Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6250

Search results for: wastes treatment

6250 Wastes of Oil Drilling: Treatment Techniques and Their Effectiveness

Authors: Abbas Hadj Abbas, Hacini Massaoud, Aiad Lahcen


In Hassi-Messoud’s oil industry, the systems which are water based (WBM) are generally used for drilling in the first phase. For the rest of the well, the oil mud systems are employed (OBM). In the field of oil exploration, panoply of chemical products is employed in the drilling fluids formulation. These components of different natures and whose toxicity and biodegradability are of ill-defined parameters are; however, thrown into nature. In addition to the hydrocarbon (HC, such as diesel) which is a major constituent of oil based mud, we also can notice spills as well as a variety of other products and additives on the drilling sites. These wastes are usually stored in places called (crud wastes). These may cause major problems to the ecosystem. To treat these wastes, we have considered two methods which are: solidification/ stabilization (chemical) and thermal. So that we can evaluate the techniques of treatment, a series of analyses are performed on dozens of specimens of wastes before treatment. After that, and on the basis of our analyses of wastes, we opted for diagnostic treatments of pollution before and after solidification and stabilization. Finally, we have done some analyses before and after the thermal treatment to check the efficiency of the methods followed in the study.

Keywords: wastes treatment, the oil pollution, the norms, wastes drilling

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6249 Legal Regulation and Critical Analysis for an Effectively Treatment of Pharmaceutical Waste

Authors: Merita Dauti, Edita Alili-Idrizi, Sihana Ahmeti –Lika, Ledjan Malaj


The extermination and proper disposal of pharmaceutical wastes from expired and unused medications remains a disputable issue due to their specific nature and characteristics. Even though the hazards from these wastes are already well known in terms of environment and human health, people still treat them as usual wastes. At a national level, in many countries the management of pharmaceutical and medical wastes has been one of the main objectives in order to protect people’s health and the environment. Even though many legal regulations exist in this respect, there has not been a single law that would clearly explain the procedures of returning medicines, ways of selection, treatment and extermination of pharmaceutical wastes. This paper aims at analyzing the practices of pharmaceutical waste management and treatment in some European countries as well as a review of the legislation and official guidelines in managing these kinds of wastes and protecting the environment and human health. A suitable treatment and management of expired medications and other similar wastes would be in the interest of public health in the first place, as well as in the interest of healthcare institutions and other bodies engaged in environment protection.

Keywords: pharmaceutical waste, legal regulation, proper disposal, environment pollution

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
6248 Estimation of Desktop E-Wastes in Delhi Using Multivariate Flow Analysis

Authors: Sumay Bhojwani, Ashutosh Chandra, Mamita Devaburman, Akriti Bhogal


This article uses the Material flow analysis for estimating e-wastes in the Delhi/NCR region. The Material flow analysis is based on sales data obtained from various sources. Much of the data available for the sales is unreliable because of the existence of a huge informal sector. The informal sector in India accounts for more than 90%. Therefore, the scope of this study is only limited to the formal one. Also, for projection of the sales data till 2030, we have used regression (linear) to avoid complexity. The actual sales in the years following 2015 may vary non-linearly but we have assumed a basic linear relation. The purpose of this study was to know an approximate quantity of desktop e-wastes that we will have by the year 2030 so that we start preparing ourselves for the ineluctable investment in the treatment of these ever-rising e-wastes. The results of this study can be used to install a treatment plant for e-wastes in Delhi.

Keywords: e-wastes, Delhi, desktops, estimation

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
6247 The Effects of Agricultural Waste Compost Applications on Soil Properties

Authors: Ilker Sönmez, Mustafa Kaplan


The wastes that come out as a result of agricultural productions are disposed randomly and always by burning. Agricultural wastes have a great volume and agricultural wastes cause environmental pollution. Spent mushroom compost and cut flower carnation wastes have a serious potential in Turkey and especially in Antalya. One of the best evaluation methods of agricultural wastes is composting methods and so agricultural wastes transformed for a new product. In this study, agricultural wastes were evaluated the effects of compost and organic material on soil pH, EC, soil organic matter, and macro-micro nutrient contents of soil that it growth carnation. The effects of compost applications on soils were found to be statistically significant. Organic material applications have caused an increase in all physical and chemical parameters except for pH that pH decreased with compost added in soils. The best results among the compost applications were determined R1 compost that R1 compost included %75 Carnation Wastes + %25 Spent Mushroom Compost. The structural properties of soils can be improved with reusing of agricultural wastes by composting so it can be provided that decreasing the harmful effects of organic wastes on the environment.

Keywords: agricultural wastes, carnation wastes, composting, organic material, spent mushroom compost

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6246 A Review on the Usage of Ceramic Wastes in Concrete Production

Authors: O. Zimbili, W. Salim, M. Ndambuki


Construction and Demolition (C&D) wastes contribute the highest percentage of wastes worldwide (75%). Furthermore, ceramic materials contribute the highest percentage of wastes within the C&D wastes (54%). The current option for disposal of ceramic wastes is landfill. This is due to unavailability of standards, avoidance of risk, lack of knowledge and experience in using ceramic wastes in construction. The ability of ceramic wastes to act as a pozzolanic material in the production of cement has been effectively explored. The results proved that temperatures used in the manufacturing of these tiles (about 900 ⁰C) are sufficient to activate pozzolanic properties of clay. They also showed that, after optimization (11-14% substitution), the cement blend performs better, with no morphological differences between the cement blended with ceramic waste, and that blended with other pozzolanic materials. Sanitary ware and electrical insulator porcelain wastes are some wastes investigated for usage as aggregates in concrete production. When optimized, both produced good results, better than when natural aggregates are used. However, the research on ceramic wastes as partial substitute for fine aggregates or cement has not been overly exploited as the other areas. This review has been concluded with focus on investigating whether ceramic wall tile wastes used as partial substitute for cement and fine aggregates could prove to be beneficial since the two materials are the most high-priced during concrete production.

Keywords: blended, morphological, pozzolanic, waste

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6245 Waste Management in a Hot Laboratory of Japan Atomic Energy Agency – 2: Condensation and Solidification Experiments on Liquid Waste

Authors: Sou Watanabe, Hiromichi Ogi, Atsuhiro Shibata, Kazunori Nomura


As a part of STRAD project conducted by JAEA, condensation of radioactive liquid waste containing various chemical compounds using reverse osmosis (RO) membrane filter was examined for efficient and safety treatment of the liquid wastes accumulated inside hot laboratories. NH4+ ion in the feed solution was successfully concentrated, and NH4+ ion involved in the effluents became lower than target value; 100 ppm. Solidification of simulated aqueous and organic liquid wastes was also tested. Those liquids were successfully solidified by adding cement or coagulants. Nevertheless, optimization in materials for confinement of chemicals is required for long time storage of the final solidified wastes.

Keywords: condensation, radioactive liquid waste, solidification, STRAD project

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6244 Agricultural Solid Wastes Generation in Nigeria and Their Recycling Potentials into Building Materials

Authors: Usman Aliyu Jalam, Shuaibu Alolo Sumaila, Sa’adiya Iliyasu Muhammed


Modern building industry lays much emphasis on sophisticated materials that have high embodied energy with intrinsic distinctiveness for damaging the environment. But today, advances in solid waste management have resulted in alternative building materials as partial or complete replacement of the conventional materials like cement, aggregate etc particularly for low cost housing. Investigations carried out revealed that an estimated 18.0 million tonnes of agricultural solid wastes are being generated in Nigeria annually. This constitutes a problem not only to the natural environment but also to the built environment more particularly with the way the wastes are being dispose of. The paper has discussed the present status on the generation and utilisation of agricultural solid wastes, their recycling potentials and environmental implications. It further discovered that although considerable quantity of these wastes were found to have the potentials of being recycled as building materials, the availability of the appropriate technology remains a big challenge in the country. Moreover, majority of the wastes type have gained popularity as fuel. As such, the economic and environmental benefits of recycling the wastes and the use of the wastes as fuel need further investigation.

Keywords: agricultural waste, building, environment, materials, Nigeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
6243 Solid Waste Management through Mushroom Cultivation: An Eco Friendly Approach

Authors: Mary Josephine


Waste of certain process can be the input source of other sectors in order to reduce environmental pollution. Today there are more and more solid wastes are generated, but only very small amount of those are recycled. So, the threatening of environmental pressure to public health is very serious. The methods considered for the treatment of solid waste are biogas tanks or processing to make animal feed and fertilizer, however, they did not perform well. An alternative approach is growing mushrooms on waste residues. This is regarded as an environmental friendly solution with potential economic benefit. The substrate producers do their best to produce quality substrate at low cost. Apart from other methods, this can be achieved by employing biologically degradable wastes used as the resource material component of the substrate. Mushroom growing is a significant tool for the restoration, replenishment and remediation of Earth’s overburdened ecosphere. One of the rational methods of waste utilization involves locally available wastes. The present study aims to find out the yield of mushroom grown on locally available waste for free and to conserve our environment by recycling wastes.

Keywords: biodegradable, environment, mushroom, remediation

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
6242 Research on Eco-Sustainable Recycling of Industrial Wastes

Authors: Liliana Crăc, Nicolae Giorgi, Gheorghe Fometescu


In Romania, billions of tonnes of wastes are generated yearly, an important amount being stored within industrial dumps that covers high soil areas and affects the environment quality, especially of ground and surface waters. Landfill represents in Romania the most important way for wastes removal, over 75% being generated every year, the costs with the dumps construction being considerable. In most of the cases, the wastes generated mainly by the energy industry, oil exploitation and metallurgy, are still considered wastes with NO-use, and their removal and neutralization represent for transport, handling and storing, high non-productive expenses which raise the cost of the useful products obtained. The paper presents a recycling idea of three types of wastes in order to use them for building materials manufacturing, by promoting ECOWASTES LIFE+ project, whose aim is to demonstrate that the recycling of waste from energy industry (coal combustion waste), petroleum extraction (drilling mud) and metallurgy (steelmaking slag) is technically feasible.

Keywords: fly ash, drilled solid wastes, metallurgical slag, recycling, building materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
6241 Performance of Self-Compacting Mortars Containing Foam Glass Granulate

Authors: Brahim Safi, Djamila Aboutaleb, Mohammed Saidi, Abdelbaki Benmounah, Fahima Benbrahim


The inorganic wastes are currently used in the manufacture of concretes as mineral additions by cement substitution or as fine/coarse aggregates by replacing traditional aggregates. In this respect, this study aims to valorize the mineral wastes in particular glass wastes to produce granulated foam glass (as fine aggregates). Granulated foam glasses (GFG) were prepared from the glass powder (glass cullet) and foaming agent (limestone) according to applied manufacturing of GFG (at a heat treatment 850 ° C for 20min). After, self-compacting mortars were elaborated with fine aggregate (sand) and other variant mortars with granulated foam glass at volume ratio (0, 30, 50 and 100 %). Rheological characterization tests (fluidity) and physic-mechanical (density, porosity /absorption of water and mechanical tests) were carried out on studied mortars. The results obtained show that a slightly decreasing of compressive strength of mortars having lightness very important for building construction.

Keywords: glass wastes, lightweight aggregate, mortar, fluidity, density, mechanical strength

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6240 Starchy Wastewater as Raw Material for Biohydrogen Production by Dark Fermentation: A Review

Authors: Tami A. Ulhiza, Noor I. M. Puad, Azlin S. Azmi, Mohd. I. A. Malek


High amount of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in starchy waste can be harmful to the environment. In common practice, starch processing wastewater is discharged to the river without proper treatment. However, starchy waste still contains complex sugars and organic acids. By the right pretreatment method, the complex sugar can be hydrolyzed into more readily digestible sugars which can be utilized to be converted into more valuable products. At the same time, the global demand of energy is inevitable. The continuous usage of fossil fuel as the main source of energy can lead to energy scarcity. Hydrogen is a renewable form of energy which can be an alternative energy in the future. Moreover, hydrogen is clean and carries the highest energy compared to other fuels. Biohydrogen produced from waste has significant advantages over chemical methods. One of the major problems in biohydrogen production is the raw material cost. The carbohydrate-rich starchy wastes such as tapioca, maize, wheat, potato, and sago wastes is a promising candidate to be used as a substrate in producing biohydrogen. The utilization of those wastes for biohydrogen production can provide cheap energy generation with simultaneous waste treatment. Therefore this paper aims to review variety source of starchy wastes that has been widely used to synthesize biohydrogen. The scope includes the source of waste, the performance in yielding hydrogen, the pretreatment method and the type of culture that is suitable for starchy waste.

Keywords: biohydrogen, dark fermentation, renewable energy, starchy waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
6239 Utilization of Torula Yeast (Zymomonas mobilis) as Main/Reciprocal for Degradation of Municipal Organic Waste as Feed for Goats

Authors: Nkutere Chikezie Kanu, Nnamdi M. Anigbogu, Johnson C. Ezike


The study was carried out to investigate the performance of Red Sokoto goats fed Municipal Oranic Wastes (MOW) subjected to two methods of in vivo degradation by Torula Yeast and Zymomonas mobilis. Two combination, Torula Yeast + Zymomonas mobilis (main degradation), and Zymomonas mobilis + Torula Yeast (Reciprocal degradation) were used to degrade MOW. Eighteen Red Sokoto goats of both sexes (9 males and 9 females) of ages between 6-8 were used for the study. The goats were randomly assigned into 3 treatments groups A, B and C respectively with 6 goats per treatment. The experiment was laid in a Completely Randomized Design and replicated 3 times. Treatment A groups were fed 30% Undegraded MOW base diet +concentrate mixture, Treatment B groups were fed 30% Main degraded MOW base diet +concentrate mixture, Treatment C groups were fed 30% Reciprocal degraded MOW base diet +concentrate mixture. The result of the daily weight gain was significantly (P<0.05) better than on the other Treatments. There was significant improvement (P<0.05) on the daily feed consumption in Treatment B than on the Treatments A and C. The feed conversion ratio revealed no significant (P>0.05) differences among the treatment groups but much better in the treatment B and C, the cost of feed consumed was much higher (P>0.05) in Treatment B followed by Treatment C, while Treatment A had the lowest. The cost/ kg weight gain that was recorded in Treatment A was better (P<0.05) than the Treatment B, followed by Treatment C, while the cost of production was high (P<0.05) in Treatment B than in other treatments. The gross profit was observed best (P<0.05) on the Treatment B, followed by Treatment C while Treatment A had the lowest. The net profit as noted in this study was much better (P<0.05) in Treatment B, and Treatment C, while the least was observed in Treatment A, where the return on investment was high in Treatments B and C, while Treatment A had the lowest.

Keywords: reciprocal, torula yeast, Zymomonas mobilis, organic waste

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6238 Lagrangian Approach for Modeling Marine Litter Transport

Authors: Sarra Zaied, Arthur Bonpain, Pierre Yves Fravallo


The permanent supply of marine litter implies their accumulation in the oceans, which causes the presence of more compact wastes layers. Their Spatio-temporal distribution is never homogeneous and depends mainly on the hydrodynamic characteristics of the environment and the size and location of the wastes. As part of optimizing collect of marine plastic wastes, it is important to measure and monitor their evolution over time. For this, many research studies have been dedicated to describing the wastes behavior in order to identify their accumulation in oceans areas. Several models are therefore developed to understand the mechanisms that allow the accumulation and the displacements of marine litter. These models are able to accurately simulate the drift of wastes to study their behavior and stranding. However, these works aim to study the wastes behavior over a long period of time and not at the time of waste collection. This work investigates the transport of floating marine litter (FML) to provide basic information that can help in optimizing wastes collection by proposing a model for predicting their behavior during collection. The proposed study is based on a Lagrangian modeling approach that uses the main factors influencing the dynamics of the waste. The performance of the proposed method was assessed on real data collected from the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS). Evaluation results in the Java Sea (Indonesia) prove that the proposed model can effectively predict the position and the velocity of marine wastes during collection.

Keywords: floating marine litter, lagrangian transport, particle-tracking model, wastes drift

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
6237 Physicochemical Characterization of Waste from Vegetal Extracts Industry for Use as Briquettes

Authors: Maíra O. Palm, Cintia Marangoni, Ozair Souza, Noeli Sellin


Wastes from a vegetal extracts industry (cocoa, oak, Guarana and mate) were characterized by particle size, proximate and ultimate analysis, lignocellulosic fractions, high heating value, thermal analysis (Thermogravimetric analysis – TGA, and Differential thermal analysis - DTA) and energy density to evaluate their potential as biomass in the form of briquettes for power generation. All wastes presented adequate particle sizes to briquettes production. The wastes showed high moisture content, requiring previous drying for use as briquettes. Cocoa and oak wastes had the highest volatile matter contents with maximum mass loss at 310 ºC and 450 ºC, respectively. The solvents used in the aroma extraction process influenced in the moisture content of the wastes, which was higher for mate due to water has been used as solvent. All wastes showed an insignificant loss mass after 565 °C, hence resulting in low ash content. High carbon and hydrogen contents and low sulfur and nitrogen contents were observed ensuring a low generation of sulfur and nitrous oxides. Mate and cocoa exhibited the highest carbon and lignin content, and high heating value. The dried wastes had high heating value, from 17.1 MJ/kg to 20.8 MJ/kg. The results indicate the energy potential of wastes for use as fuel in power generation.

Keywords: agro-industrial waste, biomass, briquettes, combustion

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
6236 A Multi-Objective Methodology for Selecting Lean Initiatives in Modular Construction Companies

Authors: Saba Shams Bidhendi, Steven Goh, Andrew Wandel


The implementation of lean manufacturing initiatives has produced significant impacts in improving operational performance and reducing manufacturing wastes in the production process. However, selecting an appropriate set of lean strategies is critical to avoid misapplication of the lean manufacturing techniques and consequential increase in non-value-adding activities. To the author’s best knowledge, there is currently no methodology to select lean strategies that considers their impacts on manufacturing wastes and performance metrics simultaneously. In this research, a multi-objective methodology is proposed that suggests an appropriate set of lean initiatives based on their impacts on performance metrics and manufacturing wastes and within manufacturers’ resource limitation. The proposed methodology in this research suggests the best set of lean initiatives for implementation that have highest impacts on identified critical performance metrics and manufacturing wastes. Therefore, manufacturers can assure that implementing suggested lean tools improves their production performance and reduces manufacturing wastes at the same time. A case study was conducted to show the effectiveness and validate the proposed model and methodologies.

Keywords: lean manufacturing, lean strategies, manufacturing wastes, manufacturing performance, optimisation, decision making

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
6235 Using Construction Wastes and Recyclable Materials in Sustainable Concrete Manufacture

Authors: Mohamed T. El-Hawary, Carsten Koenke, Amr M. El-Nemr, Nagy F. Hanna


Sustainable construction materials using solid construction wastes are of great environmental and economic significance. Construction wastes, demolishing wastes, and wastes coming out from the preparation of traditional materials could be used in sustainable concrete manufacture, which is the main scope of this paper. Ceramics, clay bricks, marble, recycled concrete, and many other materials should be tested and validated for use in the manufacture of green concrete. Introducing waste materials in concrete helps in reducing the required landfills, leaving more space for land investments, and decrease the environmental impact of the concrete buildings industry in both stages -construction and demolition-. In this paper, marble aggregate is used as a replacement for the natural aggregate in sustainable green concrete production. The results showed that marble aggregates can be used as a full replacement for the natural aggregates in eco-friendly green concrete.

Keywords: coarse aggregate replacement, economical designs, green concrete, marble aggregates, sustainability, waste management

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6234 Energy Conversion from Waste Paper Industry Using Fluidized Bed Combustion

Authors: M. Dyah Ayu Yuli, S. Faisal Dhio, P. Johandi, P. Muhammad Sofyan


Pulp and paper mills generate various quantities of energy-rich biomass as wastes, depending on technological level, pulp and paper grades and wood quality. These wastes are produced in all stages of the process: wood preparation, pulp and paper manufacture, chemical recovery, recycled paper processing, waste water treatment. Energy recovery from wastes of different origin has become a generally accepted alternative to their disposal. Pulp and paper industry expresses an interest in adapting and integrating advanced biomass energy conversion technologies into its mill operations using Fluidized Bed Combustion. Industrial adoption of these new technologies has the potential for higher efficiency, lower capital cost, and safer operation than conventional operations that burn fossil fuels for energy. Incineration with energy recovery has the advantage of hygienic disposal, volume reduction, and the recovery of thermal energy by means of steam or super heated water that can be used for heating and power generation.

Keywords: biomass, fluidized bed combustion, pulp and paper mills, waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
6233 Reduction Conditions of Briquetted Solid Wastes Generated by the Integrated Iron and Steel Plant

Authors: Gökhan Polat, Dicle Kocaoğlu Yılmazer, Muhlis Nezihi Sarıdede


Iron oxides are the main input to produce iron in integrated iron and steel plants. During production of iron from iron oxides, some wastes with high iron content occur. These main wastes can be classified as basic oxygen furnace (BOF) sludge, flue dust and rolling scale. Recycling of these wastes has a great importance for both environmental effects and reduction of production costs. In this study, recycling experiments were performed on basic oxygen furnace sludge, flue dust and rolling scale which contain 53.8%, 54.3% and 70.2% iron respectively. These wastes were mixed together with coke as reducer and these mixtures are pressed to obtain cylindrical briquettes. These briquettes were pressed under various compacting forces from 1 ton to 6 tons. Also, both stoichiometric and twice the stoichiometric cokes were added to investigate effect of coke amount on reduction properties of the waste mixtures. Then, these briquettes were reduced at 1000°C and 1100°C during 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 min in a muffle furnace. According to the results of reduction experiments, the effect of compacting force, temperature and time on reduction ratio of the wastes were determined. It is found that 1 ton compacting force, 150 min reduction time and 1100°C are the optimum conditions to obtain reduction ratio higher than 75%.

Keywords: Coke, iron oxide wastes, recycling, reduction

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
6232 Conical Spouted Bed Combustor for Combustion of Vine Shoots Wastes

Authors: M. J. San José, S. Alvarez, R. López


In order to prove the applicability of a conical spouted bed combustor for the thermal exploitation of vineyard pruning wastes, the flow regimes of beds consisting of vine shoot beds and an inert bed were established under different operating conditions. The effect of inlet air temperature on the minimum spouted velocity was evaluated. Batch combustion of vine shoots in a conical spouted bed combustor was conducted at temperatures in the range 425-550 ºC with an inert bed. The experimental values of combustion efficiency of vine shoot calculated from the concentration the exhaust gases were assessed. The high experimental combustion efficiency obtained evidenced the proper suitability of the conical spouted bed combustor for the thermal combustion of vine shoots.

Keywords: biomass wastes, thermal combustion, conical spouted beds, vineyard wastes

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6231 Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Sewage Sludge and Bagasse for Biogas Recovery

Authors: Raouf Ahmed Mohamed Hassan


In Egypt, the excess sewage sludge from wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) is rapidly increasing due to the continuous increase of population, urban planning and industrial developments. Also, cane bagasses constitute an important component of Urban Solid Waste (USW), especially at the south of Egypt, which are difficult to degrade under normal composting conditions. These wastes need to be environmentally managed to reduce the negative impacts of its application or disposal. In term of biogas recovery, the anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge or bagasse separately is inefficient, due to the presence of nutrients and minerals. Also, the Carbone-Nitrogen Ratio (C/N) play an important role, sewage sludge has a ratio varies from 6-16, where cane bagasse has a ratio around 150, whereas the suggested optimum C/N ratio for anaerobic digestion is in the range of 20 to 30. The anaerobic co-digestion is presented as a successful methodology that combines several biodegradable organic substrates able to decrease the amount of output wastes by biodegradation, sharing processing facilities, reducing operating costs, while enabling recovery of biogas. This paper presents the study of co-digestion of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants as a type of organic wastes and bagasse as agriculture wastes. Laboratory-scale mesophilic and thermophilic digesters were operated with varied hydraulic retention times. Different percentage of sludge and bagasse are investigated based on the total solids (TS). Before digestion, the bagasse was subjected to grinding pretreatment and soaked in distilled water (water pretreatment). The effect of operating parameters (mixing, temperature) is investigated in order to optimize the process in the biogas production. The yield and the composition of biogas from the different experiments were evaluated and the cumulative curves were estimated. The conducted tests did show that there is a good potential to using the co-digestion of wastewater sludge and bagasse for biogas production.

Keywords: co-digestion, sewage sludge, bagasse, mixing, mesophilic, thermophilic

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
6230 Sustainable Use of Agricultural Waste to Enhance Food Security and Conserve the Environment

Authors: M. M. Tawfik, Ezzat M. Abd El Lateef, B. B. Mekki, Amany A. Bahr, Magda H. Mohamed, Gehan S. Bakhoom


The rapid increase in the world’s population coupled by decrease the arable land per capita has resulted into an increased demand for food which has in turn led to the production of large amounts of agricultural wastes, both at the farmer, municipality and city levels. Agricultural wastes can be a valuable resource for improving food security. Unfortunately, agricultural wastes are likely to cause pollution to the environment or even harm to human health. This calls for increased public awareness on the benefits and potential hazards of agricultural wastes, especially in developing countries. Agricultural wastes (residual stalks, straw, leaves, roots, husks, shells etcetera) and animal waste (manures) are widely available, renewable and virtually free, hence they can be an important resource. They can be converted into heat, steam, charcoal, methanol, ethanol, bio diesel as well as raw materials (animal feed, composting, energy and biogas construction etcetera). agricultural wastes are likely to cause pollution to the environment or even harm to human health, if it is not used in a sustainable manner. Organic wastes could be considered an important source of biofertilizer for enhancing food security in the small holder farming communities that would not afford use of expensive inorganic fertilizers. Moreover, these organic wastes contain high levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and organic matter important for improving nutrient status of soils in urban agriculture. Organic compost leading to improved crop yields and its nutritional values as compared with inorganic fertilization. This paper briefly reviews how agricultural wastes can be used to enhance food security and conserve the environment.

Keywords: agricultural waste, organic compost, environment, valuable resources

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6229 Preparation of Heterogeneous Ferrite Catalysts and Their Application for Fenton-Like Oxidation of Radioactive Organic Wastewater

Authors: Hsien T. Hsieh, Chao R. Chen, Li C. Chuang, Chin C. Shen


Fenton oxidation technology is the general strategy for the treatment of organic compounds-contained wastewater. However, a considerable amount of ferric sludge was produced during the Fenton process as secondary wastes, which were needed to be further removed from the effluent and treated. In this study, heterogeneous catalysts based on ferrite oxide (Cu-Fe-Ce-O) were synthesized and characterized, and their application for Fenton-like oxidation of simulated and actual radioactive organic wastewater was investigated. The results of TOC decomposition efficiency around 54% ~ 99% were obtained when the catalyst loading, H2O2 loading, pH, temperature, and reaction time were controlled. In this case, no secondary wastes formed and the given catalysts were able to be separated by magnetic devices and reused again.

Keywords: fenton, oxidation, heterogeneous catalyst, wastewater

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6228 Bioconversion of Orange Wastes for Pectinase Production Using Aspergillus niger under Solid State Fermentation

Authors: N. Hachemi, A. Nouani, A. Benchabane


The influence of cultivation factors such as content of ammonium sulfate, glucose and water in the culture medium and particle size of dry orange waste, on their bioconversion for pectinase production was studied using complete factorial design. a polygalacturonase (PG) was isolated using ion exchange chromatography under gradient elution 0-0,5 m/l NaCl (column equilibrate with acetate buffer pH 4,5), subsequently by sephadex G75 column chromatography was applied and the molecular weight was obtained about 51,28 KDa . Purified PG enzyme exhibits a pH and temperature optima of activity at 5 and 35°C respectively. Treatment of apple juice by purified enzyme extract yielded a clear juice, which was competitive with juice yielded by pure Sigma Aldrich Aspergillus niger enzyme.

Keywords: bioconversion, orange wastes, optimization, pectinase

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6227 Anaerobic Digestion of Organic Wastes for Biogas Production

Authors: Ayhan Varol, Aysenur Ugurlu


Due to the depletion of fossil fuels and climate change, there is a rising interest in renewable energy sources. In this concept, a wide range of biomass (energy crops, animal manure, solid wastes, etc.) are used for energy production. There has been a growing interest in biomethane production from biomass. Biomethane production from organic wastes is a promising alternative for waste management by providing organic matter stabilization. Anaerobic digestion of organic material produces biogas, and organic substrate is degraded into a more stable material. Therefore, anaerobic digestion technology helps reduction of carbon emissions and produces renewable energy. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) and organic loading rate (OLR), as well as TS (VS) loadings, influences the anaerobic digestion of organic wastes significantly. The optimum range for HRT varies between 15 days to 30 days, whereas OLR differs between 0.5 to 5 g/L.d depending on the substrate type and its lipid, protein and carbohydrate contents. The organic wastes have biogas production potential through anaerobic digestion. In this study, biomethane production potential of wastes like sugar beet bagasse, agricultural residues, food wastes, olive mill pulp, and dairy manure having different characteristics was investigated in mesophilic CSTR reactor, and their performances were compared. The reactor was mixed in order to provide homogenized content at a rate of 80 rpm. The organic matter content of these wastes was between 85 to 94 % with 61% (olive pulp) to 22 % (food waste) dry matter content. The hydraulic retention time changed between 20-30 days. High biogas productions, 13.45 to 5.70 mL/day, were achieved from the wastes studied when operated at 9 to 10.5% TS loadings where OLR varied between 2.92 and 3.95 gVS/ The results showed that food wastes have higher specific methane production rate and volumetric methane production potential than the other wastes studied, under the similar OLR values. The SBP was 680, 585, 540, 390 and 295 mL/g VS for food waste, agricultural residues, sugar beet bagasse, olive pulp and dairy manure respectively. The methane content of the biogas varied between 72 and 60 %. The volatile solids conversion rate for food waste was 62%.

Keywords: biogas production, organic wastes, biomethane, anaerobic digestion

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6226 Biogas Production from Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) Processing Waste

Authors: İ. Çelik, Goksel Demirer


Turkey is the third largest producer of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) after Iran and United States. Harvested pistachio nuts are covered with organic hull which is removed by de-hulling process. Most of the pistachio by-products which are produced during de-hulling process are considered as agricultural waste and often mixed with soil, to a lesser extent are used as feedstuff by local livestock farmers and a small portion is used as herbal medicine. Due to its high organic and phenolic content as well as high solids concentration, pistachio processing wastes create significant waste management problems unless they are properly managed. However, there is not a well-established waste management method compensating the waste generated during the processing of pistachios. This study investigated the anaerobic treatability and biogas generation potential of pistachio hull waste. The effect of pre-treatment on biogas generation potential was investigated. For this purpose, Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) Assays were conducted for two Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) concentrations of 22 and 33 g tCOD l-1 at the absence and presence of chemical and thermal pre-treatment methods. The results revealed anaerobic digestion of the pistachio de-hulling wastes and subsequent biogas production as a renewable energy source are possible. The observed percent COD removal and methane yield values of the pre-treated pistachio de-hulling waste samples were significantly higher than the raw pistachio de-hulling waste. The highest methane yield was observed as 213.4 ml CH4/g COD.

Keywords: pistachio de-hulling waste, biogas, renewable energy, pre-treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
6225 A Study of Lean Principles Implementation in the Libyan Healthcare and Industry Sectors

Authors: Nasser M. Amaitik, Ngwan F. Elsagzli


The Lean technique is very important in the service and industrial fields. It is defined as an effective tool to eliminate the wastes. In lean the wastes are defined as anything which does not add value to the end product. There are wastes that can be avoided, but some are unavoidable to many reasons. The present study aims to apply the principles of lean in two different sectors, healthcare, and industry. Two case studies have been selected to apply the experimental work. The first case was Al-Jalaa Hospital while the second case study was the Technical Company of Aluminum Sections in Benghazi, Libya. In both case studies the Value Stream Map (VSM) of the current state has been constructed. The proposed plans have been implemented by merging or eliminating procedures or processes. The results obtained from both case studies showed improvement in capacity, idle time and utilized time.

Keywords: healthcare service delivery, idle time, lean principles, utilized time, value stream mapping, wastes

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6224 Investigation of Biochar from Banana Peel

Authors: Anurita Selvarajoo, Svenja Hanson


Growing energy needs and increasing environmental issues are creating awareness for alternative energy which substitutes the non-renewable and polluting fossil fuels. Agricultural wastes are a good feedstock for biochar production through the pyrolysis process. There is potential to generate solid fuel from agricultural wastes, as there are large quantities of agricultural wastes available in Malaysia. This paper outlines the experimental study on the pyrolysis of banana peel. The effects of pyrolysis temperatures on the yield of biochar from the banana peel were investigated. Banana peel was pyrolysed in a horizontal tubular reactor under inert atmosphere by varying the temperatures between 300 and 700 0C. With increasing temperature, the total biochar yield decreased with increased heating value. It was found that the pyrolysis temperature had major effect on the yield of biochar product. It also exerted major influence on the heating value and C,H and O composition. The obtained biochar ranged between 31.9 to 56.7 %wt, at different pyrolysis temperatures. The optimum biochar yield was obtained at 325 0C. Biochar yield obtained at optimum temperature was 47 % wt with a heating value of 25.9 MJ kg-1. The study has been performed in order to demonstrate that agricultural wastes like banana peel are also important source of solid fuel.

Keywords: agricultural Wastes, banana peel, biochar, pyrolysis

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6223 Biosorption of Gold from Chloride Media in a Simultaneous Adsorption-Reduction Process

Authors: Shafiq Alam, Yen Ning Lee


Conventional hydrometallurgical processing of metals involves the use of large quantities of toxic chemicals. Realizing a need to develop sustainable technologies, extensive research studies are being carried out to recover and recycle base, precious and rare earth metals from their pregnant leach solutions (PLS) using green chemicals/biomaterials prepared from biomass wastes derived from agriculture, marine and forest resources. Our innovative research showed that bio-adsorbents prepared from such biomass wastes can effectively adsorb precious metals, especially gold after conversion of their functional groups in a very simple process. The highly effective ‘Adsorption-coupled-Reduction’ phenomenon witnessed appears promising for the potential use of this gold biosorption process in the mining industry. Proper management and effective use of biomass wastes as value added green chemicals will not only reduce the volume of wastes being generated every day in our society, but will also have a high-end value to the mining and mineral processing industries as those biomaterials would be cheap, but very selective for gold recovery/recycling from low grade ore, leach residue or e-wastes.

Keywords: biosorption, hydrometallurgy, gold, adsorption, reduction, biomass, sustainability

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6222 Highway Waste Management in Zambia Policy Preparedness and Remedies: The Case of Great East Road

Authors: Floyd Misheck Mwanza, Paul Boniface Majura


The paper looked at highways/ roadside waste generation, disposal and the consequent environmental impacts. The dramatic increase in vehicular and paved roads in the recent past in Zambia, has given rise to the indiscriminate disposal of litter that now poses a threat to health and the environment. Primary data was generated by carrying out oral interviews and field observations for holistic and in–depth assessment of the environment and the secondary data was obtained from desk review method, information on effects of roadside wastes on environment were obtained from relevant literatures. The interviews were semi structured and a purposive sampling method was adopted and analyzed descriptively. The results of the findings showed that population growth and unplanned road expansion has exceeded the expected limit in recent time with resultant poor system of roadside wastes disposal. Roadside wastes which contain both biodegradable and non-biodegradable roadside wastes are disposed at the shoulders of major highways in temporary dumpsites and are never collected by a road development agency (RDA). There is no organized highway to highway or street to street collection of the wastes in Zambia by the key organization the RDA. The study revealed that roadside disposal of roadside wastes has serious impacts on the environment. Some of these impacts include physical nuisance of the wastes to the environment, the waste dumps also serve as hideouts for rodents and snakes which are dangerous. Waste are blown around by wind making the environment filthy, most of the wastes are also been washed by overland flow during heavy downpour to block drainage channels and subsequently lead to flooding of the environment. Most of the non- biodegradable wastes contain toxic chemicals which have serious implications on the environmental sustainability and human health. The paper therefore recommends that Government/ RDA should come up with proper orientation and environmental laws should be put in place for the general public and also to provide necessary facilities and arrange for better methods of collection of wastes.

Keywords: biodegradable, disposal, environment, impacts

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6221 Synthesis of Iron-Based Perovskite Type Catalysts from Rust Wastes as a Source of Iron

Authors: M. P. Joshi, F. Deganello, L. F. Liotta, V. La Parola, G. Pantaleo


For the first time, commercial iron nitrate was replaced by rust wastes, as a source of Iron for the preparation of LaFeO₃ powders by solution combustion synthesis (SCS). A detailed comparison with a reference powder obtained by SCS, starting from a commercial iron nitrate, was also performed. Several techniques such as X-ray diffraction combined with Rietveld refinement, mass plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption measurements, temperature programmed reduction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform analysis and scanning electron microscopy were used for the characterization of the rust wastes as well as of the perovskite powders. The performance of this ecofriendly material was evaluated by testing the activity and selectivity in the propylene oxidation, in order to use it for the benefit of the environment. Characterization and performance results clearly evidenced limitations and peculiarities of this new approach.

Keywords: perovskite type catalysts, solution combustion synthesis, X-ray diffraction, rust wastes

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