Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 232

Search results for: stormwater runoff

232 A Fuzzy Control System for Reducing Urban Stormwater Runoff by a Stormwater Storage Tank

Authors: Pingping Zhang, Yanpeng Cai, Jianlong Wang


Stormwater storage tank (SST) is a popular low impact development technology for reducing stormwater runoff in the construction of sponge city. At present, it is difficult to perform the automatic control of SST for reducing peak flow. In this paper, fuzzy control was introduced into the peak control of SST to improve the efficiency of reducing stormwater runoff. Firstly, the design of SST was investigated. A catchment area and a return period were assumed, a SST model was manufactured, and then the storage capacity of the SST was verified. Secondly, the control parameters of the SST based on reducing stormwater runoff were analyzed, and a schematic diagram of real-time control (RTC) system based on peak control SST was established. Finally, fuzzy control system of a double input (flow and water level) and double output (inlet and outlet valve) was designed. The results showed that 1) under the different return periods (one year, three years, five years), the SST had the effect of delayed peak control and storage by increasing the detention time, 2) rainfall, pipeline flow, the influent time and the water level in the SST could be used as RTC parameters, and 3) the response curves of flow velocity and water level fluctuated very little and reached equilibrium in a short time. The combination of online monitoring and fuzzy control was feasible to control the SST automatically. This paper provides a theoretical reference for reducing stormwater runoff and improving the operation efficiency of SST.

Keywords: stormwater runoff, stormwater storage tank, real-time control, fuzzy control

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231 Geodesign Application for Bio-Swale Design: A Data-Driven Design Approach for a Case Site in Ottawa Street North in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

Authors: Adele Pierre, Nadia Amoroso


Changing climate patterns are resulting in increased in storm severity, challenging traditional methods of managing stormwater runoff. This research compares a system of bioswales to existing curb and gutter infrastructure in a post-industrial streetscape of Hamilton, Ontario. Using the geodesign process, including rule-based set parameters and an integrated approach combining geospatial information with stakeholder input, a section of Ottawa St. North was modelled to show how green infrastructure can ease the burden on aging, combined sewer systems. Qualitative data was gathered from residents of the neighbourhood through field notes, and quantitative geospatial data through GIS and site analysis. Parametric modelling was used to generate multiple design scenarios, each visualizing resulting impacts on stormwater runoff along with their calculations. The selected design scenarios offered both an aesthetically pleasing urban bioswale street-scape system while minimizing and controlling stormwater runoff. Interactive maps, videos and the 3D model were presented for stakeholder comment via ESRI’s (Environmental System Research Institute) web-scene. The results of the study demonstrate powerful tools that can assist landscape architects in designing, collaborating and communicating stormwater strategies.

Keywords: bioswale, geodesign, data-driven and rule-based design, geodesign, GIS, stormwater management

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
230 Laboratory Analysis of Stormwater Runoff Hydraulic and Pollutant Removal Performance of Pervious Concrete Based on Seashell By-Products

Authors: Jean-Jacques Randrianarimanana, Nassim Sebaibi, Mohamed Boutouil


In order to solve problems associated with stormwater runoff in urban areas and their effects on natural and artificial water bodies, the integration of new technical solutions to the rainwater drainage becomes even more essential. Permeable pavement systems are one of the most widely used techniques. This paper presents a laboratory analysis of stormwater runoff hydraulic and pollutant removal performance of permeable pavement system using pervious pavements based on seashell products. The laboratory prototype is a square column of 25 cm of side and consists of the surface in pervious concrete, a bedding of 3 cm in height, a geotextile and a subbase layer of 50 cm in height. A series of constant simulated rain events using semi-synthetic runoff which varied in intensity and duration were carried out. The initial vertical saturated hydraulic conductivity of the entire pervious pavement system was 0.25 cm/s (148 L/m2/min). The hydraulic functioning was influenced by both the inlet flow rate value and the test duration. The total water losses including evaporation ranged between 9% to 20% for all hydraulic experiments. The temporal and vertical variability of the pollutant removal efficiency (PRE) of the system were studied for total suspended solids (TSS). The results showed that the PRE along the vertical profile was influenced by the size of the suspended solids, and the pervious paver has the highest capacity to trap pollutant than the other porous layers of the permeable pavement system after the geotextile. The TSS removal efficiency was about 80% for the entire system. The first-flush effect of TSS was observed, but it appeared only at the beginning (2 to 6 min) of the experiments. It has been shown that the PPS can capture first-flush. The project in which this study is integrated aims to contribute to both the valorization of shellfish waste and the sustainable management of rainwater.

Keywords: hydraulic, pervious concrete, pollutant removal efficiency, seashell by-products, stormwater runoff

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
229 Contributions of Natural and Human Activities to Urban Surface Runoff with Different Hydrological Scenarios (Orléans, France)

Authors: Al-Juhaishi Mohammed, Mikael Motelica-Heino, Fabrice Muller, Audrey Guirimand-Dufour, Christian Défarge


This study aims at improving the urban hydrological cycle of the Orléans agglomeration (France) and understanding the relationship between physical and chemical parameters of urban surface runoff and the hydrological conditions. In particular water quality parameters such as pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, major dissolved cations and anions, and chemical and biological oxygen demands were monitored for three types of urban water discharges (wastewater treatment plant output (WWTP), storm overflow and stormwater outfall) under two hydrologic scenarii (dry and wet weather). The first results were obtained over a period of five months.Each investigated (Ormes and l’Egoutier) outfall represents an urban runoff source that receives water from runoff roads, gutters, the irrigation of gardens and other sources of flow over the Earth’s surface that drains in its catchments and carries it to the Loire River. In wet weather conditions there is rain water runoff and an additional input from the roof gutters that have entered the stormwater system during rainfall. For the comparison the results La Chilesse is a storm overflow that was selected in our study as a potential source of waste water which is located before the (WWTP).The comparison of the physical-chemical parameters (total dissolved solids, turbidity, pH, conductivity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), concentration of major cations and anions) together with the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) helped to characterize sources of runoff waters in the different watersheds. It also helped to highlight the infiltration of wastewater in some stormwater systems that reject directly in the Loire River. The values of the conductivity measured in the outflow of Ormes were always higher than those measured in the other two outlets. The results showed a temporal variation for the Ormes outfall of conductivity from 1465 µS cm-1 in the dry weather flow to 650 µS cm-1 in the wet weather flow and also a spatial variation in the wet weather flow from 650 µS cm-1 in the Ormes outfall to 281 μS cm-1 in L’Egouttier outfall. The ultimate BOD (BOD28) showed a significant decrease in La Corne outfall from 210 mg L-1 in the wet weather flow to 75 mg L-1 in the dry weather flow because of the nutrient load that was transported by the runoff.

Keywords: BOD, COD, the Loire River, urban hydrology, urban dry and wet weather discharges, macronutrients

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228 Estimation of the Curve Number and Runoff Height Using the Arc CN-Runoff Tool in Sartang Ramon Watershed in Iran

Authors: L.Jowkar. M.Samiee


Models or systems based on rainfall and runoff are numerous and have been formulated and applied depending on the precipitation regime, temperature, and climate. In this study, the ArcCN-Runoff rain-runoff modeling tool was used to estimate the spatial variability of the rainfall-runoff relationship in Sartang Ramon in Jiroft watershed. In this study, the runoff was estimated from 6-hour rainfall. The results showed that based on hydrological soil group map, soils with hydrological groups A, B, C, and D covered 1, 2, 55, and 41% of the basin, respectively. Given that the majority of the area has a slope above 60 percent and results of soil hydrologic groups, one can conclude that Sartang Ramon Basin has a relatively high potential for producing runoff. The average runoff height for a 6-hour rainfall with a 2-year return period is 26.6 mm. The volume of runoff from the 2-year return period was calculated as the runoff height of each polygon multiplied by the area of the polygon, which is 137913486 m³ for the whole basin.

Keywords: Arc CN-Run off, rain-runoff, return period, watershed

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227 Sustainable Mitigation of Urban Stormwater Runoff: The Applicability of Green Infrastructure Approach in Finnish Climate

Authors: Rima Almalla


The purpose of the research project in Geography is to evaluate the applicability of urban green infrastructure approach in Finnish climate. The key focus will be on the operation and efficiency of green infrastructure on urban stormwater management. Green infrastructure approach refers to the employment of sufficient green covers as a modern and smart environmental solution to improve the quality of urban environments. Green infrastructure provides a wide variety of micro-scale ecosystem services, such as stormwater runoff management, regulation of extreme air temperatures, reduction of energy consumption, plus a variety of social benefits and human health and wellbeing. However, the cold climate of Finland with seasonal ground frost, snow cover and relatively short growing season bring about questions of whether green infrastructure works as efficiently as expected. To tackle this question, green infrastructure solutions will be studied and analyzed with manifold methods: stakeholder perspectives regarding existing and planned GI solutions will be collected by web based questionnaires, semi structured interviews and group discussions, and analyzed in both qualitative and quantitative methods. Targeted empirical field campaigns will be conducted on selected sites. A systematic literature review with global perspective will support the analyses. The findings will be collected, compiled and analyzed using geographic information systems (GIS). The findings of the research will improve our understanding of the functioning of green infrastructure in the Finnish environment in urban stormwater management, as a landscape element for citizens’ wellbeing, and in climate change mitigation and adaptation. The acquired information will be shared with stakeholders in interactive co-design workshops. As green covers have great demand and potential globally, the conclusions will have relevance in other cool climate regions and may support Finnish business in green infrastructure sector.

Keywords: climate change adaptation, climate change, green infrastructure, stormwater

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226 Pollutant Loads of Urban Runoff from a Mixed Residential-Commercial Catchment

Authors: Carrie Ho, Tan Yee Yong


Urban runoff quality for a mixed residential-commercial land use catchment in Miri, Sarawak was investigated for three storm events in 2011. Samples from the three storm events were tested for five water quality parameters, Namely, TSS, COD, BOD5, TP, and Pb. Concentration of the pollutants were found to vary significantly between storms, but were generally influenced by the length of antecedent dry period and the strength of rainfall intensities. Runoff from the study site showed a significant level of pollution for all the parameters investigated. Based on the National Water Quality Standards for Malaysia (NWQS), stormwater quality from the study site was polluted and exceeded class III water for TSS and BOD5 with maximum EMCs of 177 and 24 mg/L, respectively. Design pollutant load based on a design storm of 3-month average recurrence interval (ARI) for TSS, COD, BOD5, TP, and Pb were estimated to be 40, 9.4, 5.4, 1.7, and 0.06 kg/ha, respectively. The design pollutant load for the pollutants can be used to estimate loadings from similar catchments within Miri City.

Keywords: mixed land-use, urban runoff, pollutant load, national water quality

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225 Time Series Modelling and Prediction of River Runoff: Case Study of Karkheh River, Iran

Authors: Karim Hamidi Machekposhti, Hossein Sedghi, Abdolrasoul Telvari, Hossein Babazadeh


Rainfall and runoff phenomenon is a chaotic and complex outcome of nature which requires sophisticated modelling and simulation methods for explanation and use. Time Series modelling allows runoff data analysis and can be used as forecasting tool. In the paper attempt is made to model river runoff data and predict the future behavioural pattern of river based on annual past observations of annual river runoff. The river runoff analysis and predict are done using ARIMA model. For evaluating the efficiency of prediction to hydrological events such as rainfall, runoff and etc., we use the statistical formulae applicable. The good agreement between predicted and observation river runoff coefficient of determination (R2) display that the ARIMA (4,1,1) is the suitable model for predicting Karkheh River runoff at Iran.

Keywords: time series modelling, ARIMA model, river runoff, Karkheh River, CLS method

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224 Effect of Climate Change on Runoff in the Upper Mun River Basin, Thailand

Authors: Preeyaphorn Kosa, Thanutch Sukwimolseree


The climate change is a main parameter which affects the element of hydrological cycle especially runoff. Then, the purpose of this study is to determine the impact of the climate change on surface runoff using land use map on 2008 and daily weather data during January 1, 1979 to September 30, 2010 for SWAT model. SWAT continuously simulate time model and operates on a daily time step at basin scale. The results present that the effect of temperature change cannot be clearly presented on the change of runoff while the rainfall, relative humidity and evaporation are the parameters for the considering of runoff change. If there are the increasing of rainfall and relative humidity, there is also the increasing of runoff. On the other hand, if there is the increasing of evaporation, there is the decreasing of runoff.

Keywords: climate, runoff, SWAT, upper Mun River basin

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223 Simulation of Optimal Runoff Hydrograph Using Ensemble of Radar Rainfall and Blending of Runoffs Model

Authors: Myungjin Lee, Daegun Han, Jongsung Kim, Soojun Kim, Hung Soo Kim


Recently, the localized heavy rainfall and typhoons are frequently occurred due to the climate change and the damage is becoming bigger. Therefore, we may need a more accurate prediction of the rainfall and runoff. However, the gauge rainfall has the limited accuracy in space. Radar rainfall is better than gauge rainfall for the explanation of the spatial variability of rainfall but it is mostly underestimated with the uncertainty involved. Therefore, the ensemble of radar rainfall was simulated using error structure to overcome the uncertainty and gauge rainfall. The simulated ensemble was used as the input data of the rainfall-runoff models for obtaining the ensemble of runoff hydrographs. The previous studies discussed about the accuracy of the rainfall-runoff model. Even if the same input data such as rainfall is used for the runoff analysis using the models in the same basin, the models can have different results because of the uncertainty involved in the models. Therefore, we used two models of the SSARR model which is the lumped model, and the Vflo model which is a distributed model and tried to simulate the optimum runoff considering the uncertainty of each rainfall-runoff model. The study basin is located in Han river basin and we obtained one integrated runoff hydrograph which is an optimum runoff hydrograph using the blending methods such as Multi-Model Super Ensemble (MMSE), Simple Model Average (SMA), Mean Square Error (MSE). From this study, we could confirm the accuracy of rainfall and rainfall-runoff model using ensemble scenario and various rainfall-runoff model and we can use this result to study flood control measure due to climate change. Acknowledgements: This work is supported by the Korea Agency for Infrastructure Technology Advancement(KAIA) grant funded by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (Grant 18AWMP-B083066-05).

Keywords: radar rainfall ensemble, rainfall-runoff models, blending method, optimum runoff hydrograph

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222 Influence of Plant Cover and Redistributing Rainfall on Green Roof Retention and Plant Drought Stress

Authors: Lubaina Soni, Claire Farrell, Christopher Szota, Tim D. Fletcher


Green roofs are a promising engineered ecosystem for reducing stormwater runoff and restoring vegetation cover in cities. Plants can contribute to rainfall retention by rapidly depleting water in the substrate; however, this increases the risk of plant drought stress. Green roof configurations, therefore, need to provide plants the opportunity to efficiently deplete the substrate but also avoid severe drought stress. This study used green roof modules placed in a rainout shelter during a six-month rainfall regime simulated in Melbourne, Australia. Rainfall was applied equally with an overhead irrigation system on each module. Aside from rainfall, modules were under natural climatic conditions, including temperature, wind, and radiation. A single species, Ficinia nodosa, was planted with five different treatments and three replicates of each treatment. In this experiment, we tested the impact of three plant cover treatments (0%, 50% and 100%) on rainfall retention and plant drought stress. We also installed two runoff zone treatments covering 50% of the substrate surface for additional modules with 0% and 50% plant cover to determine whether directing rainfall resources towards plant roots would reduce drought stress without impacting rainfall retention. The retention performance for the simulated rainfall events was measured, quantifying all components for hydrological performance and survival on green roofs. We found that evapotranspiration and rainfall retention were similar for modules with 50% and 100% plant cover. However, modules with 100% plant cover showed significantly higher plant drought stress. Therefore, planting at a lower cover/density reduced plant drought stress without jeopardizing rainfall retention performance. Installing runoff zones marginally reduced evapotranspiration and rainfall retention, but by approximately the same amount for modules with 0% and 50% plant cover. This indicates that reduced evaporation due to the installation of the runoff zones likely contributed to reduced evapotranspiration and rainfall retention. Further, runoff occurred from modules with runoff zones faster than those without, indicating that we created a faster pathway for water to enter and leave the substrate, which also likely contributed to lower overall evapotranspiration and retention. However, despite some loss in retention performance, modules with 50% plant cover installed with runoff zones showed significantly lower drought stress in plants compared to those without runoff zones. Overall, we suggest that reducing plant cover represents a simple means of optimizing green roof performance but creating runoff zones may reduce plant drought stress at the cost of reduced rainfall retention.

Keywords: green roof, plant cover, plant drought stress, rainfall retention

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221 Automatic Flood Prediction Using Rainfall Runoff Model in Moravian-Silesian Region

Authors: B. Sir, M. Podhoranyi, S. Kuchar, T. Kocyan


Rainfall-runoff models play important role in hydrological predictions. However, the model is only one part of the process for creation of flood prediction. The aim of this paper is to show the process of successful prediction for flood event (May 15–May 18 2014). The prediction was performed by rainfall runoff model HEC–HMS, one of the models computed within Floreon+ system. The paper briefly evaluates the results of automatic hydrologic prediction on the river Olše catchment and its gages Český Těšín and Věřňovice.

Keywords: flood, HEC-HMS, prediction, rainfall, runoff

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
220 Comparison of Different Hydrograph Routing Techniques in XPSTORM Modelling Software: A Case Study

Authors: Fatema Akram, Mohammad Golam Rasul, Mohammad Masud Kamal Khan, Md. Sharif Imam Ibne Amir


A variety of routing techniques are available to develop surface runoff hydrographs from rainfall. The selection of runoff routing method is very vital as it is directly related to the type of watershed and the required degree of accuracy. There are different modelling softwares available to explore the rainfall-runoff process in urban areas. XPSTORM, a link-node based, integrated storm-water modelling software, has been used in this study for developing surface runoff hydrograph for a Golf course area located in Rockhampton in Central Queensland in Australia. Four commonly used methods, namely SWMM runoff, Kinematic wave, Laurenson, and Time-Area are employed to generate runoff hydrograph for design storm of this study area. In runoff mode of XPSTORM, the rainfall, infiltration, evaporation and depression storage for sub-catchments were simulated and the runoff from the sub-catchment to collection node was calculated. The simulation results are presented, discussed and compared. The total surface runoff generated by SWMM runoff, Kinematic wave and Time-Area methods are found to be reasonably close, which indicates any of these methods can be used for developing runoff hydrograph of the study area. Laurenson method produces a comparatively less amount of surface runoff, however, it creates highest peak of surface runoff among all which may be suitable for hilly region. Although the Laurenson hydrograph technique is widely acceptable surface runoff routing technique in Queensland (Australia), extensive investigation is recommended with detailed topographic and hydrologic data in order to assess its suitability for use in the case study area.

Keywords: ARI, design storm, IFD, rainfall temporal pattern, routing techniques, surface runoff, XPSTORM

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219 Riparian Buffer Strips’ Capability of E. coli Removal in New York Streams

Authors: Helen Sanders, Joshua Cousins


The purpose of this study is to ascertain whether riparian buffer strips could be used to reduce Escherichia Coli (E. coli) runoff into streams in Central New York. Mainstream methods currently utilized to reduce E. coli runoff include fencing and staggered fertilizing plans for agriculture. These methods still do not significantly limit E. coli and thus, pose a serious health risk to individuals who swim in contaminated waters or consume contaminated produce. One additional method still in research development involves the planting of vegetated riparian buffers along waterways. Currently, riparian buffer strips are primarily used for filtration of nitrate and phosphate runoff to slow erosion, regulate pH and, improve biodiversity within waterways. For my research, four different stream sites were selected for the study, in which rainwater runoff was collected at both the riparian buffer and the E. coli sourced runoff upstream. Preliminary results indicate that there is an average 70% decrease in E. coli content in streams at the riparian buffer strips compared to upstream runoff. This research could be utilized to include vegetated buffer planting as a method to decrease manure runoff into essential waterways.

Keywords: Escherichia coli, riparian buffer strips, vegetated riparian buffers, runoff, filtration

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218 Measuring the Amount of Eroded Soil and Surface Runoff Water in the Field

Authors: Abdulfatah Faraj Aboufayed


Water erosion is the most important problems of the soil in the Jebel Nefusa area located in north west of Libya, therefore erosion station had been established in the Faculty of Veterinary and rainfed agriculture research Station, University of the Jepel Algherbee in Zentan. The length of the station is 72.6 feet, 6 feet width, and the percentage of it's slope is 3%. The station was established to measure the mount of soil eroded and amount of surface water produced during the seasons 95/96 and 96/97 from each rain storms. The Monitoring shows that there was a difference between the two seasons in the number of rainstorms which made differences in the amount of surface runoff water and the amount of soil eroded between the two seasons. Although the slope is low (3%), the soil texture is sandy and the land ploughed twice during each season surface runoff and soil eroded occurred. The average amount of eroded soil was 3792 grams (gr) per season and the average amount of surface runoff water was 410 litter (L) per season. The amount of surface runoff water would be much greater from Jebel Nefusa upland with steep slopes and collecting of them will save a valuable amount of water which lost as a runoff while this area is in desperate of this water. The regression analysis of variance show strong correlation between rainfall depth and the other two depended variable (the amount of surface runoff water and the amount of eroded soil). It shows also strong correlation between amount of surface runoff water and amount of eroded soil.

Keywords: rain, surface runoff water, soil, water erosion, soil erosion

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217 Comparison of On-Site Stormwater Detention Policies in Australian and Brazilian Cities

Authors: Pedro P. Drumond, James E. Ball, Priscilla M. Moura, Márcia M. L. P. Coelho


In recent decades, On-site Stormwater Detention (OSD) systems have been implemented in many cities around the world. In Brazil, urban drainage source control policies were created in the 1990’s and were mainly based on OSD. The concept of this technique is to promote the detention of additional stormwater runoff caused by impervious areas, in order to maintain pre-urbanization peak flow levels. In Australia OSD, was first adopted in the early 1980’s by the Ku-ring-gai Council in Sydney’s northern suburbs and Wollongong City Council. Many papers on the topic were published at that time. However, source control techniques related to stormwater quality have become to the forefront and OSD has been relegated to the background. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the current regulations regarding OSD, the existing policies were compared in Australian cities, a country considered experienced in the use of this technique, and in Brazilian cities where OSD adoption has been increasing. The cities selected for analysis were Wollongong and Belo Horizonte, the first municipalities to adopt OSD in their respective countries, and Sydney and Porto Alegre, cities where these policies are local references. The Australian and Brazilian cities are located in Southern Hemisphere of the planet and similar rainfall intensities can be observed, especially in storm bursts greater than 15 minutes. Regarding technical criteria, Brazilian cities have a site-based approach, analyzing only on-site system drainage. This approach is criticized for not evaluating impacts on urban drainage systems and in rare cases may cause the increase of peak flows downstream. The city of Wollongong and most of the Sydney Councils adopted a catchment-based approach, requiring the use of Permissible Site Discharge (PSD) and Site Storage Requirements (SSR) values based on analysis of entire catchments via hydrograph-producing computer models. Based on the premise that OSD should be designed to dampen storms of 100 years Average Recurrence Interval (ARI) storm, the values of PSD and SSR in these four municipalities were compared. In general, Brazilian cities presented low values of PSD and high values of SSR. This can be explained by site-based approach and the low runoff coefficient value adopted for pre-development conditions. The results clearly show the differences between approaches and methodologies adopted in OSD designs among Brazilian and Australian municipalities, especially with regard to PSD values, being on opposite sides of the scale. However, lack of research regarding the real performance of constructed OSD does not allow for determining which is best. It is necessary to investigate OSD performance in a real situation, assessing the damping provided throughout its useful life, maintenance issues, debris blockage problems and the parameters related to rain-flow methods. Acknowledgments: The authors wish to thank CNPq - Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (Chamada Universal – MCTI/CNPq Nº 14/2014), FAPEMIG - Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais, and CAPES - Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior for their financial support.

Keywords: on-site stormwater detention, source control, stormwater, urban drainage

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216 Application of Global Predictive Real Time Control Strategy to Improve Flooding Prevention Performance of Urban Stormwater Basins

Authors: Shadab Shishegar, Sophie Duchesne, Genevieve Pelletier


Sustainability as one of the key elements of Smart cities, can be realized by employing Real Time Control Strategies for city’s infrastructures. Nowadays Stormwater management systems play an important role in mitigating the impacts of urbanization on natural hydrological cycle. These systems can be managed in such a way that they meet the smart cities standards. In fact, there is a huge potential for sustainable management of urban stormwater and also its adaptability to global challenges like climate change. Hence, a dynamically managed system that can adapt itself to instability of the environmental conditions is desirable. A Global Predictive Real Time Control approach is proposed in this paper to optimize the performance of stormwater management basins in terms of flooding prevention. To do so, a mathematical optimization model is developed then solved using Genetic Algorithm (GA). Results show an improved performance at system-level for the stormwater basins in comparison to static strategy.

Keywords: environmental sustainability, optimization, real time control, storm water management

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215 Governance Factors of Sustainable Stormwater Management: A Comparative Study of Case Cities in China and Sweden

Authors: Xiujuan Qiao


Cities worldwide are increasingly adopting sustainable stormwater solutions such as using green infrastructure to mitigate challenges related to stormwater, e.g., pluvial flooding, and stormwater pollution. Barriers caused by governance factors have been identified as the main reason for the slow pace of sustainable stormwater management implementation. In this study, we examined governance factors influencing local implementation in four case cities: Lund and Malmö, Sweden, and Xi’xian New Area and Zhenjiang, China. Based on systems thinking of interrelations between previously identified influencing governance factors in sustainable stormwater management (SSM), we developed a causal loop diagram (SSM-CLD) and used it to analyze 23 semi-structured interviews with local government officers in the four case cities. Based on the results, we created one SSM-CLD for each country and analyzed the main differences between these four SSM-CLDs. The results revealed that differences in governance structures can lead to differences in the influencing governance factors. In top-down political systems, e.g., China, the role of national policy in setting local leaders’ priorities is significant for SSM implementation. In political systems with more power devolved to local governments, e.g., Sweden, public awareness and local government politicians’ priorities are important for SSM implementation. Acquiring funding for long-term maintenance was identified as a challenge in all four cities studied. These results are relevant for policymakers, local government departments, consultancy companies, and researchers seeking a better understanding of how governance factors influence sustainable stormwater management.

Keywords: sustainable stormwater management, causal loop diagram, governance structures, local government priorities, public awareness, maintenance

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214 Applications of Analytical Probabilistic Approach in Urban Stormwater Modeling in New Zealand

Authors: Asaad Y. Shamseldin


Analytical probabilistic approach is an innovative approach for urban stormwater modeling. It can provide information about the long-term performance of a stormwater management facility without being computationally very demanding. This paper explores the application of the analytical probabilistic approach in New Zealand. The paper presents the results of a case study aimed at development of an objective way of identifying what constitutes a rainfall storm event and the estimation of the corresponding statistical properties of storms using two selected automatic rainfall stations located in the Auckland region in New Zealand. The storm identification and the estimation of the storm statistical properties are regarded as the first step in the development of the analytical probabilistic models. The paper provides a recommendation about the definition of the storm inter-event time to be used in conjunction with the analytical probabilistic approach.

Keywords: hydrology, rainfall storm, storm inter-event time, New Zealand, stormwater management

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213 Optimizing Stormwater Sampling Design for Estimation of Pollutant Loads

Authors: Raja Umer Sajjad, Chang Hee Lee


Stormwater runoff is the leading contributor to pollution of receiving waters. In response, an efficient stormwater monitoring program is required to quantify and eventually reduce stormwater pollution. The overall goals of stormwater monitoring programs primarily include the identification of high-risk dischargers and the development of total maximum daily loads (TMDLs). The challenge in developing better monitoring program is to reduce the variability in flux estimates due to sampling errors; however, the success of monitoring program mainly depends on the accuracy of the estimates. Apart from sampling errors, manpower and budgetary constraints also influence the quality of the estimates. This study attempted to develop optimum stormwater monitoring design considering both cost and the quality of the estimated pollutants flux. Three years stormwater monitoring data (2012 – 2014) from a mix land use located within Geumhak watershed South Korea was evaluated. The regional climate is humid and precipitation is usually well distributed through the year. The investigation of a large number of water quality parameters is time-consuming and resource intensive. In order to identify a suite of easy-to-measure parameters to act as a surrogate, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied. Means, standard deviations, coefficient of variation (CV) and other simple statistics were performed using multivariate statistical analysis software SPSS 22.0. The implication of sampling time on monitoring results, number of samples required during the storm event and impact of seasonal first flush were also identified. Based on the observations derived from the PCA biplot and the correlation matrix, total suspended solids (TSS) was identified as a potential surrogate for turbidity, total phosphorus and for heavy metals like lead, chromium, and copper whereas, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) was identified as surrogate for organic matter. The CV among different monitored water quality parameters were found higher (ranged from 3.8 to 15.5). It suggests that use of grab sampling design to estimate the mass emission rates in the study area can lead to errors due to large variability. TSS discharge load calculation error was found only 2 % with two different sample size approaches; i.e. 17 samples per storm event and equally distributed 6 samples per storm event. Both seasonal first flush and event first flush phenomena for most water quality parameters were observed in the study area. Samples taken at the initial stage of storm event generally overestimate the mass emissions; however, it was found that collecting a grab sample after initial hour of storm event more closely approximates the mean concentration of the event. It was concluded that site and regional climate specific interventions can be made to optimize the stormwater monitoring program in order to make it more effective and economical.

Keywords: first flush, pollutant load, stormwater monitoring, surrogate parameters

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212 The Relationship between Land Use Change and Runoff

Authors: Thanutch Sukwimolseree, Preeyaphorn Kosa


Many problems are occurred in watershed due to human activity and economic development. The purpose is to determine the effects of the land use change on surface runoff using land use map on 1980, 2001 and 2008 and daily weather data during January 1, 1979 to September 30, 2010 applied to SWAT. The results can be presented that the polynomial equation is suitable to display that relationship. These equations for land use in 1980, 2001 and 2008 are consisted of y = -0.0076x5 + 0.1914x4–1.6386x3 + 6.6324x2–8.736x + 7.8023(R2 = 0.9255), y = -0.0298x5 + 0.8794x4 - 9.8056x3 + 51.99x2 - 117.04x + 96.797; (R2 = 0.9186) and y = -0.0277x5 + 0.8132x4 - 8.9598x3 + 46.498x2–101.83x +81.108 (R2 = 0.9006), respectively. Moreover, if the agricultural area is the largest area, it is a sensitive parameter to concern surface runoff.

Keywords: land use, runoff, SWAT, upper Mun River basin

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211 GIS Application in Surface Runoff Estimation for Upper Klang River Basin, Malaysia

Authors: Suzana Ramli, Wardah Tahir


Estimation of surface runoff depth is a vital part in any rainfall-runoff modeling. It leads to stream flow calculation and later predicts flood occurrences. GIS (Geographic Information System) is an advanced and opposite tool used in simulating hydrological model due to its realistic application on topography. The paper discusses on calculation of surface runoff depth for two selected events by using GIS with Curve Number method for Upper Klang River basin. GIS enables maps intersection between soil type and land use that later produces curve number map. The results show good correlation between simulated and observed values with more than 0.7 of R2. Acceptable performance of statistical measurements namely mean error, absolute mean error, RMSE, and bias are also deduced in the paper.

Keywords: surface runoff, geographic information system, curve number method, environment

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210 Runoff Estimation in the Khiyav River Basin by Using the SCS_ CN Model

Authors: F. Esfandyari Darabad, Z. Samadi


The volume of runoff caused by rainfall in the river basin has enticed the researchers in the fields of the water management resources. In this study, first of the hydrological data such as the rainfall and discharge of the Khiyav river basin of Meshkin city in the northwest of Iran collected and then the process of analyzing and reconstructing has been completed. The soil conservation service (scs) has developed a method for calculating the runoff, in which is based on the curve number specification (CN). This research implemented the following model in the Khiyav river basin of Meshkin city by the GIS techniques and concluded the following fact in which represents the usage of weight model in calculating the curve numbers that provides the possibility for the all efficient factors which is contributing to the runoff creation such as; the geometric characteristics of the basin, the basin soil characteristics, vegetation, geology, climate and human factors to be considered, so an accurate estimation of runoff from precipitation to be achieved as the result. The findings also exposed the accident-prone areas in the output of the Khiyav river basin so it was revealed that the Khiyav river basin embodies a high potential for the flood creation.

Keywords: curve number, khiyav river basin, runoff estimation, SCS

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209 Runoff Estimation Using NRCS-CN Method

Authors: E. K. Naseela, B. M. Dodamani, Chaithra Chandran


The GIS and remote sensing techniques facilitate accurate estimation of surface runoff from watershed. In the present study an attempt has been made to evaluate the applicability of Natural Resources Service Curve Number method using GIS and Remote sensing technique in the upper Krishna basin (69,425 Landsat 7 (with resolution 30 m) satellite data for the year 2012 has been used for the preparation of land use land cover (LU/LC) map. The hydrologic soil group is mapped using GIS platform. The weighted curve numbers (CN) for all the 5 subcatchments calculated on the basis of LU/LC type and hydrologic soil class in the area by considering antecedent moisture condition. Monthly rainfall data was available for 58 raingauge stations. Overlay technique is adopted for generating weighted curve number. Results of the study show that land use changes determined from satellite images are useful in studying the runoff response of the basin. The results showed that there is no significant difference between observed and estimated runoff depths. For each subcatchment, statistically positive correlations were detected between observed and estimated runoff depth (0.6Keywords: curve number, GIS, remote sensing, runoff

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208 A Review on the Development and Challenges of Green Roof Systems in Malaysia

Authors: M. F. Chow, M. F. Abu Bakar


Green roof system is considered a relatively new concept in Malaysia even though it has been implemented widely in the developed countries. Generally, green roofs provide many benefits such as enhancing aesthetical quality of the built environment, reduce urban heat island effect, reduce energy consumption, improve stormwater attenuation, and reduce noise pollution. A better understanding on the implementation of green roof system in Malaysia is crucial, as Malaysia’s climate is different if compared with the climate in temperate countries where most of the green roof studies have been conducted. This study has concentrated on the technical aspect of green roof system which focuses on i) types of plants and method of planting; ii) engineering design for green roof system; iii) its hydrological performance on reducing stormwater runoff; and iv) benefits of green roofs with respect to energy. Literature review has been conducted to identify the development and obstacles associated with green roofs systems in Malaysia. The study had identified the challenges and potentials of green roofs development in Malaysia. This study also provided the recommendations on standard design and strategies on the implementation of green roofs in Malaysia in the near future.

Keywords: engineering design, green roof, sustainable development, tropical countries

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207 Interaction of Low-Impact Development Techniques and Urban River Flooding on the Zoning – Case Study Qomroud

Authors: Mohammad Reza Kavianpour, Arsalan Behzadifard Pour, Ali Aghazadeh Cloudy, Abolfazl Moqimi


In recent decades, and with increasing of urban population and development of the city, the amount of impermeable surfaces has been increased. This cause urban runoff enhancement. This enhancement, especially in cities with urban river, increases the possibility of urban flooding caused by the river flooding interaction and urban runoff. In this research, we tried SWMM utilizes software development methods and practices that seek to reduce the impact of runoff to the river flows to reduce Qomroud and Effects using Arc GIS and HEC-RAS software on how we see the flood zone.

Keywords: flood management, SWMM, runoff, flood zone

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206 Rainfall-Runoff Forecasting Utilizing Genetic Programming Technique

Authors: Ahmed Najah Ahmed Al-Mahfoodh, Ali Najah Ahmed Al-Mahfoodh, Ahmed Al-Shafie


In this study, genetic programming (GP) technique has been investigated in prediction of set of rainfall-runoff data. To assess the effect of input parameters on the model, the sensitivity analysis was adopted. To evaluate the performance of the proposed model, three statistical indexes were used, namely; Correlation Coefficient (CC), Mean Square Error (MSE) and Correlation of Efficiency (CE). The principle aim of this study is to develop a computationally efficient and robust approach for predict of rainfall-runoff which could reduce the cost and labour for measuring these parameters. This research concentrates on the Johor River in Johor State, Malaysia.

Keywords: genetic programming, prediction, rainfall-runoff, Malaysia

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
205 Review of Hydrologic Applications of Conceptual Models for Precipitation-Runoff Process

Authors: Oluwatosin Olofintoye, Josiah Adeyemo, Gbemileke Shomade


The relationship between rainfall and runoff is an important issue in surface water hydrology therefore the understanding and development of accurate rainfall-runoff models and their applications in water resources planning, management and operation are of paramount importance in hydrological studies. This paper reviews some of the previous works on the rainfall-runoff process modeling. The hydrologic applications of conceptual models and artificial neural networks (ANNs) for the precipitation-runoff process modeling were studied. Gradient training methods such as error back-propagation (BP) and evolutionary algorithms (EAs) are discussed in relation to the training of artificial neural networks and it is shown that application of EAs to artificial neural networks training could be an alternative to other training methods. Therefore, further research interest to exploit the abundant expert knowledge in the area of artificial intelligence for the solution of hydrologic and water resources planning and management problems is needed.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, artificial neural networks, evolutionary algorithms, gradient training method, rainfall-runoff model

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204 Comparison of On-Site Stormwater Detention Real Performance and Theoretical Simulations

Authors: Pedro P. Drumond, Priscilla M. Moura, Marcia M. L. P. Coelho


The purpose of On-site Stormwater Detention (OSD) system is to promote the detention of addition stormwater runoff caused by impervious areas, in order to maintain the peak flow the same as the pre-urbanization condition. In recent decades, these systems have been built in many cities around the world. However, its real efficiency continues to be unknown due to the lack of research, especially with regard to monitoring its real performance. Thus, this study aims to compare the water level monitoring data of an OSD built in Belo Horizonte/Brazil with the results of theoretical methods simulations, usually adopted in OSD design. There were made two theoretical simulations, one using the Rational Method and Modified Puls method and another using the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) method and Modified Puls method. The monitoring data were obtained with a water level sensor, installed inside the reservoir and connected to a data logger. The comparison of OSD performance was made for 48 rainfall events recorded from April/2015 to March/2017. The comparison of maximum water levels in the OSD showed that the results of the simulations with Rational/Puls and SCS/Puls methods were, on average 33% and 73%, respectively, lower than those monitored. The Rational/Puls results were significantly higher than the SCS/Puls results, only in the events with greater frequency. In the events with average recurrence interval of 5, 10 and 200 years, the maximum water heights were similar in both simulations. Also, the results showed that the duration of rainfall events was close to the duration of monitored hydrograph. The rising time and recession time of the hydrographs calculated with the Rational Method represented better the monitored hydrograph than SCS Method. The comparison indicates that the real discharge coefficient value could be higher than 0.61, adopted in Puls simulations. New researches evaluating OSD real performance should be developed. In order to verify the peak flow damping efficiency and the value of the discharge coefficient is necessary to monitor the inflow and outflow of an OSD, in addition to monitor the water level inside it.

Keywords: best management practices, on-site stormwater detention, source control, urban drainage

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203 Urban Runoff Modeling of Ungauged Volcanic Catchment in Madinah, Western Saudi Arabia

Authors: Fahad Alahmadi, Norhan Abd Rahman, Mohammad Abdulrazzak, Zulikifli Yusop


Runoff prediction of ungauged catchment is still a challenging task especially in arid regions with a unique land cover such as volcanic basalt rocks where geological weathering and fractures are highly significant. In this study, Bathan catchment in Madinah western Saudi Arabia was selected for analysis. The aim of this paper is to evaluate different rainfall loss methods; soil conservation Services curve number (SCS-CN), green-ampt and initial-constant rate. Different direct runoff methods were evaluated: soil conservation services dimensionless unit hydrograph (SCS-UH), Snyder unit hydrograph and Clark unit hydrograph. The study showed the superiority of SCS-CN loss method and Clark unit hydrograph method for ungauged catchment where there is no observed runoff data.

Keywords: urban runoff modelling, arid regions, ungauged catchments, volcanic rocks, Madinah, Saudi Arabia

Procedia PDF Downloads 317