Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1574

Search results for: ISO 14001:2015

1574 A Case for Ethics Practice under the Revised ISO 14001:2015

Authors: Reuben Govender, M. L. Woermann

Abstract:

The ISO 14001 management system standard was first published in 1996. It is a voluntary standard adopted by both private and public sector organizations globally. Adoption of the ISO 14001 standard at the corporate level is done to help manage business impacts on the environment e.g. pollution control. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) revised the standard in 2004 and recently in 2015. The current revision of the standard appears to adopt a communitarian-type philosophy. The inclusion of requirements to consider external 'interested party' needs and expectations implies this philosophy. Therefore, at operational level businesses implementing ISO 14001 will have to consider needs and expectations beyond local laws. Should these external needs and expectations be included in the scope of the environmental management system, they become requirements to be complied with in much the same way as compliance to laws. The authors assert that the recent changes to ISO 14001 introduce an ethical dimension to the standard. The authors assert that business ethics as a discipline now finds relevance in ISO 14001 via contemporary stakeholder theory and discourse ethics. Finally, the authors postulate implications of (not) addressing these requirements before July 2018 when transition to the revised standard must be complete globally.

Keywords: business ethics, environmental ethics, ethics practice, ISO 14001:2015

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1573 Relationship between ISO 14001 and Market Performance of Firms in China: An Institutional and Market Learning Perspective

Authors: Hammad Riaz, Abubakr Saeed

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Environmental Management System (EMS), i.e., ISO 14001 helps to build corporate reputation, legitimacy and can also be considered as firms’ strategic response to institutional pressure to reduce the impact of business activity on natural environment. The financial outcomes of certifying with ISO 14001 are still unclear and equivocal. Drawing on institutional and market learning theories, the impact of ISO 14001 on firms’ market performance is examined for Chinese firms. By employing rigorous event study approach, this paper compared ISO 14001 certified firms with non-certified counterpart firms based on different matching criteria that include size, return on assets and industry. The results indicate that the ISO 14001 has been negatively signed by the investors both in the short and long-run. This paper suggested implications for policy makers, managers, and other nonprofit organizations.

Keywords: ISO 14001, legitimacy, institutional forces, event study approach, emerging markets

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1572 Lean Environmental Management Integration System (LEMIS) Framework Development

Authors: A. P. Puvanasvaran, Suresh A. L. Vasu, N. Norazlin

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The Lean Environmental Management Integration System (LEMIS) framework development is integration between lean core element and ISO 14001. The curiosity on the relationship between continuous improvement and sustainability of lean implementation has influenced this study toward LEMIS. Characteristic of ISO 14001 standard clauses and core elements of lean principles are explored from past studies and literature reviews. Survey was carried out on ISO 14001 certified companies to examine continual improvement by implementing the ISO 14001 standard. The study found that there is a significant and positive relationship between Lean Principles: value, value stream, flow, pull and perfection with the ISO 14001 requirements. LEMIS is significant to support the continuous improvement and sustainability. The integration system can be implemented to any manufacturing company. It gives awareness on the importance on why organizations need to sustain its Environmental management system. At the meanwhile, the lean principle can be adapted in order to streamline daily activities of the company. Throughout the study, it had proven that there is no sacrifice or trade-off between lean principles with ISO 14001 requirements. The framework developed in the study can be further simplified in the future, especially the method of crossing each sub requirements of ISO 14001 standard with the core elements of Lean principles in this study.

Keywords: LEMIS, ISO 14001, integration, framework

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1571 The Prospects and Challenges of Adopting an Environmental Management System by Higher Education Institutions in Lebanon

Authors: May A. Massoud, R. Harissi

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The fundamental principle and overall goal of an Environmental Management System is the concept of continual improvement. The implementation of such a system reveals a commitment to compliance and sustainable development. This research project aims at identifying and evaluating the prospects and challenges facing the adoption of ISO 14001 standard in the higher education system of Lebanon. It examines the corresponding barriers, drivers and incentives associated with the implementation of the standard. For this purpose, primary data were collected using quantitative method. The results revealed a significant lack of knowledge and sense of responsibility towards ISO 14001 standard and environmental accountability. Improving educational and social responsibility, improving environmental performance and enhancing institution image are the most noticeable drivers to adopt ISO 14001. The main perceived barriers for acquiring the standard are unclear benefits of ISO 14001, the lack of government support and the fact that the standard is not seen as a priority by top management. Lebanese Higher Education institutions are far likely to consider ISO 14001 before having proper accreditation programs or until ISO 14001 become widely-known in the Lebanese economic sectors.

Keywords: ISO 14001, higher education institution, environmental management, system

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1570 The Implementation of Organizational Ecoinnovativeness as an Expression of a Strategic Approach of an Organization

Authors: Marzena Hajduk-Stelmachowicz

Abstract:

This paper presents the reasons why the implementation of the organizational eco-innovation (based on requirements of the International Standard ISO 14001) can be an expression of a strategic organization approach. An elaboration about different issues associated with the Environmental Management Systems are given.

Keywords: envionmental management system, ISO 14001, organizational ecoinnovativeness, ecoinnovation

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1569 The Impact Of Environmental Management System ISO 14001 Adoption on Firm Performance

Authors: Raymond Treacy, Paul Humphreys, Ronan McIvor, Trevor Cadden, Alan McKittrick

Abstract:

This study employed event study methodology to examine the role of institutions, resources and dynamic capabilities in the relationship between the Environmental Management System ISO 14001 adoption and firm performance. Utilising financial data from 140 ISO 14001 certified firms and 320 non-certified firms, the results of the study suggested that the UK and Irish manufacturers were not implementing ISO 14001 solely to gain legitimacy. In contrast, the results demonstrated that firms were fully integrating the ISO 14001 standard within their operations as certified firms were able to improve both financial and operating performance when compared to non-certified firms. However, while there were significant and long lasting improvements for employee productivity, manufacturing cost efficiency, return on assets and sales turnover, the sample firms operating cycle and fixed asset efficiency displayed evidence of diminishing returns in the long-run, underlying the observation that no operating advantage based on incremental improvements can be everlasting. Hence, there is an argument for investing in dynamic capabilities which help renew and refresh the resource base and help the firm adapt to changing environments. Indeed, the results of the regression analysis suggest that dynamic capabilities for innovation acted as a moderator in the relationship between ISO 14001 certification and firm performance. This, in turn, will have a significant and symbiotic influence on sustainability practices within the participating organisations. The study not only provides new and original insights, but demonstrates pragmatically how firms can take advantage of environmental management systems as a moderator to significantly enhance firm performance. However, while it was shown that firm innovation aided both short term and long term ROA performance, adaptive market capabilities only aided firms in the short-term at the marketing strategy deployment stage. Finally, the results have important implications for firms operating in an economic recession as the results suggest that firms should scale back investment in R&D while operating in an economic downturn. Conversely, under normal trading conditions, consistent and long term investments in R&D was found to moderate the relationship between ISO 14001 certification and firm performance. Hence, the results of the study have important implications for academics and management alike.

Keywords: supply chain management, environmental management systems, quality management, sustainability, firm performance

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1568 Environmental Quality On-Line Monitoring Based on Enterprises Resource Planning on Implementation ISO 14001:2004

Authors: Ahmad Badawi Saluy

Abstract:

This study aims to develop strategies for the prevention or elimination of environmental pollution as well as changes in external variables of the environment in order to implement the environmental management system ISO 14001:2004 by integrating analysis of environmental issues data, RKL-RPL transactional data and regulation as part of ERP on the management dashboard. This research uses a quantitative descriptive approach with analysis method comparing with air quality standard (PP 42/1999, LH 21/2008), water quality standard (permenkes RI 416/1990, KepmenLH 51/2004, kepmenLH 55/2013 ), and biodiversity indicators. Based on the research, the parameters of RPL monitoring have been identified, among others, the quality of emission air (SO₂, NO₂, dust, particulate) due to the influence of fuel quality, combustion performance in a combustor and the effect of development change around the generating area. While in water quality (TSS, TDS) there was an increase due to the flow of water in the cooling intake carrying sedimentation from the flow of Banjir Kanal Timur. Including compliance with the ISO 14001:2004 clause on application design significantly contributes to the improvement of the quality of power plant management.

Keywords: environmental management systems, power plant management, regulatory compliance , enterprises resource planning

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1567 A Semantical Investigation on Physician Assisted Suicide in Canada between 1993 and 2015

Authors: Gabrielle Pilliat

Abstract:

The Supreme Court of Canada rendered unconstitutional the sections of the Canadian Criminal Code which prohibited the Physician-assisted suicide in February 2015. However, in 1993, the same Supreme Court of Canada ruled that Physician-assisted suicide should remain absolutely prohibited. In the light of these historical facts, we will explore how the Supreme Court of Canada was able to make two different decisions 20 years apart. To understand how Canada could rule so differently between 1993 and 2015 about Physician-assisted suicide, we will analyze the content of the Supreme Court of Canada decisions’ discourse of 1993 and of 2015. Our preliminary results indicate that A) the patient autonomy (or the personal choice) has taken over the idea of the preservation of life (or the sacred character of life) in 2015. B) That between 1993 and 2015, the physician is seen differently by the Judges; like an abusive murderer in 1993 and like an objective evaluator in 2015. C) That the patient is seen as a victim in 1993 and more like a hero in 2015.

Keywords: physician-assisted suicide, patient autonomy, choice, sacred character of life, dignity

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1566 Evaluation of Environmental Management System Implementation of Construction Projects in Turkey

Authors: Aydemir Akyürek, Osman Nuri Ağdağ

Abstract:

Construction industry is in a rapid development for many years around the world and especially in Turkey. In the last three years sector has 10% growth and provides significant support on Turkey’s national economy. Many construction projects are on-going at urban and rural areas of Turkey which have substantial environmental impacts. Environmental impacts during construction phase are quite diversified and widespread. Environmental impacts of construction industry cannot be inspected properly in all cases and negative impacts may occur frequently in many projects in Turkey. In this study, implementation of ISO 14001 Environmental Management System (EMS) in construction plants is evaluated. In the beginning stage quality management systems generally reviewed and ISO 14001 EMS is selected for implementation. Standard requirements are examined first and implementation of every standard requirement is elaborated for the selected construction plant in the following stage. Key issues and common problems, gained benefits by execution of this type of international EMS standard are examined. As can be seen in sample projects, construction projects are being completed very fast and contractors are working in a highly competitive environment with low profit ratios in our country and mostly qualified work force cannot be accessible. Addition to this there are deficits on waste handling and environmental infrastructure. Besides construction companies which have substantial investments on EMSs can be faced with difficulties on competitiveness in domestic market, however professional Turkish contractors which implementing managements systems in larger scale at international projects are gaining successful results. Also the concept of ‘construction project management’ which is being implemented in successful projects worldwide cannot be implemented except larger projects in Turkey. In case of nonexistence of main management system (quality) implementation of EMSs cannot be managed. Despite all constraints, EMSs that will be implemented in this industry with commitment of top managements and demand of customers will be an enabling, facilitating tool to determine environmental aspects and impacts of construction sites, will provide higher compliance levels for environmental legislation, to establish best available methods for operational control on waste management, chemicals management etc. and to plan monitoring and measurement, to prioritize environmental aspects for investment schedules and waste management.

Keywords: environmental management system, construction projects, ISO 14001, quality

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1565 Analysis of Impact of Flu Vaccination on Acute Respiratory Viral Infections (ARVI) Morbidity among Population in South Kazakhstan Region, 2010-2015

Authors: Karlygash Tulendieva

Abstract:

Presently vaccination is the most effective method of prevention of flu and its complications. The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of the increase of coverage of the population of South Kazakhstan region with flu vaccination and decrease of the ARVI morbidity. The analysis was performed on the data of flu vaccination of risk groups, including children under one year and pregnant women. Data on ARVI morbidity during 2010-2015 and data on vaccination were taken from the reports of the Epidemiological Surveillance Unit of Department of Consumers’ Rights Protection of South Kazakhstan region. Coverage with flu vaccination of the risk groups was annually increasing and in 2015 it reached 16% (450,000/2,800,682) from the total population. The ARVI morbidity rate in the entire population in 2010 was 2,010.4 per 100,000 of the population and decreased 3.2 times to 609.9 per 100,000 of the population in 2015. Annual growth was observed from 2010 to 2015 of specific weight of the vaccinated main risk groups: healthcare workers by 51% (from 17,331 in 2010 to 33,538 in 2015), children with chronic pulmonary and cardio-vascular diseases, immune deficiency, weak and sickly children above six months by 39% (from 63,122 in 2010 to 158,023 in 2015), adults with chronic co-morbidities by 27% (from 44,271 in 2010 to 162,595 in 2015), persons above 65 by 17% (from 10,276 in 2010 to 57,875 in 2015), and annual coverage of pregnant women on second or third trimester from 34,443 in 2010 to 37,969 in 2015. Starting from 2013 and until 2015 vaccination was performed in the region with coverage of at least 90% of children from 6 months to one year. The ARVI morbidity in this age group decreased 3.3 times from 8,687.8 per 100,000 of the population in 2010 to 2,585.8 per 100,000 of the population in 2015. Vaccination of pregnant women on 2-3 trimester was started in the region in 2012. Annual increase of vaccination coverage of pregnant women from 86.1% (34,443/40,000) in 2012 to 95% (37,969/40,000) in 2015 decreased the morbidity 1.5 times from 4,828.8 per 100,000 of population in 2012 to 3,022.7 per 100,000 of population in 2015. Following the increase of vaccination coverage of the population in South Kazakhstan region, the trend was observed of decrease of ARVI morbidity rates among the population and main risk groups, among pregnant women and children under one year.

Keywords: acute respiratory viral infections, flu, risk groups, vaccination

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1564 Integrating Carbon Footprint into Supply Chain Management of Manufacturing Companies: Sri Lanka

Authors: Shirekha Layangani, Suneth Dharmaparakrama

Abstract:

When the manufacturing industry is concerned the Environment Management System (EMS) is a common term. Currently most organizations have obtained the environmental standard certification, ISO 14001. In the Sri Lankan context even though the organizations adopt Environmental Management, a very limited number of companies tend to calculate their Carbon Footprints. This research discusses the demotivating factors of manufacturing organizations in Sri Lanka to integrate calculation of carbon footprint into their supply chains. Further it also identifies the benefits that manufacturing organizations can gain by implementing calculation of carbon footprint. The manufacturing companies listed under “ISO 14001” certification were considered in this study in order to investigate the problems mentioned above. 100% enumeration was used when the surveys were carried out. In order to gather essential data two surveys were designed to be done among manufacturing organizations that are currently engaged in calculating their carbon footprint and the organizations that have not. The survey among the first set of manufacturing organizations revealed the benefits the organizations were able to gain by implementing calculation of carbon footprint. The latter set organizations revealed the demotivating factors that have influenced not to integrate calculation of carbon footprint into their supply chains. This paper has summarized the results obtained by the surveys and segregated depending on the market share of the manufacturing organizations. Further it has indicated the benefits that can be obtained by implementing carbon footprint calculation, depending on the market share of the manufacturing entity. Finally the research gives suggestions to manufacturing organizations on applicability of adopting carbon footprint calculation depending on the benefits that can be obtained.

Keywords: carbon footprint, environmental management systems (EMS), benefits of carbon footprint, ISO14001

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1563 Analysis of Sentinel Epidemiological Surveillance of Severe Acute Respiratory Infections in the Republic of Kazakhstan during Seasons 2014/2015 - 2015/2016

Authors: Ardak Myrzabekova

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Sentinel epidemiological surveillance (SES) of severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) was introduced in the Republic of Kazakhstan in 2008. The purpose of this study was to analyze SES of flu among SARI patients in the Republic of Kazakhstan during last two flu seasons. Comparative analysis was conducted of SARI morbidity during 40 – 23 weeks of 2014/2015 (season 2014) and 2015/2016 (season 2015) in online base (http:\\ses.dec.kz). In the database during season 2014 were 1,398 SARI patients and 1,985 patients during season 2015. Individual data (clinical, epidemiological and laboratory) of SARI cases were collected based on the questionnaire and were put into the flu electronic system. The studied population was residents of the Republic of Kazakhstan who addressed for medical help in 24 sentinel in-patient clinics in 9 sentinel regions of the country. Swabs from nose and throat were taken for laboratory testing from SARI patients who met the standard case definition. The samples were examined in virology labs of sentinel regions using PCR and 'AmpliSens' test systems made in Russia. The first positive results for flu during season 2014 were obtained on 48 week, during season 2015 – on 46 week. The increase of the number of hospitalized SARI patients was observed during 42 week of 2015 – 01 week of 2016, and during 03 - 06 weeks of 2016, with fluctuating SARI incidence rate from 171 to 444 per 1,000 hospitalized. The highest SARI incidence rate during season 2014 were observed during 01 - 03 weeks of 2015: from 389 to 466 per 1,000 hospitalized. Patients admitted to the ICU during season 2015 were 3.0% (60) SARI patients, compared to 2.7% (38) in 2014 (p=0.3), obtaining oxygen therapy 1.0% (21) compared to 0.3% (5), accordingly, (р=0.009); with shortness of breath 74.8% (1,486) compared to 72.6% (1,015), (р=0.07); with impairment of consciousness 1.0% (21) compared to 0.6% (9), (р=0.11); with muscle pain 19.3% (384) compared to 13.6% (191), (р < 0.001); with joint pain 13.3% (265) compared to 9.3% (131), (p < 0.001). During season 2015 the prevailing subtype of flu А was А/Н1N1-09, it was observed mainly in the age group 30-64: 32.5% (169/520). During season 2014 flu А/Н3N2 was observed mainly in the age group 15-29: 43.6% (106/243). Among children under 14 flu А/Н1N1-09 during season 2015 was 37.3% (194/520), during season 2014 flu А/Н3N2 – 34.9% (85/243). Earlier beginning of the flu season was noted in 2015-2016 and a longer period of hospitalization of SARI patients, with high SARI morbidity rates, unlike season 2014-2015. Season 2015-2016 was characterized by prevailing circulation of virus of flu А/Н1N1-09, mainly in the age group 30-64, and also among children under 14. During season 2014-2015 the virus circulating in the country was А/Н3N2, which was observed mainly in the age group 15-29 and among children under 14.

Keywords: flu, electronic system, sentinel epidemiological surveillance, severe acute respiratory infections

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1562 Print Media Framing of National Disasters: A Content Analysis of the Daily Graphic and Daily Guide

Authors: Abena Abokoma Asemanyi

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The study examined how the National Disasters are framed in the print media: a study of Daily Graphic newspaper in Ghana. The communication theories employed to conduct this study was Agenda Setting Theory by McCombs and Shaw and the Framing theory by Goffman and Entman. The media’s coverage of National Disasters are of much concern to the general public. This research seeks to know how the Daily Graphic framed National Disasters that occurred in January 2015 and June 2015 respectively. The January 2015 National Disasters was termed as Fire Outbreaks while the June 2015 National Disasters was Twin Disasters. A total of 43 disaster news stories were analysed for this study. Out of the total number, 9 headline stories were analysed in the month of January 2015 and 34 headline stories were looked at in the month of June 2015. The study came up with five (5) themes. Through Content Analysis, the study also revealed that the theme of Action featured more than the other themes which are Fear, Violence, Sympathy and Confusion. Finally, the study showed the number of days disaster news headlines lasted in the Daily Graphic during the period stated above. It was revealed that the Fire Outbreaks in January 2015 appeared in the Daily Graphic for 8 days while the Twin Disasters appeared in 16 days in June 2015.

Keywords: national disaster framing, ghana, daily graphic, daily guide

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1561 Awakening in Nigerian Democracy: The Change of Government in 2015 General Election

Authors: Nura Suleiman

Abstract:

The democratic dispensation in Nigeria witnessed allot of changes since its beginning up to the 2015 election. The issues of zoning formula, rigging, money politics, god fatherism, and political thuggery among the youths became the centre stage from 1999-2014. But 2015 came with new tune that brings about a little shift from the traditional politics mentioned above, the political socialisation and knowledge penetrated into the sense of electorate where people suddenly change and look for the better option. The paper will examine the democratic change in relation to the 2015 General election which brings General MohammaduBuhari on the mantle of leadership of Nigeria. Many reasons were attributed to the sudden change of government in Nigeria, but the major ones are lack of good governance, corruption, insecurity, political parties’ merger to formed APCand change in INEC leadership. Others are weakness of the leadership and undemocratic nature of PDP government at different level in the country. The glamor for change became necessary because People become more informs about the manifestation of good hope and better Nigeria from the major opposition party (APC). During 2015 election the electorate voted the incumbent government out and replaced it with their choice.

Keywords: democracy, election, insecurity, good governance

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1560 Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Land Use and Land Cover Change in the Cocoa Belt of Ondo State, southwestern Nigeria

Authors: Emmanuel Dada, Adebayo-Victoria Tobi Dada

Abstract:

The study evaluates land use and land cover changes in the cocoa belt of Ondo state to quantify its effect on the expanse of land occupied by cocoa plantation as the most suitable region for cocoa raisin in Nigeria. Time series of satellite imagery from Landsat-7 ETM+ and Landsat-8 TIRS covering years 2000 and 2015 respectively were used. The study area was classified into six land use themes of cocoa plantation, settlement, water body, light forest and grassland, forest, and bar surface and rock outcrop. The analyses revealed that out of total land area of 997714 hectares of land of the study area, cocoa plantation land use increased by 10.3% in 2015 from 312260.6 ha in 2000. Forest land use also increased by 6.3% in 2015 from 152144.1 ha in the year 2000, water body reduced from 2954.5 ha in the year 2000 by 0.1% in 2015, settlement land use increased by 3% in 2015 from 15194.6 ha in 2000, light forest and grassland area reduced by 10.4% between 2000 and 2015 and 9.1% reduction in bar surface and rock outcrop land use between the year 2000 and 2015 respectively. The reasons for different ranges in the changes observed in the land use and land cover in the study area could be due to increase in the incentive to cocoa farmers from both government and non-governmental organizations, developed new cocoa breed that thrive better in the light forest, rapid increased in the population of cocoa farmers’ settlements, and government promulgation of forest reserve law.

Keywords: satellite imagery, land use and land cover change, area of land

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1559 The Scenario of Disaster Management in Nepal: A Case Study of Nepal Earthquakes, 2015

Authors: Sandesh Yadav

Abstract:

Earthquake constitutes one of the most terrible natural hazards which often turn into a disaster or causing extensive devastation and loss of human lives and their properties. In the year 2015, Nepal experienced the most devastating earthquakes on 25th April, 2015 and 12th May, 2015 respectively. Several villages, towns, human constructions and their properties, lives were completely damaged. The hazardous effect of Nepal earthquakes depends not only on their magnitude of Richter Scale on intensity alone, but also on so many factors, such as geology of earth crust (lithology, elasticity, soil condition, permissible stress, rock structures etc.). The unscientifically and non-seismically designed buildings resulted in huge loss of life and property. Further, the loss due to earthquake can be grouped into three broad categories namely agriculture sector (loss of livestock, poultry and food stocks), industrial sector (mainly brick production industry) and infrastructural sector (transportation infrastructure). The present research study begins with the tracing of Geological history of earthquakes in Nepal along with identification of causes of Nepal earthquakes, 2015. Secondly, research study identifies the extent of tremors of earthquakes of 2015 in Nepal and surrounding areas along with their sphere of impact. Thirdly, the research study tries to assess the agricultural loss, industrial loss and infrastructural loss due to earthquakes in Nepal. Lastly, the research study ends with the various recommendations and suggestions in order to minimize the loss due to earthquakes in the future.

Keywords: earthquake, richter scale, sphere of impact, tremors

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1558 An Evaluation of ISO 9001:2008 and ISO 9001:2015 Standard Changes in Quality Management System

Authors: Filiz Ersoz, Deniz Merdin, Taner Ersoz

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The objective of this study provides an insight into enterprises, who need to carry on their sustainability in harmony with the changing competition conditions, technology and laws, regarding the ISO 9001:2015. In the study, ISO 9001:2015, which is planned to be put in force and exists as a draft, was studied and its differences from the previous standard, ISO 9001:2008, were determined. To find out the differences, a survey was conducted among enterprises that implement a quality system. According to the findings obtained at the end of the study, it was observed that the enterprises attach importance to quality and follow the developments about quality management system, and they find the changes in the new draft document necessary.

Keywords: ISO 9001, quality, quality management system, quality revision

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1557 The Impact of PM-Based Regulations on the Concentration and Sources of Fine Organic Carbon in the Los Angeles Basin from 2005 to 2015

Authors: Abdulmalik Altuwayjiri, Milad Pirhadi, Sina Taghvaee, Constantinos Sioutas

Abstract:

A significant portion of PM₂.₅ mass concentration is carbonaceous matter (CM), which majorly exists in the form of organic carbon (OC). Ambient OC originates from a multitude of sources and plays an important role in global climate effects, visibility degradation, and human health. In this study, positive matrix factorization (PMF) was utilized to identify and quantify the long-term contribution of PM₂.₅ sources to total OC mass concentration in central Los Angeles (CELA) and Riverside (i.e., receptor site), using the chemical speciation network (CSN) database between 2005 and 2015, a period during which several state and local regulations on tailpipe emissions were implemented in the area. Our PMF resolved five different factors, including tailpipe emissions, non-tailpipe emissions, biomass burning, secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and local industrial activities for both sampling sites. The contribution of vehicular exhaust emissions to the OC mass concentrations significantly decreased from 3.5 µg/m³ in 2005 to 1.5 µg/m³ in 2015 (by about 58%) at CELA, and from 3.3 µg/m³ in 2005 to 1.2 µg/m³ in 2015 (by nearly 62%) at Riverside. Additionally, SOA contribution to the total OC mass, showing higher levels at the receptor site, increased from 23% in 2005 to 33% and 29% in 2010 and 2015, respectively, in Riverside, whereas the corresponding contribution at the CELA site was 16%, 21% and 19% during the same period. The biomass burning maintained an almost constant relative contribution over the whole period. Moreover, while the adopted regulations and policies were very effective at reducing the contribution of tailpipe emissions, they have led to an overall increase in the fractional contributions of non-tailpipe emissions to total OC in CELA (about 14%, 28%, and 28% in 2005, 2010 and 2015, respectively) and Riverside (22%, 27% and 26% in 2005, 2010 and 2015), underscoring the necessity to develop equally effective mitigation policies targeting non-tailpipe PM emissions.

Keywords: PM₂.₅, organic carbon, Los Angeles megacity, PMF, source apportionment, non-tailpipe emissions

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1556 One-Stop Culture Workshop Concept as a Way to Raise the Potential of Indonesia Culture in AEC 2015: Case Study in Saung Angklung Udjo

Authors: Meiliana, Achmad Eko Prabowo, Muhammad Fathan Mubina

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AFTA agreement in 2015 will bring a significant impact on Indonesian society. Indonesia’s people will face competition both in the economic, political, and cultural regionally among ten countries in ASEAN. Indonesia is a rich country in culture and has a large enough demographic bonus when compared to other ASEAN countries. Indonesia also has a lot of cultural enrichment in every its region. It’s mean, the role of society and culture of Indonesia's abundant if combined properly it will help Indonesia in the face of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) in 2015. This paper will discuss the role of one-stop culture workshop (OSCW) concept at Saung Angklung Udjo (SAU), a cultural tourist area of Angklung which is located in Bandung. OSCW is a concept that implemented a cultural tour in SAU that invites the visitor to engage in the cultural empowerment. In this research, we will answer how the concepts are applied by SAU can be an alternative to re-discover the potential of Indonesia in the face of the AEC 2015. Units of analysis that we used is among the programs, outcomes, and community empowerment. This study used a qualitative approach with in-depth interviews and observation. The finding of this study prove that OSCW concept is an opportunity for Indonesia to encourage a culture to go international. The concept of OSCW can really be used other communities to develop cultures of Indonesia so that later institutionalized culture that not only can be used as a tourist attraction but also as an educational laboratory for the community.

Keywords: OSCW concept, citizen empowerment, cultural tour, AEC 2015

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1555 The Effect of the 2015 Revision to the Corporate Governance Code on Japanese Listed Firms

Authors: Tomotaka Yanagida

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The Corporate Governance Code, revised in 2015, requires firms listed within the first and second sections of Japan’s Tokyo stock exchange to select two or more independent outside directors (the Corporate Governance Code4-8). Therefore, Japanese listed firms must do this or explain the reason why they are not able to do so. This study investigates how the Corporate Governance Code affects Japanese listed firms. We find that the Corporate Governance Code increases the ratio of outside directors by nearly 8.8% for a sample of Japanese firms comprising nearly 4,200 firm-year observations from 2014 to 2015 using a difference-in-differences approach. This implies that they felt it would have been difficult to explain why it was not appropriate to have an outside director at the annual shareholders' meeting. Moreover, this suggests that they appoint outside directors as defined by the Corporate Governance Code, but maintain board size. This situation shows that compliance in Japan may simply be 'window dressing,' that is, more form than substance.

Keywords: board structure, comply or explain, corporate governance code, soft law

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1554 Experimental Study on Modified Double Slope Solar Still and Modified Basin Type Double Slope Multiwick Solar Still

Authors: Piyush Pal, Rahul Dev

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Water is essential for life and fresh water is a finite resource that is becoming scarce day by day even though it is recycled by hydrological cycle. The fresh water reserves are being polluted due to expanding irrigation, industries, urban population and its development. Contaminated water leads to several health problems. With the increasing demand of fresh water, solar distillation is an alternate solution which uses solar energy to evaporate water and then to condense it, thereby collecting distilled water within or outside the same system to use it as potable water. The structure that houses the process is known as a 'solar still'. In this paper, ‘Modified double slope solar still (MDSSS)’ & 'Modified double slope basin type multiwick solar still (MDSBMSS)' have been designed to convert saline, brackish water into drinking water. In this work two different modified solar stills are fabricated to study the performance of these solar stills. For modification of solar stills, Fibre Reinforced Plastic (FRP) and Acrylic sheets are used. The experiments in MDSBMSS and MDSSS was carried on 10 September 2015 & 5 November 2015 respectively. Performances of the stills were investigated. The amount of distillate has been found 3624 Ml/day in MDSBMSS on 10 September 2015 and 2400 Ml/day in MDSSS on 5 November 2015.

Keywords: contaminated water, conventional solar still, modified solar still, wick

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1553 Time of Release of Larval Parasitoid, Cotesia plutellae (Kurdjumov) on Parasitization of Plutella xylostella L. on Cabbage

Authors: M. T. M. D. R. Perera, N. Senanayake

Abstract:

Cotesia plutellae is a locally available larval parasitoid of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, which can be used to manage P. xylostella in the field in an integrated pest management strategy. A study was undertaken to find out the best time of releasing C. plutellae for effective management of P. xylostella using three release times; 2, 3 and 4 weeks after transplanting of cabbage in farmer’s fields at Marassana in Kandy District, Sri Lanka, during Yala 2014 and 2015 seasons. Results revealed that the percentage mean values of parasitization in Yala 2015, was significantly high; 69.47 and 43.85, when introduced at 2 and 3 weeks after transplanting respectively and significantly low 23.31, when released at 4 weeks after transplanting. It is therefore evident that the parasitoid release should be done before 3 weeks, preferably at 2 weeks after transplanting of cabbage in the field. The highest percentage parasitism achieved was 83.90 at 2 weeks after transplanting in Yala 2015 and the lowest being 18.85 and 12.00% at 4 weeks after transplanting in Yala 2014 and 2015 respectively. Unparasitized larvae were able to maintain high P. xylostella populations up to harvest. Even though there is no yield advantage by using parasitoids for P. xylostella management, the cost incurred for insect pest management was greatly reduced compared to use of synthetic chemicals.

Keywords: cabbage, Cotesia plutellae, larval parasitoid, Plutella xylostella, time of release

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1552 The Analysis of Competitive Balance Progress among Five Most Valuable Football Leagues from 1966 to 2015

Authors: Seyed Salahedin Naghshbandi, Zahra Bozorgzadeh, Leila Zakizadeh, Siavash Hamidzadeh

Abstract:

From the sport economy experts point of view, the existence of competitive balance among sport leagues and its numerous effects on league is an important and undeniable issue. In general, sport events fans are so eager to unpredictable results of competition in order to reach the top of excitement and necessary motivation for following competitions. The purpose of this research is to consider and compare the competitive balance among five provisional European football leagues (Spain, England, Italy, France and Germany) during 1966 - 2015 seasons. Research data are secondary and obtained from Premier League final tables of selected countries in 1966 - 2015 seasons. For analyzing data, C5 and C5ICB indicators used. whatever these indicators be less, more balance establishes in the league and vice-versa. The result showed that Le champion of France reached from 1,259 to 1,395; Italy Serie-A league from 1,316 to 1,432; England premier league from 1, 342 to 1,455; Germany Bundesliga from 1,238 to 1,465 and Spain La liga from 1,295 to 1,495. So by comparing C5ICB charts during 1966 - 2015 seasons, La liga of Spain moved more toward imbalance and enjoyed less balance with other European Leagues. Also, La champion of France during the mentioned season, enjoyed less imbalance and preserved its relative balance with monotonous process. It seems that football in France has been followed as stable during 1966 to 2015, and prediction of results was more difficult and competitions were so attractive for spectators, but in Italy, England, Germany, and Spain there were less balance, respectively.

Keywords: competitive balance, professional football league, competition, C5ICB

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1551 Impact of Newspaper Coverage of 2015 General Elections in Nigeria

Authors: Shola H. Adeosun, Lekan M. Togunwa, Kolawole Z. Amos

Abstract:

This paper appraises ‘Newspaper Coverage of 2015 General Election: A study of The Punch and Guardian Newspapers’. The objectives of the study were to examine how credible newspaper reports of 2015 election were and to examine the significant role Nigeria Newspapers played in the 2015 general elections. Also this study examined the extent at which the print media contributed to the success of 2015 general election and to ascertain the extent at which print media reports serve as a tool for sensitizing the masses. The research questions that guided this research include: How credible was newspaper report of 2015 general election? To what extent did the print media contributed to the success of 2015 general elections? To what extent did the print media reports serve as a tool for sensitizing the masses? The research work was given solid theoretical foundation with the review of Agenda-setting theory, Media System Dependency Theory and Normative theories. This study was given solid theoretical foundation with the review of Agenda-setting theory, Media Dependency Theory and Normative theories. The theory was conducted using content analysis method of research and 30 publications of both The Guardian and Punch Newspaper between January 1st and March 30, 2015 forms the population for this research work. Selection of the dates and editions of Newspaper under study were done using the composite week sampling technique. All the days of the week were used for the newspapers because they (The Punch and The Guardian) are published all the days of the week. Coding sheet was the tool of data collection for the content analysis of this study. Findings of the study revealed that by the Punch newspaper and Guardian has played a significant role in eradicating election malpractices in Nigeria. It therefore concludes that media is metaphoric when we termed it to be a watchdog of the nation as well the mirror through which the nation see and recognize itself. The study also recommends that Nigerian media should strike balance between entertainment stories, crisis stories, economic stories, law story, education stories, terrorism stories, health stories, sport stories, metropolitan stories instead of portraying the country as being crime oriented.

Keywords: newspaper, coverage, general elections, impact

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1550 Simulation Approach for Analyzing Transportation Energy System in South Korea

Authors: Sungjun Hong, Youah Lee, Jongwook Kim

Abstract:

In the last COP21 held in Paris on 2015, Korean government announced that Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC) was 37% based on BAU by 2030. The GHG reduction rate of the transportation sector is the strongest among all sectors by 2020. In order to cope with Korean INDC, Korean government established that 3rd eco-friendly car deployment national plans at the end of 2015. In this study, we make the energy system model for estimating GHG emissions using LEAP model.

Keywords: INDC, greenhouse gas, LEAP, transportation

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1549 Mathematical Modelling of Wastewater Collection System in Cha-Am Municipality Using PCSWMM

Authors: Thawtar Htun, Kim N. Irvine, Ranjna Jindal

Abstract:

This study aimed at modelling the wastewater collection system in Cha-Am Municipality using PCSWMM to investigate the quantity of combined sewage delivered to the aeration lagoon treatment system (ALTS). Cha-Am is a small sea resort town in Petchaburi Province located about 175 km southwest of Bangkok and is facing increasing development so it is important to understand current system performance and plan for future build out. PCSWMM was calibrated using observed ALTS inflow data for the period 15 June to 20 July 2015. The model was validated using observed ALTS inflow data for the periods 19 July to 20 October 2015 and 1 October to 31 December 2015, respectively. The 1:1 lines between modeled and observed peak flow and event volume for the calibration events qualitatively showed good correspondence. The r2 values between modeled and observed peak flow (99%) and event volume (89%) also were strong.

Keywords: combined sewer system, mathematical modelling, PCSWMM, wastewater collection system

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1548 Policy Recommendations for Reducing CO2 Emissions in Kenya's Electricity Generation, 2015-2030

Authors: Paul Kipchumba

Abstract:

Kenya is an East African Country lying at the Equator. It had a population of 46 million in 2015 with an annual growth rate of 2.7%, making a population of at least 65 million in 2030. Kenya’s GDP in 2015 was about 63 billion USD with per capita GDP of about 1400 USD. The rural population is 74%, whereas urban population is 26%. Kenya grapples with not only access to energy but also with energy security. There is direct correlation between economic growth, population growth, and energy consumption. Kenya’s energy composition is at least 74.5% from renewable energy with hydro power and geothermal forming the bulk of it; 68% from wood fuel; 22% from petroleum; 9% from electricity; and 1% from coal and other sources. Wood fuel is used by majority of rural and poor urban population. Electricity is mostly used for lighting. As of March 2015 Kenya had installed electricity capacity of 2295 MW, making a per capital electricity consumption of 0.0499 KW. The overall retail cost of electricity in 2015 was 0.009915 USD/ KWh (KES 19.85/ KWh), for installed capacity over 10MW. The actual demand for electricity in 2015 was 3400 MW and the projected demand in 2030 is 18000 MW. Kenya is working on vision 2030 that aims at making it a prosperous middle income economy and targets 23 GW of generated electricity. However, cost and non-cost factors affect generation and consumption of electricity in Kenya. Kenya does not care more about CO2 emissions than on economic growth. Carbon emissions are most likely to be paid by future costs of carbon emissions and penalties imposed on local generating companies by sheer disregard of international law on C02 emissions and climate change. The study methodology was a simulated application of carbon tax on all carbon emitting sources of electricity generation. It should cost only USD 30/tCO2 tax on all emitting sources of electricity generation to have solar as the only source of electricity generation in Kenya. The country has the best evenly distributed global horizontal irradiation. Solar potential after accounting for technology efficiencies such as 14-16% for solar PV and 15-22% for solar thermal is 143.94 GW. Therefore, the paper recommends adoption of solar power for generating all electricity in Kenya in order to attain zero carbon electricity generation in the country.

Keywords: co2 emissions, cost factors, electricity generation, non-cost factors

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1547 Enzymatic Biomonitoring of Aquatic Pollution at Jeddah Southern Red Sea Shore

Authors: Saleh Mohamed, Mohamed El-Shal, Taha Kumosani, Ahmad Mal, Youssri Ahmed, Yasser Almulaiky

Abstract:

The marine environment of the Jeddah southern red sea shore is subjected to increasing anthropogenic activities as sewage sludge draining and desalting processes. The objective of this study is to compare the quantitative responses of enzymatic biomarkers in fish from polluted area with the responses of organism from reference area. Enzymatic biomarkers as neurotoxic, antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes were evaluated in the brain and liver from Variola louti as a sentinel species sampled from both polluted and reference sites in the Jeddah southern red sea shore during four months January, April, July and October in 2014 and 2015. In brain of V. louti, the activity of acetylcholinestease (AChE) collected from reference area significantly increased 8.8 and 10.5 folds than that from polluted area in 2014 and 2015, respectively. The activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) from liver of V. louti in polluted area significantly increased 1.4, 1.27 and 3, 4.5 and 4.37, 2 and 5, 4.5 folds than that from reference area in 2014 and 2015, respectively. The levels of examined enzymes are approximately similar in the four seasons detected in 2014 and 2015 indicating that the similar components of sewage were draining in red sea. In conclusion, these findings suggest the important of enzymatic biomarkers in monitoring the pollution in Jeddah red sea shore.

Keywords: Variola louti, enzymatic biomarkers, pollution, Red sea

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1546 Decreasing Hepatitis B and Tuberculosis Vaccine Coverage Rates among Neonates in Poland, 2015-2017

Authors: Aneta Nitsch-Osuch, Beata Pawlus, Maria Pawlak

Abstract:

Introduction: Recently, the number of parents who refuse to vaccinate their children or present so-called hesitant behaviors has increased in many developed countries. The study aimed to analyze the completeness and timeliness of vaccinations against hepatitis B and tuberculosis in neonates in a single maternity hospital in Warsaw (Poland). Material and Methods: We analyzed medical records of children born in the hospital between 1st January 2015 and 31st December 2016 and calculated the proportion of newborns not vaccinated on time. Results: The percentage of unvaccinated newborns was similar in the analyzed years: 7.2% in 2015 and 6.7% in 2016. Parental decisions rather than medical contraindications caused non-immunization (4.3% vs. 2.9% in 2015, and 4.7% vs. 2% in 2016). Most parents refused both vaccinations (81%-84%), whereas 7-8% refused only hep B vaccination, and 9-11% refused alone tuberculosis vaccination. The majority of hesitant parents decided to delay both vaccinations (70-80%), while 10-11% of parents chose to delay only one vaccination (hep B). In consecutive years, an increase in the percentage of parents delaying tuberculosis vaccination was reported (10 vs. 19%). Discussion: The increase in the number of newborns who are not correctly vaccinated just after birth due to their parents' decision should be considered non-gradual, both for hepatitis B and tuberculosis. It is necessary to implement effective educational and informative measures targeted at future parents to reinforce positive attitudes towards vaccinations and to dispel doubts about them among parents who are hesitant.

Keywords: hepatitis B, tuberculosis, immunization, new-borns, coverage rate

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1545 Mass Media Representation and the Status of Women in the 2015 General Elections in Nigeria

Authors: Grace Anweh, Patience Achakpa-ikyo

Abstract:

The issue of women unfavourable representation in the mass media is long standing. While it is a worldwide problem, developing countries in Africa especially Nigeria are considered peculiar. This paper, ‘mass media representation and the status of women in the 2015, general elections in Nigeria’ therefore aimed to assess the current trend of role playing in the mass media and how this has affected general status of women in Nigeria politics with particular reference to the 2015 general elections. The study employed a review of secondary literature and data regarding previous performances of Nigeria women in politics from 1999 to 2015 and the picture that has been paid by Nigerian mass media about women. Anchoring the paper on the agenda setting theory of the mass media, the paper analysed secondary literature and discovered that from 1999 to date, women have been participating in politics but rather than improve their status in elective offices, the percentage of women for such offices is rather declining. This trend the paper concluded is attributed to the way and manner women are represented in the mass media - as not good for policy making offices except as kitchen and home managers. The paper therefore recommends that, the country should adopt the quota allocation for all the political parties in order to give women a chance to compete with their male counterparts. While women should strive towards the managerial and ownership of media houses in order to represent the interest of women in politics thus offering the opportunity for the favourable representation of women and role models for those who may want to tour a similar part.

Keywords: mass media, media representation, Nigeria elections, women

Procedia PDF Downloads 253