Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 65

Search results for: Ezgi Kaya

65 Bounds on the Laplacian Vertex PI Energy

Authors: Ezgi Kaya, A. Dilek Maden


A topological index is a number related to graph which is invariant under graph isomorphism. In theoretical chemistry, molecular structure descriptors (also called topological indices) are used for modeling physicochemical, pharmacologic, toxicologic, biological and other properties of chemical compounds. Let G be a graph with n vertices and m edges. For a given edge uv, the quantity nu(e) denotes the number of vertices closer to u than v, the quantity nv(e) is defined analogously. The vertex PI index defined as the sum of the nu(e) and nv(e). Here the sum is taken over all edges of G. The energy of a graph is defined as the sum of the eigenvalues of adjacency matrix of G and the Laplacian energy of a graph is defined as the sum of the absolute value of difference of laplacian eigenvalues and average degree of G. In theoretical chemistry, the π-electron energy of a conjugated carbon molecule, computed using the Hückel theory, coincides with the energy. Hence results on graph energy assume special significance. The Laplacian matrix of a graph G weighted by the vertex PI weighting is the Laplacian vertex PI matrix and the Laplacian vertex PI eigenvalues of a connected graph G are the eigenvalues of its Laplacian vertex PI matrix. In this study, Laplacian vertex PI energy of a graph is defined of G. We also give some bounds for the Laplacian vertex PI energy of graphs in terms of vertex PI index, the sum of the squares of entries in the Laplacian vertex PI matrix and the absolute value of the determinant of the Laplacian vertex PI matrix.

Keywords: energy, Laplacian energy, laplacian vertex PI eigenvalues, Laplacian vertex PI energy, vertex PI index

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
64 Evaluation of Manual and Automatic Calibration Methods for Digital Tachographs

Authors: Sarp Erturk, Levent Eyigel, Cihat Celik, Muhammet Sahinoglu, Serdar Ay, Yasin Kaya, Hasan Kaya


This paper presents a quantitative analysis on the need for automotive calibration methods for digital tachographs. Digital tachographs are mandatory for vehicles used in people and goods transport and they are an important aspect for road safety and inspection. Digital tachographs need to be calibrated for workshops in order for the digital tachograph to display and record speed and odometer values correctly. Calibration of digital tachographs can be performed either manual or automatic. It is shown in this paper that manual calibration of digital tachographs is prone to errors and there can be differences between manual and automatic calibration parameters. Therefore automatic calibration methods are imperative for digital tachograph calibration. The presented experimental results and error analysis clearly support the claims of the paper by evaluating and statistically comparing manual and automatic calibration methods.

Keywords: digital tachograph, road safety, tachograph calibration, tachograph workshops

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
63 Human Smuggling and Turkey

Authors: Perihan Hazel Kaya, Mustafa Göktuğ Kaya


Turkey has been a busy destination for immigration and it will always be as it is the geographical and cultural exit door of the East and the entrance door of the West. Among these immigrations, we can see the victims of human trafficking, human smuggling, refugees and those who came here to work and live. Human smuggling, which is one of the movements of illegal immigration, is the specific subject of this work. The fact that our country lies on the transportation destinations between the continents of Asia, Europe and Africa, the crime of human smuggling is highly committed in our country. The aim of the victims of human smuggling is to go to a more developed country to have higher standards of living, to get a better job and to escape from the economic and social instability of their countries. The human smuggling, which has gathered pace due to the improvements in communication and transportation, is not a regional issue and has become one of the most important problems for almost all countries. Accordingly, the reasons, methods and extent of human smuggling will be dealt firstly. Later, it will be studied why Turkey is preffered in human smuggling. Finally, statistical data will be given to show how much human smuggling has gone far in Turkey and the study will be finished with that what is being done and what can be done to prevent it.

Keywords: human smuggling, immigration, immigrator, human trafficking, Turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
62 Carbon Nanotubes and Novel Applications for Textile

Authors: Ezgi Ismar


Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are different from other allotropes of carbon, such as graphite, diamond and fullerene. Replacement of metals in flexible textiles has an advantage. Particularly in the last decade, both their electrical and mechanical properties have become an area of interest for Li-ion battery applications where the conductivity has a major importance. While carbon nanotubes are conductive, they are also less in weight compared to convectional conductive materials. Carbon nanotubes can be used inside the fiber so they can offer to create 3-D structures. In this review, you can find some examples of how carbon nanotubes adapted to textile products.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, conductive textiles, nanotechnology, nanotextiles

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
61 Eight-Week Exercise for Women: Impact on Anomalies in Width Depth and Environmental Dimension

Authors: Yalcin Kaya, Fatma Arslan, Ahmet Selim Kaya


This study aimed to determine the undesirable hypertrophic anomalies in the body of females and to investigate how they can be affected by the exercise program according to the applied 8 week individual conditions. The research was carried out on 35 women who did not have any regular previous sports practice and had an approximate age of 30 ± 5.0 at the gymnasium because of their asymmetric structure and weight gain of the body. Measurements of width, depth, and periphery were taken from the participants' body, and the exercise protocol was applied for 8 weeks according to the individual measurements in accordance with the obtained measurements. After 8 weeks, the same measurements were applied again. Measurements were made by using ruler and paper tape. The findings were evaluated and differences were analyzed by paired sample t test. According to the findings obtained, ulnae distal proiecturas width averages were 44.77 ± 3.65 and 43.52 ± 3.47 pre- and post-exercise respectively. Bithorachanteric width averages were 29.3 ± 3.12 before exercise and 26.67 ± 3.27 after exercise. Average abdominal widths were observed as 18.64 ± 4.14 (before exercise) and 18.01 ± 6.27 (after exercise). The distances between the malleolus were measured as 16.98 ± 1.62 (before exercise) and 16.70 ± 1.64 (after exercise). The results were statistically significant (p < 0.05). The mean of pre-exercise Externus abdominis circumference was 93.97 ± 8.91, and the mean of post-exercise mean was 90.82 ± 8.24. The results are statistically significant (p < 0.05). In conclusion, findings of the study show that inactivity, daily uncontrolled activities or erroneous postural postures, malnutrition cause some anomalies in the human body. However, with consciously standardized and regular exercises, these abnormalities are reduced by an eight-week exercise protocol in parallel with the expulsion of excess kilos and can be removed when working much longer and fitter, it is proposed to be healthier and more beautiful in appearance.

Keywords: women, body, circumference-width and depth measurements, hypertrophy, exercise

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
60 Investigation of the Effects of Visually Disabled and Typical Development Students on Their Multiple Intelligence by Applying Abacus and Right Brain Training

Authors: Sidika Di̇lşad Kaya, Ahmet Seli̇m Kaya, Ibrahi̇m Eri̇k, Havva Yaldiz, Yalçin Kaya


The aim of this study was to reveal the effects of right brain development on reading, comprehension, learning and concentration levels and rapid processing skills in students with low vision and students with standard development, and to explore the effects of right and left brain integration on students' academic success and the permanence of the learned knowledge. A total of 68 students with a mean age of 10.01±0.12 were included in the study, 58 of them with standard development, 9 partially visually impaired and 1 totally visually disabled student. The student with a total visual impairment could not participate in the reading speed test due to her total visual impairment. The following data were measured in the participant students before the project; Reading speed measurement in 1 minute, Reading comprehension questions, Burdon attention test, 50 questions of math quiz timed with a stopwatch. Participants were trained for 3 weeks, 5 days a week, for a total of two hours a day. In this study, right-brain developing exercises were carried out with the use of an abacus, and it was aimed to develop both mathematical and attention of students with questions prepared with numerical data taken from fairy tale activities. Among these problems, the study was supported with multiple-choice, 5W (what, where, who, why, when?), 1H (how?) questions along with true-false and fill-in-the-blank activities. By using memory cards, students' short-term memories were strengthened, photographic memory studies were conducted and their visual intelligence was supported. Auditory intelligence was supported by aiming to make calculations by using the abacus in the minds of the students with the numbers given aurally. When calculating the numbers by touching the real abacus, the development of students' tactile intelligence is enhanced. Research findings were analyzed in SPSS program, Kolmogorov Smirnov test was used for normality analysis. Since the variables did not show normal distribution, Wilcoxon test, one of the non-parametric tests, was used to compare the dependent groups. Statistical significance level was accepted as 0.05. The reading speed of the participants was 83.54±33.03 in the pre-test and 116.25±38.49 in the post-test. Narration pre-test 69.71±25.04 post-test 97.06±6.70; BURDON pretest 84.46±14.35 posttest 95.75±5.67; rapid math processing skills pretest 90.65±10.93, posttest 98.18±2.63 (P<0.05). It was determined that the pre-test and post-test averages of students with typical development and students with low vision were also significant for all four values (p<0.05). As a result of the data obtained from the participants, it is seen that the study was effective in terms of measurement parameters, and the findings were statistically significant. Therefore, it is recommended to use the method widely.

Keywords: Abacus, reading speed, multiple intelligences, right brain training, visually impaired

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
59 Quantum Mechanics Approach for Ruin Probability

Authors: Ahmet Kaya


Incoming cash flows and outgoing claims play an important role to determine how is companies’ profit or loss. In this matter, ruin probability provides to describe vulnerability of the companies against ruin. Quantum mechanism is one of the significant approaches to model ruin probability as stochastically. Using the Hamiltonian method, we have performed formalisation of quantum mechanics < x|e-ᵗᴴ|x' > and obtained the transition probability of 2x2 and 3x3 matrix as traditional and eigenvector basis where A is a ruin operator and H|x' > is a Schroedinger equation. This operator A and Schroedinger equation are defined by a Hamiltonian matrix H. As a result, probability of not to be in ruin can be simulated and calculated as stochastically.

Keywords: ruin probability, quantum mechanics, Hamiltonian technique, operator approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
58 Quantum Mechanism Approach for Non-Ruin Probability and Comparison of Path Integral Method and Stochastic Simulations

Authors: Ahmet Kaya


Quantum mechanism is one of the most important approaches to calculating non-ruin probability. We apply standard Dirac notation to model given Hamiltonians. By using the traditional method and eigenvector basis, non-ruin probability is found for several examples. Also, non-ruin probability is calculated for two different Hamiltonian by using the tensor product. Finally, the path integral method is applied to the examples and comparison is made for stochastic simulations and path integral calculation.

Keywords: quantum physics, Hamiltonian system, path integral, tensor product, ruin probability

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
57 Comparison of the Effect of Strand Diameters, Providing Beam to Column Connection

Authors: Mustafa Kaya


In this study, the effect of pre-stressed strand diameters, providing the beam-to-column connections, was investigated from both experimental, and analytical aspects. In the experimental studies, the strength and stiffness, the capacities of the precast specimens were compared. The precast specimen with strands of 15.24 mm reached an equal strength of the reference specimen. Parallel results were obtained during the analytical studies from the aspects of strength, and behavior, but in terms of stiffness, it was seen that the initial stiffness of the analytical models was lower than that of the tested specimen.

Keywords: post-tensioned connections, beam to column connections, finite element method, strand diameter

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56 Characterization of Titanium -Niobium Alloys by Powder Metallurgy as İmplant

Authors: Eyyüp Murat Karakurt, Yan Huang, Mehmet Kaya, Hüseyin Demirtaş, Alper İncesu


In this study, Ti-(x) Nb (at. %) master alloys (x:10, 20, and 30) were fabricated following a standard powder metallurgy route and were sintered at 1200 ˚C for 6h, under 300 MPa by powder metallurgy method. The effect of the Nb concentration in Ti matrix and porosity level was examined experimentally. For metallographic examination, the alloys were analysed by optical microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometry analysis. In addition, X-ray diffraction was performed on the alloys to determine which compound formed in the microstructure. The compression test was applied to the alloys to understand the mechanical behaviors of the alloys. According to Nb concentration in Ti matrix, the β phase increased. Also, porosity level played a crucial role on the mechanical performance of the alloys.

Keywords: Nb concentration, porosity level, powder metallurgy, The β phase

Procedia PDF Downloads 112
55 An Observation of the Information Technology Research and Development Based on Article Data Mining: A Survey Study on Science Direct

Authors: Muhammet Dursun Kaya, Hasan Asil


One of the most important factors of research and development is the deep insight into the evolutions of scientific development. The state-of-the-art tools and instruments can considerably assist the researchers, and many of the world organizations have become aware of the advantages of data mining for the acquisition of the knowledge required for the unstructured data. This paper was an attempt to review the articles on the information technology published in the past five years with the aid of data mining. A clustering approach was used to study these articles, and the research results revealed that three topics, namely health, innovation, and information systems, have captured the special attention of the researchers.

Keywords: information technology, data mining, scientific development, clustering

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54 A Comprehensive Study on the Porosity Effect of Ti-20Zr Alloy Produced by Powder Metallurgy as a Biomaterial

Authors: Eyyup Murat Karakurt, Yan Huang, Mehmet Kaya, Huseyin Demirtas


In this study, the effect of the porosity effect of Ti-20Zr alloy produced by powder metallurgy as a biomaterial was investigated experimentally. The Ti based alloys (Ti-20%Zr (at.) were produced under 300 MPa, for 6 h at 1200 °C. Afterward, the microstructure of the Ti-based alloys was analyzed by optical analysis, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry. Moreover, compression tests were applied to determine the mechanical behaviour of samples. As a result, highly porous Ti-20Zr alloys exhibited an elastic modulus close to human bone. The results later were compared theoretically and experimentally.

Keywords: porosity effect, Ti based alloys, elastic modulus, compression test

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
53 Understanding the Role of Alkali-Free Accelerators in Wet-Mix Shotcrete

Authors: Ezgi Yurdakul, Klaus-Alexander Rieder, Richard Sibbick


Most of the shotcrete projects require compliance with meeting a specified early-age strength target (e.g., reaching 1 MPa in 1 hour) that is selected based on the underground conditions. To meet the desired early-age performance characteristics, accelerators are commonly used as they increase early-age strength development rate and accelerate the setting thereby reducing sagging and rebound. The selection of accelerator type and its dosage is made by the setting time and strength required for the shotcrete application. While alkaline and alkali-free accelerators are the two main types used in wet-mix shotcrete; alkali-free admixtures increasingly substitute the alkaline accelerators to improve the performance and working safety. This paper aims to evaluate the impact of alkali-free accelerators in wet-mix on various tests including set time, early and later-age compressive strength, boiled absorption, and electrical resistivity. Furthermore, the comparison between accelerated and non-accelerated samples will be made to demonstrate the interaction between cement and accelerators. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fluorescent resin impregnated thin section and cut and polished surface images will be used to understand the microstructure characterization of mixes in the presence of accelerators.

Keywords: accelerators, chemical admixtures, shotcrete, sprayed concrete

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
52 On the Effectiveness of Electricity Market Development Strategies: A Target Model for a Developing Country

Authors: Ezgi Avci-Surucu, Doganbey Akgul


Turkey’s energy reforms has achieved energy security through a variety of interlinked measures including electricity, gas, renewable energy and energy efficiency legislation; the establishment of an energy sector regulatory authority; energy price reform; the creation of a functional electricity market; restructuring of state-owned energy enterprises; and private sector participation through privatization and new investment. However, current strategies, namely; “Electricity Sector Reform and Privatization Strategy” and “Electricity Market and Supply Security Strategy” has been criticized for various aspects. The present paper analyzes the implementation of the aforementioned strategies in the framework of generation scheduling, transmission constraints, bidding structure and general aspects; and argues the deficiencies of current strategies which decelerates power investments and creates uncertainties. We conclude by policy suggestions to eliminate these deficiencies in terms of price and risk management, infrastructure, customer focused regulations and systematic market development.

Keywords: electricity markets, risk management, regulations, balancing and settlement, bilateral trading, generation scheduling, bidding structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 480
51 Stochastic Prioritization of Dependent Actuarial Risks: Preferences among Prospects

Authors: Ezgi Nevruz, Kasirga Yildirak, Ashis SenGupta


Comparing or ranking risks is the main motivating factor behind the human trait of making choices. Cumulative prospect theory (CPT) is a preference theory approach that evaluates perception and bias in decision making under risk and uncertainty. We aim to investigate the aggregate claims of different risk classes in terms of their comparability and amenability to ordering when the impact of risk perception is considered. For this aim, we prioritize the aggregate claims taken as actuarial risks by using various stochastic ordering relations. In order to prioritize actuarial risks, we use stochastic relations such as stochastic dominance and stop-loss dominance that are proposed in the frame of partial order theory. We take into account the dependency of the individual claims exposed to similar environmental risks. At first, we modify the zero-utility premium principle in order to obtain a solution for the stop-loss premium under CPT. Then, we propose a stochastic stop-loss dominance of the aggregate claims and find a relation between the stop-loss dominance and the first-order stochastic dominance under the dependence assumption by using properties of the familiar as well as some emerging multivariate claim distributions.

Keywords: cumulative prospect theory, partial order theory, risk perception, stochastic dominance, stop-loss dominance

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
50 Influence of the Growth Rate on Eutectic Microstructures and Physical Properties of Aluminum–Silicon-Cobalt Alloy

Authors: Aynur Aker, Hasan Kaya


Al-12.6wt.%Si-%2wt.Co alloy was prepared in a graphite crucible under vacuum atmosphere. The samples were directionally solidified upwards with different growth rate at constant temperature gradient using by Bridgman–type growth apparatus. The values of microstructures (λ) was measured from transverse sections of the samples. The microhardness (HV), ultimate tensile strength (σ) and electrical resistivity (ρ) of the directional solidification samples were also measured. Influence of the growth rate and spacings on microhardness, ultimate tensile strength and electrical resistivity were investigated and the relationships between them were experimentally obtained by using regression analysis. The results obtained in present work were compared with the previous similar experimental results obtained for binary and ternary alloys.

Keywords: directional solidification, Al-Si-Co alloy, mechanical properties, electrical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
49 Experimental Analysis of Electrical Energy Producing Using the Waste Heat of Exhaust Gas by the Help of Thermoelectric Generator

Authors: Dilek Ozlem Esen, Mesut Kaya


The focus of this study is to analyse the results of heat recovery from exhaust gas which is produced by an internal combustion engine (ICE). To obtain a small amount of energy, an exhaust system which is suitable for recovery waste heat has been constructed. Totally 27 TEGs have been used to convert from the heat to electric energy. By producing a small amount of this energy by the help of thermoelectric generators can reduce engine loads thus decreasing pollutant emissions, fuel consumption, and CO2. This case study is conducted in an effort to better understand and improve the performance of thermoelectric heat recovery systems for automotive use. As a result of this study, 0,45 A averaged current rate, 13,02 V averaged voltage rate and 5,8 W averaged electrical energy have been produced in a five hours operation time.

Keywords: thermoelectric, peltier, thermoelectric generator (TEG), exhaust, cogeneration

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48 Optimization of the Transfer Molding Process by Implementation of Online Monitoring Techniques for Electronic Packages

Authors: Burcu Kaya, Jan-Martin Kaiser, Karl-Friedrich Becker, Tanja Braun, Klaus-Dieter Lang


Quality of the molded packages is strongly influenced by the process parameters of the transfer molding. To achieve a better package quality and a stable transfer molding process, it is necessary to understand the influence of the process parameters on the package quality. This work aims to comprehend the relationship between the process parameters, and to identify the optimum process parameters for the transfer molding process in order to achieve less voids and wire sweep. To achieve this, a DoE is executed for process optimization and a regression analysis is carried out. A systematic approach is represented to generate models which enable an estimation of the number of voids and wire sweep. Validation experiments are conducted to verify the model and the results are presented.

Keywords: dielectric analysis, electronic packages, epoxy molding compounds, transfer molding process

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
47 Difficulties Encountered in the Process of Supporting Reading Skills of a Student with Hearing Loss Whose Inclusion Was Ongoing and Solution Proposals

Authors: Ezgi Tozak, H. Pelin Karasu, Umit Girgin


In this study, difficulties encountered in the process of supporting the reading skills of a student with hearing loss whose inclusion was ongoing and the solutions improved during the practice process were examined. The study design was action research. Participants of this study, which was conducted between the dates of 29 September 2016 and 22 February 2017, consisted of a student with hearing loss, a classroom teacher, a teacher in the rehabilitation center, researcher/teacher and validity committee members. The data were obtained through observations, validity committee meeting, interviews, documents, and the researcher diary. Research findings show that in the process of supporting reading skills of the student with hearing loss, the student's knowledge of concepts was limited, and the student had difficulties in feeling and identification of sounds, reading and understanding words-sentences and retelling what he/she listened to. With the purpose of overcoming these difficulties in the implementation process, activities were prepared towards concepts, sound education, reading and understanding words and sentences, and retelling what you listen to; these activities were supported with visual materials and real objects and repeated with diversities.

Keywords: inclusion, reading process, supportive education, student with hearing loss

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
46 Measurements of Physical Properties of Directionally Solidified Al-Si-Cu Ternary Alloy

Authors: Aynur Aker, Hasan Kaya


Al-12.6wt.%Si-2wt.%Cu ternary alloy of near eutectic composition was directionally solidified upward at a constant temperature gradient in a wide range of growth rates (V=8.25-165.41 µm/s). The microstructures (λ), microhardness (HV), tensile stress (σ) and electrical resistivity (ρ) were measured from directionally solidified samples. The dependence of microstructures, microhardness and electrical resistivity on growth rate (V) was also determined by statistical analysis. According to these results, it has been found that for increasing values of V, the values of HV, σ and ρ increase. Variations of electrical resistivity for casting Al-Si-Cu alloy were also measured at the temperature in range 300-500 K. The enthalpy (ΔH) and the specific heat (Cp) for the Al-Si-Cu alloy were determined by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) from heating trace during the transformation from solid to liquid. The results obtained in this work were compared with the similar experimental results in the literature.

Keywords: Al-Si-Cu alloy, microstructures, micro-hardness, tensile stress electrical resistivity, enthalpy

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
45 The Impact of Using Technology Tools on Preparing English Language Learners for the 21st Century

Authors: Ozlem Kaya


21st-century learners are energetic and tech-savvy, and the skills and the knowledge required in this century are complex and challenging. Therefore, teachers need to find new ways to appeal to the needs and interests of their students and meet the demands of the 21st century at the same time. One way to do so in English language learning has been to incorporate various technology tools into classroom practices. Although teachers think these practices are effective and their students enjoy them, students may have different perceptions. To find out what students think about the use of technology tools in terms of developing 21st-century skills and knowledge, this study was conducted at Anadolu University School of Foreign Languages. A questionnaire was administered to 40 students at elementary level. Afterward, semi-structured interviews were held with 8 students to provide deeper insight into their perceptions. The details of the findings of the study will be presented and discussed during the presentation.

Keywords: 21st century skills, technology tools, perception, English Language Learning

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44 Microstructural Characterization and Mechanical Properties of Al-2Mn-5Fe Ternary Eutectic Alloy

Authors: Emin Çadirli, Izzettin Yilmazer, Uğur Büyük, Hasan Kaya


Al-2Mn-5Fe eutectic alloy (wt.%) was prepared in a graphite crucible under vacuum atmosphere. The samples were directionally solidified upward at a constant temperature gradient in four different of growth rates by using a Bridgman method. The values of eutectic spacing were measured from longitudinal and transverse sections of the samples. The dependence of eutectic spacing on the growth rate was determined by using linear regression analysis. The microhardness and tensile strength of the studied alloy also were measured from directionally solidified samples. The dependency of the microhardness and tensile strength for directionally solidified Al-2Mn-5Fe eutectic alloy on the growth rate were investigated and the relationships between them were experimentally obtained by using regression analysis. The results obtained in present work were compared with the previous similar experimental results obtained for binary and ternary alloys.

Keywords: eutectic alloy, microhardness, microstructure, tensile strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
43 Effect of Lead Content on Physical Properties of the Al–Si Eutectic Alloys

Authors: Hasan Kaya


Effect of lead content on the microstructure, mechanical (microhardness, ultimate tensile strength) and electrical resistivity properties of Al–Si eutectic alloys has been investigated. Al–12.6 Si–xSn (x=1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 wt. %) were prepared using metals of 99.99% high purity in the vacuum atmosphere. These alloys were directionally solidified under constant temperature gradient (5.50 K/mm) and growth rate (8.25 μm/s) by using a Bridgman–type directional solidification furnace. Eutectic spacing, microhardness, ultimate tensile strength and electrical resistivity were expressed as functions of the composition by using a linear regression analysis. The dependency of the eutectic spacing, microhardness, tensile strength and electrical resistivity on the composition (Sn content) were determined. According to experimental results, the microhardness, ultimate tensile strength and electrical resistivity of the solidified samples increase with increasing the Sn content, but decrease eutectic spacing. Variation of electrical resistivity with the temperature in the range of 300-500 K for studied alloys was also measured by using a standard d.c. four-point probe technique.

Keywords: content elements, solidification, microhardness, strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
42 Dynamic Store Procedures in Database

Authors: Muhammet Dursun Kaya, Hasan Asil


In recent years, different methods have been proposed to optimize question processing in database. Although different methods have been proposed to optimize the query, but the problem which exists here is that most of these methods destroy the query execution plan after executing the query. This research attempts to solve the above problem by using a combination of methods of communicating with the database (the present questions in the programming code and using store procedures) and making query processing adaptive in database, and proposing a new approach for optimization of query processing by introducing the idea of dynamic store procedures. This research creates dynamic store procedures in the database according to the proposed algorithm. This method has been tested on applied software and results shows a significant improvement in reducing the query processing time and also reducing the workload of DBMS. Other advantages of this algorithm include: making the programming environment a single environment, eliminating the parametric limitations of the stored procedures in the database, making the stored procedures in the database dynamic, etc.

Keywords: relational database, agent, query processing, adaptable, communication with the database

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
41 Robust Medical Image Watermarking Using Frequency Domain and Least Significant Bits Algorithms

Authors: Volkan Kaya, Ersin Elbasi


Watermarking and stenography are getting importance recently because of copyright protection and authentication. In watermarking we embed stamp, logo, noise or image to multimedia elements such as image, video, audio, animation and text. There are several works have been done in watermarking for different purposes. In this research work, we used watermarking techniques to embed patient information into the medical magnetic resonance (MR) images. There are two methods have been used; frequency domain (Digital Wavelet Transform-DWT, Digital Cosine Transform-DCT, and Digital Fourier Transform-DFT) and spatial domain (Least Significant Bits-LSB) domain. Experimental results show that embedding in frequency domains resist against one type of attacks, and embedding in spatial domain is resist against another group of attacks. Peak Signal Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Similarity Ratio (SR) values are two measurement values for testing. These two values give very promising result for information hiding in medical MR images.

Keywords: watermarking, medical image, frequency domain, least significant bits, security

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
40 Thermoelastic Analysis of a Tube Subjected to Internal Heating with Temperature Dependent Material Properties

Authors: Yasemin Kaya, Ahmet N. Eraslan


In this study, the thermoelastic behavior of a long tube is studied by taking into account the temperature dependency of all mechanical and thermal properties. As the tube is heated slowly, an uncoupled solution procedure is adopted under free and radially constrained boundary conditions. The nonlinear heat conduction equation is solved by a finite element collocation procedure and the corresponding distributions of stress and strain are computed by shooting iterations. The computational model is verified in comparison to the analytical solution by shutting down the temperature dependency of physical properties. In the analysis, experimental data available in the literature is used to describe the coefficient of thermal expansion $\alpha$, the thermal conductivity $k$, the modulus of rigidity $G$, the yield strength $\sigma_{0}$, and the Poisson's ratio $\nu$ of Nickel. Results of the analysis are presented in comparison to those having constant physical properties. As a result of the calculations, the temperature dependency of the material properties should be taken into account at higher temperature ranges.

Keywords: thermoelasticity, long tube, temperature-dependent properties, internal heating

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39 Determining a Suitable Time and Temperature Combination for Electricial Conductivity Test in Sorghum

Authors: Mehmet Demir Kaya, Onur İleri, Süleyman Avcı


This study was conducted to determine a suitable time and temperature combination for the electrical conductivity test to be used in sorghum seeds. Fifty seeds known initial seed moisture content and weight of fresh and dead seeds (105°C for 6h) of seven sorghum cultivars were used as material. The electrical conductivities of soak water were measured using EC meter at 20, 25 and 30°C for 4, 8, 12 and 24 h using 50 mL deionized water. The experimental design was three factors factorial (7 × 3 × 4) arranged in a completely randomized design; with four replications and 50 seeds per replicate. The results showed that increased time and temperature caused a remarkable increase in EC values of all of the cultivars. Temperature significantly affected the electrical conductivity values and the best results were obtained at 25°C. The cultivars having the lowest germination percentage gave the highest electrical conductivity value. Dead seeds always gave higher electrical conductivity at 25°C for all periods. It was concluded that the temperature of 25°C and higher period than 12 h was the optimum combination for the electrical conductivity test in sorghum.

Keywords: Sorghum bicolor, seed vigor, cultivar, temperature

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38 Comparison of Effect of Pre-Stressed Strand Diameters Providing Beamm to Column Connection

Authors: Mustafa Kaya


In this study, the effect of pre-stressed strand diameters, providing the beam-to-column connections, was investigated from both experimental, and analytical aspects. In the experimental studies, the strength, stiffness, and energy dissipation capacities of the precast specimens comprising two pre-stressed strand samples of 12.70 mm, and 15.24 mm diameters, were compared with the reference specimen. The precast specimen with strands of 15.24 mm reached 96% of the maximum strength of the reference specimen; the amount of energy dissipated by this specimen until end of the test reached 48% of the amount of energy dissipated by the reference sample, and the stiffness of the same specimen at a 1.5% drift of reached 77% of the stiffness of the reference specimen at this drift. Parallel results were obtained during the analytical studies from the aspects of strength, and behavior, but the initial stiffness of the analytical models was lower than that of the test specimen.

Keywords: precast beam to column connection, moment resisting connection, post tensioned connections, finite element method

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37 The Genetic Diversity and Conservation Status of Natural Populus Nigra Populations in Turkey

Authors: Asiye Ciftci, Zeki Kaya


Populus nigra is one of the most economically and ecologically important forest trees in Turkey, well known for its rapid growth, good ability to vegetative propagation and the extreme uses of its wood. Due to overexploitation, loss of natural distribution area and extreme hybridization and introgression, Populus nigra is one of the most threatened tree species in Turkey and Europe. Using 20 nuclear microsatellite loci, the genetic structure of European black poplar populations along the two largest rivers of Turkey was analyzed. All tested loci were highly polymorphic, displaying 5 to 15 alleles per locus. Observed heterozygosity (overall Ho = 0.79) has been higher than the expected (overall He = 0.58) in each population. Low level of genetic differentiation among populations (FST= 0,03) and excess of heterozygotes for each river were found. Human-mediated dispersal, phenotypic selection, high level of gene flow and extensive circulations of clonal materials may cause those situations. The genetic data obtained from this study could provide the basis for efficient in situ and ex-situ conservation and restoration of species natural populations in its natural habitat as well as having sustainable breeding and poplar plantations in the future.

Keywords: populus, clonal, loci, ex situ

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36 Investigation of Film and Mechanical Properties of Poly(Lactic Acid)

Authors: Reyhan Özdoğan, Özgür Ceylan, Mehmet Arif Kaya, Mithat Çelebi


Food packaging is important for the food industry. Bioplastics have been used as food packaging materials. According to the European Bioplastics organization, bioplastics can be defined as plastics based on renewable resources (bio-based) or as plastics which are biodegradable and/or compostable. Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) has an industrially importance of bioplastic polymers. PLA is a family of biodegradable thermoplastic polyester made from renewable resources. It is produced by conversion of corn, or other carbohydrate sources, into dextrose, followed by fermentation into lactic acid through direct polycondensation of lactic acid monomers or through ring-opening polymerization of lactide. The processing possibilities of this transparent material are very wide, ranging from injection molding and extrusion over cast film extrusion to blow molding and thermoforming. In this study, PLA films were prepared by solution casting method. PLAs which are different molecular weights were plasticized with glycerol and the morphology of films was monitored by optical microscopy. Properties of mechanical and film of PLA were researched with the mechanical testing machine.

Keywords: biodegradable, bioplastics, morphology, solution casting, poly(lactic acid)

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