Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Search results for: Badrinath Singhal

24 A Machine Learning Approach to Digital Contact Tracing

Authors: Badrinath Singhal, Chris Vorster, Di Meng, Gargi Gupta, Laura Dunne, Mark Germaine

Abstract:

Contact tracing is a method used by public health organisations to try to prevent the spread of infectious diseases in the community. Traditionally performed by manual contact tracers, more recently, the use of apps has been considered utilising phone sensor data to determine the distance between two phones. In this paper, we investigate the development of machine learning approaches to determine the distance between two mobile phone devices using Bluetooth Low Energy, sensory data and meta data. We use the Tab-Net architecture and feature engineering to improve the existing state-of-the-art (total nDCF 0.21 vs 2.08), significantly outperforming existing models.

Keywords: BLE, COVID-19, contact tracing, RSSI, TabNet

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23 Domestic Led Lighting Designs Using Internet of Things

Authors: Gouresh Singhal, Rajib Kumar Panigrahi

Abstract:

In this paper, we try to examine historical and technological changes in lighting industry. We propose a (proto) technical solution at block diagram and circuit level. Untapped and upcoming technologies such as Cloud and 6LoWPAN are further explored. The paper presents a robust hardware realistic design. A mobile application is also provided to provide last mile user interface. The paper highlights the current challenges to be faced and concludes with a pragmatic view of lighting industry.

Keywords: 6lowpan, internet of things, mobile application, led

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22 Influence of Initial Stress and Corrugation on Rayleigh-Type Wave in Piezomagnetic Half-Space

Authors: Abhinav Singhal, Sanjeev A. Sahu

Abstract:

Propagation of Rayleigh-type surface waves in an initially stressed piezomagnetic half- space with irregular boundary is investigated. The materials are assumed to be transversely isotropic crystals. The dispersion relations have been derived for electrically open and short cases. Effect of initial stress and corrugation have been shown graphically. It is also found that piezomagnetic material properties have an important effect on wave propagation. The result is relevant to the analysis and design of various acoustic surface wave devices constructed from piezomagnetic materials.

Keywords: corrugation, frequency equation, piezomagnetic, rayleigh-type wave

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21 Hybrid Multipath Congestion Control

Authors: Akshit Singhal, Xuan Wang, Zhijun Wang, Hao Che, Hong Jiang

Abstract:

Multiple Path Transmission Control Protocols (MPTCPs) allow flows to explore path diversity to improve the throughput, reliability and network resource utilization. However, the existing solutions may discourage users to adopt the solutions in the face of multipath scenario where different paths are charged based on different pricing structures, e.g., WiFi vs cellular connections, widely available for mobile phones. In this paper, we propose a Hybrid MPTCP (H-MPTCP) with a built-in mechanism to incentivize users to use multiple paths with different pricing structures. In the meantime, H-MPTCP preserves the nice properties enjoyed by the state-of-the-art MPTCP solutions. Extensive real Linux implementation results verify that H-MPTCP can indeed achieve the design objectives.

Keywords: network, TCP, WiFi, cellular, congestion control

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20 Biometric Recognition Techniques: A Survey

Authors: Shabir Ahmad Sofi, Shubham Aggarwal, Sanyam Singhal, Roohie Naaz

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Biometric recognition refers to an automatic recognition of individuals based on a feature vector(s) derived from their physiological and/or behavioral characteristic. Biometric recognition systems should provide a reliable personal recognition schemes to either confirm or determine the identity of an individual. These features are used to provide an authentication for computer based security systems. Applications of such a system include computer systems security, secure electronic banking, mobile phones, credit cards, secure access to buildings, health and social services. By using biometrics a person could be identified based on 'who she/he is' rather than 'what she/he has' (card, token, key) or 'what she/he knows' (password, PIN). In this paper, a brief overview of biometric methods, both unimodal and multimodal and their advantages and disadvantages, will be presented.

Keywords: biometric, DNA, fingerprint, ear, face, retina scan, gait, iris, voice recognition, unimodal biometric, multimodal biometric

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19 Anaesthetic Management of a Huge Oropharyngeal Mass

Authors: Vasudha Govil, Suresh Singhal

Abstract:

Introduction: Patients with oropharyngeal masses pose a challenge for an anaesthetist in terms of ventilation and tracheal intubation. Thus, preoperative assessment and preparation become an integral part of managing such anticipated difficult airway cases. Case report: A 45- year old female presented with growth in the oropharynx causing dysphagia and hoarseness of voice. Clinical examination and investigations predicted a difficult airway. It was managed with fibreoptic nasotracheal intubation with a successful perioperative outcome. Tracheostomy was kept as plan B in case of the CVCI situation. Conclusion: Careful preoperative examination and assessment is required to prepare oneself for difficult airway. Fibreoptic bronchoscope-guided nasotracheal intubation in a spontaneously breathing patient is a safe and successful airway management technique in difficult airway cases.

Keywords: airway, difficult, mass, oropharyngeal

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18 Mathematical Model for Output Yield Obtained by Single Slope Solar Still

Authors: V. Nagaraju, G. Murali, Nagarjunavarma Ganna, Atluri Pavan Kalyan, N. Sree Sai Ganesh, V. S. V. S. Badrinath

Abstract:

The present work focuses on the development of a mathematical model for the yield obtained by single slope solar still incorporated with cylindrical pipes filled with sand. The mathematical results obtained were validated with the experimental results for the 3 cm of water level at the basin. The mathematical model and results obtained with the experimental investigation are within 11% of deviation. The theoretical model to predict the yield obtained due to the capillary effect was proposed first. And then, to predict the total yield obtained, the thermal effect model was integrated with the capillary effect model. With the obtained results, it is understood that the yield obtained is more in the case of solar stills with sand-filled cylindrical pipes when compared to solar stills without sand-filled cylindrical pipes. And later model was used for predicting yield for 1 cm and 2 cm of water levels at the basin. And it is observed that the maximum yield was obtained for a 1 cm water level at the basin. It means solar still produces better yield with the lower depth of water level at the basin; this may be because of the availability of more space in the sand for evaporation.

Keywords: solar still, cylindrical pipes, still efficiency, mathematical modeling, capillary effect model, yield, solar desalination

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17 GPS Devices to Increase Efficiency of Indian Auto-Rickshaw Segment

Authors: Sanchay Vaidya, Sourabh Gupta, Gouresh Singhal

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There are various modes of transport in metro cities in India, auto-rickshaws being one of them. Auto-rickshaws provide connectivity to all the places in the city offering last mile connectivity. Among all the modes of transport, the auto-rickshaw industry is the most unorganized and inefficient. Although unions exist in different cities they aren’t good enough to cope up with the upcoming advancements in the field of technology. An introduction of simple technology in this field may do wonder and help increase the revenues. This paper aims to organize this segment under a single umbrella using GPS devices and mobile phones. The paper includes surveys of about 300 auto-rickshaw drivers and 1000 plus commuters across 6 metro cities in India. Carrying out research and analysis provides a base for the development of this model and implementation of this innovative technique, which is discussed in this paper in detail with ample emphasis given on the implementation of this model.

Keywords: auto-rickshaws, business model, GPS device, mobile application

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16 Overview and Post Damage Analysis of Nepal Earthquake 2015

Authors: Vipin Kumar Singhal, Rohit Kumar Mittal, Pavitra Ranjan Maiti

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Damage analysis is one of the preliminary activities to be done after an earthquake so as to enhance the seismic building design technologies and prevent similar type of failure in future during earthquakes. This research article investigates the damage pattern and most probable reason of failure by observing photographs of seven major buildings collapsed/damaged which were evenly spread over the region during Mw7.8, Nepal earthquake 2015 followed by more than 400 aftershocks of Mw4 with one aftershock reaching a magnitude of Mw7.3. Over 250,000 buildings got damaged, and more than 9000 people got injured in this earthquake. Photographs of these buildings were collected after the earthquake and the cause of failure was estimated along with the severity of damage and comment on the reparability of structure has been made. Based on observations, it was concluded that the damage in reinforced concrete buildings was less compared to masonry structures. The number of buildings damaged was high near Kathmandu region due to high building density in that region. This type of damage analysis can be used as a cost effective and quick method for damage assessment during earthquakes.

Keywords: Nepal earthquake, damage analysis, damage assessment, damage scales

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15 Assessing Effectiveness of Manager-Subordinate Relationships at Workplace

Authors: Anant Sagar, Manisha Rana, Surabhi Singhal

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This study was aimed at analysing the effectiveness of manager-subordinate relationship and the different factors contributing to its effectiveness in a mid-sized IT organization. To define effectiveness in context of a manager-subordinate relationship, a model was framed which analyses personal and professional need fulfilment of subordinates. On basis of this need satisfaction based effectiveness model, relationships are categorized into four types anchored on two scales; Personal Need Satisfaction and Professional Need Satisfaction. These spatial effectiveness scores of a managerial relationship are further mapped with the relationship style of the manager to identify relationship styles which are associated with different effectiveness levels. The relationship style is analysed by using Impact Message Inventory-Circumplex (IMI-C). The results show that managerial relationship’s effectiveness is contingent on manager’s affiliation scores, subordinate’s previous work experience and the ability of managers to influence the personal and professional needs of employees through organizational policies. The findings reflect that effectiveness of manager-subordinate relationship increased in a friendly workplace where managers were adequately empowered to acknowledge employee needs.

Keywords: relationship effectiveness, need fulfilment, managerial style, impact message inventory-circumplex

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14 Unseen Classes: The Paradigm Shift in Machine Learning

Authors: Vani Singhal, Jitendra Parmar, Satyendra Singh Chouhan

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Unseen class discovery has now become an important part of a machine-learning algorithm to judge new classes. Unseen classes are the classes on which the machine learning model is not trained on. With the advancement in technology and AI replacing humans, the amount of data has increased to the next level. So while implementing a model on real-world examples, we come across unseen new classes. Our aim is to find the number of unseen classes by using a hierarchical-based active learning algorithm. The algorithm is based on hierarchical clustering as well as active sampling. The number of clusters that we will get in the end will give the number of unseen classes. The total clusters will also contain some clusters that have unseen classes. Instead of first discovering unseen classes and then finding their number, we directly calculated the number by applying the algorithm. The dataset used is for intent classification. The target data is the intent of the corresponding query. We conclude that when the machine learning model will encounter real-world data, it will automatically find the number of unseen classes. In the future, our next work would be to label these unseen classes correctly.

Keywords: active sampling, hierarchical clustering, open world learning, unseen class discovery

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13 Inclusive Cities Decision Matrix Based on a Multidimensional Approach for Sustainable Smart Cities

Authors: Madhurima S. Waghmare, Shaleen Singhal

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The concept of smartness, inclusion, sustainability is multidisciplinary and fuzzy, rooted in economic and social development theories and policies which get reflected in the spatial development of the cities. It is a challenge to convert these concepts from aspirations to transforming actions. There is a dearth of assessment and planning tools to support the city planners and administrators in developing smart, inclusive, and sustainable cities. To address this gap, this study develops an inclusive cities decision matrix based on an exploratory approach and using mixed methods. The matrix is soundly based on a review of multidisciplinary urban sector literature and refined and finalized based on inputs from experts and insights from case studies. The application of the decision matric on the case study cities in India suggests that the contemporary planning tools for cities need to be multidisciplinary and flexible to respond to the unique needs of the diverse contexts. The paper suggests that a multidimensional and inclusive approach to city planning can play an important role in building sustainable smart cities.

Keywords: inclusive-cities decision matrix, smart cities in India, city planning tools, sustainable cities

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12 Precipitation Intensity: Duration Based Threshold Analysis for Initiation of Landslides in Upper Alaknanda Valley

Authors: Soumiya Bhattacharjee, P. K. Champati Ray, Shovan L. Chattoraj, Mrinmoy Dhara

Abstract:

The entire Himalayan range is globally renowned for rainfall-induced landslides. The prime focus of the study is to determine rainfall based threshold for initiation of landslides that can be used as an important component of an early warning system for alerting stake holders. This research deals with temporal dimension of slope failures due to extreme rainfall events along the National Highway-58 from Karanprayag to Badrinath in the Garhwal Himalaya, India. Post processed 3-hourly rainfall intensity data and its corresponding duration from daily rainfall data available from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) were used as the prime source of rainfall data. Landslide event records from Border Road Organization (BRO) and some ancillary landslide inventory data for 2013 and 2014 have been used to determine Intensity Duration (ID) based rainfall threshold. The derived governing threshold equation, I= 4.738D-0.025, has been considered for prediction of landslides of the study region. This equation was validated with an accuracy of 70% landslides during August and September 2014. The derived equation was considered for further prediction of landslides of the study region. From the obtained results and validation, it can be inferred that this equation can be used for initiation of landslides in the study area to work as a part of an early warning system. Results can significantly improve with ground based rainfall estimates and better database on landslide records. Thus, the study has demonstrated a very low cost method to get first-hand information on possibility of impending landslide in any region, thereby providing alert and better preparedness for landslide disaster mitigation.

Keywords: landslide, intensity-duration, rainfall threshold, TRMM, slope, inventory, early warning system

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11 Comparative Performance of Artificial Bee Colony Based Algorithms for Wind-Thermal Unit Commitment

Authors: P. K. Singhal, R. Naresh, V. Sharma

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This paper presents the three optimization models, namely New Binary Artificial Bee Colony (NBABC) algorithm, NBABC with Local Search (NBABC-LS), and NBABC with Genetic Crossover (NBABC-GC) for solving the Wind-Thermal Unit Commitment (WTUC) problem. The uncertain nature of the wind power is incorporated using the Weibull probability density function, which is used to calculate the overestimation and underestimation costs associated with the wind power fluctuation. The NBABC algorithm utilizes a mechanism based on the dissimilarity measure between binary strings for generating the binary solutions in WTUC problem. In NBABC algorithm, an intelligent scout bee phase is proposed that replaces the abandoned solution with the global best solution. The local search operator exploits the neighboring region of the current solutions, whereas the integration of genetic crossover with the NBABC algorithm increases the diversity in the search space and thus avoids the problem of local trappings encountered with the NBABC algorithm. These models are then used to decide the units on/off status, whereas the lambda iteration method is used to dispatch the hourly load demand among the committed units. The effectiveness of the proposed models is validated on an IEEE 10-unit thermal system combined with a wind farm over the planning period of 24 hours.

Keywords: artificial bee colony algorithm, economic dispatch, unit commitment, wind power

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10 Penetrating Neck Injury: No Zone Approach

Authors: Abhishek Sharma, Amit Gupta, Manish Singhal

Abstract:

Background: The management of patients with penetrating neck injuries in the prehospital setting and in the emergency department has evolved with regard to the use of multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) imaging. Hence, there is a shift in the management of neck injuries from mandatory exploration in certain anatomic areas to more conservative approach using imaging and so-called “no zone approach”. Objective: To study the no zone approach in the management of penetrating neck injury using routine imaging in all stable patients. Methods: 137 patients with penetrating neck injury attending emergency department of level 1 trauma centre at AIIMS between 2008–2014 were retrospectively analysed. All hemodynamically stable patients were evaluated using CT scanning. Results: Stab injury is most common (55.91%) mode of pni in civilian population followed by gunshot(18.33%). The majority of patients could be managed with imaging and close observation. 39 patients (28.46%) required operative intervention. The most common indication for operative intervention was vascular followed by airway injury manifesting as hemodynamic destabilisation.There was no statistical difference between the zonal distribution of injuries in patients managed conservatively and those taken to OR. Conclusions: Study shows that patients with penetrating neck trauma who are haemodynamically stable and exhibit no “hard signs” of vascular injury or airway injury may be evaluated initially by MDCT imaging even when platysma violation is present. “No Zone” policy may be superior to traditional zone wise management.

Keywords: penetrating neck injury, zone approach, CT scanning, multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT)

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9 Ethno-Botanical Diversity and Conservation Status of Medicinal Flora at High Terrains of Garhwal (Uttarakhand) Himalaya, India: A Case Study in Context to Multifarious Tourism Growth and Peri-Urban Encroachments

Authors: Aravind Kumar

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The high terrains of Garhwal (Uttarakhand) Himalaya are the niches of a number of rare and endemic plant species of great therapeutic importance. However, the wild flora of the area is still under a constant threat due to rapid upsurge in human interferences, especially through multifarious tourism growth and peri-urban encroachments. After getting the status of a ‘Special State’ of the country since its inception in the year 2000, this newly borne State led to very rapid infrastructural growth and development. Consequently, its townships started expanding in an unmanaged way grabbing nearby agricultural lands and forest areas into peri-urban landscapes. Simultaneously, a boom in tourism and pilgrimage in the state and the infrastructural facilities raised by the government for tourists/pilgrims are destroying its biodiversity. Field survey revealed 242 plant species of therapeutic significance naturally growing in the area and being utilized by local inhabitants as traditional medicines. On conservation scale, 6 species (2.2%) were identified as critically endangered, 19 species (7.1%) as the endangered ones, 8 species (3.0%) under rare category, 17 species (6.4%) as threatened and 14 species (5.2%) as vulnerable. The Government of India has brought mega-biodiversity hot spots of the state under Biosphere Reserve, National Parks, etc. restricting all kinds of human interferences; however, the two most sacred shrines of Hindus and Sikhs viz. Shri Badrinath and Shri Hemkunt Sahib, and two great touristic attractions viz. Valley of Flowers and Auli-Joshimath Skiing Track oblige the government to maintain equilibrium between entries of visitors vis-à-vis biodiversity conservation in high terrains of Uttarakhand Himalaya.

Keywords: biodiversity conservation, ethno-botany, Garhwal (Uttarakhand) Himalaya, peri-urban encroachment, pilgrimage and tourism

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8 A Review of Current Practices in Tattooing of Colonic Lesion at Endoscopy

Authors: Dhanashree Moghe, Roberta Bullingham, Rizwan Ahmed, Tarun Singhal

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Aim: The NHS Bowel Screening Programme recommends the use of endoscopic tattooing for suspected malignant lesions that later require surgical or endoscopic localisation, using local protocols as guidance. This is in accordance with guidance from the BSG (The British Society of Gastroenterologists). We used a well-recognised local protocol as a standard to audit current tattooing practice in a large district general hospital with no current local guidelines. Method: A retrospective quantitative analysis of 50 patients who underwent segmental colonic resection for cancer over a 6-month period in 2021. We reviewed historic electronic endoscopy reports recording relevant data on tattoo indication and placement. Secondly, we carried out an anonymous survey of 16 independent lower GI endoscopists on self-reported details of their practice. Results: In our study, 28 patients (56%) had a tattoo placed at the time of their colonoscopy. Of these, only 53% (n=15) had the tattoo distal to the lesion, with the measured distance of the tattoo from the lesion only being documented in 8 reports. Only seven patients (25%) had a circumferential (4 quadrant) placement of the tattoo. 13 patients had lesions either in the caecum or rectum, locations deemed unnecessary as per BSG guidelines. Of the survey responses collected, there were four different protocols being used to guide practice. Only 50% of respondents placed tattoos at the correct distance from the lesion, and 83% placed the correct number of tattoos. Conclusion: There is a lack of standardisation of practices in colonic tattooing demonstrated in our study with incomplete compliance to our standard. The inadequate documentation of tattoo location can contribute to confusion and inaccuracy in the intraoperative localisation of lesions. This has the potential to increase operation length and morbidity. There is a need to standardise both technique and documentation in colonoscopic tattooing practice.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, endoscopic tattooing, colonoscopy, NHS BSCP

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7 Glyco-Conjugated Gold Nanorods Based Biosensor for Optical Detection and Photothermal Ablation of Food Borne Bacteria

Authors: Shimayali Kaushal, Nitesh Priyadarshi, Nitin Kumar Singhal

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Food borne bacterial species have been identified as major pathogens in most of the severe pathogen-related diseases among humans which result in great loss to human health and food industry. Conventional methods like plating and enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) are time-consuming, laborious and require specialized instruments. Nanotechnology has emerged as a great field in case of rapid detection of pathogens in recent years. The AuNRs material has good electro-optical properties due to its larger light absorption band and scattering in surface plasmon resonance wavelength regions. By exploiting the sugar-based adhesion properties of microorganism, we can use the glycoconjugates capped gold nanorods as a potential nanobiosensor to detect the foodborne pathogen. In the present study, polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated gold nanorods (AuNRs) were prepared and functionalized with different types of carbohydrates and further characterized by UV-Visible spectrophotometry, dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The reactivity of above said nano-biosensor was probed by lectin binding assay and also by different strains of foodborne bacteria by using spectrophotometric and microscopic techniques. Due to the specific interaction of probe with foodborne bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), our nanoprobe has shown significant and selective ablation of targeted bacteria. Our findings suggest that our nanoprobe can be an ideal candidate for selective optical detection of food pathogens and can reduce loss to the food industry.

Keywords: glyco-conjugates, gold nanorods, nanobiosensor, nanoprobe

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6 A Study to Identify Resistant Hypertension and Role of Spironolactone in its Management

Authors: A. Kumar, D. Himanshu, Ak Vaish, K. Usman , A. Singh, R. Misra, V. Atam, S. P. Verma, S. Singhal

Abstract:

Introduction: Resistant and uncontrolled hypertension offer great challenge, in terms of higher risk of morbidity, mortality and not the least, difficulty in diagnosis and management. Our study tries to identify the importance of two crucial aspects of hypertension management, i.e. drug compliance and optimum dosing and also the effect of spironolactone on blood pressure in cases of resistant hypertension. Methodology: A prospective study was carried out among patients, who were referred as case of resistant hypertension to Hypertension Clinic at Gandhi memorial and associated hospital, Lucknow, India from August, 2013 to July 2014. A total of 122 Subjects having uncontrolled BP with ≥3 antihypertensives were selected. After ruling out secondary resistance and with appropriate lifestyle modifications, effect of adherence and optimum doses was seen with monitoring of BP. Only those having blood pressure still uncontrolled were true resistant. These patients were given spironolactone to see its effect on BP over next 12 weeks. Results: Mean baseline BP of all (n=122) patients was 150.4±7.2 mmHg systolic and 92.1±5.7 mmHg diastolic. After promoting adherence to the regimen, there was reduction of 4.20±3.65 mmHg systolic and 2.08±4.74 mmHg Diastolic blood pressure, with 26 patients achieving target blood pressure goal. Further reduction of 6.66±5.99 mmHg in systolic and 2.59±3.67 mmHg in diastolic BP was observed after optimizing the drug doses with another 66 patients achieving target blood pressure goal. Only 30 patients were true resistant hypertensive and prescribed spironolactone. Over 12 weeks, mean reduction of 20.62±3.65 mmHg in systolic and 10.08 ± 6.46 mmHg in diastolic BP was observed. Out of these 30, BP was controlled in 24 patients. Side effects observed were hyperkalemia in 2 patients and breast tenderness in 2 patients. Conclusion: Improper adherence and suboptimal regimen appear to be the important reasons for uncontrolled hypertension. By virtue of maintaining proper adherence to an optimum regimen, target BP goal can be reached in many without adding much to the regimen. Spironolactone is effective in patients with resistant hypertension, in terms of blood pressure reduction with minimal side effects.

Keywords: resistant, hypertension, spironolactone, blood pressure

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5 Effects of Cannabis and Cocaine on Driving Related Tasks of Perception, Cognition, and Action

Authors: Michelle V. Tomczak, Reyhaneh Bakhtiari, Aaron Granley, Anthony Singhal

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Objective: Cannabis and cocaine are associated with a range of mental and physical effects that can impair aspects of human behavior. Driving is a complex cognitive behavior that is an essential part of everyday life and can be broken down into many subcomponents, each of which can uniquely impact road safety. With the growing movement of jurisdictions to legalize cannabis, there is an increased focus on impairment and driving. The purpose of this study was to identify driving-related cognitive-performance deficits that are impacted by recreational drug use. Design and Methods: With the assistance of law enforcement agencies, we recruited over 300 participants under the influence of various drugs including cannabis and cocaine. These individuals performed a battery of computer-based tasks scientifically proven to be re-lated to on-road driving performance and designed to test response-speed, memory processes, perceptual-motor skills, and decision making. Data from a control group with healthy non-drug using adults was collected as well. Results: Compared to controls, the drug group showed def-icits in all tasks. The data also showed clear differences between the cannabis and cocaine groups where cannabis users were faster, and performed better on some aspects of the decision-making and perceptual-motor tasks. Memory performance was better in the cocaine group for simple tasks but not more complex tasks. Finally, the participants who consumed both drugs performed most similarly to the cannabis group. Conclusions: Our results show distinct and combined effects of cannabis and cocaine on human performance relating to driving. These dif-ferential effects are likely related to the unique effects of each drug on the human brain and how they distinctly contribute to mental states. Our results have important implications for road safety associated with driver impairment.

Keywords: driving, cognitive impairment, recreational drug use, cannabis and cocaine

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4 Genetically Modified Organisms

Authors: Mudrika Singhal

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The research paper is basically about how the genetically modified organisms evolved and their significance in today’s world. It also highlights about the various pros and cons of the genetically modified organisms and the progress of India in this field. A genetically modified organism is the one whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques. They have a wide range of uses such as transgenic plants, genetically modified mammals such as mouse and also in insects and aquatic life. Their use is rooted back to the time around 12,000 B.C. when humans domesticated plants and animals. At that humans used genetically modified organisms produced by the procedure of selective breeding and not by genetic engineering techniques. Selective breeding is the procedure in which selective traits are bred in plants and animals and then are domesticated. Domestication of wild plants into a suitable cultigen is a well known example of this technique. GMOs have uses in varied fields ranging from biological and medical research, production of pharmaceutical drugs to agricultural fields. The first organisms to be genetically modified were the microbes because of their simpler genetics. At present the genetically modified protein insulin is used to treat diabetes. In the case of plants transgenic plants, genetically modified crops and cisgenic plants are the examples of genetic modification. In the case of mammals, transgenic animals such as mice, rats etc. serve various purposes such as researching human diseases, improvement in animal health etc. Now coming upon the pros and cons related to the genetically modified organisms, pros include crops with higher yield, less growth time and more predictable in comparison to traditional breeding. Cons include that they are dangerous to mammals such as rats, these products contain protein which would trigger allergic reactions. In India presently, group of GMOs include GM microorganisms, transgenic crops and animals. There are varied applications in the field of healthcare and agriculture. In the nutshell, the research paper is about the progress in the field of genetic modification, taking along the effects in today’s world.

Keywords: applications, mammals, transgenic, engineering and technology

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3 Critical Appraisal, Smart City Initiative: China vs. India

Authors: Suneet Jagdev, Siddharth Singhal, Dhrubajyoti Bordoloi, Peesari Vamshidhar Reddy

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There is no universally accepted definition of what constitutes a Smart City. It means different things to different people. The definition varies from place to place depending on the level of development and the willingness of people to change and reform. It tries to improve the quality of resource management and service provisions for the people living in the cities. Smart city is an urban development vision to integrate multiple information and communication technology (ICT) solutions in a secure fashion to manage the assets of a city. But most of these projects are misinterpreted as being technology projects only. Due to urbanization, a lot of informal as well government funded settlements have come up during the last few decades, thus increasing the consumption of the limited resources available. The people of each city have their own definition of Smart City. In the imagination of any city dweller in India is the picture of a Smart City which contains a wish list of infrastructure and services that describe his or her level of aspiration. The research involved a comparative study of the Smart City models in India and in China. Behavioral changes experienced by the people living in the pilot/first ever smart cities have been identified and compared. This paper discussed what is the target of the quality of life for the people in India and in China and how well could that be realized with the facilities being included in these Smart City projects. Logical and comparative analyses of important data have been done, collected from government sources, government papers and research papers by various experts on the topic. Existing cities with historically grown infrastructure and administration systems will require a more moderate step-by-step approach to modernization. The models were compared using many different motivators and the data is collected from past journals, interacting with the people involved, videos and past submissions. In conclusion, we have identified how these projects could be combined with the ongoing small scale initiatives by the local people/ small group of individuals and what might be the outcome if these existing practices were implemented on a bigger scale.

Keywords: behavior change, mission monitoring, pilot smart cities, social capital

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2 Endometrial Biopsy Curettage vs Endometrial Aspiration: Better Modality in Female Genital Tuberculosis

Authors: Rupali Bhatia, Deepthi Nair, Geetika Khanna, Seema Singhal

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Introduction: Genital tract tuberculosis is a chronic disease (caused by reactivation of organisms from systemic distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis) that often presents with low grade symptoms and non-specific complaints. Patients with genital tuberculosis are usually young women seeking workup and treatment for infertility. Infertility is the commonest presentation due to involvement of the fallopian tubes, endometrium and ovarian damage with poor ovarian volume and reserve. The diagnosis of genital tuberculosis is difficult because of the fact that it is a silent invader of genital tract. Since tissue cannot be obtained from fallopian tubes, the diagnosis is made by isolation of bacilli from endometrial tissue obtained by endometrial biopsy curettage and/or aspiration. Problems are associated with sampling technique as well as diagnostic modality due to lack of adequate sample volumes and the segregation of the sample for various diagnostic tests resulting in non-uniform distribution of microorganisms. Moreover, lack of an efficient sampling technique universally applicable for all specific diagnostic tests contributes to the diagnostic challenges. Endometrial sampling plays a key role in accurate diagnosis of female genital tuberculosis. It may be done by 2 methods viz. endometrial curettage and endometrial aspiration. Both endometrial curettage and aspirate have their own limitations as curettage picks up strip of the endometrium from one of the walls of the uterine cavity including tubal osteal areas whereas aspirate obtains total tissue with exfoliated cells present in the secretory fluid of the endometrial cavity. Further, sparse and uneven distribution of the bacilli remains a major factor contributing to the limitations of the techniques. The sample that is obtained by either technique is subjected to histopathological examination, AFB staining, culture and PCR. Aim: Comparison of the sampling techniques viz. endometrial biopsy curettage and endometrial aspiration using different laboratory methods of histopathology, cytology, microbiology and molecular biology. Method: In a hospital based observational study, 75 Indian females suspected of genital tuberculosis were selected on the basis of inclusion criteria. The women underwent endometrial tissue sampling using Novaks biopsy curette and Karmans cannula. One part of the specimen obtained was sent in formalin solution for histopathological testing and another part was sent in normal saline for acid fast bacilli smear, culture and polymerase chain reaction. The results so obtained were correlated using coefficient of correlation and chi square test. Result: Concordance of results showed moderate agreement between both the sampling techniques. Among HPE, AFB and PCR, maximum sensitivity was observed for PCR, though the specificity was not as high as other techniques. Conclusion: Statistically no significant difference was observed between the results obtained by the two sampling techniques. Therefore, one may use either EA or EB to obtain endometrial samples and avoid multiple sampling as both the techniques are equally efficient in diagnosing genital tuberculosis by HPE, AFB, culture or PCR.

Keywords: acid fast bacilli (AFB), histopatholgy examination (HPE), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), endometrial biopsy curettage

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1 Adequate Nutritional Support and Monitoring in Post-Traumatic High Output Duodenal Fistula

Authors: Richa Jaiswal, Vidisha Sharma, Amulya Rattan, Sushma Sagar, Subodh Kumar, Amit Gupta, Biplab Mishra, Maneesh Singhal

Abstract:

Background: Adequate nutritional support and daily patient monitoring have an independent therapeutic role in the successful management of high output fistulae and early recovery after abdominal trauma. Case presentation: An 18-year-old girl was brought to AIIMS emergency with alleged history of fall of a heavy weight (electric motor) over abdomen. She was evaluated as per Advanced Trauma Life Support(ATLS) protocols and diagnosed to have significant abdominal trauma. After stabilization, she was referred to Trauma center. Abdomen was guarded and focused assessment with sonography for trauma(FAST) was found positive. Complete duodenojejunal(DJ) junction transection was found at laparotomy, and end-to-end repair was done. However, patient was re-explored in view of biliary peritonitis on post-operative day3, and anastomotic leak was found with sloughing of duodenal end. Resection of non-viable segments was done followed by side-to-side anastomosis. Unfortunately, the anastomosis leaked again, this time due to a post-anastomotic kink, diagnosed on dye study. Due to hostile abdomen, the patient was planned for supportive care, with plan of build-up and delayed definitive surgery. Percutaneous transheptic biliary drainage (PTBD) and STSG were required in the course as well. Nutrition: In intensive care unit (ICU), major goals of nutritional therapy were to improve wound healing, optimize nutrition, minimize enteral feed associated complications, reduce biliary fistula output, and prepare the patient for definitive surgeries. Feeding jejunostomy (FJ) was started from day 4 at the rate of 30ml/h along with total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and intra-venous (IV) micronutrients support. Due to high bile output, bile refeed started from day 13.After 23 days of ICU stay, patient was transferred to general ward with body mass index (BMI)<11kg/m2 and serum albumin –1.5gm%. Patient was received in the ward in catabolic phase with high risk of refeeding syndrome. Patient was kept on FJ bolus feed at the rate of 30–50 ml/h. After 3–4 days, while maintaining patient diet book log it was observed that patient use to refuse feed at night and started becoming less responsive with every passing day. After few minutes of conversation with the patient for a couple of days, she complained about enteral feed discharge in urine, mild pain and sign of dumping syndrome. Dye study was done, which ruled out any enterovesical fistula and conservative management were planned. At this time, decision was taken for continuous slow rate feeding through commercial feeding pump at the rate of 2–3ml/min. Drastic improvement was observed from the second day in gastro-intestinal symptoms and general condition of the patient. Nutritional composition of feed, TPN and diet ranged between 800 and 2100 kcal and 50–95 g protein. After STSG, TPN was stopped. Periodic diet counselling was given to improve oral intake. At the time of discharge, serum albumin level was 2.1g%, weight – 38.6, BMI – 15.19 kg/m2. Patient got discharge on an oral diet. Conclusion: Successful management of post-traumatic proximal high output fistulae is a challenging task, due to impaired nutrient absorption and enteral feed associated complications. Strategic- and goal-based nutrition support can salvage such critically ill patients, as demonstrated in the present case.

Keywords: nutritional monitoring, nutritional support, duodenal fistula, abdominal trauma

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