Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2677

Search results for: DC voltage constant

2677 Analysis of a Power Factor Correction Converter for Light Emitting Diode Driver Application

Authors: Edwina G. Rodrigues, S. J. Bindhu, A. V. Rajesh


This paper proposes a switched capacitor based driver circuit for high power light emitting diodes with a front end rectifier. LEDs are low-voltage light sources, requiring a constant DC voltage or current to operate optimally. LEDs, therefore, require a device that can convert incoming AC power to the proper DC voltage, and regulate the current flowing through the LED during operation. Proposed topology has a front end converter. It is an AC-DC rectifier that works on bridgeless boost topology which shapes the input current waveform. The front end converter is followed by a DC-DC converter which provides a constant DC voltage across the LEDs. A 12V AC input is given to the input of frontend converter which rectifies and boost the voltage to 24v DC and gives it to the DC-DC converter. The DC-DC converter converts the 24V DC and regulates this constant DC voltage across the LEDs.

Keywords: bridgeless rectifier, power factor correction(PFC), SC converter, total harmonic distortion (THD)

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
2676 Analog Voltage Inverter Drive for Capacitive Load with Adaptive Gain Control

Authors: Sun-Ki Hong, Yong-Ho Cho, Ki-Seok Kim, Tae-Sam Kang


Piezoelectric actuator is treated as RC load when it is modeled electrically. For some piezoelectric actuator applications, arbitrary voltage is required to actuate. Especially for unidirectional arbitrary voltage driving like as sine wave, some special inverter with circuit that can charge and discharge the capacitive energy can be used. In this case, the difference between power supply level and the object voltage level for RC load is varied. Because the control gain is constant, the controlled output is not uniform according to the voltage difference. In this paper, for charge and discharge circuit for unidirectional arbitrary voltage driving for piezoelectric actuator, the controller gain is controlled according to the voltage difference. With the proposed simple idea, the load voltage can have controlled smoothly although the voltage difference is varied. The appropriateness is proved from the simulation of the proposed circuit.

Keywords: analog voltage inverter, capacitive load, gain control, dc-dc converter, piezoelectric, voltage waveform

Procedia PDF Downloads 470
2675 Sliding Mode Control of a Photovoltaic Grid-Connected System with Active and Reactive Power Control

Authors: M. Doumi, K. Tahir, A. Miloudi, A. G. Aissaoui, C. Belfedal, S. Tahir


This paper presents a three-phase grid-connected photovoltaic generation system with unity power factor for any situation of solar radiation based on voltage-oriented control (VOC). An input voltage clamping technique is proposed to control the power between the grid and photovoltaic system, where it is intended to achieve the maximum power point operation. This method uses a Perturb and Observe (P&O) controller. The main objective of this work is to compare the energy production unit performances by the use of two types of controllers (namely, classical PI and Sliding Mode (SM) Controllers) for the grid inverter control. The proposed control has a hierarchical structure with a grid side control level to regulate the power (PQ) and the current injected to the grid and to obtain a common DC voltage constant. To show the effectiveness of both control methods performances analysis of the system are analyzed and compared by simulation and results included in this paper.

Keywords: grid connected photovoltaic, MPPT, inverter control, classical PI, sliding mode, DC voltage constant, voltage-oriented control, VOC

Procedia PDF Downloads 482
2674 Modular Harmonic Cancellation in a Multiplier High Voltage Direct Current Generator

Authors: Ahmad Zahran, Ahmed Herzallah, Ahmad Ahmad, Mahran Quraan


Generation of high DC voltages is necessary for testing the insulation material of high voltage AC transmission lines with long lengths. The harmonic and ripple contents of the output DC voltage supplied by high voltage DC circuits require the use of costly capacitors to smooth the output voltage after rectification. This paper proposes a new modular multiplier high voltage DC generator with embedded Cockcroft-Walton circuits that achieve a negligible harmonic and ripple contents of the output DC voltage without the need for costly filters to produce a nearly constant output voltage. In this new topology, Cockcroft-Walton modules are connected in series to produce a high DC output voltage. The modules are supplied by low input AC voltage sources that have the same magnitude and frequency and shifted from each other by a certain angle to eliminate the harmonics from the output voltage. The small ripple factor is provided by the smoothing column capacitors and the phase shifted input voltages of the cascaded modules. The constituent harmonics within each module are determined using Fourier analysis. The viability of the proposed DC generator for testing purposes and the effectiveness of the cascaded connection are confirmed by numerical simulations using MATLAB/Simulink.

Keywords: Cockcroft-Walton circuit, harmonics, ripple factor, HVDC generator

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
2673 Voltage Stabilization of Hybrid PV and Battery Systems by Considering Temperature and Irradiance Changes in Standalone Operation

Authors: S. Jalilzadeh, S. M. Mohseni Bonab


Solar and battery energy storage systems are very useful for consumers who live in deprived areas and do not have access to electricity distribution networks. Nowadays one of the problems that photo voltaic systems (PV) have changing of output power in temperature and irradiance variations, which directly affects the load that is connected to photo voltaic systems. In this paper, with considering the fact that the solar array varies with change in temperature and solar power radiation, a voltage stabilizer system of a load connected to photo voltaic array is designed to stabilize the load voltage and to transfer surplus power of the battery. Also, in proposed hybrid system, the needed load power amount is supplemented considering the voltage stabilization in standalone operation for supplying unbalanced AC load. Electrical energy storage system for voltage control and improvement of the performance of PV by a DC/DC converter is connected to the DC bus. The load is also feed by an AC/DC converter. In this paper, when the voltage increases in its reference limit, the battery gets charged by the photo voltaic array and when it decreases in its defined limit, the power gets injected to the DC bus by this battery. The constant of DC bus Voltage is the cause for the reduced harmonics generated by the inverter. In addition, a series of filters are provided in the inverter output in to reduced harmonics. The inverter control circuit is designed that the voltage and frequency of the load remain almost constant at different load conditions. This paper has focused on controlling strategies of converters to improve their performance.

Keywords: photovoltaic array (PV), DC/DC Boost converter, battery converter, inverters control

Procedia PDF Downloads 405
2672 Regulated Output Voltage Double Switch Buck-Boost Converter for Photovoltaic Energy Application

Authors: M. Kaouane, A. Boukhelifa, A. Cheriti


In this paper, a new Buck-Boost DC-DC converter is designed and simulated for photovoltaic energy system. The presented Buck-Boost converter has a double switch. Moreover, its output voltage is regulated to a constant value whatever its input is. In the presented work, the Buck-Boost transfers the produced energy from the photovoltaic generator to an R-L load. The converter is controlled by the pulse width modulation technique in a way to have a suitable output voltage, in the other hand, to carry the generator’s power, and put it close to the maximum possible power that can be generated by introducing the right duty cycle of the pulse width modulation signals that control the switches of the converter; each component and each parameter of the proposed circuit is well calculated using the equations that describe each operating mode of the converter. The proposed configuration of Buck-Boost converter has been simulated in Matlab/Simulink environment; the simulation results show that it is a good choice to take in order to maintain the output voltage constant while ensuring a good energy transfer.

Keywords: Buck-Boost converter, switch, photovoltaic, PWM, power, energy transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 386
2671 Electrical Analysis of Corn Oil as an Alternative to Mineral Oil in Power Transformers

Authors: E. Taslak, C. Kocatepe, O. Arıkan, C. F. Kumru


In insulation and cooling of power transformers various liquids are used. Mineral oils have wide availability and low cost. However, they have a poor biodegradability potential and lower fire point in comparison with other insulating liquids. Use of a liquid having high biodegradability is important due to environmental consideration. This paper investigates edible corn oil as an alternative to mineral oil. Various properties of mineral and corn oil like breakdown voltage, dissipation factor, relative dielectric constant, power loss and resistivity were measured according to different standards.

Keywords: breakdown voltage, corn oil, dissipation factor, mineral oil, power loss, relative dielectric constant, resistivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 490
2670 Wireless Battery Charger with Adaptive Rapid-Charging Algorithm

Authors: Byoung-Hee Lee


Wireless battery charger with adaptive rapid charging algorithm is proposed. The proposed wireless charger adopts voltage regulation technique to reduce the number of power conversion steps. Moreover, based on battery models, an adaptive rapid charging algorithm for Li-ion batteries is obtained. Rapid-charging performance with the proposed wireless battery charger and the proposed rapid charging algorithm has been experimentally verified to show more than 70% charging time reduction compared to conventional constant-current constant-voltage (CC-CV) charging without the degradation of battery lifetime.

Keywords: wireless, battery charger, adaptive, rapid-charging

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
2669 Design Ultra Fast Gate Drive Board for Silicon Carbide MOSFET Applications

Authors: Syakirin O. Yong, Nasrudin A. Rahim, Bilal M. Eid, Buray Tankut


The aim of this paper is to develop an ultra-fast gate driver for Silicon Carbide (SiC) based switching device applications such as AC/DC DC/AC converters. Wide bandgap semiconductors such as SiC switches are growing rapidly nowadays due to their numerous capabilities such as faster switching, higher power density and higher voltage level. Wide band-gap switches can work properly on high frequencies such 50-250 kHz which is very useful for many power electronic applications such as solar inverters. Increasing the frequency minimizes the output filter size and system complexity however, this causes huge spike between MOSFET’s drain and source leg which leads to the failure of MOSFET if the voltage rating is exceeded. This paper investigates and concludes the optimum design for a gate drive board for SiC MOSFET switches without causing spikes and noises.

Keywords: PV system, lithium-ion, charger, constant current, constant voltage, renewable energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
2668 A CMOS-Integrated Hall Plate with High Sensitivity

Authors: Jin Sup Kim, Min Seo


An improved cross-shaped hall plate with high sensitivity is described in this paper. Among different geometries that have been simulated and measured using Helmholtz coil. The paper describes the physical hall plate design and implementation in a 0.18-µm CMOS technology. In this paper, the biasing is a constant voltage mode. In the voltage mode, magnetic field is converted into an output voltage. The output voltage is typically in the order of micro- to millivolt and therefore, it must be amplified before being transmitted to the outside world. The study, design and performance optimization of hall plate has been carried out with the COMSOL Multiphysics. It is used to estimate the voltage distribution in the hall plate with and without magnetic field and to optimize the geometry. The simulation uses the nominal bias current of 1mA. The applied magnetic field is in the range from 0 mT to 20 mT. Measured results of the one structure over the 10 available samples show for the best sensitivity of 2.5 %/T at 20mT.

Keywords: cross-shaped hall plate, sensitivity, CMOS technology, Helmholtz coil

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
2667 Suitable Tuning Method Selection for PID Controller Used in Digital Excitation System of Brushless Synchronous Generator

Authors: Deepak M. Sajnekar, S. B. Deshpande, R. M. Mohril


At present many rotary excitation control system are using analog type of Automatic Voltage Regulator which now started to replace with the digital automatic voltage regulator which is provided with PID controller and tuning of PID controller is a challenging task. The cases where digital excitation control system is used tuning of PID controller are still carried out by pole placement method. Tuning of PID controller used for static excitation control system is not challenging because it does not involve exciter time constant. This paper discusses two methods of tuning PID controller i.e. Pole placement method and pole zero cancellation method. GUI prepared for both the methods on the platform of MATLAB. Using this GUI, performance results and time required for tuning for both the methods are compared. Sensitivity of the methods is also presented with parameter variation like loop gain ‘K’ and exciter time constant ‘te’.

Keywords: digital excitation system, automatic voltage regulator, pole placement method, pole zero cancellation method

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
2666 SCR-Based Advanced ESD Protection Device for Low Voltage Application

Authors: Bo Bae Song, Byung Seok Lee, Hyun young Kim, Chung Kwang Lee, Yong Seo Koo


This paper proposed a silicon controller rectifier (SCR) based ESD protection device to protect low voltage ESD for integrated circuit. The proposed ESD protection device has low trigger voltage and high holding voltage compared with conventional SCR-based ESD protection devices. The proposed ESD protection circuit is verified and compared by TCAD simulation. This paper verified effective low voltage ESD characteristics with low trigger voltage of 5.79V and high holding voltage of 3.5V through optimization depending on design variables (D1, D2, D3, and D4).

Keywords: ESD, SCR, holding voltage, latch-up

Procedia PDF Downloads 424
2665 An Investigation of Vegetable Oils as Potential Insulating Liquid

Authors: Celal Kocatepe, Eyup Taslak, Celal Fadil Kumru, Oktay Arikan


While choosing insulating oil, characteristic features such as thermal cooling, endurance, efficiency and being environment-friendly should be considered. Mineral oils are referred as petroleum-based oil. In this study, vegetable oils investigated as an alternative insulating liquid to mineral oil. Dissipation factor, breakdown voltage, relative dielectric constant and resistivity changes with the frequency and voltage of mineral, rapeseed and nut oils were measured. Experimental studies were performed according to ASTM D924 and IEC 60156 standards.

Keywords: breakdown voltage, dielectric dissipation factor, mineral oil, vegetable oils

Procedia PDF Downloads 594
2664 DG Power Plants Placement and Evaluation of its Effect on Improving Voltage Security Margin in Radial Distribution Networks

Authors: Atabak Faramarzpour, Mohsen Mohammadian


In this article, we introduce the stability of power system voltage and state DG power plants placement and its effect on improving voltage security margin in radial distribution networks. For this purpose, first, important definitions in voltage stability area such as small and big voltage disturbances, instability, and voltage collapse, and voltage security definitions are stated. Then, according to voltage collapse time, voltage stability is classified and each one's characteristics are stated.

Keywords: DG power plants, evaluation, voltage security, radial distribution networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 560
2663 A Study on ESD Protection Circuit Applying Silicon Controlled Rectifier-Based Stack Technology with High Holding Voltage

Authors: Hee-Guk Chae, Bo-Bae Song, Kyoung-Il Do, Jeong-Yun Seo, Yong-Seo Koo


In this study, an improved Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) protection circuit with low trigger voltage and high holding voltage is proposed. ESD has become a serious problem in the semiconductor process because the semiconductor density has become very high these days. Therefore, much research has been done to prevent ESD. The proposed circuit is a stacked structure of the new unit structure combined by the Zener Triggering (SCR ZTSCR) and the High Holding Voltage SCR (HHVSCR). The simulation results show that the proposed circuit has low trigger voltage and high holding voltage. And the stack technology is applied to adjust the various operating voltage. As the results, the holding voltage is 7.7 V for 2-stack and 10.7 V for 3-stack.

Keywords: ESD, SCR, latch-up, power clamp, holding voltage

Procedia PDF Downloads 370
2662 The Effects of Gas Metal Arc Welding Parameters on the Corrosion Behaviour of Austenitic Stainless Steel Immersed in Aqueous Sodium Hydroxide

Authors: I. M. B. Omiogbemi, D. S. Yawas, I. M. Dagwa, F. G. Okibe


This work present the effects of some gas metal arc welding parameters on the corrosion behavior of austenitic stainless steel, exposed to 0.5M sodium hydroxide at ambient temperatures (298K) using conventional weight loss determination, together with surface morphology evaluation by scanning electron microscopy and the application of factorial design of experiment to determine welding conditions which enhance the integrity of the welded stainless steel. The welding variables evaluated include speed, voltage and current. Different samples of the welded stainless steels were immersed in the corrosion environment for 8, 16, 24, 32 and 40 days and weight loss determined. From the results, it was found that increase in welding current and speed at constant voltage gave the optimum performance of the austenitic stainless steel in the environment. At a of speed 40cm/min, 110Amp current and voltage of 230 volt the welded stainless steel showed only a 0.0015mg loss in weight after 40 days. Pit-like openings were observed on the surface of the metals indicating corrosion but were minimal at the optimum conditions. It was concluded from the research that relatively high welding speed and current at a constant voltage gives a good welded austenitic stainless steel with better integrity.

Keywords: welding, current, speed, austenitic stainless steel, sodium hydroxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
2661 Hybrid Approach for Controlling Inductive Load Fed by a Multicellular Converter by Using the Petri Nets

Authors: I. Bentchikou, A. Tlemcani, F. Boudjema, D. Boukhetala, N. Ould Cherchali


In this paper, hybrid approach is proposed to regulate the voltages of the floating capacitor multicell inverter and the current in the load. This structure makes it possible to ensure the distribution of the voltage stresses on the various low-voltage semiconductor components connected in series. And as the problem and to keep a constant voltage across the capacitors. Thus, it is necessary to ensure a distribution balanced voltages at the terminals of floating capacitors thanks to Algorithm develop for this, using the Petri nets. So we consider a three-cell converter represented as a hybrid system with eight modes of operation. The operating modes of the system are governed by the control reference voltage and a reference current. Finally, we present the results of the simulation with MATLAB/SIMULINK to illustrate the performances of this approach.

Keywords: hybrid control, floating condensers, multicellular converter, petri nets

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
2660 Flashover Voltage of Silicone Insulating Surface Covered by Water Drops under AC Voltage

Authors: Fatiha Aouabed, Abdelhafid Bayadi, Rabah Boudissa


Nowadays, silicone rubber insulation materials are widely used in high voltage outdoor insulation systems as they can combat pollution flashover problems. The difference in pollution flashover performance of silicone rubber and other insulating materials is due to the way that water wets their surfaces. It resides as discrete drops on silicone rubber, and the mechanism of flashover is due to the breakdown of the air between the water drops and the distortion of these drops in the direction of the electric field which brings the insulation to degradation and failure. The main objective of this work is to quantify the effect of different types of water drops arrangements, their position and dry bands width on the flashover voltage of the silicone insulating surface with non-uniform electric field systems. The tests were carried out on a rectangular sample under AC voltage. A rod-rod electrode system is used. The findings of this work indicate that the performance of the samples decreases with the presence of water drops on their surfaces. Further, these experimental findings show that there is a limiting number of rows from which the flashover voltage of the insulation is minimal and constant. This minimum is a function of the distance between two successive rows. Finally, it is concluded that the system withstand voltage increases when the row of droplets on the electrode axis is removed.

Keywords: contamination, flashover, testing, silicone rubber insulators, surface wettability, water droplets

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
2659 A Study on Unidirectional Analog Output Voltage Inverter for Capacitive Load

Authors: Sun-Ki Hong, Nam-HeeByeon, Jung-Seop Lee, Tae-Sam Kang


For Common R or R-L load to apply arbitrary voltage, the bridge traditional inverters don’t have any difficulties by PWM method. However for driving some piezoelectric actuator, arbitrary voltage not a pulse but a steady voltage should be applied. Piezoelectric load is considered as R-C load and its voltage does not decrease even though the applied voltage decreases. Therefore it needs some special inverter with circuit that can discharge the capacitive energy. Especially for unidirectional arbitrary voltage driving like as sine wave, it becomes more difficult problem. In this paper, a charge and discharge circuit for unidirectional arbitrary voltage driving for piezoelectric actuator is proposed. The circuit has charging and discharging switches for increasing and decreasing output voltage. With the proposed simple circuit, the load voltage can have any unidirectional level with tens of bandwidth because the load voltage can be adjusted by switching the charging and discharging switch appropriately. The appropriateness is proved from the simulation of the proposed circuit.

Keywords: DC-DC converter, analog output voltage, sinusoidal drive, piezoelectric load, discharging circuit

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
2658 SCR-Stacking Structure with High Holding Voltage for IO and Power Clamp

Authors: Hyun Young Kim, Chung Kwang Lee, Han Hee Cho, Sang Woon Cho, Yong Seo Koo


In this paper, we proposed a novel SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier) - based ESD (Electrostatic Discharge) protection device for I/O and power clamp. The proposed device has a higher holding voltage characteristic than conventional SCR. These characteristics enable to have latch-up immunity under normal operating conditions as well as superior full chip ESD protection. The proposed device was analyzed to figure out electrical characteristics and tolerance robustness in term of individual design parameters (D1, D2, D3). They are investigated by using the Synopsys TCAD simulator. As a result of simulation, holding voltage increased with different design parameters. The holding voltage of the proposed device changes from 3.3V to 7.9V. Also, N-Stack structure ESD device with the high holding voltage is proposed. In the simulation results, 2-stack has holding voltage of 6.8V and 3-stack has holding voltage of 10.5V. The simulation results show that holding voltage of stacking structure can be larger than the operation voltage of high-voltage application.

Keywords: ESD, SCR, holding voltage, stack, power clamp

Procedia PDF Downloads 426
2657 Low-Voltage Multiphase Brushless DC Motor for Electric Vehicle Application

Authors: Mengesha Mamo Wogari


In this paper, low voltage multiphase brushless DC motor with square wave air-gap flux distribution for electric vehicle application is proposed. Ten-phase, 5 kW motor, has been designed and simulated by finite element methods demonstrating the desired high torque capability at low speed and flux weakening operation for high-speed operations. The motor torque is proportional to number of phases for a constant phase current and air-gap flux. The concept of vector control and simple space vector modulation technique is used on MATLAB to control the motor demonstrating simple switching pattern for selected number of phases. The low voltage DC and inverter output AC are desired characteristics to avoid any electric shock in the vehicle, accidentally and during abnormal conditions. The switching devices for inverter are of low-voltage rating and cost effective though their number is equal to twice the number of phases.

Keywords: brushless DC motors, electric Vehicle, finite element methods, Low-voltage inverter, multiphase

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
2656 Design and Development of Compact 1KW Floating Battery Discharge Regulator

Authors: A. Sreedevi, G. Anantaramu


The present space research organizations are striving towards the development of lighter, smaller, more efficient, low cost, and highly reliable power supply. Switch mode power supplies (SMPS) overcome the demerits of linear power supplies such as low efficiency, difficulties in thermal management, and in boosting the output voltage. Space applications require a constant DC voltage to supply its load. As the load varies, the battery terminal voltage tends to vary accordingly. To avoid this variation in the load terminal voltage, a DC-DC regulator is required. The conventional regulator for space applications is isolated boost topology. The proposed topology uses an interleaved push-pull converter with a current doubler secondary to reduce the EMI issues and increase efficiency. The proposed topology uses a floating technique where the converter derives power from the battery and generates only the voltage that is required to fill the gap between the bus and the battery voltage. The direct voltage sense and current loop provide tight regulation of output and better stability. Converter is designed with 50 kHz switching frequency using UC 1825 PWM controller employing both voltage and peak current mode control. Experimental tests have been carried out on the converter under different input and load conditions to validate the design. The experimental results showed that the efficiency was greater than 91%. Stability analysis is done using venable stability analyzer.

Keywords: push pull converter, current doubler, converter, PWM control

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
2655 Temperature-Dependent Barrier Characteristics of Inhomogeneous Pd/n-GaN Schottky Barrier Diodes Surface

Authors: K. Al-Heuseen, M. R. Hashim


The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of Pd/n-GaN Schottky barrier were studied at temperatures over room temperature (300-470K). The values of ideality factor (n), zero-bias barrier height (φB0), flat barrier height (φBF) and series resistance (Rs) obtained from I-V-T measurements were found to be strongly temperature dependent while (φBo) increase, (n), (φBF) and (Rs) decrease with increasing temperature. The apparent Richardson constant was found to be 2.1x10-9 Acm-2K-2 and mean barrier height of 0.19 eV. After barrier height inhomogeneities correction, by assuming a Gaussian distribution (GD) of the barrier heights, the Richardson constant and the mean barrier height were obtained as 23 Acm-2K-2 and 1.78eV, respectively. The corrected Richardson constant was very closer to theoretical value of 26 Acm-2K-2.

Keywords: electrical properties, Gaussian distribution, Pd-GaN Schottky diodes, thermionic emission

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
2654 The Effect of Power of Isolation Transformer on the Lamps in Airfield Ground Lighting Systems

Authors: Hossein Edrisi


To study the impact of the amount and volume of power of isolation transformer on the lamps in airfield Ground Lighting Systems. A test was conducted in Persian Gulf International Airport, This airport is situated in the south of Iran and it is one of the most cutting-edge airports, the same one that owns modern devices. Iran uses materials and auxiliary equipment which are made by ADB Company from Belgium. Airfield ground lighting (AGL) systems are responsible for providing visual issue to aircrafts and helicopters in the runways. In an AGL system a great deal of lamps are connected in serial circuits to each other and each ring has its individual constant current regulators (CCR), which through that provide energy to the lamps. Control of lamps is crucial for maintenance and operation in the AGL systems. Thanks to the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) that is a cutting-edge technology can help the system to connect the elements from substations and ATC (TOWER). For this purpose, a test in real conditions of the airport done for all element that used in the airport such as isolation transformer in different power capacity and different consuming power and brightness of the lamps. The data were analyzed with Lux meter and Multimeter. The results had shown that the increase in the power of transformer caused a significant increase in brightness. According to the Ohm’s law and voltage division, without changing the characteristics of the light bulb, it is not possible to change the voltage, just need to change the amount of transformer with which it connects to the lamps. When the voltage is increased, the current through the bulb has to increase as well, because of Ohm's law: I=V/R and I=V/R which means that if V increases, so do I increase. The output voltage on the constant current regulator emerges between the lamps and the transformers.

Keywords: AGL, CCR, lamps, transformer, Ohm’s law

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
2653 Analysis of SCR-Based ESD Protection Circuit on Holding Voltage Characteristics

Authors: Yong Seo Koo, Jong Ho Nam, Yong Nam Choi, Dae Yeol Yoo, Jung Woo Han


This paper presents a silicon controller rectifier (SCR) based ESD protection circuit for IC. The proposed ESD protection circuit has low trigger voltage and high holding voltage compared with conventional SCR ESD protection circuit. Electrical characteristics of the proposed ESD protection circuit are simulated and analyzed using TCAD simulator. The proposed ESD protection circuit verified effective low voltage ESD characteristics with low trigger voltage and high holding voltage.

Keywords: electro-static discharge (ESD), silicon controlled rectifier (SCR), holding voltage, protection circuit

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
2652 A Silicon Controlled Rectifier-Based ESD Protection Circuit with High Holding Voltage and High Robustness Characteristics

Authors: Kyoung-il Do, Byung-seok Lee, Hee-guk Chae, Jeong-yun Seo Yong-seo Koo


In this paper, a Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR)-based Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) protection circuit with high holding voltage and high robustness characteristics is proposed. Unlike conventional SCR, the proposed circuit has low trigger voltage and high holding voltage and provides effective ESD protection with latch-up immunity. In addition, the TCAD simulation results show that the proposed circuit has better electrical characteristics than the conventional SCR. A stack technology was used for voltage-specific applications. Consequentially, the proposed circuit has a trigger voltage of 17.60 V and a holding voltage of 3.64 V.

Keywords: ESD, SCR, latch-up, power clamp, holding voltage

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
2651 Comparative Study of Line Voltage Stability Indices for Voltage Collapse Forecasting in Power Transmission System

Authors: H. H. Goh, Q. S. Chua, S. W. Lee, B. C. Kok, K. C. Goh, K. T. K. Teo


At present, the evaluation of voltage stability assessment experiences sizeable anxiety in the safe operation of power systems. This is due to the complications of a strain power system. With the snowballing of power demand by the consumers and also the restricted amount of power sources, therefore, the system has to perform at its maximum proficiency. Consequently, the noteworthy to discover the maximum ability boundary prior to voltage collapse should be undertaken. A preliminary warning can be perceived to evade the interruption of power system’s capacity. The effectiveness of line voltage stability indices (LVSI) is differentiated in this paper. The main purpose of the indices is used to predict the proximity of voltage instability of the electric power system. On the other hand, the indices are also able to decide the weakest load buses which are close to voltage collapse in the power system. The line stability indices are assessed using the IEEE 14 bus test system to validate its practicability. Results demonstrated that the implemented indices are practically relevant in predicting the manifestation of voltage collapse in the system. Therefore, essential actions can be taken to dodge the incident from arising.

Keywords: critical line, line outage, line voltage stability indices (LVSI), maximum loadability, voltage collapse, voltage instability, voltage stability analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
2650 New Series Input Parallel Output LLC DC/DC Converter with the Input Voltage Balancing Capacitor for the Electric System of Electric Vehicles

Authors: Kang Hyun Yi


This paper presents a new parallel output LLC DC/DC converter for electric vehicle. The electric vehicle has two batteries. One is a high voltage battery for the powertrain of the vehicle and the other is a low voltage battery for the vehicle electric system. The low voltage is charged from the high voltage battery and the high voltage input and the high current output DC/DC converter is needed. Therefore, the new LLC converter with the input voltage compensation is proposed for the high voltage input and the low voltage output DC/DC converter. The proposed circuit has two LLC converters with the series input voltage from the battery for the powertrain and the parallel output low battery voltage for the vehicle electric system because the battery voltage for the powertrain and the electric power for the vehicle become high. Also, the input series voltage compensation capacitor is used for balancing the input current in the two LLC converters. The proposed converter has an equal electric stress of the semiconductor parts and the reactive components, high efficiency and good heat dissipation.

Keywords: electric vehicle, LLC DC/DC converter, input voltage balancing, parallel output

Procedia PDF Downloads 500
2649 Power Quality Issues: Power Supply Interruptions as Key Constraint to Development in Ekiti State, Nigeria

Authors: Oluwatosin S. Adeoye


The power quality issues in the world today are critical to the development of different nations. Prosperity of each nation depends on availability of constant power supply. Constant power supply is a major challenge in Africa particularly in Nigeria where the generated power is than thirty percent of the required power. The metrics of power quality are voltage dip, flickers, spikes, harmonics and interruptions. The level of interruptions in Ekiti State was examined through the investigation of the causes of power interruptions in the State. The method used was the collection of data from the Distribution Company, assessment through simple programming as a command for plotting the graphs through the use of MATLAB 2015 depicting the behavioural pattern of the interruption for a period of six months in 2016. The result shows that the interrelationship between the interruptions and development. Recommendations were suggested with the objective of solving the problems being set up by interruptions in the State and these include installation of reactors, automatic voltage regulators and effective tap changing system on the lines, busses and transformer substation respectively.

Keywords: development, frequency, interruption, power, quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
2648 Design and Simulation of Step Structure RF MEMS Switch for K Band Applications

Authors: G. K. S. Prakash, Rao K. Srinivasa


MEMS plays an important role in wide range of applications like biological, automobiles, military and communication engineering. This paper mainly investigates on capacitive shunt RF MEMS switch with low actuation voltage and low insertion losses. To trim the pull-in voltage, a step structure has introduced to trim air gap between the beam and the dielectric layer with that pull in voltage is trim to 2.9 V. The switching time of the proposed switch is 39.1μs, and capacitance ratio is 67. To get more isolation, we have used aluminum nitride as dielectric material instead of silicon nitride (Si₃N₄) and silicon dioxide (SiO₂) because aluminum nitride has high dielectric constant (εᵣ = 9.5) increases the OFF capacitance and eventually increases the isolation of the switch. The results show that the switch is ON state involves return loss (S₁₁) less than -25 dB up to 40 GHz and insertion loss (S₂₁) is more than -1 dB up to 35 GHz. In OFF state switch shows maximum isolation (S₂₁) of -38 dB occurs at a frequency of 25-27 GHz for K band applications.

Keywords: RF MEMS, actuation voltage, isolation loss, switches

Procedia PDF Downloads 275