Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Search results for: Cassandra Rutherford

22 The Investigation of Women Civil Engineers’ Identity Development through the Lens of Recognition Theory

Authors: Hasan Sungur, Evrim Baran, Benjamin Ahn, Aliye Karabulut Ilgu, Chris Rehmann, Cassandra Rutherford

Abstract:

Engineering identity contributes to the professional and educational persistence of women engineers. A crucial factor contributing to the development of the engineering identity is recognition. Those without adequate recognition often do not succeed in positively building their identities. This research draws on Honneth’s recognition theory to identify factors impacting women civil engineers’ feelings of recognition as civil engineers. A survey was composed and distributed to 330 female alumni who graduated from the Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering at Iowa State University in the last ten years. The survey items include demographics, perceptions of the identity of civil engineering, and factors that influence the recognition of civil engineering identities, such as views of society and family. Descriptive analysis of the survey responses revealed that the perceptions of civil engineering varied widely. Participants’ definitions of civil engineering included the terms: construction, design, and infrastructure. Almost half of the participants reported that the major reason to study civil engineering was their interest in the subject matter, and most reported that they were proud to be civil engineers. Many study participants reported that their parents see them as civil engineers. Treatment of institutions and the workplace were also considered as having a significant impact on the recognition of women civil engineers. Almost half of the participants reported that they felt isolated or ignored at work because of their gender. This research emphasizes the importance of recognition for the development of the civil engineering identity of women

Keywords: civil engineering, gender, identity, recognition

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21 Understanding the Fundamental Driver of Semiconductor Radiation Tolerance with Experiment and Theory

Authors: Julie V. Logan, Preston T. Webster, Kevin B. Woller, Christian P. Morath, Michael P. Short

Abstract:

Semiconductors, as the base of critical electronic systems, are exposed to damaging radiation while operating in space, nuclear reactors, and particle accelerator environments. What innate property allows some semiconductors to sustain little damage while others accumulate defects rapidly with dose is, at present, poorly understood. This limits the extent to which radiation tolerance can be implemented as a design criterion. To address this problem of determining the driver of semiconductor radiation tolerance, the first step is to generate a dataset of the relative radiation tolerance of a large range of semiconductors (exposed to the same radiation damage and characterized in the same way). To accomplish this, Rutherford backscatter channeling experiments are used to compare the displaced lattice atom buildup in InAs, InP, GaP, GaN, ZnO, MgO, and Si as a function of step-wise alpha particle dose. With this experimental information on radiation-induced incorporation of interstitial defects in hand, hybrid density functional theory electron densities (and their derived quantities) are calculated, and their gradient and Laplacian are evaluated to obtain key fundamental information about the interactions in each material. It is shown that simple, undifferentiated values (which are typically used to describe bond strength) are insufficient to predict radiation tolerance. Instead, the curvature of the electron density at bond critical points provides a measure of radiation tolerance consistent with the experimental results obtained. This curvature and associated forces surrounding bond critical points disfavors localization of displaced lattice atoms at these points, favoring their diffusion toward perfect lattice positions. With this criterion to predict radiation tolerance, simple density functional theory simulations can be conducted on potential new materials to gain insight into how they may operate in demanding high radiation environments.

Keywords: density functional theory, GaN, GaP, InAs, InP, MgO, radiation tolerance, rutherford backscatter channeling

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20 RBS Characteristic of Cd1−xZnxS Thin Film Fabricated by Vacuum Deposition Method

Authors: N. Dahbi, D. E. Arafah

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Cd1−xZnxS thins films have been fabricated from ZnS/CdS/ZnS multilayer thin film systems, by using the vacuum deposition method; the Rutherford back-scattering (RBS) technique have been applied in order to determine the: structure, composition, depth profile, and stoichiometric of these films. The influence of the chemical and heat treatments on the produced films also have been investigated; the RBS spectra of the films showed that homogenous Cd1−xZnxS can be synthesized with x=0.45.

Keywords: Cd1−xZnxS, chemical treatment, depth profile, heat treatment, RBS, RUMP simulation, thin film, vacuum deposition, ZnS/CdS/ZnS

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19 Analytical Approximations of the Differential Elastic Scattering Cross-Sections for Slow Electrons and Positrons Transport in Solids: A Comparative Study

Authors: A. Bentabet, A. Aydin, N. Fenineche

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In this work, we try to determine the best analytical approximation of differential cross sections, used generally in Monte Carlo simulation, to study the electron/positron slowing down in solid targets in the energy range up to 10 keV. Actually, our comparative study was carried out on the angular distribution of the scattering angle, the elastic total and the first transport cross sections which are the essential quantities used generally in the electron/positron transport study by using both stochastic and deterministic methods. Indeed, the obtained results using the relativistic partial wave expansion method and the backscattering coefficient experimental data are used as criteria to evaluate the used model.

Keywords: differential cross-section, backscattering coefficient, Rutherford cross-section, Vicanek and Urbassek theory

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18 Chemical Bath Deposition Technique (CBD) of Cds Used in Closed Space Sublimation (CSS) of CdTe Solar Cell

Authors: Zafar Mahmood, Fahimullah Babar, Surriyia Naz, Hafiz Ur Rehman

Abstract:

Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) was deposited on a Tec 15 glass substrate with the help of CBD (chemical bath deposition process) and then cadmium telluride CdTe was deposited on CdS with the help of CSS (closed spaced sublimation technique) for the construction of a solar cell. The thicknesses of all the deposited materials were measured with the help of Elipsometry. The IV graphs were drawn in order to observe the current voltage output. The efficiency of the cell was graphed with the fill factor as well (graphs not given here).The efficiency came out to be approximately 16.5 % and the CIGS (copper- indium –gallium- selenide) maximum efficiency is 20 %.The efficiency of a solar cell can further be enhanced by adapting quality materials, good experimental devices and proper procedures. The grain size was analyzed with the help of scanning electron microscope using RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy).

Keywords: CBD, CdS, CdTe, CSS

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17 Chemical Bath Deposition Technique of CdS Used in Closed Space Sublimation of CdTe Solar Cell

Authors: Z. Mahmood, F. U. Babar, S. Naz, H. U. Rehman

Abstract:

Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) was deposited on a Tec 15 glass substrate with the help of CBD (chemical bath deposition process) and then cadmium telluride CdTe was deposited on CdS with the help of CSS (closed spaced sublimation technique) for the construction of a solar cell. The thicknesses of all the deposited materials were measured with the help of Ellipsometry. The IV graphs were drawn in order to observe the current voltage output. The efficiency of the cell was graphed with the fill factor as well (graphs not given here). The efficiency came out to be approximately 16.5 % and the CIGS (copper-indium–gallium-selenide) maximum efficiency is 20 %. The efficiency of a solar cell can further be enhanced by adapting quality materials, good experimental devices and proper procedures. The grain size was analyzed with the help of scanning electron microscope using RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy).

Keywords: Chemical Bath Deposition Technique (CBD), cadmium sulphide (CdS), CdTe, CSS (Closed Space Sublimation)

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16 Structural and Magnetic Properties of Mn-Doped 6H-SiC

Authors: M. Al Azri, M. Elzain, K. Bouziane, S. M. Chérif

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n-Type 6H-SiC(0001) substrates were implanted with three fluencies of Mn+ 5x1015 Mn/cm2 (Mn content: 0.7%), 1x1016 (~2 %), and 5x1016 cm–2 (7%) with implantation energy of 80 keV and substrate temperature of 365ºC. The samples were characterized using Rutherford Backscattering and Channeling Spectroscopy (RBS/C), High-Resolution X-Ray Diffraction technique (HRXRD), micro-Raman Spectroscopy (μRS), and Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) techniques. The aim of our work is to investigate implantation induced defects with dose and to study any correlation between disorder-composition and magnetic properties. In addition, ab-initio calculations were used to investigate the structural and magnetic properties of Mn-doped 6H-SiC. Various configurations of Mn sites and vacancy types were considered. The calculations showed that a substitutional Mn atom at Si site possesses larger magnetic moment than Mn atom at C site. A model is introduced to explain the dependence of the magnetic structure on site occupation. The magnetic properties of ferromagnetically (FM) and antiferromagnetically (AFM) coupled pairs of Mn atoms with and without neighboring vacancies have also been explored.

Keywords: ab-initio calculations, diluted magnetic semiconductors, magnetic properties, silicon carbide

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15 Nanomechanical Characterization of Titanium Alloy Modified by Nitrogen Ion Implantation

Authors: Josef Sepitka, Petr Vlcak, Tomas Horazdovsky, Vratislav Perina

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An ion implantation technique was used for designing the surface area of a titanium alloy and for irradiation-enhanced hardening of the surface. The Ti6Al4V alloy was treated by nitrogen ion implantation at fluences of 2·1017 and 4·1017 cm-2 and at ion energy 90 keV. The depth distribution of the nitrogen was investigated by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy. The gradient of mechanical properties was investigated by nanoindentation. The continuous measurement mode was used to obtain depth profiles of the indentation hardness and the reduced storage modulus of the modified surface area. The reduced storage modulus and the hardness increase with increasing fluence. Increased fluence shifts the peak of the mechanical properties as well as the peak of nitrogen concentration towards to the surface. This effect suggests a direct relationship between mechanical properties and nitrogen distribution.

Keywords: nitrogen ion implantation, titanium-based nanolayer, storage modulus, hardness, microstructure

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14 Design and Māori Values: A Rebrand Project for the Social Enterprise Sector

Authors: M. Kiarna, S. Junjira, S. Casey, M. Nolwazi, M. S. Marcos, A. T. Tatiana, L. Cassandra

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This paper details a rebrand design project developed for a non-profitable organization called Te Roopu Waiora (TRW), which is currently located in Auckland, Aotearoa New Zealand. This social enterprise is dedicated to supporting the Māori community living with sensorial, physical and intellectual disabilities (whānau hauā). As part of a year three bachelor design brief, the rebrand project enabled students to reflect on Kaupapa Māori principles and appropriately address the values of the organisation. As such, the methodology used a pragmatic paradigm approach and mixed methods design practices involving a human-centred design to problem solving. As result, the student project culminated in the development in a range of cohesive design artefacts, aiming to improve the rentability and perception of the brand with the audience and stakeholders.

Keywords: design in Aotearoa New Zealand, Kaupapa Māori, branding, design education, human-centered design

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13 Musical Composition by Computer with Inspiration from Files of Different Media Types

Authors: Cassandra Pratt Romero, Andres Gomez de Silva Garza

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This paper describes a computational system designed to imitate human inspiration during musical composition. The system is called MIS (Musical Inspiration Simulator). The MIS system is inspired by media to which human beings are exposed daily (visual, textual, or auditory) to create new musical compositions based on the emotions detected in said media. After building the system we carried out a series of evaluations with volunteer users who used MIS to compose music based on images, texts, and audio files. The volunteers were asked to judge the harmoniousness and innovation in the system's compositions. An analysis of the results points to the difficulty of computational analysis of the characteristics of the media to which we are exposed daily, as human emotions have a subjective character. This observation will direct future improvements in the system.

Keywords: human inspiration, musical composition, musical composition by computer, theory of sensation and human perception

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12 Reaching to the Unreachable: Can Local Adaptation Plan of Action (LAPA) Overcome the Current Barriers to Reach to the Vulnerable?

Authors: Bimal Raj Regmi, Cassandra Star

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Climate change adaptation is now the priority of many Least Developed Countries (LDCs). The country governments in LDCs are designing institutional and financing architecture to implement adaptation programmes. Nepal has introduced the concept of Local Adaptation Plan of Action (LAPA) to facilitate adaptation at the local level. However, there is lack of clarity and ambiguity on whether or not LAPA can be effective means to reach to the most vulnerable. This research paper aims to generate evidences to assess the applicability and significance of LAPA. The study used a case study approach and relied on data gathered from field studies carried out in Pyuthan and Nawalparasi district of Nepal. The findings show that LAPA has potentials to link the community based adaptation with national adaptation initiatives and thus act as middle range approach to adaptation planning. However, the current scale of LAPA and its approaches to planning and delivery are constraints by socio-economic and governance barriers. This research paper argue that the in order to address the constraints a more flexible and co-management approach to LAPA is needed.

Keywords: community based adaptation, local adaptation, co-management, climate change

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11 An Evidence Map of Cost-Utility Studies in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Authors: Cassandra Springate, Alexandra Furber, Jack E. Hines

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Objectives: To create an evidence map of the cost-utility studies available with non-small cell lung cancer patients, and identify the geographical settings and interventions used. Methods: Using the Disease, Study Type, and Model Type filters in heoro.com we identified all cost-utility studies published between 1960 and 2017 with patients with non-small cell lung cancer. These papers were then indexed according to pre-specified categories. Results: Heoro.com identified 89 independent publications, published between 1995 and 2017. Of the 89 papers, 74 were published since 2010, 28 were from the USA, and 35 were from Europe, 16 of which were from the UK. Other publications were from China and Japan (13), Canada (9), Australia and New Zealand (4), and other countries (8). Fifty-nine studies included a chemotherapy intervention, of which 23 included erlotinib or gefitinib, 21 included pemetrexed or docetaxel, others included nivolumab (3), pembrolizumab (2), crizotinib (2), denosumab (2), necitumumab (1), and bevacizumab (1). Also, 19 studies modeled screening, staging, or surveillance strategies. Conclusions: The cost-utility studies found for NSCLC most commonly looked at the effectiveness of different chemotherapy treatments, with some also evaluating the addition of screening strategies. Most were also conducted with patient data from the USA and Europe.

Keywords: cancer, cost-utility, economic model, non-small cell lung cancer

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10 Parental Separation and 'the Best Interests of the Child' at International Law: Guidance for Nation States in the 21st Century

Authors: Cassandra Seery

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During the twentieth century, the notion of child rights at the international level began with the League of Nations’ Geneva Declaration of the Rights of the Child 1924, culminating in the development and adoption of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (‘the Convention’) in 1989. A key foundation of child rights lies in the development of the ‘best interests of the child’ principle and its subsequent incorporation into domestic legislation across the globe. This principle has become a key concept in child rights protection and has become a widely recognized principle in the protection of child rights. However, despite its status as the primary operating standard in child and family law and its ‘deepening hold in domestic and international instruments’, the meaning of the ‘best interests of the child’ principle has been criticised as open-ended and vague. This paper explores the evolution and development of the principle in the context of parental separation at international law throughout the 21st century and identifies opportunities for the Nation States to further improve legislative responses in associated child protection cases. An extensive review of relevant United Nations documentation (including instruments, resolutions and comments, jurisprudence, reports, guidelines and policies, training materials and so forth) explores: (i) what progress has been made to further develop the principle at the international level with regard to parental separation; and (ii) what developments participating the Nation States should consider as part of future legal and social policy reforms in this space. It will highlight opportunities for improvement and explore the benefit and relevance of international approaches for the Nation States moving forward.

Keywords: international human rights, best interests of the child, legal and social policy, child rights

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9 Long Term Follow-Up, Clinical Outcomes and Quality of Life after Total Arterial Revascularisation versus Conventional Coronary Surgery: A Retrospective Study

Authors: Jitendra Jain, Cassandra Hidajat, Hansraj Riteesh Bookun

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Graft patency underpins long-term prognosis after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG). The benefits of the combined use of only the left internal mammary artery and radial artery, referred to as total arterial revascularisation (TAR), on long-term clinical outcomes and quality of life are relatively unknown. The aim of this study was to identify whether there were differences in long term clinical outcomes between recipients of TAR compared to a cohort of mostly arterial revascularization involving the left internal mammary, at least one radial artery and at least one saphenous vein graft. A retrospective analysis was performed on all patients who underwent TAR or were re-vascularized with supplementary saphenous vein graft from February 1996 to December 2004. Telephone surveys were conducted to obtain clinical outcome parameters including major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) and Short Form (SF-36v2) Health Survey responses. A total of 176 patients were successfully contacted to obtain postop follow up results. The mean follow-up length from time of surgery in our study was TAR 12.4±1.8 years and conventional 12.6±2.1. PCS score was TAR 45.9±8.8 vs LIMA/Rad/ SVG 44.9±9.2 (p=0.468) and MCS score was TAR 52.0±8.9 vs LIMA/Rad/SVG 52.5±9.3 (p=0.723). There were no significant differences between groups for NYHA class 3+ TAR 9.4% vs. LIMA/Rad/SVG 6.6%; or CCS 3+ TAR 2.35% vs. LIMA/Rad/SVG 0%.

Keywords: CABG; MACCEs; quality of life; total arterial revascularisation

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8 Informing, Enabling and Inspiring Social Innovation by Geographic Systems Mapping: A Case Study in Workforce Development

Authors: Cassandra A. Skinner, Linda R. Chamberlain

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The nonprofit and public sectors are increasingly turning to Geographic Information Systems for data visualizations which can better inform programmatic and policy decisions. Additionally, the private and nonprofit sectors are turning to systems mapping to better understand the ecosystems within which they operate. This study explores the potential which combining these data visualization methods—a method which is called geographic systems mapping—to create an exhaustive and comprehensive understanding of a social problem’s ecosystem may have in social innovation efforts. Researchers with Grand Valley State University collaborated with Talent 2025 of West Michigan to conduct a mixed-methods research study to paint a comprehensive picture of the workforce development ecosystem in West Michigan. Using semi-structured interviewing, observation, secondary research, and quantitative analysis, data were compiled on workforce development organizations’ locations, programming, metrics for success, partnerships, funding sources, and service language. To best visualize and disseminate the data, a geographic system map was created which identifies programmatic, operational, and geographic gaps in workforce development services of West Michigan. By combining geographic and systems mapping methods, the geographic system map provides insight into the cross-sector relationships, collaboration, and competition which exists among and between workforce development organizations. These insights identify opportunities for and constraints around cross-sectoral social innovation in the West Michigan workforce development ecosystem. This paper will discuss the process utilized to prepare the geographic systems map, explain the results and outcomes, and demonstrate how geographic systems mapping illuminated the needs of the community and opportunities for social innovation. As complicated social problems like unemployment often require cross-sectoral and multi-stakeholder solutions, there is potential for geographic systems mapping to be a tool which informs, enables, and inspires these solutions.

Keywords: cross-sector collaboration, data visualization, geographic systems mapping, social innovation, workforce development

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7 Rebuilding Health Post-Conflict: Case Studies from Afghanistan, Cambodia, and Mozambique

Authors: Spencer Rutherford, Shadi Saleh

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War and conflict negatively impact all facets of a health system; services cease to function, resources become depleted, and any semblance of governance is lost. Following cessation of conflict, the rebuilding process includes a wide array of international and local actors. During this period, stakeholders must contend with various trade-offs, including balancing sustainable outcomes with immediate health needs, introducing health reform measures while also increasing local capacity, and reconciling external assistance with local legitimacy. Compounding these factors are additional challenges, including coordination amongst stakeholders, the re-occurrence of conflict, and ulterior motives from donors and governments, to name a few. Therefore, the present paper evaluated health system development in three post-conflict countries over a 12-year timeline. Specifically, health policies, health inputs (such infrastructure and human resources), and measures of governance, from the post-conflict periods of Afghanistan, Cambodia, and Mozambique, were assessed against health outputs and other measures. All post-conflict countries experienced similar challenges when rebuilding the health sector, including; division and competition between donors, NGOs, and local institutions; urban and rural health inequalities; and the re-occurrence of conflict. However, countries also employed unique and effective mechanisms for reconstructing their health systems, including; government engagement of the NGO and private sector; integration of competing factions into the same workforce; and collaborative planning for health policy. Based on these findings, best-practice development strategies were determined and compiled into a 12-year framework. Briefly, during the initial stage of the post-conflict period, primary stakeholders should work quickly to draft a national health strategy in collaboration with the government, and focus on managing and coordinating NGOs through performance-based partnership agreements. With this scaffolding in place, the development community can then prioritize the reconstruction of primary health care centers, increasing and retaining health workers, and horizontal integration of immunization services. The final stages should then concentrate on transferring ownership of the health system national institutions, implementing sustainable financing mechanisms, and phasing-out NGO services. Overall, these findings contribute post-conflict health system development by evaluating the process holistically and along a timeline and can be of further use by healthcare managers, policy-makers, and other health professionals.

Keywords: Afghanistan, Cambodia, health system development, health system reconstruction, Mozambique, post-conflict, state-building

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6 Lived Experiences of Parents in Disciplining Their Children

Authors: Bernardino Vinoya, Cassandra D. Batton, Samantha Gayle M. Bonavente, Johnson O. Canoza, Lhea Flynn B. Capones, Camille S. Dispo, Johanna Neilvin T. Dontogan, Louise Angelica C. Lipana, Charlene Pearl P. Navalta, Rechelle Vhen W. Payo-os, Mary Reyna D. Ridao, Rushnol Jade P. Tupac, Pauline B. Sol

Abstract:

Parenting is preparing children for life as productive adults and discipline strategies are needed to achieve it like non-aggressive, psychologically aggressive and physical discipline. The effects of disciplinary strategies on children are well explored as evidenced by existing studies, local and international laws and active international organizations which are all brimmed towards child protection but status quo shows a profound scarcity of studies engaged in the effects of disciplining the child on the parent. To know the deeper unexplored reasons and untold stories of the parent, mainly the lived experiences of parents in disciplining their children. Design is descriptive phenomelogical. Participants were chosen using snowball purposive sampling. Data were collected through interview with the general question, “Ano ang mga karanasan ninyo sa pagdidisiplina ng inyong anak (What are your experiences when disciplining your child?)”, followed with unstructured questions. Collaizi method was used in analyzing data. Data collected was verified through focused group discussion. Results show three main themes: Reason, Disciplinary Strategy, and Aftermath. The use of disciplinary strategy is influenced by the experiences of the parent, the triggers like the child’s misbehavior and parental desires or wishes for the child. Disciplinary strategy can either be physical punishment or verbal. Parent’s generally used both when children disrespects or disobeys. Parents also experience both positive and negative effects on their physical, social, emotional aspects after disciplining their children. As a result, parents use coping mechanisms to maintain ego stability. Disciplining a child is a cyclical process. Parents, just like the child will also experience both positive and negative outcomes after using different disciplinary strategies. Future researchers can replicate study or use triangulation in multi-site qualitative and quantitative studies, professors can teach findings on parents in the concepts of pediatric nursing and apply the findings in the clinical area particularly when dealing with families.

Keywords: parents, disciplinary strategy, parental effects, pediatric nursing

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5 Shades of Violence – Risks of Male Violence Exposure for Mental and Somatic-Disorders and Risk-Taking Behavior: A Prevalence Study

Authors: Dana Cassandra Winkler, Delia Leiding, Rene Bergs, Franziska Kaiser, Ramona Kirchhart, Ute Habel

Abstract:

Background: Violence is a multidimensional phenomenon, affecting people of every age, socio-economic status and gender. Nevertheless, most studies primarily focus on men perpetrating women. Aim of the present study is to identify the likelihood of mental and somatic disorders and risk-taking behavior in male violence affected. In addition, the relationship between age of violence experience and the risk for health-related problems was analyzed. Method: On the basis of current evidence, a questionnaire was developed focusing on demographic background, health status, risk-taking behavior, and active and passive violence exposure. In total, 5221 males (Mean: 56,1 years, SD: 17,6) were consulted. To account for the time of violence experience in an efficient way, age clusters ‘0-12 years’, ‘13-20 years’, ‘21-35 years’, ‘36-65 years’ and ‘over 65 years’ were defined. A binary logistic regression was calculated to reveal differences in violence-affected and non-violence affected males regarding health and risk-taking factors. Males who experienced violence on a daily/ almost daily basis vs. males who reported violence occurrence once/ several times a month/ year were compared with respect to health factors and risk-taking behavior. Data of males, who indicated active and passive violence exposure, were analyzed by a chi²-analysis, to investigate a possible relation between the age of victimization and violence perpetration. Findings: Results imply that general violence experience, independent of active and passive violence exposure increases the likelihood in favor of somatic-, psychosomatic- and mental disorders as well as risk-taking behavior in males. Experiencing violence on a daily or almost daily basis in childhood and adolescence may serve as a predictor for increased health problems and risk-taking behavior. Furthermore, the violence experience and perpetration occur significantly within the same age cluster. This underlines the importance of a near-term intervention to minimize the risk, that victims become perpetrators later. Conclusion: The present study reveals predictors concerning health risk factors as well as risk-taking behavior in males with violence exposure. The results of this study may underscore the benefit of intervention and regular health care approaches in violence-affected males and underline the importance of acknowledging the overlap of violence experience and perpetration for further research.

Keywords: health disease, male, mental health, prevalence, risk-taking behavior, violence

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4 Use of a Novel Intermittent Compression Shoe in Reducing Lower Limb Venous Stasis

Authors: Hansraj Riteesh Bookun, Cassandra Monique Hidajat

Abstract:

This pilot study investigated the efficacy of a newly designed shoe which will act as an intermittent pneumatic compression device to augment venous flow in the lower limb. The aim was to assess the degree with which a wearable intermittent compression device can increase the venous flow in the popliteal vein. Background: Deep venous thrombosis and chronic venous insufficiency are relatively common problems with significant morbidity and mortality. While mechanical and chemical thromboprophylaxis measures are in place in hospital environments (in the form of TED stockings, intermittent pneumatic compression devices, analgesia, antiplatelet and anticoagulant agents), there are limited options in a community setting. Additionally, many individuals are poorly tolerant of graduated compression stockings due to the difficulty in putting them on, their constant tightness and increased associated discomfort in warm weather. These factors may hinder the management of their chronic venous insufficiency. Method: The device is lightweight, easy to wear and comfortable, with a self-contained power source. It features a Bluetooth transmitter and can be controlled with a smartphone. It is externally almost indistinguishable from a normal shoe. During activation, two bladders are inflated -one overlying the metatarsal heads and the second at the pedal arch. The resulting cyclical increase in pressure squeezes blood into the deep venous system. This will decrease periods of stasis and potentially reduce the risk of deep venous thrombosis. The shoe was fitted to 2 healthy participants and the peak systolic velocity of flow in the popliteal vein was measured during and prior to intermittent compression phases. Assessments of total flow volume were also performed. All haemodynamic assessments were performed with ultrasound by a licensed sonographer. Results: Mean peak systolic velocity of 3.5 cm/s with standard deviation of 1.3 cm/s were obtained. There was a three fold increase in mean peak systolic velocity and five fold increase in total flow volume. Conclusion: The device augments venous flow in the leg significantly. This may contribute to lowered thromboembolic risk during periods of prolonged travel or immobility. This device may also serve as an adjunct in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency. The study will be replicated on a larger scale in a multi—centre trial.

Keywords: venous, intermittent compression, shoe, wearable device

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3 Volunteered Geographic Information Coupled with Wildfire Fire Progression Maps: A Spatial and Temporal Tool for Incident Storytelling

Authors: Cassandra Hansen, Paul Doherty, Chris Ferner, German Whitley, Holly Torpey

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Wildfire is a natural and inevitable occurrence, yet changing climatic conditions have increased the severity, frequency, and risk to human populations in the wildland/urban interface (WUI) of the Western United States. Rapid dissemination of accurate wildfire information is critical to both the Incident Management Team (IMT) and the affected community. With the advent of increasingly sophisticated information systems, GIS can now be used as a web platform for sharing geographic information in new and innovative ways, such as virtual story map applications. Crowdsourced information can be extraordinarily useful when coupled with authoritative information. Information abounds in the form of social media, emergency alerts, radio, and news outlets, yet many of these resources lack a spatial component when first distributed. In this study, we describe how twenty-eight volunteer GIS professionals across nine Geographic Area Coordination Centers (GACC) sourced, curated, and distributed Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) from authoritative social media accounts focused on disseminating information about wildfires and public safety. The combination of fire progression maps with VGI incident information helps answer three critical questions about an incident, such as: where the first started. How and why the fire behaved in an extreme manner and how we can learn from the fire incident's story to respond and prepare for future fires in this area. By adding a spatial component to that shared information, this team has been able to visualize shared information about wildfire starts in an interactive map that answers three critical questions in a more intuitive way. Additionally, long-term social and technical impacts on communities are examined in relation to situational awareness of the disaster through map layers and agency links, the number of views in a particular region of a disaster, community involvement and sharing of this critical resource. Combined with a GIS platform and disaster VGI applications, this workflow and information become invaluable to communities within the WUI and bring spatial awareness for disaster preparedness, response, mitigation, and recovery. This study highlights progression maps as the ultimate storytelling mechanism through incident case studies and demonstrates the impact of VGI and sophisticated applied cartographic methodology make this an indispensable resource for authoritative information sharing.

Keywords: storytelling, wildfire progression maps, volunteered geographic information, spatial and temporal

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2 Connecting MRI Physics to Glioma Microenvironment: Comparing Simulated T2-Weighted MRI Models of Fixed and Expanding Extracellular Space

Authors: Pamela R. Jackson, Andrea Hawkins-Daarud, Cassandra R. Rickertsen, Kamala Clark-Swanson, Scott A. Whitmire, Kristin R. Swanson

Abstract:

Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM), the most common primary brain tumor, often presents with hyperintensity on T2-weighted or T2-weighted fluid attenuated inversion recovery (T2/FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This hyperintensity corresponds with vasogenic edema, however there are likely many infiltrating tumor cells within the hyperintensity as well. While MRIs do not directly indicate tumor cells, MRIs do reflect the microenvironmental water abnormalities caused by the presence of tumor cells and edema. The inherent heterogeneity and resulting MRI features of GBMs complicate assessing disease response. To understand how hyperintensity on T2/FLAIR MRI may correlate with edema in the extracellular space (ECS), a multi-compartmental MRI signal equation which takes into account tissue compartments and their associated volumes with input coming from a mathematical model of glioma growth that incorporates edema formation was explored. The reasonableness of two possible extracellular space schema was evaluated by varying the T2 of the edema compartment and calculating the possible resulting T2s in tumor and peripheral edema. In the mathematical model, gliomas were comprised of vasculature and three tumor cellular phenotypes: normoxic, hypoxic, and necrotic. Edema was characterized as fluid leaking from abnormal tumor vessels. Spatial maps of tumor cell density and edema for virtual tumors were simulated with different rates of proliferation and invasion and various ECS expansion schemes. These spatial maps were then passed into a multi-compartmental MRI signal model for generating simulated T2/FLAIR MR images. Individual compartments’ T2 values in the signal equation were either from literature or estimated and the T2 for edema specifically was varied over a wide range (200 ms – 9200 ms). T2 maps were calculated from simulated images. T2 values based on simulated images were evaluated for regions of interest (ROIs) in normal appearing white matter, tumor, and peripheral edema. The ROI T2 values were compared to T2 values reported in literature. The expanding scheme of extracellular space is had T2 values similar to the literature calculated values. The static scheme of extracellular space had a much lower T2 values and no matter what T2 was associated with edema, the intensities did not come close to literature values. Expanding the extracellular space is necessary to achieve simulated edema intensities commiserate with acquired MRIs.

Keywords: extracellular space, glioblastoma multiforme, magnetic resonance imaging, mathematical modeling

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1 'You’re Not Alone': Peer Feedback Practices for Cross-Cultural Writing Classrooms and Centers

Authors: Cassandra Branham, Danielle Farrar

Abstract:

As writing instructors and writing center administrators at a large research university with a significant population of English language learners (ELLs), we are interested in how peer feedback pedagogy can be effectively translated for writing center purposes, as well as how various modes of peer feedback can enrich the learning experiences of L1 and L2 writers in these spaces. Although peer feedback is widely used in classrooms and centers, instructor, student, and researcher opinions vary in respect to its effectiveness. We argue that peer feedback - traditional and digital, synchronous and asynchronous - is an indispensable element for both classrooms and centers and emphasize that it should occur with both L1 and L2 students to further develop an array of reading and writing skills. We also believe that further understanding of the best practices of peer feedback in such cross-cultural spaces, like the classroom and center, can optimize the benefits of peer feedback. After a critical review of the literature, we implemented an embedded tutoring program in our university’s writing center in collaboration with its First-Year Composition (FYC) program and Language Institute. The embedded tutoring program matches a graduate writing consultant with L1 and L2 writers enrolled in controlled-matriculation composition courses where ELLs make up at least 50% of each class. Furthermore, this program is informed by what we argue to be some best practices of peer feedback for both classroom and center purposes, including expectation-based training through rubrics, modeling effective feedback, hybridizing traditional and digital modes of feedback, recognizing the significance the body in composition (what we call writer embodiment), and maximizing digital technologies to exploit extended cognition. After conducting surveys and follow-up interviews with students, instructors, and writing consultants in the embedded tutoring program, we found that not only did students see an increased value in peer feedback, but also instructors saw an improvement in both writing style and critical thinking skills. Our L2 participants noted improvements in language acquisition while our L1 students recognized a broadening of their worldviews. We believe that both L1 and L2 students developed self-efficacy and agency in their identities as writers because they gained confidence in their abilities to offer feedback, as well as in the legitimacy of feedback they received from peers. We also argue that these best practices situate novice writers as experts, as writers become a valued and integral part of the revision process with their own and their peers’ papers. Finally, the use of iPads in embedded tutoring recovered the importance of the body and its senses in writing; the highly sensory feedback from these multi-modal sessions that offer audio and visual input underscores the significant role both the body and mind play in compositional practices. After beginning with a brief review of the literature that sparked this research, this paper will discuss the embedded tutoring program in detail, report on the results of the pilot program, and will conclude with a discussion of the pedagogical implications that arise from this research for both classroom and center.

Keywords: English language learners, peer feedback, writing center, writing classroom

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