatment of typhoid fever. Peganum harmala belongs to the family Zygophyllaceae it has been reported to have an antibacterial activity and used to treat depression and recurring fevers. It also used to kill algae, bacteria, intestinal parasites and molds. In Sudan, the combination of two plants are traditionally used for the treatment of bacillary dysentery. Bacillary dysentery is caused by one or more types of Shigella species bacteria mainly Shigella dysenteri and shigella flexneri. Bacillary dysentery is mainly found in hot countries like Sudan with poor hygiene and sanitation. Bacillary dysentery causes sudden onset of high fever and chills, abdominal pain, cramps and bloating, urgency to pass stool, weight loss, and dehydration and if left untreated it can lead to serious complications including delirium, convulsions and coma. A serious infection like this can be fatal within 24 hours. The objective of this study is to investigate the in vitro susceptibility of Sh. flexneri and Sh. dysenteriae to the T. ammi and P. harmala. T. ammi and P. harmala were extracted by 96% ethanol using Soxhlet apparatus. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was investigated according to the disc diffusion method. The discs were prepared by soaking sterilized filter paper discs in 20 microliter of serially diluted solutions of each plant extract with the concentrations (100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25mg/dl) then placing them on Muller Hinton Agar plates that were inoculated with bacterial suspension separately, the plates were incubated for 24 hours at 37c and the minimum inhibitory concentration of the extract which was the least concentration of the extract to inhibit fungal growth was determined. The results showed the high antimicrobial activity of T. ammi extract with an average diameter zone ranging from 18-20 mm and its minimum inhibitory concentration was found to be 25 mg/ml against the two shigella species. P. harmala extract was found to have slight antibacterial effect against the two bacteria. This result justified the Sudanese traditional use of Trachyspermum ammi plant for the treatment of bacillary dysentery.

Keywords: Shigella, harmala, peganum, trachyspermum

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2 Phytochemical Screening and Assessment of Hepatoprotective Activity of Geigeria alata Leaves Ethanolic Extract on Wistar Rats

Authors: Girgis Younan, Ikram Eltayeb

Abstract:

Geigeria alata belongs to the family Asteraceae, is an effective plant traditionally used in Sudan as a therapy for hepatic disease and as an antiepileptic, antispasmodic and to treat cough and intestinal complaints.The liver is responsible for many critical functions within the body and any liver disease or injury will result in the loss of those functions leading to significant damage in the body. Liver diseases cause increase in liver enzymes (AST, ALP ALT) and total bilirubin and a decrease in total blood protein level. The objective of this study is to investigate the hepato-protective activity of Geigeria alata leaves ethanolic extract. The plant leaves were extracted using 96% ethanol using Soxhlet apparatus. The hepatoprotective effect was determined using 25 wistar rats, the rats was divided to 5 groups, each group contain 5 rats: [Normal control group] receiving purified water, liver damage was induced in wistar rats by administering a 1:1 (v/v) mixture of CCl4 (1.25 ml/kg) and olive oil once at day four of the experiment [negative control group]. Two doses of extract [400mg/kg and 200mg/kg] was applied daily for 7 days, and standard drug Silymarin (200 mg/kg) were administered daily for 7 days to CCl4-treated rats. The degree of hepato-protective activity was evaluated by determining the hepatic marker enzymes AST, ALP, ALT, total Bilirubin and total proteins (TP). Results have shown that, the extract of G.alata leaves reduced the level of liver enzymes ALT, AST, ALP, total bilirubin and increased the level of total proteins. Since the levels of liver enzymes; bilirubin and total protein are considered as markers of liver function, the extract has proven to reduce the detrimental effects of liver toxicity induced using CCl4. The hepato-protective effect of extract on liver was found to be dose dependent, where the 400mg/kg dose of the extract exhibited higher activity than 200mg/kg dose. In addition, the effect of the higher dose (400mg/kg) of the extract was found to be higher than Silymarin standard drug. The result concludes that, G.alata leaves extract was found to exhibit profound hepato-protective activity, which justifies the traditional use of the plant for the treatment of hepatic diseases.

Keywords: extract, hepatoprotective, alata, geigeria

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1 Urban Seismic Risk Reduction in Algeria: Adaptation and Application of the RADIUS Methodology

Authors: Mehdi Boukri, Omar Amellal, Nacim Yousfi, Mounir Naili, Mohammed Naboussi Farsi, Mohamed Belazougui, Ahmed Mebarki, Nabila Guessoum, Brahim Mezazigh, Mounir Ait-Belkacem, Mohamed Bouaoud, Ikram Boukal, Aboubakr Fettar, Asma Souki

Abstract:

The seismic risk to which the urban centres are more and more exposed became a world concern. A co-operation on an international scale is necessary for an exchange of information and experiments for the prevention and the installation of action plans in the countries prone to this phenomenon. For that, the 1990s was designated as 'International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR)' by the United Nations, whose interest was to promote the capacity to resist the various natural, industrial and environmental disasters. Within this framework, it was launched in 1996, the RADIUS project (Risk Assessment Tools for Diagnosis of Urban Areas Against Seismic Disaster), whose the main objective is to mitigate seismic risk in developing countries, through the development of a simple and fast methodological and operational approach, allowing to evaluate the vulnerability as well as the socio-economic losses, by probable earthquake scenarios in the exposed urban areas. In this paper, we will present the adaptation and application of this methodology to the Algerian context for the seismic risk evaluation in urban areas potentially exposed to earthquakes. This application consists to perform an earthquake scenario in the urban centre of Constantine city, located at the North-East of Algeria, which will allow the building seismic damage estimation of this city. For that, an inventory of 30706 building units was carried out by the National Earthquake Engineering Research Centre (CGS). These buildings were digitized in a data base which comprises their technical information by using a Geographical Information system (GIS), and then they were classified according to the RADIUS methodology. The study area was subdivided into 228 meshes of 500m on side and Ten (10) sectors of which each one contains a group of meshes. The results of this earthquake scenario highlights that the ratio of likely damage is about 23%. This severe damage results from the high concentration of old buildings and unfavourable soil conditions. This simulation of the probable seismic damage of the building and the GIS damage maps generated provide a predictive evaluation of the damage which can occur by a potential earthquake near to Constantine city. These theoretical forecasts are important for decision makers in order to take the adequate preventive measures and to develop suitable strategies, prevention and emergency management plans to reduce these losses. They can also help to take the adequate emergency measures in the most impacted areas in the early hours and days after an earthquake occurrence.

Keywords: Mitigation, Seismic risk, urban areas, Algeria, Constantine, RADIUS, earthquake scenario

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