Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 157

Search results for: cerebral pulsatility

157 Cerebral Pulsatility Mediates the Link Between Physical Activity and Executive Functions in Older Adults with Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Longitudinal NIRS Study

Authors: Hanieh Mohammadi, Sarah Fraser, Anil Nigam, Frederic Lesage, Louis Bherer

Abstract:

A chronically higher cerebral pulsatility is thought to damage cerebral microcirculation, leading to cognitive decline in older adults. Although it is widely known that regular physical activity is linked to improvement in some cognitive domains, including executive functions, the mediating role of cerebral pulsatility on this link remains to be elucidated. This study assessed the impact of 6 months of regular physical activity upon changes in an optical index of cerebral pulsatility and the role of physical activity for the improvement of executive functions. 27 older adults (aged 57-79, 66.7% women) with cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) were enrolled in the study. The participants completed the behavioral Stroop test, which was extracted from the Delis-Kaplan executive functions system battery at baseline (T0) and after 6 months (T6) of physical activity. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was applied for an innovative approach to indexing cerebral pulsatility in the brain microcirculation at T0 and T6. The participants were at standing rest while a NIRS device recorded hemodynamics data from frontal and motor cortex subregions at T0 and T6. The cerebral pulsatility index of interest was cerebral pulse amplitude, which was extracted from the pulsatile component of NIRS data. Our data indicated that 6 months of physical activity was associated with a reduction in the response time for the executive functions, including inhibition (T0: 56.33± 18.2 to T6: 53.33± 15.7,p= 0.038)and Switching(T0: 63.05± 5.68 to T6: 57.96 ±7.19,p< 0.001) conditions of the Stroop test. Also, physical activity was associated with a reduction in cerebral pulse amplitude (T0: 0.62± 0.05 to T6: 0.55± 0.08, p < 0.001). Notably, cerebral pulse amplitude was a significant mediator of the link between physical activity and response to the Stroop test for both inhibition (β=0.33 (0.61,0.23),p< 0.05)and switching (β=0.42 (0.69,0.11),p <0.01) conditions. This study suggests that regular physical activity may support cognitive functions through the improvement of cerebral pulsatility in older adults with CVRF.

Keywords: near-infrared spectroscopy, cerebral pulsatility, physical activity, cardiovascular risk factors, executive functions

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156 Anesthetic Considerations for Carotid Endarterectomy: Prospective Study Based on Clinical Trials

Authors: Ahmed Yousef A. Al Sultan

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Introduction: The aim of this review is based on clinical research that studies the changes in middle cerebral artery velocity using Transcranial Doppler (TCD) and cerebral oxygen saturation using cerebral oximetry in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy (CEA) surgery under local anesthesia (LA). Patients with or without neurological symptoms during the surgery are taking a role in this study using triplet method of cerebral oximetry, transcranial doppler and awake test in detecting any cerebral ischemic symptoms. Methods: about one hundred patients took part during their CEA surgeries under local anesthesia, using triple assessment mentioned method, Patients requiring general anesthesia be excluded from analysis. All data were recorded at eight surgery stages separately to serve this study. Results: In total regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2), middle cerebral artery (MCA) velocity, and pulsatility index were significantly decreased during carotid artery clamping step in CEA procedures on the targeted carotid side. With most observed changes in MCA velocity during the study. Discussion: Cerebral oxygen saturation and middle cerebral artery velocity were significantly decreased during clamping step of the procedures on the targeted side. The team with neurological symptoms during the procedures showed higher changes of rSO2 and MCA velocity than the team without neurological symptoms. Cerebral rSO2 and MCA velocity significantly increased directly after de-clamping of the internal carotid artery on the affected side.

Keywords: awake testing, carotid endarterectomy, cerebral oximetry, Tanscranial Doppler

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155 Prevalence of Cerebral Microbleeds in Apparently Healthy, Elderly Population: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Vidishaa Jali, Amit Sinha, Kameshwar Prasad

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Background and Objective: Cerebral microbleeds are frequently found in healthy elderly individuals. We performed a meta- analysis to determine the prevalence of cerebral microbleeds in apparently healthy, elderly population and to determine the effect of age, smoking and hypertension on the occurrence of cerebral microbleeds. Methods: Relevant literature was searched using electronic databases such as MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Cochrane database, Google scholar to identify studies on the prevalence of cerebral microbleeds in general elderly population till March 2016. STATA version 13 software was used for analysis. Fixed effect model was used if heterogeneity was less than 50%. Otherwise, random effect model was used. Meta- regression analysis was performed to check any effect of important variables such as age, smoking, hypertension. Selection Criteria: We included cross-sectional studies performed in apparently healthy elderly population, who had age more than 50 years. Results: The pooled proportion of cerebral microbleeds in healthy population is 12% (95% CI, 0.11 to 0.13). No significant effect of age was found on the prevalence of cerebral microbleeds (p= 0.99). A linear relationship between increase in hypertension and the prevalence of cerebral microbleeds was found, however, this linear relationship was not statistically significant (p=0.16). Similarly, A linear relationship between increase in smoking and the prevalence of cerebral microbleeds was found, however, this linear relationship was also not statistically significant (p=0.21). Conclusion: Presence of cerebral microbleeds is evident in apparently healthy, elderly population, in more than 10% of individuals.

Keywords: apparently healthy, elderly, prevalence, cerebral microbleeds

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154 Cerebral Toxoplasmosis: A Histopathological Diagnosis

Authors: Prateek Rastogi, Jenash Acharya

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Histopathology examination has been a boon to forensic experts all around the world since its implication in autopsy cases. Whenever a case of sudden death is encountered, forensic experts clandestinely focus on cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal or cranio-cerebral causes. After ruling out poisoning or trauma, they are left with the only option available, histopathology examination. Besides preserving thoracic and abdominal organs, brain tissues are very less frequently subjected for the analysis. Based on provisional diagnosis documented on hospital treatment record files, one hemisphere of grossly unremarkable cerebrum was confirmatively diagnosed by histopathology examination to be a case of cerebral toxoplasmosis.

Keywords: cerebral toxoplasmosis, sudden death, health information, histopathology

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153 Underrepresentation of Right Middle Cerebral Infarct: A Statistical Parametric Mapping

Authors: Wi-Sun Ryu, Eun-Kee Bae

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Prior studies have shown that patients with right hemispheric stroke are likely to seek medical service compared with those with left hemispheric stroke. However, the underlying mechanism for this phenomenon is unknown. In the present study, we generated lesion probability maps in a patient with right and left middle cerebral artery infarct and statistically compared. We found that precentral gyrus-Brodmann area 44, a language area in the left hemisphere - involvement was significantly higher in patients with left hemispheric stroke. This finding suggests that a language dysfunction was more noticeable, thereby taking more patients to hospitals.

Keywords: cerebral infarct, brain MRI, statistical parametric mapping, middle cerebral infarct

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152 Review of the Anatomy of the Middle Cerebral Artery and Its Anomalies

Authors: Karen Cilliers, Benedict John Page

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The middle cerebral artery (MCA) is the most complex cerebral artery although few anomalies are found compared to the other cerebral arteries. The branches of the MCA cover a large part of each hemisphere, therefore it is exposed in various operations. Although the segments of the MCA are similarly described by most authors, there is some disagreement on the branching pattern of the MCA. The aim of this study was to review the available literature on the anatomy and variations of the MCA, and to compare this to a pilot study. For the pilot study, 20 hemispheres were perfused with coloured silicone and the MCA was dissected. According to the literature, the two most common branching configurations are the bifurcating and trifurcating patterns. In the pilot study, bifurcation was observed in 19 hemispheres, and in one hemisphere there was no branching (monofurcation). No trifurcation was observed. The most commonly duplicated branch was the anterior parietal artery in 30%, and most commonly absent was the common temporal artery in 65% and the temporal polar artery in 40%. Very few studies describe the origins of the branches of the MCA, therefore a detailed description is given. Middle cerebral artery variations that are occasionally reported in the literature include fenestration, and a duplicated or accessory MCA, although no variations were observed in the pilot study. Aneurysms can frequently be observed at the branching of cerebral vessels, therefore a thorough knowledge of the vascular anatomy is vital. Furthermore, knowledge of possible variations is important since variations can have serious clinical implications.

Keywords: anatomy, anomaly, description, middle cerebral artery, origin, variation

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151 Of Love and Isolation: Narratives of Siblings of Children with Cerebral Palsy in Sri Lanka

Authors: Shyamani Hettiarachchi

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Aim: Siblings of children with cerebral palsy are often in the periphery of discussions; their views not always taken into account. The aim of this study was to uncover the narratives of young siblings of children with cerebral palsy in Sri Lanka. Methods: Semi-structured interviews and artwork were gathered from 10 children who have siblings diagnosed with cerebral palsy. The data was analyzed using the key principles of Framework Analysis to determine the key themes within the narratives. Results: The key themes to emerge were complex and nuanced. These included themes of love and feeling of protectiveness; jealousy and uncertainly; guilt and hope. Conclusions: The results highlight the need to take document the views of siblings who are often on the margins of the family and of family decisions and discussions. It also supports the need to offer safe spaces and opportunities for siblings of children with disabilities to express their feelings and to receive support where required.

Keywords: disability, grandmothers, mothers, narratives, women

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150 Speech Disorders as Predictors of Social Participation of Children with Cerebral Palsy in the Primary Schools of the Czech Republic

Authors: Marija Zulić, Vanda Hájková, Nina Brkić–Jovanović, Srećko Potić, Sanja Tomić

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The name cerebral palsy comes from the word cerebrum, which means the brain and the word palsy, which means seizure, and essentially refers to the movement disorder. In the clinical picture of cerebral palsy, basic neuromotor disorders are associated with other various disorders: behavioural, intellectual, speech, sensory, epileptic seizures, and bone and joint deformities. Motor speech disorders are among the most common difficulties present in people with cerebral palsy. Social participation represents an interaction between an individual and their social environment. Quality of social participation of the students with cerebral palsy at school is an important indicator of their successful participation in adulthood. One of the most important skills for the undisturbed social participation is ability of good communication. The aim of the study was to determine relation between social participation of students with cerebral palsy and presence of their speech impairment in primary schools in the Czech Republic. The study was performed in the Czech Republic in mainstream schools and schools established for the pupils with special education needs. We analysed 75 children with cerebral palsy aged between six and twelve years attending up to sixth grade by using the first and the third part of the school function assessment questionnaire as the main instrument. The other instrument we used in the research is the Gross motor function classification system–five–level classification system, which measures degree of motor functions of children and youth with cerebral palsy. Funding for this study was provided by the Grant Agency of Charles University in Prague.

Keywords: cerebral palsy, social participation, speech disorders, The Czech Republic, the school function assessment

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149 Melatonin Suppresses the Brain Injury after Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion in Hyperglycemic Rats

Authors: Dalia O. Saleha, Gehad A. Abdel Jaleela, Sally W. Al-Awdana

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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is known to exacerbate cerebral ischemic injury. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of oral supplementation of melatonin (MLN) on cerebral injury caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO/Re) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycemic rats. Hyperglycemia was induced by a single injection of STZ (55mg/kg; i.p.), six weeks later the cerebral injury was induced by MCAO/Re. Twenty-four hours after the MCAO/Re the MLN (10 mg/kg) was injected for 14 consecutive days. Results of the present study revealed that MCAO/Re in STZ-induced hyperglycemia in rats causes an increase in the oxidative stress biomarkers; it increased brain lipid peroxidation (measured as malondialdehyde; MDA) and brain level of nitric oxide (NO). Moreover, MCAO/Reproduces a prominent increase in the brain inflammatory markers viz. interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis nuclear factor-alpha (TNF-α). Oral treatment of MCAO/Re in STZ-induced hyperglycemic rats with MLN (10 mg/kg) for two weeks restored the brain levels of MDA, GSH, NO, IL-6, IL-1β and the TNF-α. MLN succeeded to suppress the exacerbation of damage in the brain of hyperglycemic rats. These results suggest that daily intake of MLN attenuates the exacerbation of cerebral ischemic injury in a diabetic state, which may be attributed to anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in the brain.

Keywords: melatonin, brain injury, cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, hyperglycemia, rats

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148 Predictors of Social Participation of Children with Cerebral Palsy in Primary Schools in Czech Republic

Authors: Marija Zulić, Vanda Hájková, Nina Brkić-Jovanović, Linda Rathousová, Sanja Tomić

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Cerebral palsy is primarily reflected in the disorder of the development of movement and posture, which may be accompanied by sensory disturbances, disturbances of perception, cognition and communication, behavioural disorders and epilepsy. According to current inclusive attitudes towards people with disabilities implies that full social participation of children with cerebral palsy means inclusion in all activities in family, peer, school and leisure environments in the same scope and to the same extent as is the case with the children of proper development and without physical difficulties. Due to the fact that it has been established that the quality of children's participation in primary school is directly related to their social inclusion in future life, the aim of the paper is to identify predictors of social participation, respectively, and in particular, factors that could to improve the quality of social participation of children with cerebral palsy, in the primary school environment in Czech Republic. The study includes children with cerebral palsy (n = 75) in the Czech Republic, aged between six and 12 years who attend mainstream or special primary schools to the sixth grade. The main instrument used was the first and third part of the School function assessment questionnaire. It will also take into account the type of damage assessed according to a scale the Gross motor function classification system, five–level classification system for cerebral palsy. The research results will provide detailed insight into the degree of social participation of children with cerebral palsy and the factors that would be a potential cause of their levels of participation, in regular and special primary schools, in different socioeconomic environments in Czech Republic.

Keywords: cerebral palsy, Czech republic, social participation, the school function assessment

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147 Infused Mesenchymal Stem Cells Ameliorate Organs Morphology in Cerebral Malaria Infection

Authors: Reva Sharan Thakur, Mrinalini Tiwari, Jyoti das

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Cerebral malaria-associated over expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines ultimately results in the up-regulation of adhesion molecules in the brain endothelium leading to sequestration of mature parasitized RBCs in the brain. The high-parasitic load subsequently results in increased mortality or development of neurological symptoms within a week of infection. Studies in the human and experimental cerebral malaria have implicated the breakdown of the integrity of blood-brain barrier during the lethal course of infection, cerebral dysfunction, and fatal organ pathologies that result in multi-organ failure. In the present study, using Plasmodium berghei Anka as a mouse model and in vitro conditions, we have investigated the effect of MSCs to attenuate cerebral malaria pathogenesis by diminishing the effect of inflammation altered organ morphology, reduced parasitemia, and increased survival of the mice. MSCs are also validated for their role in preventing BBB dysfunction and reducing malarial toxins. It was observed that administration of MSCs significantly reduced parasitemia and increased survival in Pb A infected mice. It was further demonstrated that MSCs play a significant role in reversing neurological complexities associated with cerebral malaria. Infusion of MSCs in infected mice decreased hemozoin deposition; oedema, and haemorrhagic lesions in vascular organs. MSCs administration also preserved the integrity of the blood-brain barrier and reduced neural inflammation. Taken together, our results demonstrate the potential of MSCs as an emerging anti-malarial candidate.

Keywords: cerebral malaria, mesenchymal stem cells, erythropoesis, cell death

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146 Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of the Effects of Mechanical Forces in Cerebral Aneurysms

Authors: Hashem Al Argha

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Cerebral Aneurysms are the ballooning and defect that occurs in the arteries of the brain. This ballooning might enlarge in size due to mechanical forces and could lead to rupture and death. Computational Fluid Dynamics has been used in the recent years in creating a link between engineering sciences and medical sciences. In this paper, the effects of mechanical forces on cerebral aneurysms will be studied. Results of this study show that mechanical forces could lead to rupture of the aneurysm and could lead to death. High mechanical forces including stresses up to 1.7 MPa could pop aneurysms and lead to a brain hemorrhage.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, numerical, aneurysm, mechanical forces

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145 Social Support and Quality of Life of Youth Suffering from Cerebral Palsy Temporarily Orphaned Due to Emigration of a Parent

Authors: A. Gagat-Matuła

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The article is concerned in the issue of social support and quality of life of youth suffering from cerebral palsy, who are temporarily orphaned due to the emigration of a parent. Migration causes multi-aspect consequences in various spheres of life. They are particularly severe for the functioning of families. Temporal parting of parents and children, especially the disabled, is a difficult situation. In this case, the family structure is changed, as well as the quality of life of its members. Children can handle migration parting in a better or worse way; these can be divided into properly functioning and manifesting behaviour disorders. In conditions of the progressing phenomenon of labour migration of Poles and a wide spectrum of consequences for the whole social life, it is essential to undertake actions aimed at support of migrants and their families. This article focuses mainly on social support and quality of families members, of which, are the labour migrants perceived by youth suffering from cerebral palsy. The quantitative method was used in this study. In the study, the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) by Diener, was used. The analysed group consisted of 50 persons (37 girls and 13 boys), aged 16 years to 18 years, whose parents are labour migrants. The results indicate that the quality of life and social support for youth suffering from cerebral palsy who are temporarily orphaned is at a low and average level.

Keywords: social support, quality of life, migration, cerebral palsy

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144 Construction of a Dynamic Model of Cerebral Blood Circulation for Future Integrated Control of Brain State

Authors: Tomohiko Utsuki

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Currently, brain resuscitation becomes increasingly important due to revising various clinical guidelines pertinent to emergency care. In brain resuscitation, the control of brain temperature (BT), intracranial pressure (ICP), and cerebral blood flow (CBF) is required for stabilizing physiological state of brain, and is described as the essential treatment points in many guidelines of disorder and/or disease such as brain injury, stroke, and encephalopathy. Thus, an integrated control system of BT, ICP, and CBF will greatly contribute to alleviating the burden on medical staff and improving treatment effect in brain resuscitation. In order to develop such a control system, models related to BT, ICP, and CBF are required for control simulation, because trial and error experiments using patients are not ethically allowed. A static model of cerebral blood circulation from intracranial arteries and vertebral artery to jugular veins has already constructed and verified. However, it is impossible to represent the pooling of blood in blood vessels, which is one cause of cerebral hypertension in this model. And, it is also impossible to represent the pulsing motion of blood vessels caused by blood pressure change which can have an affect on the change of cerebral tissue pressure. Thus, a dynamic model of cerebral blood circulation is constructed in consideration of the elasticity of the blood vessel and the inertia of the blood vessel wall. The constructed dynamic model was numerically analyzed using the normal data, in which each arterial blood flow in cerebral blood circulation, the distribution of blood pressure in the Circle of Willis, and the change of blood pressure along blood flow were calculated for verifying against physiological knowledge. As the result, because each calculated numerical value falling within the generally known normal range, this model has no problem in representing at least the normal physiological state of the brain. It is the next task to verify the accuracy of the present model in the case of disease or disorder. Currently, the construction of a migration model of extracellular fluid and a model of heat transfer in cerebral tissue are in progress for making them parts of an integrated model of brain physiological state, which is necessary for developing an future integrated control system of BT, ICP and CBF. The present model is applicable to constructing the integrated model representing at least the normal condition of brain physiological state by uniting with such models.

Keywords: dynamic model, cerebral blood circulation, brain resuscitation, automatic control

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143 Theory of Mind and Its Brain Distribution in Patients with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

Authors: Wei-Han Wang, Hsiang-Yu Yu, Mau-Sun Hua

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Theory of Mind (ToM) refers to the ability to infer another’s mental state. With appropriate ToM, one can behave well in social interactions. A growing body of evidence has demonstrated that patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) may have damaged ToM due to impact on regions of the underlying neural network of ToM. However, the question of whether there is cerebral laterality for ToM functions remains open. This study aimed to examine whether there is cerebral lateralization for ToM abilities in TLE patients. Sixty-seven adult TLE patients and 30 matched healthy controls (HC) were recruited. Patients were classified into right (RTLE), left (LTLE), and bilateral (BTLE) TLE groups on the basis of a consensus panel review of their seizure semiology, EEG findings, and brain imaging results. All participants completed an intellectual test and four tasks measuring basic and advanced ToM. The results showed that, on all ToM tasks; (1)each patient group performed worse than HC; (2)there were no significant differences between LTLE and RTLE groups; (3)the BTLE group performed the worst. It appears that the neural network responsible for ToM is distributed evenly between the cerebral hemispheres.

Keywords: cerebral lateralization, social cognition, temporal lobe epilepsy, theory of mind

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142 Effects of External and Internal Focus of Attention in Motor Learning of Children with Cerebral Palsy

Authors: Morteza Pourazar, Fatemeh Mirakhori, Fazlolah Bagherzadeh, Rasool Hemayattalab

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The purpose of study was to examine the effects of external and internal focus of attention in the motor learning of children with cerebral palsy. The study involved 30 boys (7 to 12 years old) with CP type 1 who practiced throwing beanbags. The participants were randomly assigned to the internal focus, external focus, and control groups, and performed six blocks of 10-trial with attentional focus reminders during a practice phase and no reminders during retention and transfer tests. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures on the last factor was used. The results show that significant main effects were found for time and group. However, the interaction of time and group was not significant. Retention scores were significantly higher for the external focus group. The external focus group performed better than other groups; however, the internal focus and control groups’ performance did not differ. The study concluded that motor skills in Spastic Hemiparetic Cerebral Palsy (SHCP) children could be enhanced by external attention.

Keywords: cerebral palsy, external attention, internal attention, throwing task

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141 Cerebrovascular Modeling: A Vessel Network Approach for Fluid Distribution

Authors: Karla E. Sanchez-Cazares, Kim H. Parker, Jennifer H. Tweedy

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The purpose of this work is to develop a simple compartmental model of cerebral fluid balance including blood and cerebrospinal-fluid (CSF). At the first level the cerebral arteries and veins are modelled as bifurcating trees with constant scaling factors between generations which are connected through a homogeneous microcirculation. The arteries and veins are assumed to be non-rigid and the cross-sectional area, resistance and mean pressure in each generation are determined as a function of blood volume flow rate. From the mean pressure and further assumptions about the variation of wall permeability, the transmural fluid flux can be calculated. The results suggest the next level of modelling where the cerebral vasculature is divided into three compartments; the large arteries, the small arteries, the capillaries and the veins with effective compliances and permeabilities derived from the detailed vascular model. These vascular compartments are then linked to other compartments describing the different CSF spaces, the cerebral ventricles and the subarachnoid space. This compartmental model is used to calculate the distribution of fluid in the cranium. Known volumes and flows for normal conditions are used to determine reasonable parameters for the model, which can then be used to help understand pathological behaviour and suggest clinical interventions.

Keywords: cerebrovascular, compartmental model, CSF model, vascular network

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140 Hydroxy Safflower Yellow A (HSYA) Mediated Neuroprotective Effect against Ischemia Reperfusion (I/R) Injury in Cerebral Stroke

Authors: Sruthi Ramagiri, Rajeev T.

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Free radical damage has been entailed as the major culprit in the ischemic stroke contributing for oxidative damage. Recent investigations on Hydroxy Safflower Yellow A (HSYA) suggested its role in cerebral ischemia and various neurodegenerative disorders with unidentified molecular mechanisms. The current study was designed to investigate putative therapeutic role and possible molecular mechanisms of HSYA administration during the onset of reperfusion in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in cerebral stroke. Cerebral stroke was achieved by focal ischemic model. HSYA (10 mg/kg) was injected intravenously via the tail vein 5 minutes before reperfusion. Losses of sensorimotor abilities were evaluated by neurological scoring, spontaneous locomotor activity, and rotarod performance. Extent of oxidative stress was evaluated by biochemical parameters i.e., malondialdehyde (MDA), Glutathione (GSH), Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD) and catalase levels. The infarct volume of brain was assessed by 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining technique. Increased cerebral injury (I/R) was evidenced by motor impairment, increased infarct volume and elevation of MDA levels along with significant reduction in antioxidant i.e.,MDA levels along with significant reduction in antioxidant i.e., GSH, SOD and catalase levels when compared to sham control. However, post conditioning with HSYA (10 mg/kg, i.v.) at the onset of reperfusion has significantly ameliorated sensorimotor abilities, attenuated MDA levels and reduced the infarct volume as compared with vehicle treated I/R injury group. Moreover, HSYA treatments improved antioxidant enzyme levels as compared with vehicle treated I/R-injury group. In conclusion, it may be suggested that HSYA post conditioning could be novel therapeutic approach against I/R injury in cerebral stroke possibly through its anti-oxidant mechanism.

Keywords: HSYA, Ischemia reperfusion injury, oxidative stress, stroke

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139 IMPERTIO: An Efficient Communication Interface for Cerebral Palsy Patients

Authors: M. Zaïgouche, A. Kouvahe, F. Stefanelli

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IMPERTIO is a high technology based project aiming at offering efficient assistance help in communication for persons affected by Cerebral Palsy. The systems currently available are hardly used by these patients who are not satisfied by ergonomics and response time. The project rests upon the concept that, opposite to usual master-slave communication giving power to the entity with larger range of possibilities, providing conversely the mastery to the entity with smaller range of possibilities will allow a better understanding ground for both parties. Entirely customizable, the application developed from this idea gives full freedom to the user. Through pictograms (one button linked to a word or a sentence) and adapted keyboard, noticeable improvements are brought to the response time and ease to use ergonomics.

Keywords: cerebral palsy, master-slave relation, communication interface, virtual keyboard, word construction algorithm

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138 Neuroprotective Effect of Crocus sativus against Cerebral Ischemia in Rats

Authors: Rehab F. Abdel-Rahman, Sally A. El Awdan, Rehab R. Hegazy, Dina F. Mansour, Hanan A. Ogaly, Marwan Abdelbaset

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Disorders of the cerebral circulation are the leading cause of numerous neurological and psychiatric illnesses. The transient middle cerebral artery occlusion model (MCAO) is considered to be a reliable and reproducible rodent model of cerebral ischemia. The purpose of the current study was to examine the neuroprotective effects of Crocus sativus (saffron) in a rat model of left middle cerebral artery MCAO. Male Wistar rats were anesthetized and subjected to 1 h of MCAO followed by 48 h reperfusion or sham surgery. One group of the ischemia operated animals was kept as left brain ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Another 2 operated groups received saffron extract (100 or 200 mg/kg, i.p) four times (60 min before the surgery, during the surgery, and on days 1 and 2 after the occlusion). During the experiment, behavioral tests were performed. After 72 h the animals were euthanized and their left brain hemispheres were used in the biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical studies. Saffron administration revealed an improvement in I/R-induced alteration of locomotor balance and coordination ability of rats. Moreover, saffron decreased the brain content of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, brain natriuretic peptide and vascular endothelial growth factor with significant increase of reduced glutathione. Immunohistochemical evaluation of caspase-3 and Bax protein expression revealed reduction in I/R-enhanced apoptosis in saffron treated rats. In conclusion, saffron treatment decreases ischemic brain injury in association with inhibition of apoptotic and oxidative cell death in a dose dependent manner.

Keywords: caspase-3, cerebral ischemia, Crocus sativus, rats, vascular endothelial growth factor

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137 The Effectiveness of Using Functional Rehabilitation with Children of Cerebral Palsy

Authors: Bara Yousef

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The development of independency and functional participation is an important therapeutic goal for many children with cerebral palsy,They was many therapeutic approach have been used for treatment those children like neurodevelopment treatment, balance training strengthening and stretching exercise. More recently, therapy for children with cerebral palsy has focused on achieving functional goals using task-oriented interventions and summer camping model, which focus on activities that relevant and meaningful to the child, to learn more efficient and effective motor skills. We explore the effectiveness of using functional rehabilitation comparing with regular rehabilitation among 40 Saudi children with cerebral palsy in pediatric unit at Sultan Bin Abdul Aziz Humanitarian City-Ksa ,where 20 children randomly assign in control group who received rehabilitation based on regular therapy approach and other 20 children assign on experiment group who received rehabilitation based on functional therapy approach with an average of 45min OT treatment and 45 min PT treatment- daily within a period of 6 week. Our finding reported that children in experiment group has improved in gross motor function with an average from 49.4 to 57.6 based on GMFM 66 as primary outcome measure and improved in WeeFIM with an average from 52 to 62 while children in control group has improved with an average from 48.4 to 53.7 in GMFM and from 53 to and 58 in WeeFIM. Consequently, there has been growing interest in determining the effects of functional training programs as promising approach for these children.

Keywords: Cerebral Palsy (CP), gross motor function measure (GMFM66), pediatric Functional Independent Measure (WeeFIM), rehabilitation, disability

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136 Possible Neuroprotective Mechanism of Remote Limb Ischemic Post Conditioning against Global Cerebral Ischemic Injury

Authors: Sruthi Ramagiri, Rajeev Taliyan

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Background and purpose: Recent investigations on ischemia and reperfusion injury postulate that transient ischemia of remote organs after a prolonged ischemic insult confers neuroprotection. However, the molecular mechanisms of the remote limb ischemic post-conditioning (RIPOC) are yet to be elucidated. The current study was designed to investigate the protective mechanism of RIPOC against cerebral ischemic injury using global model of stroke. Materials and methods: Global ischemic reperfusion injury (IR) was achieved by 30 minutes ischemia of cerebral artery, followed by reperfusion for 24 hours. Induction of global ischemia was followed by 4 brief episodes (30 seconds each) of ischemia and reperfusion of femoral artery to accomplish RIPOC. 5-Hydroxy Decanoic acid (5-HD), a KATP channel blocker (20 mg/kg) was administered after induction of global ischemia and RIPOC intervention. Results: IR injury ensue significant behavioural deficits as manifested by rotarod performance and spontaneous locomotor activity when compared to sham control. Furthermore, IR injury significantly increased oxidonitrative stress and infarct volume as evidenced by biochemical parameters (MDA, GSH, Nitrite, SOD) and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining respectively. Moreover, RIPOC intervention ameliorated the behavioural performance, attenuated the oxidative stress and infarct volume when compared to IR injury group. However, administration of 5-HD increased the oxidative stress and infarct size while deteriorating the behavioural parameters when compared to RIPOC group. Conclusions: In a nutshell, cerebral IR injury has significantly induced the neuronal damage, whereas RIPOC intervention decreased the neuronal injury. Moreover, 5-HD abolished the neuroprotection offered by RIPOC indicating the putative role of KATP channel opening in RIPOC against cerebral ischemic injury.

Keywords: RIPOC, cerebral injury, KATP channel, neuroprotection

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135 Family Relationships and Coping with the Stress of Young People from Migrant Families with Cerebral Palsy

Authors: A. Gagat-Matuła

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The aim of this article is to present a relation between family relationships and styles of approach to coping with stress among young people from migrant families with cerebral palsy. The study involved 70 persons (with cerebral palsy in the standard intellectual capacity) from families, in which at least one of parents is a migrant. To measure the level of communication in the family, the Family Relationships Questionnaire (FRQ) was employed, while the styles of coping with stress was investigated with the CISS Questionnaire. The relation between family relationships and styles of coping with stressful situations of the respondents was investigated. It was shown that there is an affiliation between the emotion-oriented style of coping with the stress and the variable of “communication in my family”. Moreover, it was demonstrated that there is a linkage between the task-oriented style of coping with the stress and the variable of “maternal control in mother-child relationship”. Young people with CP subjected to overprotection and control from their mothers in problem situations tend to focus on their own emotions instead of trying to undertake constructive actions. Excessive control in daily life by mothers results in passivity and a lack of motivation to cope with difficult situations.

Keywords: young people with cerebral palsy, family relationships, styles of coping with stress, migration

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134 Stress among Mothers of Children with Cerebral Palsy

Authors: Priyanka Tiwari, Uma Devi Ranjit, Ritesh Thapa

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Background and Significance: Cerebral Palsy (CP) influences not only the child's everyday functioning but also the functioning of whole family. Application of study findings can be used in clinical or community setting to screen the parents of children with cerebral palsy in order to identify the compromised domain of stress which in turn will help to improve the interaction between parent and child with disability and thus ultimately affect the progress that a child makes in his or her therapeutic or educational programs. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the level of stress in mothers of children with CP by adopting mixed method design. Methodology: Cross-sectional descriptive design was adopted in the quantitative design where Parental Stress Scale (PSS) was utilized to collect data from a convenient sample of 40 mothers of children with CP who were under regular follow-up by home visitor of Self-help Group for Cerebral Palsy while embedded qualitative design was used to explore the stress of mothers of CP affected children. From the parent population of quantitative sample 4 mothers were chosen for in-depth exploration, regarding their stress by means of case study method. Descriptive statistics like frequency, percentage, mean, median, standard deviation, correlation and inferential statistics like Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis H test were used to describe and assess relationship between variables. Findings: The mean stress experienced by mothers of children with cerebral palsy was 53.62±9.53 with 15% percent of the mothers experiencing severe stress. There was significant association between age group of mother and total stress score and negative themes of stress. Similarly, signification association was found between educational status of the mother and positive themes of stress which was convergent with the qualitative finding as well, where literate mothers had more positive view of their child's disability which could be attributed to their educational level as education provides us with a broad perspective to look at a situation. Conclusions: Still one-sixth of the mothers experienced severe stress so if we want to ensure the well-being of the children affected by cerebral palsy, then parents caring for them need to be looked after as well.

Keywords: stress, cerebral palsy, mothers, mixed method

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133 Multi-Scale Modelling of the Cerebral Lymphatic System and Its Failure

Authors: Alexandra K. Diem, Giles Richardson, Roxana O. Carare, Neil W. Bressloff

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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and although it has been researched for over 100 years, there is still no cure or preventive medication. Its onset and progression is closely related to the accumulation of the neuronal metabolite Aβ. This raises the question of how metabolites and waste products are eliminated from the brain as the brain does not have a traditional lymphatic system. In recent years the rapid uptake of Aβ into cerebral artery walls and its clearance along those arteries towards the lymph nodes in the neck has been suggested and confirmed in mice studies, which has led to the hypothesis that interstitial fluid (ISF), in the basement membranes in the walls of cerebral arteries, provides the pathways for the lymphatic drainage of Aβ. This mechanism, however, requires a net reverse flow of ISF inside the blood vessel wall compared to the blood flow and the driving forces for such a mechanism remain unknown. While possible driving mechanisms have been studied using mathematical models in the past, a mechanism for net reverse flow has not been discovered yet. Here, we aim to address the question of the driving force of this reverse lymphatic drainage of Aβ (also called perivascular drainage) by using multi-scale numerical and analytical modelling. The numerical simulation software COMSOL Multiphysics 4.4 is used to develop a fluid-structure interaction model of a cerebral artery, which models blood flow and displacements in the artery wall due to blood pressure changes. An analytical model of a layer of basement membrane inside the wall governs the flow of ISF and, therefore, solute drainage based on the pressure changes and wall displacements obtained from the cerebral artery model. The findings suggest that an active role in facilitating a reverse flow is played by the components of the basement membrane and that stiffening of the artery wall during age is a major risk factor for the impairment of brain lymphatics. Additionally, our model supports the hypothesis of a close association between cerebrovascular diseases and the failure of perivascular drainage.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, artery wall mechanics, cerebral blood flow, cerebral lymphatics

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132 Effects of Occupational Therapy on Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

Authors: Sedef Şahin, Meral Huri

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Cerebral Palsy (CP) represents the most frequent cause of physical disability in children with a rate of 2,9 per 1000 live births. The activity-focused intervention is known to improve function and reduce activity limitations and barriers to participation of children with disabilities. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of occupational therapy on level of fatigue, activity performance and satisfaction in children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy. Twenty-two children with hemiparetic cerebral palsy (mean age: 9,3 ± 2.1years; Gross Motor Function Classification System ( GMFCS) level from I to V (I = 54%, II = 23%, III = 14%, IV= 9%, V= 0%), Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) level from I to V (I = 40%, II = 32%, III = 14%, IV= 10%, V= 4%), were assigned to occupational therapy program for 6 weeks.Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was used for intensity of the fatigue they experienced at the time on a 10 point Likert scale (1-10).Activity performance and satisfaction were measured with Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM).A client-centered occupational therapy intervention was designed according to results of COPM. The results were compared with nonparametric Wilcoxon test before and after the intervention. Thirteen of the children were right-handed, whereas nine of the children were left handed.Six weeks of intervention showed statistically significant differences in level of fatigue, compared to first assessment(p<0,05). The mean score of first and the second activity performance scores were 4.51 ± 1.70 and 7.35 ± 2.51 respectively. Statistically significant difference between performance scores were found (p<0.01). The mean scores of first and second activity satisfaction scores were of 2.30± 1.05 and 5.51 ± 2.26 respectively. Statistically significant difference between satisfaction assessments were found (p<0.01). Occupational therapy is an evidence-based approach and occupational therapy interventions implemented by therapists were clinically effective on severity of fatigue, activity performance and satisfaction if implemented individually during 6 weeks.

Keywords: activity performance, cerebral palsy, fatigue, occupational therapy

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131 Hemodynamics of a Cerebral Aneurysm under Rest and Exercise Conditions

Authors: Shivam Patel, Abdullah Y. Usmani

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Physiological flow under rest and exercise conditions in patient-specific cerebral aneurysm models is numerically investigated. A finite-volume based code with BiCGStab as the linear equation solver is used to simulate unsteady three-dimensional flow field through the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Flow characteristics are first established in a healthy cerebral artery for both physiological conditions. The effect of saccular aneurysm on cerebral hemodynamics is then explored through a comparative analysis of the velocity distribution, nature of flow patterns, wall pressure and wall shear stress (WSS) against the reference configuration. The efficacy of coil embolization as a potential strategy of surgical intervention is also examined by modelling coil as a homogeneous and isotropic porous medium where the extended Darcy’s law, including Forchheimer and Brinkman terms, is applicable. The Carreau-Yasuda non-Newtonian blood model is incorporated to capture the shear thinning behavior of blood. Rest and exercise conditions correspond to normotensive and hypertensive blood pressures respectively. The results indicate that the fluid impingement on the outer wall of the arterial bend leads to abnormality in the distribution of wall pressure and WSS, which is expected to be the primary cause of the localized aneurysm. Exercise correlates with elevated flow velocity, vortex strength, wall pressure and WSS inside the aneurysm sac. With the insertion of coils in the aneurysm cavity, the flow bypasses the dilatation, leading to a decline in flow velocities and WSS. Particle residence time is observed to be lower under exercise conditions, a factor favorable for arresting plaque deposition and combating atherosclerosis.

Keywords: 3D FVM, Cerebral aneurysm, hypertension, coil embolization, non-Newtonian fluid

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130 Mutations in MTHFR Gene Associated with Mental Retardation and Cerebral Palsy Combined with Mental Retardation in Erbil City

Authors: Hazha Hidayat, Shayma Ibrahim

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Folate metabolism plays a crucial role in the normal development of the neonatal central nervous system. It is regulated by MTHFR gene polymorphism. Any factors, which will affect this metabolism either by hereditary or gene mutation will lead to many mental disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether MTHFR gene mutation contributes to the development of mental retardation and CP combined with mental retardation in Erbil city. DNA was isolated from the peripheral blood samples of 40 cases suffering from mental retardation (MR) and CP combined with MR were recruited, sequence the 4, 6, 7, 8 exons of the MTHFR gene were done to identify the variants. Exons were amplified by PCR technique and then sequenced according to Sanger method to show the differences with MTHFR reference sequences. We observed (14) mutations in 4, 6, 7, 8 exons in the MTHFR gene associated with Cerebral Palsy combined with mental retardation included deletion, insertion, Substitution. The current study provides additional evidence that multiple variations in the MTHFR gene are associated with mental retardation and Cerebral Palsy.

Keywords: methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, SNPs, homocysteine, sequencing

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129 Ultrasonographic Manifestation of Periventricular Leukomalacia in Preterm Neonates at Teaching Hospital Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

Authors: P. P. Chandrasekera, P. B. Hewavithana, S. Rosairo, M. H. M. N. Herath, D. M. R. D. Mirihella

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Periventricular Leukomalacia (PVL) is a White Matter Injury (WMI) of preterm neonatal brain. Objectives of the study were to assess the neuro-developmental outcome at one year of age and to determine a good protocol of cranial ultrasonography to detect PVL. Two hundred and sixty four preterm neonates were included in the study. Series of cranial ultrasound scans were done by using a dedicated neonatal head probe 4-10 MHz of Logic e portable ultrasound scanner. Clinical history of seizures, abnormal head growth (hydrocephalus or microcephaly) and developmental milestones were assessed and neurological examinations were done until one year of age. Among live neonates, 57% who had cystic PVL (Grades2 and 3) manifested as cerebral palsy. In conclusion cystic PVL has permanent neurological disabilities like cerebral palsy. Good protocol of real time cranial ultrasonography to detect PVL is to perform scans at least once a week until one month and at term (40 weeks of gestation).

Keywords: cerebral palsy, cranial ultrasonography, Periventricular Leukomalacia, preterm neonates

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128 Antioxidant Mediated Neuroprotective Effects of Allium Cepa Extract Against Ischemia Reperfusion Induced Cognitive Dysfunction and Brain Damage in Mice

Authors: Jaspal Rana, Varinder Singh

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Oxidative stress has been identified as an underlying cause of ischemia-reperfusion (IR) related cognitive dysfunction and brain damage. Therefore, antioxidant based therapies to treat IR injury are being investigated. Allium cepa L. (onion) is used as culinary medicine and is documented to have marked antioxidant effects. Hence, the present study was designed to evaluate the effect of A. cepa outer scale extract (ACE) against IR induced cognition and biochemical deficit in mice. ACE was prepared by maceration with 70% methanol and fractionated into ethylacetate and aqueous fractions. Bilateral common carotid artery occlusion for 10 min, followed by 24 h reperfusion, was used to induce cerebral IR injury. Following IR injury, ACE (100 and 200 mg/kg) was administered orally to animals for 7 days once daily. Behavioral outcomes (memory and sensorimotor functions) were evaluated using Morris water maze and neurological severity score. Cerebral infarct size, brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species, reduced glutathione, and superoxide dismutase activity were also determined. Treatment with ACE significantly ameliorated IR mediated deterioration of memory and sensorimotor functions and rose in brain oxidative stress in animals. The results of the present investigation revealed that ACE improved functional outcomes after cerebral IR injury which may be attributed to its antioxidant properties.

Keywords: allium cepa, cerebral ischemia, memory, sensorimotor

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